Search and rescue

Tags: CASARA Ottawa, Ottawa, Search and Rescue, Civil Air Search And Rescue Association, Terry Cooper, CASARA, Joint Rescue Coordination, Canadian Armed Forces, Coast Guard, Mission Control Centre, CASARA Ottawa CASARA, CFB Trenton, CSAD Waypoint CSAD2 CASARA Ottawa, search area, Granola Bars, Plastic Tarp, Parachute Cord, CASARA Ottawa Personal Survival Kit, personal survival kit, Bug Repellent, fishing line, ELT, CSAD, CASARA Ottawa ELT Types, frequency control, CASARA Ottawa SAR Steps
Content: Search and Rescue
Help Us Help You
10-06-22
Prepared By Terry Cooper CASARA Ottawa
Contents · SAR Who/What/When · What does a crash look like? · ELTs and SARSAT/COSPAS. · What you can do to help us find you. · What you can do to survive.
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CASARA Ottawa
Who does SAR?
· Primary SAR is provided by the Canadian Armed Forces and Coast Guard · Mission Control Centre (MCC) at CFB Trenton · Joint Rescue Coordination (JRCC) centres at Halifax, Trenton and Victoria. · Additional SAR resources provided by the Civil Air Search And Rescue Association (CASARA), and Coast Guard Auxiliary (CGA)
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CASARA Ottawa
CASARA
· Civil Air Search and Rescue Association · Nationwide Volunteer Organization · Search taskings from Trenton JRCC in support of 424 SAR Squadron · Ontario units: Thunder Bay, Hearst, Sault Ste. Marie, Chapleau, New Liskeard, North Bay, Sudbury, Niagara, London, Ottawa
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CASARA Ottawa
SAR Responsibility Areas
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CASARA Ottawa
What does SAR do?
· MCC determines crash location from SARSAT/COSPAS data · JRCC determines search area and resources, and controls searches. · CAF, CASARA and CCGA search for missing aircraft or vessels. · CAF SAR Techs provide emergency Medical Care and evacuation.
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CASARA Ottawa
When does SAR start? · ELT signal detected by SARSAT/COSPAS or other aircraft. · Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary expires and JRCC is notified. · ATC loses contact with aircraft which is under their control.
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CASARA Ottawa
What Will A Crashed Airplane Look Like?
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CASARA Ottawa
What Will It Look Like? (2)
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CASARA Ottawa
Visual Search 1 · 500 AGL: Where's the crash?
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CASARA Ottawa
Visual Search 2 · How about now? (200 AGL)
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CASARA Ottawa
What is an ELT?
· Low power radio transmitter (~50-75mw 121.5) (5W 406) · 121.5Mhz, 243Mhz (military) or 406Mhz · Triggered by impact/shock · 48 Hour battery life · External and Built-in antennas · Typically installed in the tail of an aircraft
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CASARA Ottawa
Typical ELT Location ELT
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CASARA Ottawa
ELT Types
· TSO C-91 (this is the most common) ­ Original spec. for 121.5 ELT ­ Reliability problems, poor frequency control ­ Poor survivability · TSO C-91a ­ Next generation 121.5 ELT ­ Remote control (panel switch) ­ More reliable G switch ­ Improved frequency control
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CASARA Ottawa
ELT Types Cont.
· 406 ELTs, EPIRBs (marine) and PLBs ­ SARSAT/COSPAS designed for 406 Beacon frequency ­ 5W burst digital signal at 406MHz (~50ms) ­ Low power continuous homing signal on 121.5MHz ­ Very accurate frequency control ­ More reliable G switch ­ Improved survivability ­ Identity broadcast (each unit registered) ­ Possible GPS position broadcast ­ Personal Locator Beacons available ­ High cost
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CASARA Ottawa
Comparing ELT Types
Type Location Accuracy Coverage
121.5 12nm Local
406 2nm Global
signal power
.1W
5W
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Alert time Doppler Location
1.5-2.0 Hours (LEOS) 2 Passes (LEOS)
CASARA Ottawa
Instantaneous (GEOS) 1 Pass (LEOS)
SARSAT/COSPAS
· Satellites on Polar orbits (LEOS) · Satellite orbits take 100 minutes · Monitoring 121.5*, 243*, and 406 MHz · Primarily designed for 406MHz · Relay ELT signals to local user terminals (ground stations) · Doppler shift used to find possible location of the beacon * 121.5 and 243 monitoring will cease by Feb. 2009
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CASARA Ottawa
SARSAT/COSPAS System
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CASARA Ottawa
SAR Steps
