Speech by John Shearer, Delegation of the European Commission, to the Grinnell College Seminar. Grinnell, Iowa, 4 April 1978, J Shearer

Tags: THE COMMUNITY, COMMUNITY, INTEGRATION, THE COMMISSION, COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY, NATIONAL INTEREST, INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION, HANDOVER OF SOVEREIGNTY, COUNTRIES IN AFRICA, BENEVOLENT DESPOT, PUBLIC MONEY, THE UNITED NATIONS, EUROPEAN INTEGRATION, LOME CONVENTION
Content: - 1-
Speech by John Shearer Grinnell College Seminar Grinnell, Iowa April 4, 1978
STANDSTILL.
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WHAT IS THIS INTEGRATION? AND IS IT AT A STANDSTILL?
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WHEN OTHERS) YOU HERE AT GRINNELL FOR EXAMPLE) LOOK
AT WHAT IS GOING ON IN EUROPE FROM OUTSIDE) DO YOU HAVE
A SET OF EXPECTATIONS WHICH WE ARE EITHER SATISFYING
OR FAILING TO LIVE UP TO?
WHEN WE LOOK AT OURSELVES AND AT WHAT WE HAVE ACHIEVED
AND WHERE WE HAVE NOT SUCCEEDED) HOW DO WE JUDGE
OURSELVES? -- AND Aj;i!S ~ITIIER OF USJ 'T'OUJ OR 'dE-
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THE PROBLEM THAT I FIND IN CONSIDERING THE IDEA~ THE ',1
FACTS OF "EUROPEAN INTEGRATION") IS THAT THE WHOLE SUBJECT
IS EMBEDDED IN WHAT MIGHT BE CALLED "THEOLOGY",
FOR MANY) INCLUDING THE Founding Fathers) THE IDEAL OF A united Europe HAD) AT LEAST IN PART) WHAT CAN FAIRLY AtY AL.,os- r BE DESCRIBED AS ~RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE. -- IT WAS IN ALL SORTS OF WAYS AN ACT OF FAITH.
- 4-
FoR IT IS FORCING US TO EXAMINE THE REAL PROGRESS OF
EUROPEAN INTEGRATION IN THE LIGHT OF CONTEMPORARY PI< oQA./51"'1 S WORLD P'ei·JE~S APU1 ~~IhiCif'Ali'T'Ur~. IT IS FORCING US1 AND
ME TO ASK TONIGHT} WHAT IS INTEGRATION? DO WE IN
EUROPE NEED IT AND IF S0 1 WHY AND HOW MUCH? HOW FAR HAVE
WE GOT WITH IT? AND FINALLY 1 HOW FAR CAN WE GO WITH IT1
AND WHAT FORMS WILL IT POSSIBLY TAKE? - .Ј C,_N''f. t>P. t:.-e~~.;A.r~J iJ~tfj-M,,.,.
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r 711/AI'/( 71tlt ~/AU..T "TH/II'tf- It' 7"0 S"'T/l.Jr'CS 7"/"171/
-
~ THE INTEGRATION OF EUROPE IS NOW ESSENTIALLY A
/HЈ ~oUIVQ/Nq.- Ј0LITICAL PROCESS~ IN WHIC~IDEAL) OF NECESSITY WILL 1
PLAY A COMPARATIVELY SMALLER PART, THEY ARE ESSENTIAL}
THEY WERE1 PERHAPS} THE SPARK1 THE PRIME MOVER1 BUT
I DOUBT IT, IN DEALINGS BETWEEN NATIONS IDEALS HAVE
NEVER PLAYED A VERY LARGE ROLE, COLD POLICY HAS ALWAYS
BEEN MINGLED WITH THE IDEALS1 AND WE ARE SAFER BECAUSE
OF THE MIX1 I THINK,
AND MORE1 AS A EUROPEAN BELIEVER EVEN IDEALIST1 I AM FACED WITH THE PARADOX THAT IN ORDER FOR THAT UNION TO CONTINUE AND GROW1 THERE IS NEED FOR THE UTMOST REALISM AND POLITICAL SKILL,
- 5-
f?I{OPDSЈ ANYWAY, TONIGHT I ~Of J&E TO TAKE THE OPPORTUNITY TO CAST OFF THE MANTLE OF~ THEOLOGY, TO SETTLE THE EURO-SAINTS REVERENTLY INTO THEIR NICHE~ AND CONCERN MYSELF WITH THE Real Politics AND PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATION WITH ITS STRENGTHS AND ITS LIMITATIONS~ ffi-.&lf1E EXTEN"f IN +l-IE PAS"fJ BUT MBRE f-N lPIE PRE3EWf ANB FtlfOAA;,
FIRST PERHAPS, IT'SWORTH ASKING WHAT WE MEAN BY EUROPEAN INTEGRATION, THE ANSWER IS, OF COURSE~ THAT IT CAN MEAN ALMOST ALL THINGS TO ALL MEN, BUT LET'S TAKE ONE PREVAILING NOTION AS A MEANS OF ILLUMINATING THE CENTRAL PROBLEM,
DOES IT MEAN "A UNITED STATES OF EUROPE"~ A FEDERAL EUROPEt 7rliftr WI~/.... Fl/thv'TI/A~ y 11# .Lt~E 71/P" (/.~~. ~t./.l..#~oy__ THOUGH THERE AR)!SOME SUPERFICIAL SIMILARITIES, I
THINK NOT, YOU iRE DEALING/IN THIS CONCEP} AND IN ALL
OTHER POSSIBLE MODELS OF INTEGRATION WITH THE PROBLEM
OF SOVEREIGNTY, YOU HAVE TO ASK THE QUESTION THAT ANY
GOVERNMENT ELECTED BY ITS PEOPLE MUST ASK WHEN CONFRONTED
WITH THE PROSPECT OF GIVING UP SOME OF ITS POWER, WHETHER
SUCH AN ACT WOULD BE IN THE "NATIONAL INTEREST" BOTH ,,
tJy IN THE SHORT,,-TERM AND IN THE MORE DISTANT FUTURE.
