Romance collections in North Carolina public libraries: Are all genres treated equally

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Content: Amy Funderburk. Romance Collections in North Carolina Public Libraries: Are All Genres Treated Equally? A Master's Paper for the M.S. in L.S. degree. April, 2004. 38 pages. Advisor: Evelyn H. Daniel. The historically low status of romances in public libraries has improved to some extent with the recent advent of reviews and hardcover publishing of the genre. However, reviews remain in short supply and public library literature demonstrates a continuing preference for other genres over romance. Is this lack of regard reflected in the collections of public libraries? In this study, the collections of all public libraries in North Carolina are evaluated for the presence or absence of award winning romance, western, horror, Science Fiction/fantasy, and mystery titles. The relationship of review availability to title availability in these libraries is examined. Within the parameters of this study, correlations between reviews and title availability are significant. Study results show that while romance novel collections in North Carolina public libraries continue to improve, they still lag behind other genres. Additional selection tools may be necessary to create a successful, well-rounded romance collection. Headings: Romance novels/Selection Book Reviews and reviewing/Evaluation Public libraries/Book collections Fiction/Selection Collection development/Evaluation Public libraries/North Carolina
ROMANCE COLLECTIONS IN NORTH CAROLINA PUBLIC LIBRARIES: ARE ALL GENRES TREATED EQUALLY? by Amy Funderburk A Master's paper submitted to the faculty of the School of Information and library science of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Library Science. Chapel Hill, North Carolina April 2004 Approved by _____________________________________ Evelyn H. Daniel
2 Table of Contents Introduction..........................................................................................3 Literature Review...................................................................................6 Methodology.......................................................................................12 Results and Analysis.............................................................................15 Conclusion..........................................................................................24 Works Cited........................................................................................26 Appendix A ­ List of Genre Award Winners................................................28 Appendix B ­ Public Libraries in North Carolina, as found in WorldCat............33 Appendix C ­ Genre Holdings of 55 North Carolina Public Libraries................36
3 Introduction In The Romance Readers Advisory: The Librarian's Guide to Love in the Stacks, author Ann Bouricius notes, "Librarians have traditionally had an uneasy relationship with romances. The romances are willing, but the librarians seem unsure" (Bouricius, 2000, p. 37). With these two sentences, Bouricius has captured with humor the prevailing attitude of librarians toward romance novels. There has long been a bias, in the library and in the world in general, in viewing romance novels as a lesser form of literature. The fact is, whether they are literature or not, romance novels are the highest sellers of all the genres (Romance Writers of America, 2004). Bookstores have recognized the popularity of the genre and taken steps to meet the needs of romance readers, but libraries are slow to catch up. There are many factors contributing to this reluctance. With an historical role of educating patrons, it makes sense that some librarians would be loath to promote a genre not known for its educational virtues. As noted by Linz, et al. in 1995: "When romances first darkened the doors of our sacred domains, many librarians were aghast, appalled, and believed themselves totally above such drivel. After all, the library is a bastion of knowledge and culture. The public library is a place for the classics.... We believed that our mission was to preserve for our patrons the things they should read..." (Linz, Bouricius and Byrnes, 1995, p. 147). The format of romances has also been an issue ­ until recently, romance novels were published exclusively in paperback ­ not the preferred format of
4 librarians. In 1994, the first hardcover romances were published (seven total for the year), and the annual number has increased steadily since then. Notes romance author Jayne Ann Krentz, "There is no question that hardcovers have a legitimizing effect on a genre...bringing with it a degree of respect that doesn't occur when a genre appears only in paperback" (Linz, Bouricius and Byrnes, 1995, p. 145). Still, paperback remains the primary form of publication for romances. Another factor that has contributed to librarians' disdain of the genre has been a lack of reviews. Until the early nineties, reviews of romance novels were mostly limited to genre-specific journals such as the Romantic Times. When Library Journal began thinking about adding romance reviews to its repertoire, editor Francine Fialkoff acknowledged the reviewing world's hesitancy to address paperbacks as one of the reasons Library Journal had not yet covered romances (Fialkoff, 1992). Certainly the timing would back her up ­ review columns for romances and hardcover publishing in this genre occurred around the same time. Knowing all the factors that can contribute to romance selection, I wondered how selection bias might be reflected in the collections of public libraries. Despite all the roadblocks, is it possible that librarians are still meeting the needs of romance readers? Looking at a local North Carolina library, Durham County Public, the romance collection seemed pretty reasonable. Compared to mysteries, I could see that the romance collection was smaller, but it surpassed the science fiction/fantasy, horror and western collections in size. When I investigated the numbers, I found that system-wide, in 2003 Durham had
5 7,429 romance titles (not including short stories or anthologies). In comparison, there were 1,336 westerns, 1,208 horror, 6,377 science fiction and fantasy, and 14,531 mystery titles. I wondered how Durham might compare to other libraries. Knowing from my experience at Durham that reviewing journals were the primary source for selection, I wondered how this affected the coverage of romances in public library collections. I was interested to determine whether the selection tools used by public librarians were enough where romances were concerned, or whether new tools and approaches to selection were needed. Has the increase in reviews has helped libraries to select a more well-rounded romance collection, or are additional selection tools still needed?
