The Bohemian Grove and other retreats

Tags: Bohemian Grove, Bohemian Club, entertainment, upper class, social clubs, cohesiveness, encampment, San Francisco, Rancheros Visitadores, organizations, Economic Development, Committee for Economic Development, redwood grove, Herbert Hoover, Jr., Cremation of Care, Council on Foreign Relations, policy consensus, businessmen, Albert C. Wedemeyer, Neil Armstrong, Senator Barry Goldwater, National Municipal League, Connecticut General Life Insurance Company, Bobby Kennedy, the President, C. William Domhoff, Edgar Bergen, president of the Bohemian, Business Council, Secretary of State George P. Schultz, systematic evidence, Herbert Hoover, Art Linkletter, informal policy, discussion groups, Floyd Hunter, summer resorts, social group, National Association of Manufacturers, Frazar B. Wilde, upper-class, wealthy men, social registers, discussion group, Bohemians, Los Amigos, Los Flojos, Los Tontos, Los Piscadores, Los Chingadores, Los Borrachos, The Roundup, Washington, New York, Martin Jetton, Los Bandidos, Los Gringos, Los Vigilantes, John J. Mitchell, Los Angeles area, common interest, Los Angeles, camps, President Ronald Reagan, Bohemian, Dwight David Eisenhower, California redwoods, Nelson Rockefeller, William R. Hearst, Jr., President George Bush, Rockefeller University, Supreme Court justice Potter Stewart, President Reagan, President Nixon, President Richard Nixon, President Gerald Ford, G. William Domhoff, Attorney General William French Smith, Herbert Hoover III
Content: The Bohemian Grove and Other Retreats G. William Domhoff The Bohemian Grove Picture yourself comfortably seated in a beautiful open-air dining hall in the midst of twentyseven hundred acres of giant California redwoods. It is early evening and the clear July air is still pleasantly warm. Dusk has descended, you have finished a sumptuous dinner, and you are sitting quietly with your drink and your cigar, listening to nostalgic welcoming speeches and enjoying the gentle light and the eerie shadows that are cast by the two-stemmed gaslights flickering softly at each of the several hundred outdoor banquet tables. You are part of an assemblage that has been meeting in this redwood grove sixty-five miles north of San Francisco for [over] a hundred years. It is not just any assemblage, for you are a captain of industry, a well-known television star, a banker, a famous artist, or maybe a member of the President's Cabinet. You are one of fifteen hundred men gathered together from all over the country for the annual encampment of the rich and the famous at the Bohemian Grove. ("Bohemians" of the 1970s and 1980s include such personages as President Ronald Reagan; Vice President George Bush; Attorney General William French Smith; Secretary of State George P. Schultz; former President Richard Nixon; former President Gerald Ford; Supreme Court justice Potter Stewart; Herbert Hoover, Jr.; Herbert Hoover III; newspaperman William R. Hearst, Jr.; five members of the Dean Witter family of investment bankers; entertainers Art Linkletter and Edgar Bergen; presidents and chairmen of several oil companies such as Marathon Oil and Standard Oil; the president of Rockefeller University; officers of Anheuser-Busch breweries; the president of Kaiser Industries; bank presidents from California to New York; the president and chairman of Hewlett-Packard Co.; and many other representatives of American industry, finance, government, and entertainment. When these participants arrive for the annual "campout," an elaborate ritual called the Cremation of Care welcomes them and instructs them to leave all cares behind while they join together for two weeks of lavish entertainment, fellowship, and "communion with nature.") The Cremation of Care is the most spectacular event of the midsummer retreat that members and guests of San Francisco's Bohemian Club have taken every year since 1878. However, there are several other entertainments in store. Before the Bohemians return to the everyday world, they will be treated to plays, variety shows, song fests, shooting contests, art exhibits, swimming, boating, and nature rides. A cast for a typical Grove play easily runs to seventy-five or one hundred people. Add in the orchestra, the stagehands, the carpenters who make the sets, and other supporting personnel and over three hundred people are involved in creating the High Jinks each year. Preparations begin a year in advance, with rehearsals occurring two or three times a week in the month before the encampment, and nightly in the week before the play. Costs are on the order of $20,000 to $30,000 per High Jinks, a large amount of money for a