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- 8-
FOR EACH FURTHER DEGREE OF INTEGRATION THEY WILL HAVE
TO BE PERSUADEDJ AND THEIR PEOPLES PERSUADEDJ THAT
or THEY WILL DO BETTER BECAUSE OF IT, /!V~
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m /lft/1.,/i.- WIL../... /}Ј S~NO "UNITED STATES OF EUROPE"
AS HOPELESS A DREAM r&"C T~ .ct:ld~~4:;,
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AS TENNYSON'S "THE PARLIAMENT OF MANJ THE FEDERATION
OF THE WORLD", ~:r Pvr
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r'-'"t. ~ WE DO HAVE A WHOLE THING GOING IN EUROPE~WHICH ~
"
MAY NOT BE4"INTEGRATED"J BUT IS WORKING, HOW DOES IT
WORK POLITICALLY?
THE FIRST THING TO REMEMBER WHEN THINKING ABOUT THE
COMMUNITY AS IT ISJ RATHER THAN AS IT SHOULD BEJ
IS THAT THERE ARE NO MODELS, IT IS A UNIQUE ENTITY
EVOLVING IN ITS OWN WAYJ THE LIKE OF WHICH HAS NEVER
EXISTED BEFORE· WITH APOLOGIES TO SOMETHING THATJ
I BELIEVEJ IS CALLED "INTEGRATION THEORY" -- I DON'T
THINK IT'S WORTH BOTHERING TO APPLY IT TO USJ
BECAUSE WE ARE A political entity WITH NO PRECEDENTJ
AND LIKE ALL OTHER POLITICAL ENTITIES THAT HAVE
DEVELOPED OVER THE CENTURIESJ WE ARE JUST MUDDLING
7· ·· - · ALONG ON AN ,,AD HOC·· BAS IS , , 0 ,I>-
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- 9- PERHAPS THE MOST AMAZING THING IS THAT WE HAVE SURVIVED AS LONG AS WE HAVE AND WORKED TOGETHER AS SUCCESSFULLY AS WE HAVE. WHO WOULD HAVE GAMBLED $10 AT THE END OF WORLD WAR 11 1 IF SOMEONE HAD OFFERED THE BET 1 THAT IN THIRTY YEARS ALL THE EUROPEAN ENEMIES WOULD HAVE BEEN WORKING TOGETHER IN COMPARATIVE PEACE AND HARMONY? -- THE ANSWER10F COURSE1 IS THE USA 1 BECAUSE TO AN UNMEASUREABLE EXTENT EUROPEAN UNITY WAS A CREATION OF U.S,POLICY AFTER THE WAR.~~ I DON'T WANT TO GET INTO THAT y IN ANY DEPTH_. tvT .:Ј7 IS' l"i1v ~XTAAoA t,VAI'I.. '/H()CifT H T 1#'/T A 'TY w ,.qA 11V Ev#.o;:>,;. IJerw&.F~Ґ ,.,;~;,.,,u3e~s ~ rJ~.e C(]Wt.Mvll/ 1~ 11/(TW i/NT/ti#KA/ILc. AND WE ARE WORKING TOGETHER· IN FAC~ INALL SORTS OF WAYS) THE COMMUNITY HAS WOVEN US TOGETHER WITH A NETWORK OF INSTITUTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES THAT IS VIRTUALLY UNBREAKABLE. IT WOULD BE A VERY HARD AND VERY DESTRUCTIVE EXPERIENCE FOR THE Member State WHO NOW VliN'f~D ~TO LEAVE, AND WHY ARE WE WORKING TOGETHER? -- BECAUSE IT IS IN OUR INTERESTS, WE ARE RICHER BECAUSE OF IT1 MORE POWERFUL. WE1 THAT IS THE COMMUNITY1 AND WE THE INDIVIDUAL MEMBER NATIONS,
- 10 -
ro FOR THAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE COMMUNITY) IT IS NOT
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THE FBREIGP~ ROLIGIES.. BRITISH CONSUMER~AVE DONE
BETTER UNDER THE COMMON agricultural policy OVER THE lf1111t'Ј PAST COUPLE OF YEARS THAN THEY WOULD~WITHOUT IT,
BECAUSE OF A COMPLEX SYSTEM OF MONETARY COMPENSATORY
AMOUNTS THE COMMUNITY HAS BEEN SUBSIDISING BRITISH
food prices DURING THE PERIOD OF STERLING'S WEAKNESS
TO THE TUNE OF SOME THREE MILLION DOLLARS A DAY,
THE GERMANS ARE STRONG BELIEVERS IN FREE TRADE) THE COMMUNITY ACTING AS ONE IN THE GATT TALKS IN GENEVA) IS ENDEAVOURING TO PRESERVE) TOGETHER WITH THE USA AND JAPAN) SOME SEMBLANCE OF FREE TRADE IN THE WORLD) THUS GERMAN foreign policy AIMS ARE EVEN MORE VIABLE WITHIN THE COMMUNITY,
AND BECAUSE WE ARE ACTING TOGETHER IN CERTAIN AREAS) WE ARE ONCE MORE FIRMLY IN THE EYE OF U.S, FOREIGN POLICY ..,.11~ AS A UNI~ AS WELL A~NINE SEPARATE STATES· THE VISIT OF VICE PRESIDENT MONDALE TO BRUSSELS VERY EARLY IN THE LIFE OF THIS ADMINISTRATION) THE MORE RECENT VISIT OF PRESIDENT CARTER) THE INCLUSION OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE COMMISSION) ROY JENKINS) FOR AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE MAY 77~UMMIT
