Sports preference of parents with different socio-economic and cultural level for children

Tags: Ovidius University, Physical Education, student athletes, sports school, JOURNAL, MOVEMENT, cultural aspects, sports, the questionnaire, INDEX COPERNICUS JOURNAL MASTER, sports schools, questionnaire, Sports in Society, social strata, Australian Olympic Team, class structure, Elite Australian Athletes, Sociology of Sport, Handbook of Sports Studies, university/college, reading newspapers, L. Fuller, income level, sport, Coubertin, The conservative approach, A. Gutmann, rental house, Education Level, modern Olympic Games, reading books, The frequency, Education Levels of Parent Education Level, School of Physical Education
Content: Ovidius University Annals, Series physical education and Sport / SCIENCE, MOVEMENT AND HEALTH, Vol. 10 ISSUE 2, 2010, Romania Our JOURNAL is nationally acknowledged by C.N.C.S.I.S., being included in the B+ category publications, 2008-2010. The journal is indexed in: 1. INDEX COPERNICUS JOURNAL MASTER LIST. 2. DOAJ DIRECTORY OF OPEN ACCES JOURNALS, 2009, 3. SOCOLAR SPORTS PREFERENCE OF PARENTS WITH DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL LEVEL FOR CHILDREN KALEMOцLU YAPRAK 1, HЬSEYIN ЬNLЬ2 1Gazi University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Ankara / TURKEY 2Aksaray University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Aksaray / TURKEY 12.05.2010 / 19.05.2010 ABSTRACT In this study, it is aimed to determine the sports preference of parents with different socio-economic and cultural level for children. To achieve this aim, the questionnaire was distributed to 212 parents of Student Athletes at a special sports school in Balikesir. The questionnaire developed by the researcher was administered to the whole universe and 202 questionnaire forms were analyzed. The resulting data of arithmetic average, frequencies and percentage distribution combined with chi-square analysis was done to determine whether the parents' cultural and socio-economic level had an effect on the parents' choice of sport branches for their children. Consequently; it was found that most of all parents send their children to sports schools, have degrees of university/college education. Besides, most of parents have a good income level, more than half of the parents have its own house, and also most of them have own car. Parents with good socio-economic status have preferred primarily basketball and then tennis for their children. In families with low income levels have been seen that soccer is the first preference for their children. Parents with university/college education level have still preferred primarily basketball and tennis, whereas parents with low education level have preferred volleyball and football for their children. Key Words: Parent, Preference, Cultural and Socioeconomic Level
Introduction Social classes are an important fact of public life. Although all people are considered equal in the face of the law, they have different life forms in terms of economic, social, political and cultural aspects. In all societies, social class and class relations influence who plays, who watches, who consumes information about sports (Coakley 2004: 333). Also lifetime experiences and life styles of individuals shaped with their cultural and economic level, affects how and at what level they can participate to which sports branch. For instance, it is people in high-income, high-education, and high status occupational groups that have the highest rates of active sports participation, attendance at sports events, and even watching of sports on television. Individuals with different forms of life have naturally different forms of behaviour, interests and desires. As the expression of Coakley (2004: 333); people in lower-income groups may do physical labour, but they don't run, bicycle, or swim as often as their high-income counterparts. Also the long-term impact of economic inequality on people's lives has led to connections between certain sports and the lifestyles of people with differing amounts of wealth and power. For example, wealthy people have lifestyles that routinely include participation in golf, tennis, skiing, sailing, and other sports that are self-funded and
played at exclusive clubs and resorts. These sports often involve the use of expensive facilities, equipment, and/or clothing, and they have come to be associated with class as people with money and power define it. In another example, all national and international champion athletes in Japan were seen to be college graduates (Takenoshita 1967: 12). In 1972, Pavio (1973: 17) analyzed social class background of the 174 men and women from the Austrian Olympic team. He revealed that 60% of these athletes belong to the three-upper social class. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the connection between the parents who send their children to sports schools, socioeconomic levels and cultural aspects of these parents and their preferred sports branches for their children. Material and Methods Group of the Survey: The universe of the research is consisted of 212 parents of student athletes at a special sports school in Balikesir. As the whole universe was reached, the researcher did not take samples. The number of the questionnaire forms analyzed at the end of the study is 202. data collection Method: In this research, a questionnaire was used to collect data from all parents of student athletes at a special sports school in Balikesir. data analysis: The data collected in the study were analyzed with SPSS program. The 365
Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport / SCIENCE, MOVEMENT AND HEALTH, Vol. 10 ISSUE 2, 2010, Romania Our JOURNAL is nationally acknowledged by C.N.C.S.I.S., being included in the B+ category publications, 2008-2010. The journal is indexed in: 1. INDEX COPERNICUS JOURNAL MASTER LIST. 2. DOAJ DIRECTORY OF OPEN ACCES JOURNALS, 2009, 3. SOCOLAR
analyses results were evaluated by means of %, frequency and q-square. The significance level in the survey has been accepted as 0.5. Results: In this part, the data related to the parents sport preference with different socioeconomic and cultural level for children which
were obtained as a result of the analysis of the questionnaires administered to the parents at a special sports school in Balikesir.
