Speed Simulation Environment

Tags: LVDT, elastic deformation, Linear Variable Differential Transformer, Speed simulation environment, simulator environment, Positivo University, AGUIAR, secondary coils, concrete materials, Simulation Environment, spring length, environment, Robert Hooke, calculation, engineering students, Electrolytic capacitor, iron core, recycled materials, primary coil, analog port, Creative Commons Attribution License, Aguiar Department of Mathematics Federal Institute of Paran�- IFPR, student, C. X. C. Aguiar Department, Department of Computation Engineering Positivo University, learning process, students, Luiz Gustavo Silveira Rossa, Journal of Innovative Technology, Giancarlo de Fran, sensor data, Curitiba, Brazil, Giancarlo
Content: Journal of innovative technology and Education, Vol. 3, 2016, no. 1, 227-240 HIKARI Ltd, www.m-hikari.com http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/jite.2016.6833 Speed Simulation Environment Giancarlo de Franзa Aguiar Department of Mathematics Federal Institute of Paranб - IFPR/ Positivo University - UP Curitiba, Brazil Bбrbara C. X. C. Aguiar Department of Graphic Expression Federal University of Paranб - UFPR Curitiba, Brazil Luiz Gustavo Silveira Rossa Department of Computation Engineering Positivo University - UP, Brazil Copyright © 2016 Giancarlo de Franзa Aguiar et al. This article is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The study and treatment of data applied to the teaching-learning process are as effective knowledge to the student tools. This work discusses some reflections on the construction and use of concrete materials in engineering education. To develop this work, It was built a speed simulation environment, consisting of a wooden ramp (where the top, a toy car is positioned), and a force sensor to be positioned at the end of the runway. As you scroll through the track, the cart will reach a speed, which in turn, will be measured with the aid of the sensor. The information collected by the sensor is transmitted to an Arduino board, which processes the data and transmits them to the Ethernet Shield (responsible for creating a web page and attach the sensor data). The force sensor used in the work is called LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer), which aims to provide a measure of strength in physical systems. In this work was studied measuring the maximum speed (reached by the trolley) by treatment of the impact data, acceleration, mass of toy car and known track length during simulations Keywords: Speed Simulation Environment, Concrete Materials, LVDT
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1 Introduction There is a general concern about the quality of education in our country. There is a universal consensus that human learning process is in turn extremely complex and surrounded by a very wide range of variables. Several notes are discussed in Positivo University, including the methodologies for improving the Teaching and Learning process geared to students of early grades in undergraduate courses (AGUIAR, et al., 2010). New educators should prepare for a new stage in education, including the media, new technologies, and the inclusion of Extracurricular Activities (outside of school) in teaching and learning process. As a result it has been noticed the arising of new learning environments, geared more for student and professional practice so that the student learn to develop their Critical Thinking and promote their self-learning (FERREIRO, 1999). In the early grades in engineering courses, students are studying basic training disciplines of the profession, such as Calculus, Physics, Analytical Geometry, Chemistry among others. These subjects often become very abstract and difficult to understand by the students, given their highly theoretical character and the need (prerequisite) of the student bring a basic math luggage quite accurate. Thus this work aims at the development and construction of a Speed Simulator Environment, which may be a concrete object aid the teacher in the teaching and learning of the subjects Experimental Physics and Calculus. The simulation environment can amount the student the desire by the academy. Stimulate the production of concrete materials by students highlights the role of the learner and strengthens it as an actor in the process, allowing it to learn and can achieve their goals, as well as giving a new color to the role of teacher (MASSETO, 2009). 2 Preliminary notes "Currently, the use of computational resources for processing data, whether qualitative or quantitative became indispensable. The market requires agility and precision in the study data. When this task falls to a human being he can make both precision errors, how to fatigue, if any overwork. On the contrary, modern computers have excellent accuracy and are much faster than humans " (AGUIAR et al., 2006). "Thus, it was inevitable the accelerated development of computational resources aimed at solving various problems, be they economic, administrative, and Industrial Engineering. shall be becoming more common every day, building academic virtual laboratories in undergraduate courses, whether developed by teachers or students " (AGUIAR et al., 2011). According to Lopes (2011) the evolution of computing helps to improve mental capacity. Advances reinforced changes in all areas of modern knowledge, since in all segments we see some new form of technology to perform the operations that were performed by men.