- 11 - IN LONDON} AND THE CERTAINTY THAT HE WILL BE IN BONN IN JULY THIS YEAR} ALL TESTIFY TO THE FACT OF A NEW KIND OF INTERNATIONAL ANIMAL} IF NOT AN INTEGRATED Ct..().!~~y WHOLE} AT LEAST WITH;COOPERATING PARTS} WHO BY ACTING TOGETHER HAVE MORE CLOUT THAN THEY WOULD INDIVIDUALLY, IT IS NOTJ I THINK} CLEARLY UNDERSTOOD HERE THAT THE NATURE OF THIS COOPERATION IS EXTREMELY POLITICAL -AND GOING TO BE MORE SOt. A~ F'He C~~~~tfTIV Mt>/J.t:iЈ.t~~AS q-..1(.~ m ()'7{ E ;117Vt:> /*7 07{ Ј. / v -r#. AC/,.,/?4.Ј · THE PROCESS IN ITSELF AND THE VARIOUS INSTITUTIONS AND LEVELS THAT TAKE PART IN ]~J ARE FASCINATING EXAMPLES OF HOW THIS COOPERATION HAS LED TO INTEGRATION, SO HOW IS THIS COOPERATING BIT OF EUROPE MADE TO WORK? FIRST THERE IS THE European Commission -- A BUREAUCRACY COMPOSED OF MEN AND WOMEN FROM THE NINE NATIONS} NUMBERING ABOUT 9000 AND WORKING IN SIX official languages -- A VERITABLE TOWER OF BABEL, IT IS PRESIDED OVER BY 13 COMMISSIONERS APPOINTED BY THE Member States} TWO EACH FROM THE FOUR BIG NATIONS} BRITAIN} FRANCE} GERMANY AND ITALY} AND 0 Ttt&/1.. ONE EACH FROM THE Cfiiii'R MEMBERS} BELG I UMJ DENMARK} IRELAND} THE NETHERLANDS} AND LUXEMBOURG,
- 12 -
THE JOB OF THE COMMISSION IS TO PUSH EUROPEAN INTEGRATIONj TO APPLY THE TREATIES~ TO COME UP WITH EUROPEAN POLICIES IN AREAS WHERE IT HAS COMPETENCEj AND TO PROPOSE THEM TO THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT,
THE COUNCIL OF MINSTERS IS COMPOSED OF THE RESPONSIBLE~
ELECTED MINISTERS OF STATE FROM THE MEMBER NATIONS. y oA/!" vi( I'~ 1$'/Vq..~ FOR AGRICULTURAL MATTERS IT WOULD~ .f+I!:T~I*lft:Lia~ DJ8olletsl~ BE ~IAN~7Ј4S THE AGRICULTURAL MINISTER~ FOR FINANCE~ FINANC~ AND
SO ON, THEY MEET TO DISCUSS THE COMMISSION'S PROPOSALS
ON EUROPEAN MATTERS AND ACCEPT OR AMEND OR REJECT THE
PROPOSALS, THREE TIMES A YEAR THERE IS A EUROPEAN
SUMMITJ AT WHICH THE MOST IMPORTANT OR DIFFICULT
Tlf# HIOtt
OR
SIMPLY<1. GENERAL
ISSUES
ARE
DISCUSSED BY THE PRIME UJ'I/I'tU.. V I t/C!Vtir 11 IV'oT A.t:.w;ttyS
MINISTERS AND FOREIGN MINISTERS AN~~ESOLVED,
THERE ARE PERMANENT DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS IN BRUSSELS TO THE COMMISSION FROM ALL THE MEMBER STATES WHO PREPARE jJ(Jt.. ITICr'/4... FOR THESE MEETINGS AND COORDINATE COMMUNITY~POSITIONS ~~~~4~ ON EXTERNAL A~m IP41 Ellttl+lf't ISSUES IN COOPERATION WITH THE COMMISSION, THEY WERE~FOR EXAMPLE~ RESPONSIBLE FOR HAMMERING OUT THE EC POSITIONS ON THE MIDDLE EAST AND South Africa,
- 13 - THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT HAS NOTJ IN REALISTIC TERMSJ BEEN VERY IMPORTANT UNTIL NOW, ITS MEMBERS ARE APPOINTED BY THE MEMBER STATE PARLIAMENTS FROM AMONG THE MEMBERSJ AND THEY SPEND A GREAT DEAL OF THEIR TIME TRAVELLING TO BE DUTCH MP'S OR FRENCH ASSEMBLYMEN OR BRITISH MP'S AND SO ON, BUT FROM NEXT YEARJ ...PERl lAPS EV~r~ tf(fE Til I8 YEAR, THEY WILL BE A DIFFERENT IIKETTLE OF FISH, I' FOR SOMETHING STAGGERING WILL HAVE HAPPENED IN EUROPE; A REAL INTEGRATIONJ A HUGE CONSTITUTIONAL BREAKTHROUGH AND CONUNDRUM, THERE WILL BE DIRECT ELECTIONS TO A EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT. IN OTHER WORDSJ PEOPLE IN BRESTJ OR THE MEZZOGIORNOJ IN THE HAGUE AND BIRMINGHAMJ ALL OVER THE COMMUNITY, WILL GO TO THE POLLS AND ELECT MEMBERS TO A EUROPEAN ASSEMBLY, THERE WILL BE A DEMOCRATICALLY ELECTED PARLIAMENT FOR EUROPE WITH A MANDATE FROM THE PEOPLE OF EUROPE TO DO WHO KNOWS WHAT? THIS WILL CERTAINLY CAUSE CHANGES IN THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS I HAVE JUST DESCRIBED, FOR THESE MEN EVEN IF ONLY HALF OF THEM ARE HALF WAY COMPETENT -WILL WANTJ AND WILL HAVEJ A RIGHT TO A BIGGER SAY IN THE FORMATION OF EUROPEAN POLICY, AND THEY WILL GET IT/-- IF THEY HAVE TO IAKE. IT FROM THE COMMISSION AND THE COUNCIL -- THEY WILL MOST PROBABLY DO SO,
- 14 -
THEIR TAKING IT WOULD) AFTER ALL) BE AN EXPRESSION OF .fa L~AST A PAR"F M= THE WILL OF THE PEOPLES OF EUROPE, f r '7'J./Ј ##IV Ј'v,lor't!?Av p,t/.French National Assembly HAS PASSED AN ACT LIMITING THE POWERS OF THE EUROPEAN PARL lAMENT TO THE MIN I MAL ONES NOW GRANTED BY THE TREATY.
BUT AN ELECTED PARLIAMENT IS AN HISTORICAL ROGUE
ELEPHANT, WHO CAN SAY WHAT IT WILL TRY! -- AND THAT
/A/
WILL BE A NEW DYNAMIC ~ EUROPEAN INTEGRATION)
- o-:lt~o
.
A CHAMBER OF 409:FELLOWS WITH NOTHING TO DO BUT
WORK OUT WAYS OF PUTTING EUROPE TOGETHER.~ ~JU&f
+PLJJ\GINE +.+!
ALREADY) IN THE PRESENT)NON-ELECTED)EUROPEAN ASSEMBLY THE PROCESS OF REAL POLITICS IS BEGINNING -- THE PARTIES ARE ORGANISING ON A EUROPEAN BASIS) PREPARING FOR THE ELECTION,
ON A MORE SOBRE NOTE THERE IS LITTLE DOUBT THAT THE FUTURE OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION RESTS TO A LARGE IH~ EXTENT WITH THE SUCCESS OR FAILURE OF ~ELECTED. ASSEMBLY.