6 Literature Review In the 1970s and 1980s, many public libraries changed their collection philosophies. Previously, the library saw itself primarily as an educational institution, and collection development focused on providing the public with materials with which they could better themselves. It was a case of the library determining what its patrons should be reading. In the seventies and eighties, many libraries realized that patron desires and needs were also important considerations, and the "give them what they want" philosophy was born. The originator of the "give them what they want" model was Charles Robinson, the director of the Baltimore County Public Library, but many other libraries subsequently adopted this policy. In "Giving Them What They Want in Small Public Libraries," Michael Sullivan (2000) discusses the challenges of this new philosophy as well as the many benefits. This model forced librarians to examine their quality-driven collecting policies and consider the benefits of a popularitydriven collection policy. Recently, Budd and Wyatt (2002) studied the collections of medium-sized public libraries and found that most of them reflected both quality and popularity as collection-determining factors. While the quality of romance fiction is continually debated, there is no doubt about its popularity. A landmark study of the romance genre in general and its readers in particular is Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Culture. In this study, author Janice Radway explores the appeal of
7 romance to its readers. She found, among other things, that rather than finding the sometimes formulaic nature and "light" writing style a detriment, romance readers like reading romances because they are guaranteed a happy ending and do not require a lot of mental energy (Radway, 1984). For busy housewives and working women, romances meet a need that Faulkner can not. Others have examined the appeal of romance. In 1991, Mary K. Chelton discussed the issue from the point-of-view of a librarian. Openly acknowledging the tendency of librarians to look down on romances, Chelton states flatly that "casual dismissal of this genre reveals more about the critic than about the books themselves" (Chelton, 1991). Skeptical librarians can learn not only why romances appeal to readers, but also why it is in the best interest of the librarian to give romances the respect they give other genres. In 1995, romances were making a big enough splash in the paperback market to merit some attention and analysis from U.S. News & World Report. In "Living the Fantasy," U.S. News reporter Betsy Carpenter tries to dispel the myths surrounding romances (e.g., "they're all bodice rippers") and romance readers (e.g., "they're all bored housewives"). While romances were beginning to gain a modicum of respect at that time, the author acknowledges that such respect is grudging and reluctant (Carpenter, 1995). In 2000, an American Library Association book explored all aspects of romance from the librarian's viewpoint in The Romance Readers' Advisory: The Librarian's Guide to Love in the Stacks. Especially important to this study is chapter four, entitled "Romance v. "Real" Books: The Controversy Lives On."
8 Those seeking a laugh will find it in the author's "four-step program", a funny but true discussion of "the continuum for libraries on their progression toward enlightenment regarding their treatment of the romance genre" (Bouricius, 2000). Reviews play a major role in the selection processes of public libraries, as noted in "An Analysis of the Relationship Between Book Reviews and Fiction Holdings in OCLC" (Shaw, 1991). The executive editor of Library Journal, Francine Fialkoff, acknowledged in 1992 that "Perhaps no area of reviewing--or book buying--raises so many hackles as romance fiction." In a frank article, Ms. Fialkoff admits that Library Journal was reviewing very few romances at that time, and asks for advice and input. (Fialkoff, 1992) This advice and input was finally put to work in 1995, when Library Journal began a regular romance column. Fialkoff reflects the thoughts of many librarians with her article, "Are We Dumbing Down the Book Review?" Her answer was no. As Fialkoff noted, "You can't just serve one clientele--or a clientele you'd like to create in your own version of the literati or that oft-mentioned "intelligent layperson"--whatever that may be. Neither can we [as reviewers]" (Fialkoff, 1995). This major decision caused the Wall Street Journal to take a closer look at romances, noting that changes in the genre and its major selling potential have changed some reviewers' views of them: "Book critics may not be embracing romance novels with abandon, but neither are they coldly spurning them" (Graham, 1995). This statement apparently did not apply to the reviewers at the New York Times, whose editor was quoted in this article as saying, "You have to draw the line somewhere" as the reason the New York Times does not review romances.