one-night production that does not have to pay a penny for salaries (the highest cost in any commercial production). "And the costs are talked about, too," reports my informant. "`Hey, did you hear the High Jinks will cost $25,000 this year?' one of them will say to another. The expense of the play is one way they can relate to its worth." Entertainment is not the only activity at the Bohemian Grove. For a little change of pace, there is intellectual stimulation and political enlightenment every day at 12:30 PM. Since 1932 the meadow from which people view the Cremation of Care also has been the setting for informal talks and briefings by people as varied as Dwight David Eisenhower (before he was President), Herman Wouk (author of The Caine Mutiny), Bobby Kennedy (while he was Attorney General), and Neil Armstrong (after he returned from the moon). Cabinet Officers, politicians, generals, and governmental advisers are the rule rather than the exception for Lakeside Talks, especially on weekends. Equally prominent figures from the worlds of art, literature, and science are more likely to make their appearance during the weekdays of the encampment, when Grove attendance may drop to four or five hundred (many of the members only come up for one week or for the weekends because they cannot stay away from their corporations and law firms for the full two weeks). The Grove is an ideal off-the-record atmosphere for sizing up politicians. "Well, of course when a politician comes here, we all get to see him, and his stock in trade is his personality and his ideas," a prominent Bohemian told a New York Times reporter who was trying to cover Nelson Rockefeller's 1963 visit to the Grove for a Lakeside Talk. The journalist went on to note that the midsummer encampments "have long been a major showcase where leaders of business, industry, education, the arts, and politics can come to examine each other."' For 1971, [then] President Nixon was to be the featured Lakeside speaker. However, when newspaper reporters learned that the President planned to disappear into a redwood grove for an off-the-record speech to some of the most powerful men in America, they objected loudly and vowed to make every effort to cover the event. The flap caused the club considerable embarrassment, and after much hemming and hawing back and forth, the club leaders asked the President to cancel his scheduled appearance. A White House press secretary then announced that the President had decided not to appear at the Grove rather than risk the tradition that speeches there are strictly off the public record.2 However, the President was not left without a final word to his fellow Bohemians. In a telegram to the president of the club, which now hangs at the entrance to the reading room in the San Francisco clubhouse, he expressed his regrets at not being able to attend. He asked the club president to continue to lead people into the woods, adding that he in turn would redouble his efforts to lead people out of the woods. He also noted that, while anyone could aspire to be President of the United States, only a few could aspire to be president of the Bohemian Club. Not all the entertainment at the Bohemian Grove takes place under the auspices of the committee in charge of special events. The Bohemians and their guests are divided into camps that evolved slowly over the years as the number of people on the retreat grew into the hundreds and then the thousands. These camps have become a significant center of enjoyment during the encampment.