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IF THE PARLIAMENT IS ESTABLISHED AS THE EUROPEAN REPRESENTATIVE OF THE PEOPLES OF THE COMMUNITY) AND THROUGH IT THEY EXPRESS THEIR CONVICTION THAT IT IS IN THEIR INTEREST TO BE BROUGHT CLOSER TOGETHER IN AN INTEGRATED EUROPE) THEN THAT WILL HAPPEN,
7Hts Pot.tTt~A~ 1/11 ~crvr .Ot:Jt!!' IF~z./~IEbl Pl:fli411APS IT 8110ULD
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occvfl. A~ !lAPPEN,
rl/il.l.fP;.NI"I/~ () ~ F(."")"~PTtH:Ј' "741111-Ј1A/"Јr~tfy"f~{pAe/dI.Pfo/
THE COMMISSION
'
HAS NOTJ AFTER ALLJ THE RIGHT TO BE A BENEVOLENT
DESPOT. IF THE PEOPLES OF EUROPE DO NOT WANT CLOSER
TIES WITH EACH OTHER) THENJ DESPITE THE GOOD INTENTIONS
OF THOSE WHO BELIEVE THEY SHOULD BE INTEGRATED) THEY
SHOULD NOTJ INDEED WILL NOTJ BE FORCED INTO IT,
I EVEN DOUBT) WHETHER PUBLIC MONEY SHOULD BE SPENT
PERSUADING THEM THAT AN INTEGRATED EUROPE IS A "GOOD
THING") BUT THAT IS NOT AN ARGUMENT FOR NOW,
IT OCCURS TO ME THAT I HAVE NOT FULLY ANSWERED THE QUESTIONJHOW FAR HAVE WE GOT? AND GIVEN YOU A DESCRIPTION OF THE SORT OF INTEGRATION THAT HAS TAKEN PLACE IN EUROPE ALREADY AS A RESULT OF THE TREATIES OF ROME AND THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS DESCRIBED; AND I THINK) I SHOULD PROBABLY DO THAT BEFORE GOING ON TO TALK A BIT ABOUT THE PROBLEMS AND THE FUTURE,
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SO WHAT DOES INTEGRATION MEAN FOR ORDINARY PEOPLEj HOW DOES IT AFFECT THEIR LIVES?
WELLJ AS I SAIDJ IT HAS MEANT CHEAPER FOOD FOR THE BRITISH --BUT THAT IS AN ABERRATION! MUCH MORE IMPORTANTLY) IT MEANS THATJ IF MEMBER STATES CITIZENS SO WISHJ THEY CAN BECOME EUROPEAN, THEY CAN GO AND LIVE AND WORK ANYWHERE IN THE COMMUNITY AND RECEIVE THE SAME TREATMENT AND BENEFITS -- social security) medical insurance AND SO ONJ AS A NATIONAL OF THAT COUNTRY.
SOON NOW THEY WILL BE ABLE TO TRANSFER ASSETS TO AND
FRO BETWEEN MEMBER STATES WITHOUT LET OR HINDRANCE, --
THAT MIGHT NOT SEEM SO AMAZING TO YOU AMERICANS) BUT
I COME FROM A SUPPOSEDLY uFREEu COUNTRY WHERE) EVEN
IF
YOU
EMIGRATED)
YOU
COULD
ONLY
TAKE
THE
EQUIVALENT 1~yo(/ lt-,·tt:J
m ()?'J.. ~. 1
OF $10)000 WITH YOU,~ THE REST OF YOUR ASSETS tAD TO
1
BE LEFT IN FOR FOUR YEARS! -- AND I STILL CAN'T GET
MY PENSION MONEY OUT, ~
SO THE COMMUNITY IS GRADUALLY FREEING ITS PEOPLES FROM BURDENS LIKE THAT, /ff I.V~r~ /A-' ~ t779llt/_, "'c ,r;(P.. ~~/7WI ;>,:...e. H?t1 ~ lhtt:.P1'1 G /1'1 !I p;:,tJ('I& ,<.
- 17 - WITH ITS REGIONAL FUND THE COMMUNITY IS PROVIDING HELP FOR THE POORER AREAS OF ITS MEMBERSJ GIVING MONEY FOR industrial development IN PLACES LIKE SCOTLANDJ LORRAINE OR SOUTHERN ITALYJ ATTEMPTING TO BALANCE OUT THE WEALTH MORE JUSTLY. IT IS INVOLVING trade unionsJ GOVERNMENTS AND EMPLOYERS IN ALL NINE MEMBERS TO TRY AND DEAL WITH THE HUGE STRUCTURAL UNemployment problems FACED BY MOST OF THEM. IT IS ENFORCING A RIGOROUS SYSTEM OF ANTI-TRUST LAW THROUGHOUT THE ECJ BREAKING MONOPOLIES AND INSISTING ON JUSTICE FOR THE CONSUMER, INDEEDJ THE COMMISSION HAS JUST BEEN SUPPORTED BY THE EUROPEAN COURT IN ITS DECISION TO FINE THE nUNITED BRANDSn COMPANY ONE MILLION DOLLARSJ OR THEREABOURTSJ FOR FIXING PRICES IN THE BANANA MARKET. THE EUROPEAN COURT ISJ PERHAPS} THE MOST IMPORTANT OF ALL THESE INSTRUMENTS OF INTEGRATION, IT IS THE MOST nAMERICANn OF OUR INSTITUTIONS IN A WAY AND COMPARABLE IN PURPOSEJ AND EVENTUALLYJ I HOPEJ IN IMPACTJ TO YOUR Supreme Court, IT HAS JUDGES FROM ALL MEMBER STATESJ AND ITS DECISIONS AUTOMATICALLY BECOME LAW IN Alb MEMBER STATES,