9 While the paucity of romance reviews contributes to reduced collection in this genre, librarians have been equally responsible for the lack of attention to romances. In "Exploring the World of Romance Novels," the authors note that some librarians "try to ignore romances, hoping they will go away. However, romances are clearly here to stay, and it is time for librarians to take a serious look...how we treat these books in our libraries reflects our own biases towards them" (Linz, Bouricius & Byrnes, 1995). This helpful article aims to introduce librarians to a genre that may be unfamiliar, providing information not only on the historical and current appeal of romances, but also practical help with collecting, cataloging and shelving. Another introductory article, "A Fine Romance," aims to help librarians with selection (Tunon, 1995). In the most basic overview, noted reader's advisory author, Joyce Saricks, helps librarians identify the various themes and contexts that might appeal to readers in "Rules of the Romance Genre" (Saricks, 1999). While these overviews are helpful, librarians who want to take a serious look at creating or upgrading a romance collection may want to investigate Romance Fiction: A Guide to the Genre. As part of the Genreflecting Advisory Series, this book can be an essential tool for reader's advisory, selection and maintenance of a romance collection. It was published in 1999 (Ramsdell, 1999). One can keep up to date on what's happened since then by reading "Toujour l'Amour," a December 2003 article which discusses the latest trends and changes in romance fiction (Danford, Dyer, Holt & Rosen, 2003). For those librarians still unconvinced of the value of romance to a library collection, all
10 biases or misconceptions about romances have been addressed in the article, "The Librarian as Effete Snob: Why Romance?" (Mosley, Charles & Havir, 1995). Another approach is provided by the authors of romance, such as Dangerous Men & Adventurous Women, an anthology of works by romance authors, which argues for its legitimacy as a genre and examines at length its appeal to readers (Krentz, 1992). The editor of this book, a former librarian, argues in a later article against using reviews for romance selection, suggesting instead that libraries use bestseller lists (Annichiarico, Bryant, Nugent, Williams and Hoffert, 1994). Even later, she addressed the Public Library Association's national conference in 1996, saying "Now that romance has taken its place alongside other genres in our libraries, readers will at last have access to the full spectrum of popular fiction" (Krentz, 1997). How are these views of romance reflected in actual collections? One of the few articles that is not a "how-to" but rather an analysis of an actual collection is "Not Just Housewives and Old Maids." This article discusses the only romance collection housed in an Australian academic library. It includes information on how and why collection decisions were made, why the collection was established in the first place, and issues regarding housing and cataloging that are specific to the collection (Flesch, 1997). While there is much information available about the attitudes of librarians and reviewers toward romance fiction, there is little information about the effects such an attitude has on the collection of a typical public library. Do the collection materials used by librarians today provide them with the information they need to
11 serve their romance readers adequately? An analysis of the relationship between reviews and public library romance collections is noticeably lacking in the literature.
12
Methodology
The purpose of this study was to determine if romance novel collection in public
libraries is unbalanced as a result of the paucity of reviews in this genre. A
content analysis of North Carolina library collections was conducted for this
reason. For comparison purposes, data was collected for five genres: romance,
westerns, horror, science fiction/fantasy, and mysteries. Each of these genres
has its own annual writer's association award, as follows:
Association Romance Writers of America Western Writers of America Horror Writer's Association Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America Mystery Writers of America
Award RITA Awards Spur Awards Stoker Awards Nebula Awards Edgar Awards
These awards were used as the basis for a sample of titles for each of
these genres. In some cases, such as the RITA awards, multiple category
awards are given, such as Best Contemporary Single Title, Best First Book and
Best Romantic Suspense. In other cases, such as the Nebula Award, only one
award is given. From all but the Nebula Award listings, it was necessary to limit
the list of titles to those receiving awards for full-length, English-language regular
ADULT FICTION. Awards for works that did not fit this mold were removed. Examples
of removed works include short stories, series titles, screenplays, anthologies,
poetry, nonfiction, and juvenile titles. Such culling was necessary to keep the
study focused on adult fiction titles that would appeal to a large audience. The
13 end result was a list of 169 titles: 60 romance, 36 western, 25 horror, 12 science fiction and/or fantasy, and 36 mystery titles. See Appendix A for the final list. To determine which titles on the compiled list had been reviewed, the databases Library Literature & Information Science and NoveList were searched by title for reviews. In order to limit reviews to sources normally used by public libraries, only the following journals were consulted: Library Journal, Booklist, Publisher's Weekly, Kirkus, and the New York Times Review of Books. The content of the review was not investigated ­ since all books are award winners, their appeal to readers and critics was considered already established. For this reason, the existence or lack of a review was the only information recorded. Each title was searched in WorldCat to determine how many North Carolina libraries provide it. Audio, video, large print and copies in languages other than English were not included. For the purposes of this study, regular copies of each book, whether cloth or paperback, were the only copies considered as "available" from North Carolina public libraries. The number of copies available from each library was not determined. From the listing of libraries carrying each book (as provided by WorldCat), university, military, school, and special libraries were removed. A library was considered to be a public library if the word "public" was part of its name, or if it was a county or regional library. In several cases "memorial" libraries were also included, when it could be determined through research that the library was a public library. A list of North Carolina public libraries included in WorldCat and used in this study can be found in Appendix B.
14 For one particular library, the Durham County Public Library, statistics were gathered regarding the circulation of each title, the add date(s) and the number of copies available at Durham. Large print and audio or video copies were not included in these statistics. Non-circulating copies were also excluded. When all the above data was compiled, various statistical reports were developed using SPSS software. Frequency analyses were conducted to determine the frequency of review availability for each genre. Correlation analyses also provided helpful data. In particular, attention was given to the correlation between the availability of reviews and the number of North Carolina libraries carrying the selected titles. The correlation between the availability of reviews and the likelihood a title was available at Durham County Public Library was also examined. The results of these analyses and other data will be discussed in the following section, Results and Analysis.