· JRCC is notified of missing aircraft · Search resources are tasked. · 1st stage search typically a track crawl ­ Looking for active target (ELT, smoke, signals, etc.) · Search progresses to low level coverage of search area (CSAD). · Target found, SAR Techs jump in....
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CASARA Ottawa
What's the CSAD
· CSAD 1 is a 20 NM box around the planned track of the aircraft · CSAD 1 starts 10 NM prior to the last known point (LKP), and ends 10 NM past the destination. · CSAD 2 widens the search area by a further 10 NM from the LKP to 15NM past the DEST.
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CASARA Ottawa
CSAD1 15Nm 30Nm Destination 10-06-22
CSAD Waypoint CSAD2 CASARA Ottawa
Planned Track Last Known Position 20Nm 10Nm
How long will it take?
· Assuming your ELT is working. · Average time to Satellite pass: 45 mins. · Minimum of two passes before ELT targeted and search triggered (90 mins). · Time to launch 1-2hrs · Time to reach search area ?
Plan on spending the night!
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CASARA Ottawa
How to Be Found Alive · Survive the return to earth ­ Practice emergency procedures · Be prepared to survive · Be found quickly
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CASARA Ottawa
What can you do? (Before and during the flight)
· File a flight plan, and follow it · Use flight following whenever possible · Regularly tell FSS where you are on 126.7 · Tell FSS if you are deviating from course · Make sure your ELT is in good condition and preferably is a TSO C-91a or 406. · Ensure that your PAX are briefed on the ELT, survival kit, radios, and evacuation procedures
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CASARA Ottawa
What can you do? (After the premature end of the flight) · Aviate, Navigate, Communicate ­ Tell someone what's happening (mayday...) · Get out of the plane · Turn on the ELT as soon as possible and leave it on (prior to landing if possible). · Prepare to spend the night · Prepare to signal over flying aircraft · Check that the ELT is on, maybe move it
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CASARA Ottawa
Do Not ... · Leave the crash site unless in immediate danger. · Turn off the ELT, I repeat DO NOT turn off the ELT
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CASARA Ottawa
Be Prepared
· Dress for the conditions (remember you may be out there all night). · Carry a personal survival kit, on your person. · Carry an aircraft survival kit and have it close at hand. · File a Flight plan and stick to it (yes I've said this before, it's important).
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CASARA Ottawa
Personal Survival Kit
· Waterproof (wooden) matches · Signal mirror (and flares) · Sterile bandages · Package of kleenex · Sunscreen and mosquito repellent · Small knife · Signal tape or signal panel · Space blanket · Food (meal replacement bars) · Parachute cord (multi-strand cord) · Fishing line and hooks
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CASARA Ottawa
CASARA Aircraft Survival Kit
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Bright Orange Cotton Bag with Contents List on Tag Overall Dimensions: Length: 24 inches Diameter: 9 inches Weight: 6 lbs CASARA Ottawa
Kit Opened
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·Signal Panel ·Garbage Bags (x4) ·2 Large Coffee Cans with wire handles, taped open ends together CASARA Ottawa
Kit Contents
First Aid: ·Shell Dressings (x2) ·Emergency Blankets (x4) ·Triangular Bandages (x4) ·Roll of Gauze Bandage (2" x 18') Heat/Signaling: ·Candles (x2) ·Matches in Waterproof Container ·Whistle ·Koolik (solid pocket stove) ·Butane Lighter
Shelter: ·Folding Saw ·Knife (compass, fishing line, hooks) ·Plastic Tarp (8'6" x 10') ·Parachute Cord (20') Comfort: ·Teabags/OXO/Sugar Packets (x16) ·Granola Bars (x8) ·Hard Candy ·Bug Repellent ·Snare Wire ·Survival Handbook
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CASARA Ottawa
Closer View
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CASARA Ottawa
Additional Survival Aids · Personal Locator Beacon (406Mhz) carried on your person. · Flashlight(s) · Leatherman tool or the like · Handheld aviation radio · Handheld GPS (doesn't need to be an aviation one)
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CASARA Ottawa
Credits · Presentation developed by T. Cooper · Crash photos from www.CAP-ES.net (Scott E Lanis US Civil Air Patrol) · Survival kit photos by J. McArthur
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CASARA Ottawa
Fly Safe (and file a flight plan)
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CASARA Ottawa

File: search-and-rescue.pdf
Title: Search and Rescue
Author: Terry Cooper
Published: Tue Jun 22 10:07:37 2010
Pages: 35
File size: 0.67 Mb


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