distinctive relationship, open expression, intimate level, Self-disclosure, misinterpretations, spontaneity, thoughts, Cross Cultural Differences, stage Communication, New York, Holt Intimacy, interpersonal relationships, Social Penetration Theory, Irwin Altman, Social penetration, Self-Disclosure Social penetration, physical intimacy, intimate communication, Taylor, D., Dalmas Taylor Altman
Social Penetration Theory. Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor Altman, I. & Taylor, D. (1973). Social penetration: The development of interpersonal relations
hips. New York: Holt
Intimacy and Self-Disclosure Social penetration refers to the process of relationship bonding whereby individuals move from superficial communication to more intimate communication. Trajectory.
Intimacy Intimacy exists at many levels beyond physical intimacy. These levels include dimensions such as intellectual, emotional, and shared activities.
Self-disclosure 1. Self-disclosure refers to the process of revealing information about oneself to others. 2. Nonintimate relationships
typically progress to an intimate level because of selfdisclosure. 3. Self-disclosure can be either strategic (planned) or nonstrategic (spontaneous).
Reciprocity Reciprocity refers to the process whereby one person's openness leads to another's openness.
The "onion" The outer layer of the onion represents an individual's public image, or those characteristics about a person that are visible to others (e.g., gender, race, height). The central layers of the onion represent those aspects of the self that are revealed through self-disclosure. (beliefs, faith) The inner core are values, self-concept, and deeply held emotions.breadth and depth
Breadth refers to the number of topics discussed in a relationship
. Depth refers to the degree of intimacy that guides topic discussions.
Dynamic relationship Vulnerable in THE RELATIONSHIP
. Trust If too much private information
is revealed early in the relationship, it may make the other partner uncomfortable and motivate him or her to end the relationship
Four stages Orientation stage public, superficial Exploratory affective - casual, friendly Affective exchange stage - close friends and intimate partners Stable exchange stage
Stable exchange stage Communication is characterized by open expression of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, which results in a high degree of spontaneity. Partners are highly intimate and synchronized, with the ability to predict one another's behavior. Few misinterpretations in meanings at this stage because the partners are so familiar with one another. "Dyadic uniqueness," or distinctive relationship qualities such as humor and sarcasm, emerge. Few relationships ever reach this stage.
Cross cultural difference
s Gudykunst et al. (1996 p. 702) found cultural differences
: individualist cultures disclose more than collectivistic collectivistic cultures disclose more about group member
ship than about personal information