Sex disparities in advancement and income, V Valian

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Content: Disparities in Advancement, updated March 2005
1
Sex Disparities in Advancement and Income Virginia Valian Department of Psychology, Hunter College & CUNY Graduate Center, New York, NY
Science and Mathematics Holes in the Science Pipeline: Decreasing Percentages of Women in Science*
Percentage of Women at Each Degree Level
Science and Mathematics Degrees Awarded to Women as Percentage of All Science and Mathematics Degrees 60 1994 = 52% of BAs 50 1980 = 45% of BAs 40 2001 = 44% of PhDs 30 1987 = 37% of PhDs 20
10
0 1966
1970
1974
Bachelors
1978
1982
1986
Year
Masters
1990
1994
1998
Doctorates
NOTE: The dotted arrows show the decrease in percentage of women graduates, assuming 7 years post-BA/BS to earn a Ph.D. Generated using the WebCASPAR (http://caspar.nsf.gov) website of the National Science Foundation.
Disparities in Advancement, updated March 2005
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Scientists and Engineers by Sex and Years Since PhD
Academic Tenure: 2001
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
M
F
< 10
n= 72380 F= 37%
M
F
10 to 19
n= 53410 F= 29%
M
F
20 to 29
n= 45860 F= 18%
M
F
> 29
n= 28750 F= 7%
Tenured Tenure Track Not on Track
NOTE: National Science Foundation. (unpublished). Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2004; calculated from table 21. Arlington, VA: NSF. "Not on Track" includes "not on tenure track" plus "tenure not applicable". N.B. This figure includes all scientists, whether ranked or not, and thus includes more scientists than the following figure.
Academic Rank: 2001
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
M
F
<10
n= 51090 F= 28%
M
F
10 to 19
n= 45560 F= 28%
M
F
20 to 29
n= 40590 F= 17%
M
F
>29
n= 25680 F= 7%
Full Associate Assistant
NOTE: National Science Foundation. (unpublished). Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering: 2004; calculated from table 21. Arlington, VA: NSF. N.B. This figure includes only ranked scientists and thus includes fewer scientists than the preceding figure.
Disparities in Advancement, updated March 2005
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Full Professors as a percentage of full-time ranked S&E doctorate holders in 4year colleges and universities, by sex and years since PhD: 2001
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 7
Male Female
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
NOTE: Base of percentage is full, associate, and assistant professors. Because of small sample sizes, a 3year average is used for years since doctorate. Source: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 2001. Found in Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering: 2004. Arlington, VA: NSF.
Median salary of doctoral scientists employed full time in 4-year-colleges or universities by sex and years since PhD: 2001.
$120
$100
$80
$60
$40 $20 $0 3
Female Male
9
15
21
27
33
39
NOTE: Years since PhD is in 3-year intervals. The value shown is the first year in the interval, e.g., 3 is for 3, 4, or 5 years since PhD. Source: National Science Foundation, Division of Education Resource Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 2001. Found in Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering: 2004. Arlington, VA: NSF.
Disparities in Advancement, updated March 2005
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Scientists and Mathematicians by Sex and Age: 2001 Median Annual Salary in Thousand Dollars All settings (academia, industry, etc.); doctorate recipients only.
Total science and engineering
Age < 29 30-39 40-49 > 50
2001
M
F
58.0 46.0
70.0 52.3
80.0 65.0
90.0 70.0
Physical and related scientists
Age < 29 30-39 40-49 > 50
2001
M
F
45.0
64.0 54.0
78.0 70.0
89.0 70.0
Life and related scientists
Age < 29 30-39 40-49 > 50
2001
M
F
31.0 32.0
52.0 43.0
70.0 64.0
83.0 72.0
$100
$80
$60
$40
M
F
$20
< 29
30-39 40-49
> 50
$100
$80
$60
$40
M
F
$20
< 29
30-39 40-49
> 50
$100
$80
$60
$40
M
F
$20
< 29
30-39 40-49
> 50
Disparities in Advancement, updated March 2005
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Social and related scientists
Age < 29 30-39 40-49 > 50
2001
M
F
54.0 44.0
54.0 50.0
57.0 57.0
75.0 63.4
$100 $80 $60 $40 $20
< 29
M F
30-39 40-49
> 50
Computer and mathematical scientists $100
2001
Age M
F
$80
< 29 61.1 65.0
30-39 80.0 72.0
$60
40-49 85.0 73.0
> 50 85.0 70.0
$40
M F
$20
< 29
30-39 40-49
> 50
Engineering
2001
Age M
F
< 29 72.0 72.0
30-39 80.0 79.3
40-49 89.0 85.0
> 50 100.0 84.0
$100
$80
$60
$40
M
F
$20
< 29
30-39 40-49
> 50
NOTE: Blank cells = suppressed data because there were fewer than 200 weighted cases. 2001 data obtained from the National Science Foundation, found in Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering: 2004, Table 16 (unpublished), Arlington, VA: NSF. Median salary rounded to nearest hundred dollars. These figures are limited to those who earned a doctorate in an S&E field from a U.S. institution.