15
Results and Analysis Book selection is, by nature, a subjective process. Even librarians who take pains to treat each genre equally can end up with an unbalanced collection. Because of the romance genre's history as the unwanted step-child of fiction, collection procedures may need to be adjusted to address issues unique to the genre. Despite the recent advent of reviews for romance, current library collection procedures allow romance award winners to fall through the cracks of the collection process. The following chart indicates the different levels of titles in the Durham County Public Library genre collection:
Percent
Percentage of Award Winning Titles Available at Durham, by Genre
120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Romance
Western
Horror SciFi/Fantasy Genre
Mystery
At Durham, only 50% of the romance award winners were available, as compared to 69% of westerns, 56% of horror, 100% of science fiction and
16 fantasy, and 97% of mystery titles. These statistics, while seeming to imply an imbalance in the collecting procedures at Durham, can be explained by other factors. One explanation is community need ­ it could be that the population of Durham County prefers to read genres other than romance. The following table would seem to support this explanation:
Circulation
Durham County Circulation Averages by Genre
200 150 100 50 0 Romance
Western
Horror SciFi/Fantasy Genre
Mystery
With average circulation of award winning romances well above westerns, but decidedly below other genres, Durham's romance collecting procedures would seem to meet the needs of its users. However, one essential factor could be skewing this data ­ the tendency for romances to be published in paperback. The advent of the hard-bound romance was welcomed in libraries across the country, but romances are still the genre with the most titles published exclusively in paperback. Mass market paperbacks are known for their shortterm life span in libraries, and at Durham, when there are no more copies in the library, the record ceases to exist. This could explain both the lower circulation
17 numbers given for Durham's romance collection, and the percentage of romance titles available from this library. To rule out the paperback factor, it is possible to look at data only for the last four years. In the case of Durham, this equalizes the distribution of award winners somewhat, at least for romance:
Percent
Percentage of Award Winning Titles Available at Durham, Last Four Years, by Genre
120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Romance
estern W
Horror SciFi/Fantasy Genre
Mystery
Despite lower numbers for romance, westerns and horror in the above chart, it should be noted that Durham carries 70%, 75% and 62% of titles, respectively ­ very respectable numbers. Has collection at Durham improved, or were the earlier numbers skewed by attrition of paperbacks? It's hard to tell. It is apparent that limiting data to the last four years has a noticeable effect, not only on titles carried, but circulation statistics as well:
18
Circulation
Durham Circulation Average for Award Winners Over the Last Four Years, by Genre
200 150 100 50 0 Romance
Western
Horror SciFi/Fantasy Genre
Mystery
Given that these books are relatively new and therefore have lower circulation figures, it's difficult to determine how much to trust this data. Once again, the many factors contributing to collection decisions cloud the issue, making it difficult to determine which has contributed and detracted from successful collecting. Instead of looking at the number of titles and circulation statistics for an individual library, more revealing data can be found by examining the status of the genres in all North Carolina public libraries. There are 112 North Carolina public libraries in WorldCat, 55 of which include award winning genre titles in their collections. An analysis of the holdings of these 55 libraries shows a clear pattern. Over seventy percent of these libraries have fewer romance titles than other genres. All 55 libraries had at least one genre with more titles than romance. All but one had more mysteries than romances. To see the data for all 55 public libraries, see Appendix C. The following table provides the percentage
19 of award winning titles held by the ten North Carolina libraries with the most award winners in their collections, by genre:
Percent
Percentage of Award WinningTitles Held by North Carolina Public Libraries, by Genre
120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% HQB HQC HQD KZT KZV NPC NQC NXA NZD NZL
Romance Western Horror SciFi/Fantasy Mystery
Top Collecting NC Public Libraries Note: Library code letters are used to save space ­ see Appendix B to match codes with individual libraries. Obviously, the amount of romance titles collected is considerably lower than any other genre. Again, the short life span of paperbacks and the tendency of the romance genre to be published in this format could have some influence on these figures. Limiting collection analysis to the award winners for the last four years alters the pattern somewhat. As demonstrated in the following table, three of the top ten award winning genre collecting libraries now have more romances than horror titles.
20
Percentage of Titles Held by North Carolina Public Libraries, by Genre - Last Four Years
Percent
120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% HQB HQC HQD KZT KZV NPC NQC NXA NZD NZL Top Collecting NC Public Libraries
Romance Western Horror SciFi/Fantasy Mystery
Note: Library code letters are used to save space ­ see Appendix B to match codes with individual libraries.
Obviously, the status of romances in North Carolina public libraries is
improving, but still behind other genres in many cases. It could be that a majority
of North Carolina readers prefer other genres over romance. The largest factor
affecting romance collection in North Carolina, however, is the one with the most
conclusive evidence behind it. Collection of romance is hindered by a lack of
reviews.
As is demonstrated by the following table, for the award winning titles
surveyed, the percentage of books reviewed was decidedly smaller for
romances. Thirty-two percent of romances received reviews, compared with
64% of westerns, 64% of horror, 92% of science fiction and fantasy titles, and
89% of mystery titles.
21
Reviews
Percentage of Reviews Per Genre
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Romance
Western
HorroSrciFi/Fantasy Genre
Mystery
Reviews Yes Reviews No
The lack of reviews showed a definitely correlation with the number of
copies found at the Durham County Public Library. There is also a significant
correlation between the existence of reviews, and the likelihood a title would be
carried in a North Carolina public library. Both correlations are shown below.
Correlation of Reviews with the Likelihood that Durham Has a Title
Reviews Yes/No Durham Library Has
Copies
Reviews
Pearson correlation
1
.640**
Yes/No
Significance (2-tailed)
.
.000
N
169
169
Durham
Pearson Correlation
.640**
1
Library Has Significance (2-tailed)
.000
.
Copies
N
169
169
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Durham is more likely to have a book with a review, as are most North Carolina
libraries:
22
Correlation of Reviews with the Likelihood of NC Libraries Carrying that Title
Reviews Yes/No NC Libraries Holding
Reviews
Pearson Correlation
1
.552**
Yes/No
Significance (2-tailed)
.