Table 1: Education percentage of parents send their children to sport schools
Education Levels of Parent
Education Level of Mothers
N
%
Uneducated
3
1,5
primary school
32
15,8
secondary school
17
8,4
High School
70
34,7
University/College
68
33,7
Post Graduate
12
5,9
Total
202
100,0
Education Level of Fathers
N
%
-
-
13
6,4
13
6,4
42
20,8
122
60,4
12
5,9
202
100,0
In this research, in terms of education level high
seen that 1,5% percent of mothers are uneducated
percentage of parents (33,% mothers, fathers
and 5,9% percent of parents have post graduate
60,4%) send their children to sports schools, have
degrees.
degrees of university/college education. Also it has
Table 2: Job groups of parents send their children to sport schools
Mother's Occupation
Father's Occupation
N
%
N
%
Housewife
98
48,5
-
-
Civil Servant
15
7,4
32
15,8
Teacher
38
18,8
40
19,8
Laborer
5
2,5
10
5,0
Self Employed
14
6,9
47
23,3
military personnel
4
2,0
24
11,9
Doctor
11
5,4
7
3,5
Engineer
5
2,5
18
8,9
Retired
12
5,9
15
7,4
Academician
-
-
6
3,0
Lawyer
-
-
3
1,5
Total
202
100,0
202
100,0
When we check the job groups of the parents, it has seen that 48,5% of mothers are housewife and 23,3% of the fathers are self employed. We also see
that only 2 percent of mothers are military personnel and 1,5 percent of fathers are lawyer.
Table 3: The frequency of families reading newspapers and books
The frequency of reading newspapers and books
The frequency of reading
newspapers
N
%
The frequency of reading books
N
%
Regularly
95
47,0
59
29,2
Occasionally
99
49,0
128
63,4
Never
8
4,0
15
7,4
Total
202
100,0
202
100,0
In Table 3, It was found that 47% of parents are
newspaper and 63,4% of parents occasionally
regularly reading newspapers and also 29,2% of
reading books.
them regularly reading book. Besides, nearly half of
the parents (49%) are occasionally reading
366
Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport / SCIENCE, MOVEMENT AND HEALTH, Vol. 10 ISSUE 2, 2010, Romania Our JOURNAL is nationally acknowledged by C.N.C.S.I.S., being included in the B+ category publications, 2008-2010. The journal is indexed in: 1. INDEX COPERNICUS JOURNAL MASTER LIST. 2. DOAJ DIRECTORY OF OPEN ACCES JOURNALS, 2009, 3. SOCOLAR
Table 4: The frequency of the parents go to the theatre and movies
Frequency of going to the
Frequency of going to the movies
movies and theatre
N
%
Regularly
21
10,4
Occasionally
158
78,2
Never
23
11,4
Total
202
100,0
Frequency of going to the theatre
N
%
5
2,5
89
44,1
108
53,5
202
100,0
About participation in cultural activities, it is seen that only 2,5% of parents regularly go to the theatre,
53,5% of them never participate in this activity and 78,2% of them occasionally go to the movies.
Table 5: monthly Income levels of families
Monthly Income Levels
N
Very Low
6
Low
15
Middle
73
Good
77
Very Good
31
Total
202
% 3,0 7,4 36,1 38,1 15,3 100,0
When we looked Table 5, it is seen that 38,1% of the parents have a good income level. Only 3% of
parents have very low income level, on the other hand 15,3% of them very good income level.
Table 6: The status of family's residence ownership
N
Our own
117
Rental
85
Total
202
% 57,9 42,1 100,0
When looked at the data given in Table 6, it is seen that more than half of the parents (57,9%) have its own house while 42,1% of them live in rental house.
Table 7: The status of family's car ownership
N
Available
164
Not available
38
Total
202
% 81,2 18,8 100,0
When we looked Table 7, it has also seen that most of parent (81,2%) have own car. Only 18,8 percent
of families do not have a car.