At first the camps were merely a place in the woods where a half-dozen to a dozen friends would pitch their tents. Soon they added little amenities like their own special stove or a small permanent structure. Then there developed little camp "traditions' and endearing camp names like Cliff Dwellers, Moonshiners, Silverado Squatters, Woof, Zaca, Toyland, Sundodgers, and Land of Happiness. The next steps were special emblems, a handsome little lodge or specially constructed teepees, a permanent bar, and maybe a grand piano.3 Today there are 129 camps of varying sizes, structures, and statuses. Most have between 10 and 30 members, but there are one or two with about 125 members and several with less than 10. A majority of the camps are strewn along what is called the River Road, but some are huddled in other areas within five or ten minutes of the center of the Grove. The entertainment at the camps is mostly informal and impromptu. Someone will decide to bring together all the Jazz musicians in the Grove for a special session. Or maybe a]! the artists or writers will be invited to a luncheon or a dinner at a camp. Many camps have their own amateur piano players and informal musical and singing groups that perform for the rest of the members. But the joys of the camps are not primarily in watching or listening to performances. Other pleasures are created within them. Some camps become known for their gastronomical specialties, such as a particular drink or a particular meal. The jungle Camp features mint juleps, Halcyon has a three-foot high martini maker constructed out of chemical glassware. At the Owl's Nest [President Reagan's club) it's the gin-fizz breakfast--about a hundred people are invited over one morning during the encampment for eggs Benedict, gin fizzes, and all the trimmings. The men of Bohemia are drawn in large measure from the corporate leadership of the United States. They include in their numbers directors from major corporations in every sector of the American economy An indication of this fact is that one in every five resident members and one in every three nonresident members is found in Poor's Register of Corporations, Executives, and Directors, a huge volume that lists the leadership of tens of thousands of companies from every major business field except investment banking, real estate, and advertising. Even better evidence for the economic prominence of the men under consideration is that at least one officer or director from 40 of the 50 largest industrial corporations in America was present, as a member or a guest on the lists at our disposal. Only Ford Motor Company and Western Electric were missing among the top 25! Similarly, we found that officers and directors from 20 of the top 25 commercial banks (including all of the 15 largest) were on our lists. Men from 12 of the first 25 life insurance companies were in attendance (8 of these 12 were from the top 10). Other business sectors were represented somewhat less: 10 of 25 in transportation, 8 of 25 in utilities, 7 of 25 in conglomerates, and only 5 of 25 in retailing. More generally, of the toplevel businesses ranked by Fortune for 1969 (the top 500 industrials, the top 50 commercial banks, the top 50 life insurance companies, the top 50 transportation companies, the top 50 utilities, the top 50 retailers, and the top 47 conglomerates), 29 percent of these 797 corporations were "represented" by at least I officer or director. Other Watering Holes [Other camps and retreats were founded by wealthy and powerful men, based on the model provided by the Bohemian Grove. One example is the Rancheros Visitadores (Visiting Ranchers) who meet each May for horseback rides through the California ranch land. These are
accompanied by feasts, entertainment, and general merrymaking with a Spanish-ranch motif.] [Among the Rancheros a] common interest in horses and horseplay provides a social setting in which men with different forms of wealth get to know each other better. Sociologically speaking, the Rancheros Visitadores is an organization that serves the function (whether the originators planned it that way or not) of helping to integrate ranchers and businessmen from different parts of the country into a cohesive social class. [T]he Rancheros had to divide into camps because of a postwar increase in membership. There are seventeen camps, sporting such Spanish names as Los Amigos, Los Vigilantes, Los Tontos (bums), Los Bandidos, and Los Flojos (lazy ones). They range in size from fifteen to ninety-three, with the majority of them listing between twenty and sixty members. Most camps have members from a variety of geographical locations, although some are slightly specialized in that regard. Los Gringos, the largest camp, has the greatest number of members from out of state. Los Borrachos, Los Piscadores, and Los Chingadores, the next-largest camps, have a predominance of people from the Los Angeles area. Los Vigilantes, with twenty members, began as a San Francisco group, but now includes riders from Oregon, Washington, New York, and southern California. In 1928 the Bohemian Grove provided John J. Mitchell with the inspiration for his retreat on horseback, the Rancheros Visitadores. Since 1930 the RVS have grown to the point where they are an impressive second-best to the Grove in size, entertainment, and stature. Their