- 18 - THE SORT OF IMPACT IT CAN HAVE IS ENORMOUS, MY FAVOURITE CASE IS THAT OF A SABENA.~ BELGIAN AIRLINES.~ STEWARDESS.~ WHO WENT BEFORE THE COURT IN A "WOMEN'S RIGHT" CASE.~ CLAIMING EQUAL PAY WITH MALE STEWARDS, SHE WON.~ AND THAT MEANT THAT EVERY AIRLINE IN EUROPE HAD -- AND QUITE JUSTIFI-ABLY -- A BIGGER WAGES BILL, SO MUCH FOR HUMAN INTEREST! OF COURSE.~ THE MAJOR FORCES FOR SUCCESS HAVE BEEN THE COMMON MARKET~ AND TO A LESSER EXTENT THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY.~ THE COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY AND EURATOM, THE COMMUNITY IN GENERAL.~ AND CERTAINLY THE OLD COMMUNITY OF SIX.~ OWES ITS LONG PERIOD OF PROSPERITY TO THE CUTTING OF INTERNAL TARIFF BARRIERS AND THE RESULTANT INCREASE IN TRADE BETWEEN THE MEMBER STATES INSIDE THIS "cOMMON MARKET" I AGAIN) IT IS WORTH STRESSING THAT THIS ECONOMIC INTEGRATION HAS BEEN MASSIVELY IN THEIR INTERESTS, GERMANY.~ THE MOST PROSPEROUS AND POWERFUL MEMBER OF THE COMMUNITY.~ OFTEN DESCRIBED AS 11THE PAY MASTER" OF THE COMMUNITY.~ HAS BEEN ONE OF THE MOST COMMITTED MEMBERS FOR MANY REASONS.~ NOT LEAST OF WHICH IS THE FACT THAT SHE SELLS SOME 40 %OF HER DOMESTIC PRODUCTION TO OTHER MEMBERS OF THE COMMUNITY,
- 19 - SO SHE DOES VERY WELL OUT OF THE REST OF US AND WE OUT OF HER. FRANCEJ ON THE OTHER HANDJ HAS DONE WELL OUT OF THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY. FRENCH FARMERSJ AND OTHERS OF THE LESS EFFICIENT FARMERS OF EUROPEJ HAVE BEEN GIVEN A PROPER LEVEL OF INCOME THROUGH PRICE SUPPORT SYSTEMS ESTABLISHED UNDER THE POLICY. ~0 P.fll IIE OTHER FARMERS IN THE COMMUNITY HAVE SHARED THE BOUNTYJ TO SUCH AN EXTENT IN SOME CASESJ THAT EMBARRASSING SURPLUSES HAVE BEEN CREATED WHICH HAVE TO BE DIMINISHED, AND LOWER PRICE INCREASE LEVELS ARE HAVING TO BE AGREED TO KEEP DOWN INFLATION. OF ALL THE EXISTING SYSTEMS THAT NOW EXIST IN EUROPEJ THIS IS THE ONE WHICH MOST PEOPLE AGREE NEEDS SOME MEASURE OF REFORM, SO THERE IS MUCH EVIDENCE FOR THE SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATION OF EUROPE, BUT WHAT HAS TO BE FACEDJ AND IS BEING FACEDJ PARTICULARLY BY THE NEW PRESIDENT OF THE COMMISSIONJ ROY JENKINSJ IS THAT IF THERE IS A "LEAGUE" OF political activitiesJ THEN THE AREAS BEING DEALT WITH IN COMMONJ DOMESTICALLY AT LEASTJ ARE MINOR LEAGUE, IN TERMS OF FOREIGN POLICY IT IS SOMEWHAT DIFFERENTJ AND I WILL DEAL WITH THAT LATERJ BUT IT IS WORTH CONSIDERINGJ SINCE WE ARE BEING REALISTIC RATHER THAN ~/i'TLP (!7)... IDEALISTICJ THE AREAS WHERE THERE IS~NO COMMON POLICY IN EUROPEJ WHERE MEMBER STATES STILL ACT LARGELY ON THEIR OWN,
- 20 - fVI ;t~c.4..o- AND THEY ARE ALL THE BIGGIES -j(economic policy) ENERGY POLICY) LESS SO industrial policy, LET US JUST TAKE THOSE THREE, AS I SAID EARLIER ONJ EUROPE) THAT IS THE COMMUNITY MEMBERS) EXCEPT FOR GERMANY) ALL ARE STILL STUCK IN OR JUST EMERGING FROM A RECESSION, THEY ARE ALLJ EXCEPT AGAIN FOR GERMANY) SUFFERING HEAVILY FROM EITHER HIGH INFLATION OR HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT) AND IN SOME CASES A RICH MIXTURE OF BOTH, IT CAN BE FAIRLY SAIDJ THAT UNTIL NOW THERE HAS BEEN NO COMMUNITY INITIATIVE FOR THE MEMBERS TO HELP EACH OTHER OUT OF RECESSION, IN FACT THERE HAVE BEEN REFUSALS) IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST.'jGERMANYJ THE 11 LOCOfv)OTIVE OF THE COMMUNITY" J HAS REFUSED TO STIMULATE ITS ECONOMY -- ON THE GROUNDS THAT SUCH ACTION WOULD SIMPLY LEAD TO THE THING THE GERMANS FEAR MOST-- INFLATION) AND ON THE GROUNDS THAT MOST OF ITS BEST EXPORT CUSTOMERS) ITS FELLOW COMMUNITY MEMBERS) ARE AT THE MOMENT IN NO CONDITION TO ABSORB MORE OF lTS PRODUCTION, BUT THERE WAS RECENTLY AN IMPORTANT NEW INITIATIVE) OR PERHAPS REBORN INITIATIVE) ON COMMUNITY ECONOMIC POLICY. -- THE PRESIDENT OF THE COMMISSION SUGGESTED) THAT THE EC SHOULD ONCE AGAIN SET ITSELF THE OBJECTIVE OF MONETARY UNION,
- 21 -
THIS WOULD MEAN EUROPE MOVING TO A COMMON CURRENCYJ
CONTROLLED BY SOMETHING LIKE A EUROPEAN FEDERAL RESERVE.