Table 8: Preferred sport branches by parents for children and gender relations
Sport Branches
Female
Gender
Male
Swimming
N %
9 4,5
11 5,4
Tennis
N %
26 12,9
14 6,9
Basketball
N %
11 5,4
41 20,3
Volleyball
N %
22 10,9
15 7,4
Track and Fields
N %
7 3,5
8 4,0
Football
N
6
32
Total 20 9,9 40 19,8 52 25,7 37 18,3 15 7,4 38
367
Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport / SCIENCE, MOVEMENT AND HEALTH, Vol. 10 ISSUE 2, 2010, Romania Our JOURNAL is nationally acknowledged by C.N.C.S.I.S., being included in the B+ category publications, 2008-2010. The journal is indexed in: 1. INDEX COPERNICUS JOURNAL MASTER LIST. 2. DOAJ DIRECTORY OF OPEN ACCES JOURNALS, 2009, 3. SOCOLAR
%
3,0
Total
N %
81 40,1
x2=33,688, sd=5, p=0.00<0.05
15,8
18,8
121
202
59,9
100,0
When we look at the Table 8, it is seen that statistically significant difference in a confidence interval of 95% (P< 0,05). Children who prefer football and basketball constitute the majority of
men, on the other hand it has seen that the majority of girls prefer tennis and volleyball.
Table 9: Parents sport preference according to the socio economic level
Swimming Tennis
N%N%
Very Low
-
-
-
-
Low
-
-
-
-
Middle 8 4,0 5 2,5
Good
8 4,0 22 10,9
Very Good
4 2,0 13 6,4
Total 20 9,9 40 19,8
x2=11,043, sd= 10, p=0.00<0.05
Sport Branches
Basketball Volleyball
N%N%
-
-
-
-
-
-
2 1,0
17 8,4 15 7,4
29 14,4 12 5,9
6 30, 8 4,0
52 25,7 37 18,3
Track and Fields N%
-
-
1 0,5 9 4,5 5 2,5
-
-
15 7,4
Football
N%
6 3,0
12 5,9 19 9,4 1 0,5
-
-
38 18,8
Total N% 6 3.0 15 7.4 73 36,1 77 38,1 31 15,3 202 100,0
In Table 9, it is seen that parents with good socioeconomic status (38,1%) have preferred primarily basketball (14,4%) and then tennis (10,9%) for their children. In families with low income levels have been seen that soccer is the first preference for their children. When we looked at the Table 8, it is seen that statistically significant difference in a confidence interval of 95% (P< 0,05). Parents with university/college education level have still preferred primarily basketball and tennis, whereas parents with low education level have preferred volleyball and football for their children. Discussion and Conclusion Individuals interested in sports at which level, are closely related to their social structure characteristic. People with lower socio economic level constitute a small portion of those who participate actively in sports events (McPherson, 1989: 181). Our research has shown that 90,3 percent of parents who send their children to sports school are families of middle and upper class. In the study conducted by Mc Kay and Pearson (1988: 302) has shown that most of the Australian sportsmen are belong to upper socioeconomic class and also most of all are men. This research is parallel with the consequences of our research. Income differences between families in terms of sports participation bring about differences and also families belonging to different income groups tend to different sports (Serarslan, 1990: 106). Our research has also revealed that families with different socioeconomic level choose different sports branches for
their children. Renson (1976: 435) stated that adults between the pursuits of sports are directly related to the country's class structure. Individuals who related to skiing, golf, tennis and fencing comprise of individuals who belong to higher social strata and also Renson Stated that such as gymnastics, athletics, judo, boxing, football and handball branches are more popular in the lower social strata. Also according to Jarvie (2006: 301) golf, sailing, tennis, skiing and gliding are high status sports while boxing, wrestling, angling, cyclecross and archery are more frequently participated in by low socio-professional status groups. For instance, in the context of British society, involvement in a polo match in grounds of Windsor Castle, participation in Henley's boating regatta or playing golf convey messages about the social location of the participants (Sugden and Tomlinson, 2000: 309). And also in a study conducted by Nowak (1969: 142) showed that 70% of the elite boxers consist of working class in Poland. References COAKLEY, J. (2004). Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies. 8. Edition, Singapore: McGrawHill Companies. JARVIE, G. (2006). Sport, Culture and Society: An Introduction. 1. Edition, London: Routledge. McKAY, J. P. and PEARSON, K. (1988). Sociodemographic Characteristics of Elite Australian Athletes. Ed: Mangon, J.; Small, R., Sport, Culture and Society, New York.