.000
N
169
169
NC
Pearson Correlation
.552**
1
Libraries
Significance (2-tailed)
.000
.
Holding
N
169
169
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
To determine if lack of reviews remains a problem now that most
reviewing journals provide them semi-regularly, the data can be analyzed from
1995 on. Beginning in 1995, almost all reviewing journals began reviewing
romances regularly, albeit less frequently than they review other genres. This
imbalance is still reflected in the following analysis:
Percent
Percentage of Reviews by Genre, 1995-2003
120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Romance
estern W
HoSrrcoiFr i/Fantasy Mystery Genre
Reviews Yes Reviews No
Romance is still the genre with the fewest reviews. However, the number of reviews of award winning romance fiction has proportionally doubled, from 32% to 64%. While romance fiction lags behind, it is catching up quickly, and its
23
64% reviewed titles is not far behind westerns and horror, which demonstrated
71% and 69% of titles reviewed, respectively.
Correlations change too, if data from the years prior to 1995 are removed:
Correlation of Reviews with the Likelihood that Durham Has a Title, 1995-2003
Reviews Yes/No Durham Library Has
Copies
Reviews
Pearson Correlation
1
.576**
Yes/No
Significance (2-tailed)
.
.000
N
124
124
Durham
Pearson Correlation
.576**
1
Library Has Significance (2-tailed)
.000
.
Copies
N
124
124
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
By removing the years that few to no reviews were provided for romances, the
correlation between reviews and the likelihood Durham has a title has gone down
from .640 to .576. The correlation between reviews and the likelihood North
Carolina libraries will carry that title, on the other hand, has gone up. Rising from
.552 to .555, this change is hardly noticeable.
Correlation of Reviews with the Likelihood of NC Libraries Carrying that Title,
1995-2003
Reviews Yes/No NC Libraries Holding
Reviews
Pearson Correlation
1
.555**
Yes/No
Significance (2-tailed)
.
.000
N
124
124
NC
Pearson Correlation
.555**
1
Libraries
Significance (2-tailed)
.000
.
Holding
N
124
124
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Obviously, there is a relationship between reviews and the likelihood a title will reach the shelves of a North Carolina library. Since the amount of reviews available for romances are still smaller than for other genres, it falls to the librarian to fill the gap.
24 Conclusion While the number of reviews given for romance fiction award winning titles has improved over time, review coverage of this genre is still spotty. Librarians should be aware of this when making collection decisions for romance fiction. Even in the past three years, only sixty percent of RITA award winners were reviewed in a major reviewing journal. Compare this with 89% of westerns, 67% of horror, 100% of science fiction and fantasy, and 78% of mystery titles, and it became obvious that romance as a genre is still at a disadvantage where reviews are concerned. Since so many librarians rely heavily on reviews to determine their collection decisions, the romance is also at a disadvantage in most libraries. In libraries where the romance readership is low, the usual collection methods may suffice. It is important for librarians to ask themselves, however ­ is romance readership low because readers don't like this genre, or are romance readers not using the library because the collection is not meeting their needs? According to Romance Writers of America, in 2002 there were 51.1 million romance readers in North America alone. Forty-four percent of these readers buy their books in a bookstore, while only 14% get them from the library. Selection was considered the most important factor in determining where romance readers go to get their titles (RWA, 2004). What does this mean for libraries? There is a choice ­ accept as a fact that romance readers just prefer to
25 go elsewhere, or decide to find out why. With 86% of romance readers not coming to the library, libraries have a large incentive to make some changes. What can we change? RITA Awards are given out every summer; libraries should check the list against library holdings and fill in the gaps. One can go a step further and check out the Romance Writers of America's Honor Roll of Bestselling Authors (http://www.rwanational.org/honor_roll.cfm). This list includes any author who has made the top fifteen on the New York Times and/or Publisher's Weekly's bestsellers list, or the top fifty of USA Today's list. There are other lists available ­ check out NoveList for Library Journal's Best Romance Books or Romantic Times' Reviewer's Choice Awards. Those still partial to reviews will need to introduce themselves to print sources such as Romantic Times, Affaire de Coeur, and Rendezvous. There are also numerous resources online. Visit Romance Writers of America's website to learn more about the many divisions of romance, to get a better feel for the strengths and weaknesses of a romance collection. Best of all, talk to your patrons! Increase overtures to romance readers ­ ask them if their needs are being met. Post signs requesting suggestions. Make romance displays and organize book discussion groups. Aspire to be Romance Writers of America's Librarian of the Year.