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In this work treat a motivating factor for students, the construction of a speed simulator environment using recycled materials for this. Learning second (Pereira, 2008), it is to replace values, reformulate worldviews, add knowledge to the interpretation of models of social life and confront the new. The idea of building a support tool to the teacher using the knowledge developed during the early years of the course, is to encourage new students to seek to apply the acquired knowledge and make the classes in physics and calculus something fun. According AGUIAR (2013), virtual interactions and concrete materials facilitate the continuous improvement of the teaching-learning process of engineering students, it promotes the environment where the modern student has been identified, and can contribute to reducing school dropout rates, yet much increasing in engineering courses. 3 Methodological Procedures 3.1 Making of Runway The Speed Simulation Environment (runway) was built with the goal that students (mostly freshmen) who attend the basic disciplines of the initial series of engineering courses such as Physics and Calculus, able to prove in practice all the calculations made, proposed and theoretically seen in class. Figure 1 below illustrates the runway, built with wood pine liner Lambri model. This material was chosen for its low cost and also for its ease of handling.
FIGURE 1: Speed Simulation Environment In Figure 1 above, the red line highlights the runway slope forming an angle of 70 degrees with the vertical. The slope was obtained with the aid of a goniometer. The blue line represents the runway length, and has exactly 100 cm by 14 cm wide. The yellow line refers to the height of the first base, where the
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basket is placed originally. This base has a 70 cm height and 14 cm wide. And finally the orange line represented at second base, where the LVDT will be fixed. This base has a 40 cm height and 14 cm wide.
3.2 The LVDT - Linear Variable Differential Transformer Differential Transformer Variable Linear (or LVDT as known) has an iron core that moves within a cylinder wrapped by three coils, a core is called the primary coil, and two (one on each end of the cylinder) It is called secondary coils (Boylestad, 2004 and 2013). The secondary is energized by an alternating current (AC) from a function generator adjusted to provide a voltage of 12V to 700Hz. When the iron core is positioned in the center of the cylinder, the secondary coils have the same induced voltage. By moving iron core toward a secondary coil, a potential difference between the secondary and the primary is generated, the induced voltage varies linearly according to the movement of the core. The resultant voltage output from the primary coil in the tests assumed a value equal to 2v. The resulting voltage is directed to a circuit that has the function of rectifying this signal, in this case we used a half-wave rectifier and it was placed in the circuit a diode of germanium, as this has a low operating voltage, making it ideal for This project. The diode is characterized by driving current through a one-way, and this way, it eliminates the negative half-cycle wave signal, allowing only the positive signal to operate the In the first circuit designed chosen was Electrolytic capacitor 600F in order to minimize the effect of ripple (a phenomenon that occurs when a signal is rectified) because the half cycle ranges from zero to peak voltage, which in this case is 2v. The function of the capacitor is to prevent the half-cycle returns to zero voltage, once it reached the peak voltage, ie the voltage will range from 1 to 2v. In the early tests we found that the information transmitted to the Arduino was delayed because the move twice the core of LVDT, the information that the Arduino printed on the screen was referring to first compression. After thoroughly investigate all components involved in the process, it became clear that the responsibility for the delay of information was the capacitor because its discharge time was too high for this application. In order to solve this problem the electrolytic capacitor was replaced by another base polyurethane which has a much lower discharge rate than its predecessor, and in this way the problem was solved. Figure 2 below illustrates the LVDT built for the project.