combination of businessmen and ranchers is as unique as the Bohemian's amalgamation of businessmen and artists. It is hardly surprising that wealthy men from Los Angeles, San Francisco, Honolulu, Spokane, and Chicago would join Mitchell in wanting to be members of both. The riders do not carry their fine camp with them. Instead, twenty camphands are employed to move the camp in trucks to the next campsite. Thus, when the Roundup Riders arrive at their destination each evening they find fourteen large sleeping tents complete with cots, air mattresses, portable toilets, and showers. Also up and ready for service are a large green dining tent and an entertainment stage. A diesel-powered generator provides the camp with electricity Food service is provided by Martin Jetton of Fort Worth, Texas, a caterer advertised in the Southwest as "King of the Barbecue." Breakfasts and dinners are said to be veritable banquets. Lunch is not as elaborate, but it does arrive to the riders on the trail in a rather unusual fashion that only those of the higher circles could afford: "lunches in rugged country are often delivered by light plane or helicopter"4 One year the men almost missed a meal because a wind came up and scattered the lunches, which were being parachuted from two Cessna 170s. In addition to the twenty hired hands who take care of the camp, there are twenty wranglers to look after the horses, The horses on the ride--predominantly such fine breeds as Arabian, Quarter Horse, and Morgan--are estimated to be worth more than $200,000. Horses and riders compete in various contests of skill and horsemanship on a layover day in the middle of the week. Skeet shooting, trap shooting, and horseshoes also are a part of this event. The Roundup Riders, who hold their trek at the same time the Bohemians hold their encampment, must be reckoned as a more regional organization. Although there are numerous millionaires and executives among them, the members are not of the national stature of most
Bohemians and many Rancheros. They can afford to invest thousands of dollars in their horses and tack, to pay a $300 yearly ride fee, and to have their lunch brought to them by helicopter, but they cannot compete in business connections and prestige with those who assemble at the Bohemian Grove. Building from the Denver branch of the upper class, the Roundup Riders reach out primarily to Nebraska (six), Texas (five), Illinois (five), Nevada (three), California (three), and Arizona (three). There are no members from New York, Boston, Philadelphia, or other large Eastern cities. Several other regional rides have been inspired by the Rancheros--rides such as the Desert Caballeros in Wickenburg, Arizona, and the Verde Vaqueros in Scottsdale, Arizona. These groups are similar in size and membership to the Roundup Riders of the Rockies. Like the Roundup Riders, they have a few overlapping members with the Rancheros. But none are of the status of the Rancheros Visitadores. They are minor legacies of the Bohemian Grove, unlikely even to be aware of their kinship ties to the retreat in the redwoods. Do Bohemians, Rancheros, and Roundup Riders Rule America? The foregoing material on upper-class retreats, which I have presented in as breezy a manner as possible, is relevant to highly emotional questions concerning the distribution of power in modem America. In the final [section] I will switch styles somewhat and discuss these charged questions in a sober, simple, and straightforward way... It is my hypothesis that there is a ruling social class in the United States. This class is made up of the owners and managers of large corporations, which means the members have many economic and political interests in common, and many conflicts with ordinary working people. Comprising at most 1 percent of the total population, members of this class own 25 to 30 percent of all privately held wealth in America, own 60 to 70 percent of the privately held corporate wealth, receive 20 to 25 percent of the yearly income, direct the large corporations and foundations, and dominate the Federal Government in Washington. Most social scientists disagree with this view. Some dismiss it out of hand; others become quite vehement in disputing it. The overwhelming majority of them believe that the United States has a "pluralistic" power structure, in which a wide variety of "veto groups" (e.g., businessmen, farmers, unions, consumers) and "voluntary associations" (e.g., National Association of Manufacturers, Americans for Democratic Action, Common Cause) form shifting coalitions to influence decisions on different issues, These groups and associations are said to have differing amounts of interest and influence on various questions. Contrary to my view, pluralists assert that no one group, not even the owners and managers of large corporations, has the cohesiveness and ability to determine the outcome of a large variety of social, economic, and political issues. As noted, I believe there is a national upper class in the United States. This means that wealthy families from all over the country, and particularly from major cities like New York, San Francisco, Chicago, and Houston, are part of interlocking social circles which perceive each other as equals, belong to the same clubs, interact frequently, and freely intermarry Whether we call it a "social class" or a "status group," many pluralistic social scientists