26 Works Cited Annichiarico, Mark; Bryant, Eric; Nugent, Amy Boaz; Williams, Wilda & Hoffert, Barbara. (February 15, 1994). Backed By Popular Demand. Library Journal 119, 120-124. Bouricius, Ann. (2000). The Romance Readers' Advisory: The Librarian's Guide to Love in the Stacks. Chicago: American Library Association. Budd, John M. and Cynthia Wyatt. (April 2002). "Do You Have Any Books On...": an Examination of Public Library Holdings. Public Libraries 41:2, 107112. Carpenter, Betsy. (November 6, 1995). Living the Fantasy. U.S. News & World Report 119:18, 78+ (4 p.). Chelton, Mary K, (July 1991). Unrestricted Body Parts and Predictable Bliss: the Audience Appeal of Formula Romances. Library Journal 116, 44-49. Danford, Natalie; Dyer, Lucinda; Holt, Karen; and Judith Rosen. (December 1, 2003). Toujours L'Amour. Publisher's Weekly 250:48, 26-36. Fialkoff, Francine. (April 15, 1995). Are We Dumbing Down the Book Review? Library Journal 120, 60. Fialkoff, Francine. (December 1992). Romancing the Patron. Library Journal 117, 118. Flesch, Juliet. (1997). Not Just Housewives and Old Maids. Collection Building 16:3, 119-124. Graham, Ellen. (June 28, 1995). Publishing: Romances, Long Denied Reviews, Get Some Respect. The Wall Street Journal 225:125, B1. Krentz, Jayne Ann (ed.). (1992). Dangerous Men & Adventurous Women. University of Pennsylvania Press. Krentz, Jayne Ann. (May/June 1997). All the Right Reasons: Romance Fiction in the Public Library. Public Libraries 36: 162-166.
27 Linz, Cathie; Bouricius, Ann; and Carole Byrnes. (May/June 1995). Exploring the World of Romance Novels. Public Libraries 34, 144-151. Mosley, Shelley; Charles, John; and Julie Havir. (May 1995). The Librarian as Effete Snob: Why Romance? Wilson Library Bulletin 69, 24-25+. Radway, Janice. (1984). Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Culture. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Ramsdell, Kristin. (1999). Romance Fiction: A Guide to the Genre. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Romance Writers of America. Accessed March 26, 2004: http://www.rwanational.org/. Romance Writers of America. (2003). 2003 Romance-Fiction Sales Statistics, Reader Demographics and Book-Buying Habits. Romance Writers of America. Retrieved March 26, 2004 from http://www.rwanational.org/StatiticsBrochure2003.pdf. Saricks, Joyce. (September 15, 1999). Rules of the Romance Genre. Booklist 96:2, 244. Shaw, Debora. (April-June 1991). An Analysis of the Relationship Between Book Reviews and Fiction Holdings in OCLC. Library & Information Science Research 13, 147-154. Sullivan, Michael. (May/June 2000). Giving Them What They Want in Small Public Libraries. Public Libraries 39:3, 148-155. Tunon, Johanna. (May 1995). A Fine Romance: How to Select Romances for Your Collection. Wilson Library Bulletin 69, 31-34.
28
Appendix A ­ Books Used for Data Analysis
RITA Award Winners (Romance)
Title
Author
Candle in the Dark, A
Megan Chance
Debt to Delia, A
Barbara Metzger
Grand Design, A
Emma Jensen
Man Like Mac, A
Fay Robinson
Man to Die For, A
Eileen Dreyer
Again
Kathleen Gilles Seidel
An Unwilling Bride
Jo Beverley
Annie and the Wise Men
Lindsay Longford
Annie, Get Your Groom
Kristen Gabriel
Body Guard
Suzanne Brockmann
Born in Ice
Nora Roberts
Brazen Angel
Elizabeth Boyle
Candle in the Window
Christina Dodd
Carolina Moon
Nora Roberts
Cool Shade
Theresa Weir
Daniel's Gift
Barbara Freethy
Deirdre and Don Juan
Jo Beverley
Divine Evil
Nora Roberts
Dream a Little Dream
Susan Eliz. Phillips
Emily and the Dark Angel
Jo Beverley
Every Kind of Heaven
Bethany Campbell
Father Goose
Marie Ferrarella
First Lady
Susan Eliz. Phillips
Ghostly Enchantment
Angie Ray
Gwen's Christmas Ghost
Lynn Kerstan & Alicia Rasley
Her Very Own Husband
Lauryn Chandler
Hidden Riches
Nora Roberts
His Brother's Child
Lucy Gordon
His Grace Endures
Emma Jensen
Love's Reward
Jean R. Ewing
Monday Man
Kristin Gabriel
Mrs. Drew Plays Her Hand
Carla Kelly
Much Obliged
Jessica Benson
My Darling Caroline
Adele Ashworth
Night Shift
Nora Roberts
Nightshade
Nora Roberts
No Place Like Home
Barbara Ann Samuel
Nobody's Baby But Mine
Susan Eliz. Phillips
Oh Baby!