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FIGURE 2: Linear Variable Differential Transformer ­ LVDT In Figure 2 it can be observed earlier LVDT and the wires from secondary coils, which are connected to the circuit composed of the diode and the capacitor, and therefore connected to Arduino UNO. Through the Arduino UNO platform, you can collect the voltage variation in the output of LVDT and interpret it as an analog signal, and thus send this information to the component that will transmit information to the Internet, which will develop a Web server environment that will receive the data transmitted by Shield Ethernet ENC28J60. Ethernet Shield ENC28J60, in turn, is the component that enables communication between the Arduino and a web page. Thus when the cart used in speed simulator environment reach the core of LVDT, there will be a potential difference between the secondary coils, and this voltage change will be captured by the Arduino and transmitted to the Shield, which will update the web page by appending her new data collected by the sensor. With this information transmitted to a computer, both students and teachers can follow the measurements and simulations accessing private web address. The website will be present the following information: 1. Force of impact; 2. Cart acceleration; 3. Cart speed; 4. Kinetic energy caused by collision; 5. Energy Gravitational cart potential.
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3.3 Impact Strength Measurement
Also known as Hooke's Law (Equation 1 below) in honor of the English scientist Robert Hooke (1635-1703), the tensile strength is the product of the spring displacement variation by its elastic deformation coefficient. This is the length of the spring rate of change of weight when a force is applied thereon (HALLIDAY, 2009).
To make the LVDT, a metal spring 550 mm in length having a separation between the windings equal to 1,38mm was used. The spring is fixed on the outside of the variable axis, in order to cushion the impact on it, and thus allow the realization of the calculation of the force that was applied to the shaft.
(Hookes's Law)
(1)
The negative sign indicates that the direction of force is always opposite to the end of the spring displacement direction. To perform the calculation of the elastic deformation was used experimental physics laboratory, where it was possible to use the dynamometer equipment to perform the measurement. While holding the spring on top of the machine were set at the lower four different weights end.
At first, ie without fixed weights, the spring had a length of 55 mm, after the attachment of the first weight 150,3g spring length reached 64 mm. In the second stage, with a weight of 148,8g spring made to achieve a measured 70 mm. In the third stage, now with a weight of 149g fixed length varied to 74 mm. And in the last measurement was placed with a weight and spring 149,9g reached a length of 80mm. With these measures it was possible to carry out the first calculations:
1. Total mass fixed to the spring: 598g = 0,598kg. 2. Variation of the length of the spring: Xf(80mm) ­Xi(55mm) =Xr 25mm = 0,025m.
Thus the calculation of the weight force is given by Newton's second law (Equation 2 below):
(Newton's second law)
(2)
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So was calculated elastic constant, K (Equation 3 below):
(3) With the spring constant obtained, it becomes possible to calculate the force applied to the spring at any time, simply knowing the length variation of the spring during a collision with the axis of the LVDT. After calculating the elastic deformation coefficient, a program was developed to run on the Arduino platform in order to collect the digital value regarding compression of the spring. This value is represented by voltage generated at the output of the LVDT. When the 12V voltage is induced in the primary coil and the core is busy, the output voltage varies between 0V to 2V. This tension resulting is collected by analog port (A0) Arduino, which interprets it as a digital signal having 45-bit Initial value when the LVDT is at rest, up to 559 bits generated by full compression of the sensor. When the spring is compressed only 1.38 mm digital value generated by this small compression is around 24-30 bits, and this spring consists of 21 turns, when it is fully compressed, it generates a signal that oscillates between 540 560 bits. 3.4 Software Arduнno This code was developed with the purpose of transmitting to the Ethernet Shield amounts received by the analog port (A1) of the Arduino. At first it asked the Arduino it print the values in the serial terminal screen in order to ensure that the measurements are correct before passing them to the Web. The following is illustrated in Tables 1 and 2 the code in C language
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TABLE 1: Language in Code C of data transmission.
#include "etherShield.h" #include "ETHER_28J60.h" int x = 1; // Variable that receives the value of the analog port A0 int k = 234; // elastic deformation of the spring constant -234.65 float f; //Force of impac int dx = 1; //Track Length float a = 0.0; //Acceleration of the cart float v = 0.0; //Cart speed int m = 400; //Mass of the cart float Ec ; //Kinetic energy of impact float Ep; //Energy gravitational potкncial float g = 9.81; //Gravitational acceleration int i = 0; static uint8_t mac[6] = {0x54, 0x55, 0x58, 0x10, 0x00, 0x24}; // this just needs to be unique for your network, // so unless you have more than one of these boards // connected, you should be fine with this value.