THERE ARE MANY ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST THIS AND NO
TIME TO DEAL WITH THEM HERE -- EVEN IF I WAS COMPETENTJ
WHICH I DOUBT! -- BUT THE POINT OF THE EXAMPLE ISJ
THAT THE IDEA HAS NOT BEEN LAUGHED OUT OF COURT
BY THE MEMBER STATES -- IT IS BEING SERIOUSLY 1r SCt=.47/c/;~~v
/
/J
CONSIDERED AS A MEANS TO GREATER economic stability
IN EUROPEJ AND IF IT HAPPENSJ IT WILL REQUIRE A LARGE
HANDOVER OF SOVEREIGNTY BY THE MEMBERS AND BE A HUGE
STEP FORWARD IN INTEGRATION, AND TO CONTINUE TO
BORINGLY MAKE MY POINTJ THERE CAN AND WILL BE ONLY
ONE YARDSTICK FOR BEING EITHER FOR OR AGAINST THE
PROJECT -- AND THAT IS THE WELFARE OF THE INDIVIDUAL
CITIZENS OF THE NINE COMMUNITY MEMBERS,
ANOTHER FAILURE OF INTEGRATION TO DATE IS THE ENERGY FIELD, HEREJ IT MIGHT BE SAIDJ IS AN AREA WHERE A COMMON POLICY WOULD CERTAINLY BE SEEN TO BE IN THE COMMON GOOD, -- INDEEDJ A GREAT DEAL OF LIP SERVICE IS BEING AND HAS BEEN PAID TO THIS IDEAL, BUT THE FACT REMAINSJ THAT NOTHING MUCH HAS BEEN DONE DESPITE THE EXISTENCE OF THE COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY AND EURATOM,
- 22 - OWit/ EACH STATE HAS CONTINUED TO SEEK TO ENSURE ITS ~ OIL SUPPLIES IN ITS NATIONAL INTEREST) FOR EXAMPLE) AND WILL FOR THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE CONTINUE TO DO SO AND GET THE BEST DEALS POSSIBLE WITH OPEC, THISJ IF YOU ARE A EUROPHILEJ IS A TRAGIC EXAMPLE OF THE INEVITABLE EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM NATIONAL INTEREST POLITICS ON THE LONG-TERM EUROPEAN) AND THEREFORE ALSO NATIONAL) WELL-BEING, EVERYONE WOULD DO BETTER HER~ IF WE WORKED TOGETHER) BUT THE NATIONAL POLITICIANS ARE NOT PREPARED TO SEE IT THAT WAY, OIL IS ALSOJ OF COURSE) A DEFENCE CONSIDERATION) AND IN THAT THE COMMUNITY HAS NO PART, THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL POLICY IS ALSO INTERESTING, IN OUR EXAMINATION OF INTEGRATION) BUT IN A DIFFERENT WAY, HERE IS AN AREA WHERE UNDER THE PRESSURES OF RECESSION ON OLD INDUSTRIES) LIKE STEEL AND TEXTILES) AND UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF M, DAVIGNON) ONE OF THE MORE DYNAMIC COMMISSIONERS) THE COMMUNITY IS AT LAST COOPERATING, (IT ALREADY HAD THE POWER TO ACT IN STEEL UNDER THE COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY TREATY,) /litE THE PARADOX ISJ THAT ~ NATIONS ARE COOPERATING IN c(T"h\"' (/If/'/fY THE TEETH OF ~ F{EGULATIONS,
- 23 -
- / Ht>c,~t:.;-H 11/oT 4 Q..-a. tl""nE"~ A!" .r~& H _ AS WHAT IS EFFECTIVELY A CARTEL IS FORMED TO CUT DOWN STEEL PRODUCTION ON AN AGREED BASIS~ AND TO AGREED. LEVELS~ IT COULD BE SAID THAT THE COMMUNITY WAS CONSPIRING TO DEFEAT ITS OWN ANTI-TRUST LAWS -- ITS RULES FOR INDUSTRIAL COMPETITION, BUT THIS MUST~ I THINK~ BE SEEN AS YET ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF THE POLITICAL REALISM BY WHICH THE EC SURVIVES, WE NEED TO CUT OUR OVERPRODUCTION OF STEEL -- SO WE ARE. WE ALSO NEED TO WORK TOGETHER TO DO IT-- SO WE ARE DOING THAT. IF WE ALSO NEED TO AMEND OUR RULES TO SUIT OUR OWN INTERESTS IN THE SHORT-TERM~ THEN THAT IS THE SORT OF "GROWN UP" POLITICAL DECISION THAT THE REAL WORLD DEMANDS, THE TREATY OF ROME IS A TOOL FOR OUR MUTUAL USE, WHEN PARTS OF IT NEED TO BE SHARPENED~ WE CAN DO IT~ WHEN PARTS NEED TO BE BLUNTED~ WE CAN ALSO DO IT I THE THING IS NOT "HOLY WRIT",
ABOVE ALL~ I THINK~ THE LESSON OF THESE THREE
,c.,t:}t..i&A.t..V~
,, ,,.,
EXAMPLES IS THAT~ EXCEPT OVER OIL~STEPS ~BEING
TAKEN TOWARDS INTEGRATION EVEN IN GENUINELY DIFFICULT
,-ry ro AREAS . tvt! A/{Ј v~/A-'6r Ii-I$ c~"" v,v
ray '9./fY.o Q~
WITH C(I"Mmtnv r.t()/j/J'~S,
THEY ARE IN PARTICULAR USEFUL AS EXAMPLES OF THE FACT~ THAT ALL THE EASY THINGS HAVE BEEN DONE IN EUROP~.
- 24 - -- TARIFF BARRIERS AND OTHER BARRIERS HAVE BEEN TORN DOWNJ SOME PRODUCT STANDARDISATION HAS OCCURREDJ THE AGRICULTURAL POLICY SORT OF WORKSJ AND SO ON, BUT THE THINGS THAT REMAIN TO BE DONE TO THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC FABRIC INSIDE THE European CommunityJ IF VSJ!!f"F"vt- IT IS TO DO ANY MOR~INTEGRATINGJ ARE MUCH MORE DIFFICULT, THE STEPS THAT REMAIN TO BE TAKEN ARE VERY BIG ONES, ALL INVOLVING CONSIDERABLE LOSS OF SOVEREIGNTY FOR THE MEMBER STATESJ AND EACH ONE CAN AND WILL ONLY BE TAKENJ IF IT IS TAKEN AT ALLJ AFTER LONG AND COMPLEXJ PERHAPS EVEN BITTERJ POLITICAL NEGOTIATION, I SAID I WOULD RETURN TO FOREIGN POLICYJ AND I AM GLAD TOJ BECAUSE FIRST IT OFFERS ME A CHANCE TO DISCUSS SOME OF THE MORE HOPEFUL ASPECTS OF THE WORK OF THE COMMUNITYJ SOME MANIFESTATIONS OF ITS IMPORTANCE AND SUCCESS, IT ALSO ALLOWS ME TO DISCUSS PERHAPS THE MOST DIFFICULT AND FASCINATING CHALLENGE THAT THE COMMUNITY NOW FACESJ THAT OF ENLARGEMENT TO TWELVE NATIONS FROM NINEJ TO INCLUDE GREECEJ PORTUGAL AND SPAIN, ALL THESE. NATIONSJ RECENTLY EMERGED FROM W~AT I BELIEVE ) ~IIE'I'GiiiC TQ B(:~Eti~INEH TilE SIIAMW OF DICTATORSHIPJ HAVE APPLIED TO JOIN US AS FULL MEMBERS, AND THAT THEY WILL JOIN HAS BEEN ACCEPTED IN PRINCIPLE -ALTHOUGH NEGOTIATIONS REMAIN.