Disparities in Advancement, updated March 2005
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Supervisory scientists and engineers by sex and age: Median number of subordinates in 1999 in business and industry [n = 17,900; women = 20.5%]
age women
men
< 35 5
6
45-54 6
10
age 35-44 > 55
women
men
6
8
6
8
NOTE: The term "scientists and engineers" includes all persons who have ever received a bachelor's degree or higher in a science or engineering field, plus persons holding a non-science and -engineering bachelor's or higher degree who were employed in a science or engineering occupation. Total includes "other" race/ethnicity not shown separately. National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, 1999 SESTAT (Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System).
Medicine
Physicians in academic medicine: Advancement in rank
Male and female graduates between 1979 and 1993 advanced to associate and full professor at different rates: in all years, fewer women were promoted than would be expected on the basis of their representation in the lower rank. Women's advancement was slower than men's in all subfields.
NOTE: Nonnemaker, L. (2000). Women physicians in academic medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 399-405.
Percentage Faculty at Different Ranks, 11 Years after First Appointment (1991)
100
Full
75
Associate
Assistant
50
Other
Percent
25
0
Men
Women
Years since doctorate
NOTE: Tesch, B.J., Wood, H.M., Helwig, A.L., & Nattinger, A.B. (1995). Promotion of women physicians in academic medicine. Glass ceiling or sticky floor? Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1022-1025.
Disparities in Advancement, updated March 2005
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Physicians: median income data in 1990
For physicians below age < 45 with 2-5 years of experience, no Income Disparity once adjust for: a) hours worked per week - men work 62, women work 51 b) specialty - men work in more remunerative specialties than women (in 4 highest- paying fields [radiology, general surgery, anesthesiology, subspecialty surgery], 27% of men practice, 14% of women; in 3 lowest-paying fields [general practice, pediatrics, general internal medicine], 42% of men practice, 55% of women) c) practice setting - men work in more remunerative settings d) miscellaneous factors - AMA membership, marital status, etc. For physicians with 6-9 years of experience, women make 96% of men's income even after adjustments. For physicians with 10 years of experience, women make 85% of men's income even after adjustments.
Percent
Female physicians' median incomes as percentages of male physicians' median incomes (1990) 100
75
Men
50
Women
25
0
2-5
6-9
10+
Years of Experience NOTE: Baker, L. C. (1996). Differences in earnings between male and female physicians. The New England Journal of Medicine, 334, 960-964. Cited in Valian, pp. 208-210.
Disparities in Advancement, updated March 2005
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Humanities
Percent
Humanists by years of experience: Salary in academia in 1995
Female humanists' median salaries as percentages of male humanists' median salaries (1995)
100
75
Men
50
Women
25
0 0-5
6-15
16-25
25+
Years since doctorate
NOTE: Ingram, L. & Brown, P. (1997.) Humanities doctorates in the united states: 1995 profile. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; calculated from Statistical Table 19. Cited in Valian, pp. 223-224.
All disciplines
Academics across all disciplines: Tenure in universities and four-year colleges
1976-77 1995-96 2002-03
% of women tenured 44 48 59
% of men tenured 64 72 72
NOTE: American Association of University Professors. (1997). The Annual Report on the economic status of the profession, 1996-1997 (Table 11). Academe, 83, no. 2 (March-April). Cited in Valian, pp. 230-231. NOTE: American Association of University Professors. (2003). The annual report on the economic status of the profession, 2002-2003 (Table 11). Academe, 89, no. 2 (March-April).