Lauryn Chandler
On the Way to a Wedding
Ingrid Weaver
Private Scandals
Nora Roberts
29
Quinn's Complete Seduction See How they Run Shades of Honor Stardust of Yesterday Stranger in her Arms Best Man & the Bridesmaid, The Border Bride, The Bride's Protector, The Christmas Basket, The Lady's Companion, The Maiden and the Unicorn, The Rake's Retreat, The Surgeon, The Warlord, The This Time Forever Three Fates True Confessions Trust Me Winter's Edge
Sandra Steffen Bethany Campbell Wendy Lindstrom Lynn Kurland Elizabeth Sites Liz Fielding Elizabeth English Gayle Wilson Debbie Macomber Carla Kelly Isolde Martyn Nancy Butler Tess Gerritsen Elizabeth Elliott Kathleen Eagle Nora Roberts Rachel Gibson Jeane Renick Anne Stuart
Spur Award Winners (Western)
Title
Author
All-True Travels and Adventures of Jane Smiley
Lidie Newton, The
Blood of Texas
Preston Lewis writing as Will
Camp
Bound for the Promise-Land
Troy D. Smith
Chili Queen, The
Sandra Dallas
Comanche Moon
Larry McMurtry
Dark Island, The
Robert Conley
Dark Trail
Hiram King
Drum's Ring
Richard S. Wheeler
Empire of Bones
Jeff Long
Far Canyon, The
Elmer Kelton
Friends
Charles Hackenberry
Gates of the Alamo, The
Stephen Harrigan
Gila River, The
Gary McCarthy
Golden Chance, The
T.V. Olsen
Journal of the Gun Years
Richard Matheson
Journey of the Dead
Loren D. Estleman
Kiowa Verdict, The
Cynthia Haseloff
Leaving Missouri
Ellen Recknor
Masterson
Richard S. Wheeler
Medicine Horn, The
Jory Sherman
Mine Work
Jim Davidson
30
Miracle Life of Edgar Mint Nickajack Oblivion's Altar Perma Red Potter's Field Prophet Annie Rage in Chupadera Sierra Slaughter St. Agnes's Stand Stone Song: A Novel of the Life of Crazy Horse Summer of Pearls Survival Thunder in the Valley Way of the Coyote, The
Brady Udall Robert J. Conley David Marion Wilkinson Debra Magpie Earling Frank Roderus Ellen Recknor Norman Zollinger Richard S. Wheeler Elmer Kelton Tom Eidson Win Blevins Mike Blakely K.C. McKenna Jim R. Woolard Elmer Kelton
Stoker Award Winners (Horror)
Title
Author
American Gods
Neil Gaiman
Bag of Bones
Stephen King
Blood of the Lamb
Thomas F. Monteleone
Boy's Life
Robert R. McCammon
Children of the Dusk
Janet Berliner & George Guthridge
Cipher, The
Kathe Koja
Crota
Owl Goingback
Dawn Song
Michael Marano
Dead in the Water
Nancy Holder
Deadliest of the Species
Michael Oliveri
Grave Markings
Michael Arnzen
Green Mile, The
Stephen King
Licking Valley Coon Hunters Club Brian A. Hopkins
Lives of the Monster Dogs
Kirsten Bakis
Lovely Bones, The
Alice Seybold
Mr. X
Peter Straub
Night Class, The
Tom Piccirilli
Prodigal
Melanie Tem
Safety of Unknown Cities, The
Lucy Taylor
Sineater
Elizabeth Massie
Thread that Binds the Bones
Nina Kiriki Hoffman
Throat, The
Peter Straub
Traveling Vampire Show
Richard Laymon
Wither
J.G. Passarella
Zombie
Joyce Carol Oates
31
Nebula Award Winners (Science Fiction & Fantasy)
Title
Author
American Gods
Neil Gaiman
Darwin's Radio
Greg Bear
Doomsday Book
Connie Willis
Forever Peace
Joe Haldeman
Moon and the Sun, the
Vonda N. McIntyre
Moving Mars
Greg Bear
Parable of the Talents
Octavia E. Butler
Quantam Rose, The
Catherine Asaro
Red Mars
Kim Stanley Robinson
Slow River
Nicola Griffith
Stations of the Tide
Michael Swanwick
Terminal Experiment, The
Robert J. Sawyer
Edgar Award Winners (Mystery)
Title
Author
Adios Muchachos
Daniel Chavarria
Black Echo, The
Michael Connelly
Black Maria, The
Mark Graham
Blue Edge of Midnight, The
Jonathon King
Bones
Jan Burke
Bootlegger's Daughter
Margaret Maron
Bottoms, The
Joe R. Lansdale
Caveman's Valentine, The
George Dawes Green
Charm City
Laura Lippman
Chatham School Affair, The
Thomas H. Cook
Cimarron Rose
James Lee Burke
Cold Day for Murder, A
Dana Stabenow
Cold Day in Paradise, A
Steve Hamilton
Come to Grief
Dick Francis
Conspiracy of Paper, A
David Liss
Dance at the Slaughterhouse
Lawrence Block
Dark Maze
Thomas Adcock
Dead Folk's Blues
Steven Womack
Fade Away
Harlan Coben
Final Appeal
Lisa Scottoline
Fulton County Blues
Ruth Birmingham
Grave Talent, A
Laurie King
Line of Vision
David Ellis
Los Alamos
Joseph Kanon
Mr. White's Confession
Robert Clark
Out of Sight
T.J. MacGregor
Penance
David Housewright
Red Scream, The
Mary Willis Walker
Sculptress, The Silent Joe Simple Justice Skull Mantra, The Slow Motion Riot Tarnished Blue Widower's Two-Step, The Winter and Night
32 Minette Walters T. Jefferson Parker John Morgan Wilson Eliot Pattison Peter Blauner William Heffernan Rick Riordan S.J. Rozan