- 25 - BUT ALLOW ME THE LUXURY OF BUILDING UP TO THIS CLIMAX AFTER SOME BRIEF DISCUSSION OF THE COMMUNITY'S COLLECTIVE FOREIGN POLICYJ WHICHJ WHILE STILL SEPARATE FROM THE INDIVIDUAL POLICIES OF ITS MEMBERSJ IS INCREASINGLY LESS SO. THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY'S IMPORTANCE AS A WORLD FORCE AND IT IS MORE AND MORE EXACTLY THAT DESPITE ITS I INTERNAL CONFLICTS -- THE REASONSFOR ITS IMPACT ON WORLD AFFAIRS IS VERY SIMPLE -- ECONOMIC POWER, 4/Y,IJ POLtTic,qL r-r A A. A c7ttr!V. - titJ"O .o .t:Y,.,. .VЈЈ" A/t?'tv 111 ,C/1/ T/R/1 tJ tA/~ -'1-9-4~.cA1t ~ WtJH Cf-//~/.1. WHEN THEY ACT TOGETHER IN THE WORLDJ THE NINE NATIONS OF THE COMMUNITY REPRESENT 250 MILLION PEOPLE WITH A GNP APPROACHING THAT OF THE USA. WE ARE THE WORLD'S LARGEST TRADING BLOCJ AND YOUR MOST IMPORTANT TRADING PARTNERJ CLOSELY FOLLOWEDJ I THINKJ BY JAPAN. WE MATTER VERY MUCH. NOWJ HOW HAVE WE USED THIS CLOUT? THE ANSWER ISJ OF COURSEJ NOT AS MUCH AS WE OUGHT TOJ THOUGH WE AREJ MORE AND MORE. IN ALMOST ALL IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC FORA THE EC NEGOTIATES AS A BLOC.
- 26 -
WE ARE AT THE MOMENT HAVING VERY HEAVY DEALINGS WITH
YOU AND THE JAPANESE IN THE NEGOTIATIONS IN GENEVA ON
THE GATT) THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE
AS I MENTIONED EARLIER, IT IS THE COHESION -- THE
INTEGRATION) IF YOU WILL -- OF THE COMMUNITY'S POSITION
IN THESE NEGOTIATIONS THAT IS ONE OF THE THINGS THAT
MAKES IT ~POSSIBLE THAT ANY SENSE AT ALL WILL
EMERGE FROM WHAT IS A PARTICULARLY STICKY SESSION~
IYI"V
·
.~ TI.wt!; Ґ411Ef!t THE PRESSURE ON GOVERNMENTS jfO PROTECT
THEIR HOME MARKETS) IS VERY STRONG, IF NINE NATIONS FROM
EUROPE WERE BICKERING SEPARATELY WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH
THE OTHER PROTAGONISTS) YOU CAN IMAGE HOW MUCH NASTIER
THINGS MIGHT GET/AY ~Ј~E~~.
WE WORK TOGETHER) TOO) IN ANOTHER DIFFICULT FORUM -THE United Nations) WHERE THE COMMISSION AS SUCH HAS OBSERVER STATUS, INDEED) WE HAVE A DIPLOMATIC DELEGATION TO THE U,N, BASED IN NEW YORK,
THE COMMUNITY ACTED AS ONE ALSO IN THE NORTH-SOUTH DIALOGUE TALKS) THE COUNCIL ON INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION) WHICH ENDED NOT SO LONG AGO IN PARIS, THE CONFERENCE ITSELF WAS NOT A MARKED SUCCESS) BECAUSE THE DEVELOPED NATIONS) IN GENERAL PRESSED BY RECESSION) WERE) AND ARE NOT EAGER TO HAND OVER VAST AMOUNTS OF I RESOURCES TO LESS developed countries -- OR HELP DEVELOP
- 27 - rJIP"It:!S INDUSTRIES) WHICH WILL BE IN COMPETITION WITH ~. IN FACT) ALL IN ALL IT REMAINS ONE OF THE LESS CHEERFUL EXAMPLES OF THE PRACTICE OF "REALPOLITIK" BY ALL SIDES, BUT THE COMMUNITY'S RELATIONSHIP WITH THE THIRD WORLD 7";1-/IN'K.s r" HAS NOT SUFFERED GREATL~ Mfl;P;!JiE SF A UNIQUE EC POLICY TOWARDS THE THIRD WORLD) WHICH IS MANIFESTED IN A VARIETY OF WAYS, / THE BACKBONE OF THIS POLICY IS THE LOME CONVENTION; AN AGREEMENT SIGNED WITH SOME 56 COUNTRIES IN AFRICA) THE PACIFIC AND THE CARIBBEAN MOST OF THEM FORMER COLONIES OF EC MEMBERS, UNDER LOME/ THE COMMUNITY RECOGNISES EXPLICITLY THE DUTIES OF THE developed world TOWARDS THE LESS DEVELOPED, IT IS A COMPLEX AGREEMENT -- AND THE RENEGOTIATED TERMS) NOW BEING PREPARED) WILL MAKE IT MORE COMPLEX, -BAS I CALLY J UNDER IT THE COMMUNITY AGREES TO OFFER ACCESS TO ITS MARKETS TO ALL SIGNITORIES ON A PREFERENTIAL BASIS WITHOUT ASKING THE SAME PRIVILEGES IN RETURN, THERE IS NOT TIME TO GO INTO MUCH DETAIL ABOUT THIS REMARKABLE AGREEMENT) BUT THERE IS ONE ASPECT I SHOULD LIKE TO DISCUSS -- THE SO-CALLED STABEX SCHEME, ·
- 28 - UNDER THIS WE OFFER TO NATIONS DEPENDENT ONJ SAYJ A FEW CROPS FOR THEIR EXPORT INCOMEJ A WAY TO STABILISE THAT INCOME IN BAD YEARS, IFJ FOR EXAMPLEJ THE BANANA CROP IN AN AFRICAN NATION FAILS ONE YEAR DUE TO DISEASE OR WEATHERJ WE GUARANTEEJ UNDER THE CONVENTION TO PAY IN:THE FORM OF A LOAN TO THAT COUNTRY THE AVERAGE AMOUNT OF ITS INCOME OVER THE PAST SEVERAL YEARS GAINED FROM EXPORTS TO US, THIS MEANS IT DOES NOT SUFFER A DRASTIC DROP IN INCOMEJ AND CAN KEEP ITS DEVELOPMENT PLANS GOING AND SO ON, -- SUCH A SCHEME MIGHT NOT BE A BAD MODEL TO BE ADOPTED ON A WIDER SCALE, SO THE COMMUNITY -- AS A GROUP -- IS DOING ITS BIT FOR THE THIRD WORLD. MORE IMPORTANTLYJ IT IS DOING ITS BIT FOR THE FREE WORLD. -- AN OLD-FASHIONED PHRASE PERHAPSJ BUT ONE THAT MEANS SOMETHINGJ AND LEADS ME INTO A DISCUSSION OF THE MOST FASCINATING AND DIFFICULT CHALLENGE YET TO BE FACED IN THE FIELD OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION -- THE ENLARGEMENT OF THE COMMUNITY, IT IS IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERJ IN THIS CONTEXTJ THAT ALL NINE MEMBERS OF THE EC ARE DEMOCRACIES, GIVEN THE NATURE OF THE TREATY OF ROME IT WOULD BE VERY DIFFICULT FOR A NON-DEMOCRATIC COUNTRY TO BELONG TO THE COMMUNITY.