Disparities in Advancement, updated March 2005
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University and college presidents
private universities which grant PhD Private two-year colleges
% headed by women
1995
2001
6
9
25
28
NOTE: Ross, M. & Green, M. F. (1998). The American college president. Washington, DC: American Council on Education. NOTE: Corrigan, M. (2002). The American college president. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Law In-house lawyers: Salary in 1992
Across 500 corporate law departments employing 7000 lawyers: women earned 94% of men's salaries at three lowest ranks; women earned 78% of men's salaries at three highest ranks. Example: male general counsels averaged $205,097; females averaged $152,412. NOTE: Franklin, B. D. (29 Oct 1992). Survey shows women earn less in-house than men. New York Law Journal, p. 1. NOTE: Franklin, B. D. (9 Nov 1992). Women get lower pay in law departments. The national law Journal, p. 17. Cited in Valian, pp. 204-205.
gender gaps for lawyer's earnings, 1969-1989
Unadjusted gap Adjusted gap adjusting for (1) Hours worked (2) (1)+ weeks worked (3) (2)+ class of worker (4) (3)+ age and age2 (5) (4)+ marital status and race
1969
$
%*
31,098 45.5
24,407 35.7 20,891 30.5 17,588 25.7 19,416 28.4 16,677 24.4
1979
$
%
30,645 53.3
25,910 45.1 22,165 38.6 20,684 36.0 14,056 24.4 12,921 22.5
* Gender gap as a percentage of men's mean earnings
1989
$
%
31,588 41.4
28,090 36.8 25,709 33.7 23,508 30.8 16,488 21.6 15,277 20.0
Study using cohort data from the National Survey of Lawyers' Career Satisfaction. The gender gap in lawyers' incomes narrows the most after adjusting for age. NOTE: Chiu, C. & Leicht, K. (1999). When does feminization increase equality? The case of lawyers. Law & Society Review, 33, 557-593.
Disparities in Advancement, updated March 2005
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Lawyers in 8 large law firms: Partnership in 1994 Percent of promotions to partner by sex, 1973-86
Year of Hire M
F
1973-74
18
25
1975-76
20
14
1977-78
26
9
1979-81
22
13
1982
19
5
1983-84
16
5
1985-86
16
5
Total
19
8
Study of 8 large Manhattan law firms.
NOTE: Epstein, C. F., Saute, R., Oglensky, B., & Gever, M. (1995). Glass ceilings and open doors: women's advancement in the legal profession. Fordham Law Review, 64, 306-449. Cited in Valian, pp. 201-203; new calculations from data Epstein et al.
Business
International Business people: Salary determinants
Of 17 factors that contributed to determining salaries, 14 helped men more than women, 2 helped women more than men. Examples:
factor
men
women
BA "fast track" designation experience living abroad choosing international work speaking another language negotiating for salary frequent travel
adds $28,000 adds $10,900 adds $ 9,200 adds $ 5,300 adds $ 2,600 subtracts $5,600 adds $ 3,200
adds $9,000 adds $ 200 subtracts $7,700 subtracts $4,200 subtracts $5,100 adds $3,500 adds $6,300
Disparities in Advancement, updated March 2005
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Amount contributed ($10k)
Salary determinants of international business people (1991)
Frequent travel
50
Speaking another language
Choosing international work
Experience living abroad
30
"Fast track" designation
Negotiating for salary
B .A .
10
-10
M
F -30
NOTE: Egan, M. L. & Bendick, M., Jr. (1994). International business careers in the United States: Salaries, advancement and male-female differences. International Journal of Human resource management, 5, 35-50. See Valian, 196-197.
Conclusions 1) Progress: men and women make roughly equal starting salaries at similar ranks, although science and engineering salaries remain a problem. 2) A remaining problem: the science pipeline leaks women. 3) Another remaining problem: there are signs of early rank differences. 4) Yet another remaining problem: advancement is slower for women than for men. 5) The problem of advancement is general. It occurs in all the professions and thus requires general explanations. One such is social-cognitive: gender schemas and the accumulation of advantage. 6) Insuring equity requires knowledge of facts and theory, so that the problem can be intelligently analyzed and treated.

V Valian

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