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Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport / SCIENCE, MOVEMENT AND HEALTH, Vol. 10 ISSUE 2, 2010, Romania Our JOURNAL is nationally acknowledged by C.N.C.S.I.S., being included in the B+ category publications, 2008-2010. The journal is indexed in: 1. INDEX COPERNICUS JOURNAL MASTER LIST. 2. DOAJ DIRECTORY OF OPEN ACCES JOURNALS, 2009, 3. SOCOLAR
McPHERSON, B, D., CURTIS, J, E., LOY, J, W. (1989). The Social Significance of Sport: An Introduction to the Sociology of Sport. Champaingn Illinois: Human Kinetics Book. NOWAK, W. (1969). Social Aspects of Polish Boxers and Their Environment in the Light of Questionnaires and Surveys, International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 4(1), 137150. PAVIO, G. R. (1973). An Analysis of the Social Class of the 1973 Australian Olympic Team. The Australian Journal of Physical Education. 61. RENSON, R. (1976). Social Status Symbolism of Sport Stratification, Hermes (Leuven), 10:433443.
SERARSLAN, M.Z. (1990). Spor Pazarlamasi Sporun Kitlelere Yayginlaъtirilmasinda Pazarlama Tekniklerinden Yararlanma (Yayinlanmamiъ Doktora Tezi), шstanbul: шstanbul Ьniversitesi. SUGDEN, J and TOMLINSON, A. (2000). Theorizing Sport, Social Class and Status. Handbook of Sports Studies. 309-321. Ed: Jay Coakley and Eric Dunning. London: Sage Publications. TAKENOSHITA, K. (1967). The Social Structure of the Sport Population in Japan. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2(1), 5-18.
INVESTIGATION OF BEIJING 2008 OLYMPIC GAMES PHOTOS IN THE TURKISH SPORTS MEDIA IN TERMS OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION Цzsoy Selami Abant шzzet Baysal University, TURKEY Email: [email protected] / 21.03.2010 / 28.03.2010
Abstract Purpose: The research aims to investigate the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games photos published in Turkish sports media in terms of gender discrimination. Method: The photos published in 5 daily newspapers in Turkey during the Beijing Olympic Games were analyzed with the help of an assessment form developed by the researcher. The researcher and an academician implemented the form. The data was analyzed by utilizing frequency distributions and Independent Samples t-test. Results: Out of the 554 photos related to sports in the investigated newspapers, 37.8% (203) belonged to women whereas 62.2% (334) belonged to men. No meaningful relationship was found among the photos of the 5 newspapers in the sample in terms of variables such as presentation of the photos according to gender, the size of photos, distribution according to newspaper type, the lay out of the photos and the page that the photo appeared (p<,05). The analysis according to gender showed that the photos of Turkish sportswomen appeared in the papers more than the photos of sportswomen of other nationalities (p<,05). Frequency distributions showed that the ratio of close-up shots were higher. 8 photos of sportswomen that were classified as erotic were published during that term. The newspaper Zaman, known as a conservative newspaper, was found to have carried the least number of photos of sportswomen. Conclusions: It can be said that sports media in Turkey did not exhibit gender discrimination in the presentation of photos of sportswomen during the Olympics. However, the number of photos of sportswomen was less than those of sportsmen. The media in Turkey prioritize the news about successful sports persons as is the case in the world. When we consider that fact that 4 of the 8 medals that the Turkish team won belonged to sportswomen, we can argue that the photos of Turkish sportswomen were not given enough representation in the Turkish sports media. Key words: Sports, media, gender, newspaper, Olympic Games.
Purpose The presence of women in the sports is not dated very late in history. The conservative approach of Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games, that discriminates against women goes back as far as the Olympics of the ancient Greeks that punished the women who attended the Games even as a spectator (L. Fuller, 2006; A. Gutmann, 1991). Centuries had to pass before the elimination of the sports branches from the Games that were not considered as branches that women could not perform.
In the past decade, several national and international actions have fostered gender mainstreaming in society. This is also mirrored in sport (e.g. Title IX, 1972 and IOC works) where genderequal democracy has been developed to recognize women's sport, reduce existing economic, social, and cultural inequities between male and female athletes, and change attitudes of those who decide what others should see, hear, and read in the media. While the 1972 Title IX laws as enforced by the US Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights mandates of resources in athletic programs at educational
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