- 29 -
17!' ;: lrl"ft/13. .s-~~o WE ARE NOW FACED WITH THE FACT THAT THREE BRAND NEW EUROPEAN DEMOCR~CIESJ GREECE) SPAIN AND PORTUGAL)~ --tiD'Ibv EMERGED EROt4 I!H E'1m QRSM I~J WANT TO JOIN THE COMMUNITY,
THEIR MOTIVATION IN THIS IS CLEAR, FIRST) WE ARE A RELATIVELY PROSPEROUS GROUP) AND THEY WISH TO SHARE IN THIS PROSPERITY) AND -- EQUAL FIRST ONE MIGHT SAY BELONGING TO US WOULD BE A STRONG INSURANCE AGAINST ANY THREAT) EXTERNAL OR INTERNAL) TO THEIR NEW DEMOCRATIC STATUS,
THESE APPLICATIONS FOR MEMBERSHIP PRESENT US AT ONE AND THE SAME TIME WITH THE GREATEST HOPE YET FOR WIDE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AND THE GREATEST THREAT YET TO THE / FABRIC OF INTEGRATION THAT NOW EXISTS IN EUROPE,
.J/ T.v "'T161t/ IN OUR PRESENT ECONOMIC DiFFiCULliESjTAKING INTO THE
COMMUNITY -
THREE
NEW
MEDITERRANEAN
POWERS
WILL cB.tEr"1V~E~R...Y.a:x
DIFFICULT, IT WILL EXACERBATE OUR ALREADY BLSFIOSt~
PROBLEMS OVER HOW TO DEAL WITH THE MEDITERRANEAN
agricultural products OF SOUTHERN FRANCE AND ITALY,
IT WILL STRETCH OUR ALREADY BELEAGERED REGIONAL AND SOCIAL FUNDS,
- 30 - IT WILL ADD TO THE LINGUISTIC DIFFICULTIES' AND PUT THE MUCH STRETCHED INSTITUTIONS AND DECISION MAKING PROCESS OF THE COMMISSION AND OF THE COMMUNITY IN GENERAL UNDER EVEN GREATER PRESSURE, BUT THE REALITY -- THE POLITICAL REALITY ISJ THAT THESE NEW MEMBERS CANNOT BE TURNED AWAY, THE COMMUNITY CANNOT BE SEEN IN A FREE WORLD CONTEXT TO BE TURNING A COLD SHOULDER TO THREE NASCENT DEMOCRACIES) AND LEAVING THEM STANDING ON ITS DOORSTEP) PERHAPS TO DIE, THEY HAVE APPLIED FOR ENTRY) AND THEIR ENTRY MUST BE NEGOTIATED -- THEY MUST COME IN, -- AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION MUST ENTER A NEWJ AND EVEN MORE DIFFICULT STAGE, AND MY FEELING IS THAT DESPITE THE PROPHETS OF DOOM AND OF DESPAIR WE SHALL PREVAIL, THE PROCESS OF WORKING TOGETHER -- HOWEVER COMPLICATED) WILL GO ON -- BECAUSE IT HAS TO. WE NEED ITJ WE NEED EACH OTHER, NONE OF THE PROBLEMS THAT EACH INDIVIDUAL NATION NOW FACES IN EUROPE CAN BE SOLVED WITHOUT COOPERATION, SO WE SHALL CONTINUE TO COOPERATE) BOTH INTERNALLY AND EXTERNALLY,
- 31 - WHETHER THE FORM OF THAT COOPERATION WILL BE "THEOLOGICALLY CORRECT" --WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF IDEALS, THAT IS THE CREDO OF THE EUROPEAN FEDERALISTS, I DO NOT KNOW. r#I'JfV'Kt..y :ZI /)(J~.('I//'l PlA77pl(. BUT I DO BELIEVE WE SHALL ACT INCREASINGLY TOGETHER TO MEET OUR NEEDS; THAT THE POLITICAL IMPETUS PROVIDED - BY A DIRECTLY ELECTED PARLIAMENT WILL PUSH US ON; THAT WE SHALL FURTHER DEVELOP AND EXTEND THE INSTITUTIONS THAT WE NOW HAVE IN COMMON TO MEET CHANGED SITUATIONS, I BELIEVE, TOO, THAT WE SHALL CONTINUE TO LIVE IN "CRISIS", THERE WILL ALWAYS, AND SHOULD ALWAYS, BE THE DYNAMIC POLITICAL CLASH BETWEEN NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY AND EUROPEAN SOVEREIGNTY WITH NEITHER SIDE WINNING OR LOSING, BUT ALWAYS NECESSARY COMPROMISE TAKING PLACE, AND LINKING US CLOSER TOGETHER, FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPE IS A CONTINUING POLITICAL PROCESS, A PROCESS CENTRED ON THAT QUESTION THAT HAS FACED AND WILL CONTINUE TO FACE ALL MEN AND WOMEN FOR ALL TIME -- THE BASIC POLITICAL QUESTION OF "HOW TO LIVE" S'Fif'TtiJ~y /lt~rn;+J'ICI[' /'h4t:.-rf e>-T~I'.(

J Shearer

File: speech-by-john-shearer-delegation-of-the-european-commission.pdf
Title: untitled
Author: J Shearer
Published: Tue May 20 16:08:02 2008
Pages: 27
File size: 0.89 Mb


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