33
Appendix B ­ Public Libraries Listed in WorldCat
North Carolina Public Library Albemarle Regional Library Alexander County Appalachian Regional Library Ashe County Public Asheville-Buncombe Library System Atkinson Memorial Library Avery-Mitchell-Yancey Regional Library Bethel Public BHM Regional Library Bladen County Braswell Memorial Library Brown Library Brunswick County Burke County Public Cabarrus County Library Caldwell County Public Carteret County Public Caswell County Public Catawba County Public Central N. Carolina Regional Library Chapel Hill Public Cleveland County Memorial Library Columbus County Public Cumberland County Public Library & Information Center Davidson County Public Davie County Public Dunn Public Duplin County, Dorothy Wightman Library Durham County Library East Albemarle Regional Edgecombe County Memorial Library Farmville Public Fontana Regional Forsyth County Publi Fountain Public Four Oaks Public Library Franklin County Library Gaston-Lincoln Regional George H. & Laura E. Brown Library Given Memorial Library Greensboro Public Library Grifton Public
Code KZU UZO KZV AC4 UZR UQN KZW NZN KZX UZP NQX BA4 UZQ UZS NQC UZT C8T CW3 UZU KZZ BA5 NQW HQF HQB UZW UZX UQH UZY NZD QJB NQV HQI QJC UZZ NZO UQO UQA QJD KZY QJJ NGP NZP
H. Leslie Perry Memorial Library Halifax County Library Harnett County Library Harold D. Cooley Library Haywood County Public Henderson County Public Library Hickory Public High Point Public Hocutt Ellington Memorial Library Hyconeechee Regional Iredell County Library Jacob S. Mauney Memorial Library Kenly Public Lee County Library System Lilly Pike Sullivan Municipal Library Lincoln County Public Madison County Public Mary Duncan Public McDowell County Public Middlesex Public Mooneyham Public Mooresville Public Nantahala Regional Neuse Regional New Hanover County Public Norris Public Northwestern Regional Onslow County Public Pender County Library Person County Public Pettigrew Regional Polk County Public Princeton Public Public Library of Charlotte & Mecklenburg Public Library of Johnston County/Smithfield Qualla Boundary Public Library Quinerly-Olschener Library Randolph County Public Richard H. Thornton Library Roanoke Rapids Public Robeson County Public Rockingham County Public Rowan Public Rowland Public Rutherford County Library
34 KQI UQC UQG UQV UQI HQC UZV KZT UQP QJE UQJ KZP UQQ HQA UQD xQ8 UQU UQR HQG UQW KQB UQK KQR QJF HQD KQC QJG NZL NZM PC3 QJH NZR UQS NPC UQL KQL NZQ NZS UQB UQE NZT NZX NZY NZU KQA
Sampson-Clinton Public Sandhill Regional Scotland County Memorial Library Scotland Neck Memorial Library Selma Public Sheppard Memorial Library Southern Pines Public Spencer Public Spindale Public Spring Hope Community Library St. Paul's Library Stanley County Public Stanly County Public Thelma Dingus Bryant Library Transylvanie County Library Union County Public Wake County Public Warren County Memorial Library Warsaw Public Library Watuga County Library Wayne County Public Wesley Privette Memorial Library Whitakers Library Wilkes County Public Wilson County Public
35 HQJ QJI KQE UQF UQT HQH QJK NZZ KQD UQX NZV KQF SCPJL KZQ KQG KQH NXA KQJ KZR WC2 HQE UQY UQZ WC5 UZJ
36
Appendix C ­ North Carolina Libraries, Genre Holdings
Library CW3 HQB HQC HQD HQG HQJ KQA KQE KQF KQG KQH KQI KQR KZP KZT KZV KZW KZZ NGP NPC NQC NQW NXA NZD NZL NZM NZR NZS NZT NZY PC3 QJB QJD QJE QJG QJH QJK UQA UQB UQC UQE UQI UQJ UQK UQU UZJ
Romance 2 28 23 15 12 3 3 3 3 15 5 0 0 0 23 23 2 17 8 18 20 22 48 57 27 0 0 7 3 2 3 13 13 2 25 15 8 0 0 2 2 0 3 3 3 8
Western 14 53 42 50 14 3 17 12 6 36 22 6 6 6 47 50 11 25 33 33 50 14 64 64 33 0 0 6 14 6 11 17 56 5 25 31 22 0 5 3 0 6 12 3 11 39
Horror 8 52 32 36 20 0 16 20 4 28 20 4 0 8 44 28 12 24 16 40 40 20 68 56 40 4 8 8 8 8 16 32 32 8 24 20 32 0 24 8 4 4 12 8 12 28
SciFi/Fantasy 8 75 58 83 17 25 0 8 25 58 33 25 0 8 75 50 17 42 42 75 75 33 83 100 67 0 0 17 8 17 17 33 75 25 33 33 42 0 17 25 0 8 33 25 8 42
Mystery 8 75 72 56 28 3 14 19 6 67 36 11 0 11 69 56 3 42 28 63 61 25 89 97 53 0 0 8 6 14 14 42 47 8 69 42 42 3 22 6 6 8 33 8 19 36
37
UZQ
2
11
24
17
17
UZR
2
0
0
0
3
UZS
5
5
12
17
6
UZT
5
28
24
25
25
UZV
3
11
8
17
11
UZW
23
31
36
58
61
UZX
7
14
16
33
17
UZY
7
0
9
17
6
UZZ
22
39
52
83
78

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Title: ROMANCE COLLECTIONS IN NORTH CAROLINA PUBLIC LIBRARIES: ARE ALL GENRES TREATED EQUALLY?
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