static uint8_t ip[4] = {169, 254, 157, 245};
// the IP address for your board. Check your home hub // to find an IP address not in use and pick that // this or 10.0.0.15 are likely formats for an address // that will work.
static uint16_t port = 80;
// Use port 80 - the standard for HTTP
ETHER_28J60 ethernet; void setup() { pinMode(A0, INPUT); //Zero analog port, which receives the values generated by the LVDT Serial.begin(9600); ethernet.setup(mac, ip, port); } void loop() { x= analogRead(A1); Serial.println(x); if (ethernet.serviceRequest()) { //x= analogRead(A1); ethernet.print(""); ethernet.print("

Project iniciação científica

"); ethernet.print("

Environment simulação speed



");
if((x > 40) && (x < 51)) { ethernet.print("rest "); ethernet.print("
"); Serial.println(x); ethernet.respond(); //delay(100); } else if((x > 54) && (x < 79)) { ethernet.print("Vehicle mass (g): "); ethernet.print(m); ethernet.print("
"); f = k*0.0138; // Calculation of impact force
k*0,00138
Speed simulation environment TABLE 2: Language in Code C of data transmission. ethernet.print("Força(mN): "); ethernet.print(f); ethernet.print("
"); a = f/0.400; // Calculation of acceleration cart ethernet.print("Aceleração(m/s^2): "); ethernet.print(a); ethernet.print("
"); solver(v); } else if((x > 81) && (x < 104)) { ethernet.print(" Vehicle mass (g): "); ethernet.print(m); ethernet.print("
"); f = k*(0.00276); //0.05224 - 0.055 ethernet.print("Força(mN): "); ethernet.print(i); ethernet.print("
"); a = f/0.400; // Calculation of acceleration cart ethernet.print("Aceleração(m/s^2): "); ethernet.print(i); ethernet.print("
"); calcula(v); }} //And so on until else if((x>=536) && (x<=559)) { else if((x>=536) && (x<=559)) { ethernet.print(" Vehicle mass (g): "); ethernet.print(m); ethernet.print("
"); f = k*(0.02898); //0.02602 - 0.055 ethernet.print("Força(mN): "); ethernet.print(f); ethernet.print("
"); a = f/0.400; // Calculation of acceleration cart ethernet.print("Aceleração(m/s^2): "); ethernet.print(a); ethernet.print("
"); solver(v); } delay(100); ethernet.respond(); } delay(100); }
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3.5 Shield Ethernet This Shield has a microcontroller ENC28J60 with the function of creating a WebServer, where the user can attach any information you want. In the case of this project the information will be implantas in WebServer are physical quantities measured by the sensor, such as the impact force, kinetic energy, speed, among others, so that teachers can demonstrate to their students in early grades in engineering courses, as the physical quantities can be scaled in practice.
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4 Results After the construction of the runway, the LVDT sensor has been carefully set at the end of its course, so that the data collection and testing was initiated. Figure 3 below illustrates the LVDT sensor placed at the end of the track.
FIGURE 3: LVDT sensor positioned to end of runway. In this step function generator was calibrated to feed the circuit with an alternating voltage of 12V, the sinusoidal 700Hz frequency. And this circuit was connected to the Arduino to start monitoring the data generated by the sensor. When the cart was released at the top of the track and consequently reached the sensor, the data collected by the sensor indicated an impact force equal to 3,56N. In order to verify the reliability of the sensor and thus generate a statistical basis to add greater scientific value to the project, the test described above was repeated thirty times (reliable Sample Size) second Triola (1999). In all measurements the value of the impact force that the sensor collected remained constant 3,56N. Once the impact force has been collected, it became possible to calculate other physical quantities proposed by this search. As the vehicle has a known mass (equal to 400g), then by Newton's second law (Equation 4 below) can obtain the acceleration of the vehicle. (4)
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Knowing the acceleration of the cart and the distance he covered the track (1m), it found its speed through the Torricelli equation (Equation 5 below). (5)
Finally, the kinetic energy calculations were performed (Equation 6 below) and gravitational potential energy (Equation 7 below). (6)
(7) These results had already been theoretically calculated in Fisica I classes of the course of Positivo University Computer Engineering, and now had been proven with the physical experiments with speed simulator built environment during the course of this research project. Figure 4 below illustrates the data sent to the web page created by Shield Ethernet (Ethernet Shield does not print fractional values). Data as the vehicle mass and physical quantities obtained through the LVDT sensor.
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FIGURE 4: Web page built by Ethernet Shield. 5 Conclusions The work significantly contributed to the theoretical basis (survey of selected topics by the advisor) when performed in conjunction with the physical development through technological application (construction of the runway, LVDT and software development). Successfully reached its primary objective, namely the development of an academic environment Speed Simulator, which can serve as a tool to support teachers and students in practical classes of Physics I. The speed simulator environment can encourage students at the academy, they will mere adjuncts in the teaching process to key players, applying their knowledge in practice and actively participating in the process of knowledge construction. Research like this can significantly contribute to reducing the high rates of school dropouts in engineering courses because it puts the student as the main actor in the teaching-learning process. References [1] G. F. Aguiar, B. C. X. C. Aguiar, V. Pilla, Evasгo em cursos de engenharia: esse problema й sу do Cбlculo? Anais: XLI ­ Congresso Brasileiro de Ensino de Engenharia, Gramado: UFRS, 2013.
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[2] G. F. Aguiar, B. C. X. C. Aguiar, C. V. B. Bernardo, Desenvolvimento de Software no Processo de Ensino e Aprendizagem na Disciplina Estatнstica, XXXIX COBENGE, Blumenau, SC, 2011. [3] G. F. Aguiar, B. C. X. C. Aguiar, V. E. Wilhelm, Obtenзгo de Indices de Eficiкncia para a Metodologia Data Envelopment Analysis Utilizando a Planilha Eletrфnica Microsoft Excel. Revista da Vinci, Curitiba, v.3, n.1, p. 157-169, 2006. [4] G. F. Aguiar et al., Como Conquistar Alunos de Graduaзгo? Abordagens de Sucesso na Universidade Positivo, Anais: XXXVIII - Congresso Brasileiro de Ensino de Engenharia, Fortaleza: UFCE, 2010. [5] L. R. Boylestad, Introduction to Circuit Analysis, 12 ed. Ed. Person. V. 1, 2004. [6] L. R. Boylestad, Electronic Devices, 11 ed. Ed. Person. V. 1, 2013. [7] A. Drozdek, Estrutura de Dados e Algoritmos em C++, Thomson Learning Ltda, Sгo Paulo, 1998. [8] R. Ferreiro, Hacia nuevos ambientes de aprendizaje, En Sistemas Telemбticos para la Educaciуn Continua, Amec-IPN, Secretarнa Acadйmica, Mйxico (1999). [9] D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker, Fundamentos de Fнsica, 8 ediзгo. Ed. Rio de Janeiro: LTC Editora, v. 1, 2009. [10] R. Lafore, Aprenda em 24 horas Estrutura de Dados e Algoritmos, Rio de Janeiro: Campus, 1999. [11] A. C. C. Lopes et al., Construзгo de Avaliaзгo de Software Educacional sobre Cateterismo Urinбrio de Demora, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 45 (2011), no. 1, 215-222. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0080-62342011000100030 [12] M. T. Masseto, Atividades pedagуgicas no cotidiano da sala de aula universitбria: reflexхes e sugestхes prбticas. Disponнvel em: http://www.escoladavida.eng.br/anotacaopu/Formacao%20de%20Professore s/modulo_6.htm. Acesso em: 14/02/2015. [13] L.T.V. Pereira, W.A. Bazzo, Introduзгo а engenharia: conceitos, ferramentas e Comportamentos. In: XXXVI COBENGE, 2008, Sгo Paulo, Anais. Sгo Paulo, POLI-USP Instituto Mauб ,2008.
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[14] A. M. Tannenbaum, Estruturas de Dados Usando C, Makron Books, Sгo Paulo, 1995. [15] M. F. Triola, Introduзгo а Estatнstica, 7Є ed., Rio de Janeiro, LTC, 1999.
Received: September 9, 2016; Published: October 17, 2016

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