would deny that such a social group exists. They assert that there is no social "cohesiveness" among the various rich in different parts of the country. For them, social registers, blue books, and Club membership lists are merely collections of names that imply nothing about group interaction. There is a wealth of journalistic evidence that suggests the existence of a national upper class. It ranges from Cleveland Amory's The Proper Bostonians and Who Killed Society? to Lucy Kavaler's The Private World of High Society and Stephen Birmingham's The Right People. But what is the systematic evidence that I can present for my thesis? There is first of all the evidence that has been developed from the study of attendance at private schools. It has been shown that a few dozen prep schools bring together children of the upper class from all over the country From this evidence it can be argued that young members of the upper class develop lifetime friendship ties with like-status age-mates in every section of the country5 There is, second, the systematic evidence which comes from studying high-status summer resorts. Two such studies show that these resorts bring together upper-class families from several different large cities.6 Third, there is the evidence of business interconnections. Several [studies] have demonstrated that interlocking directorships bring wealthy men from all over the country into face-to-face relationships at the board meetings of banks, insurance companies, and other corporations. And finally, there is the evidence developed from studying exclusive social clubs. Such studies have been made in the past, but the present investigation of the Bohemian Club, the Rancheros Visitadores, and the Roundup Riders of the Rockies is a more comprehensive effort. In short, I believe the present [study] to be significant evidence for the existence of a cohesive American upper class. The Bohemian Grove, as well as other watering holes and social clubs, is relevant to the problem of class cohesiveness in two ways. First, the very fact that rich men from all over the country gather in such close circumstances as the Bohemian Grove is evidence for the existence of a socially cohesive upper class. It demonstrates that many of these men do know each other, that they have face-to-face communications, and that they are a social network. In this sense, we are looking at the Bohemian Grove and other social retreats as a result of social processes that lead to class cohesion. But such institutions also can be viewed as facilitators of social ties. Once formed, these groups become another avenue by which the cohesiveness of the upper class is maintained. In claiming that clubs and retreats like the Bohemians and the Rancheros are evidence for my thesis of a national upper class, I am assuming that cohesion develops within the settings they provide. Perhaps some readers will find that assumption questionable. So let us pause to ask: Are there reasons to believe that the Bohemian Grove and its imitators lead to greater cohesion within the upper class? For one thing, we have the testimony of members themselves. There are several accounts by leading members of these groups, past and present which attest to the intimacy that develops among members. John J. Mitchell, El Presidente of Los Rancheros Visitadores from 1930 to 1955, wrote as follows on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the group:
Al! the pledges and secret oaths in the universe cannot tie men, our kind of men, together like the mutual appreciation of a beautiful horse, the moon behind a cloud, a song around the campfire or a ride down the Santa Ynez Valley. These are experiences common on our ride, but unknown to most of our daily lives. Our organization, to all appearances, is the most informal imaginable. Yet there are men here who see one another once a year, yet feel a bond closer than between those they have known all their lives.8 F Burr Betts, chairman of the board of Security Life of Denver, says the following about the Roundup Riders: I think you find out about the Roundup Riders when you go to a Rider's funeral. Because there you'll find, no matter how many organizations the man belonged to, almost every pallbearer is a Roundup Rider. I always think of the Roundup Riders as the first affiliation. We have the closest-knit fraternity in the world) A second reason for stressing the importance of retreats and clubs like the Bohemian Grove is a body of research within social psychology that deals with group cohesion. "Group dynamics" suggests the following about cohesiveness. (1) Physical proximity is likely to lead to group solidarity. Thus, the mere fact that these men gather together in such intimate physical settings implies that cohesiveness develops. (The same point can be made, of course, about exclusive neighborhoods, private schools, and expensive summer resorts.) (2) The more people interact, the more they will be like each other. This is hardly a profound discovery, but we can note that the Bohemian Grove and other watering holes maximize personal interactions. (3) Groups seen as high in status are more cohesive. The Bohemian Club fits the category of a high-status group. Further, its stringent membership requirements, long waiting lists, and high dues also serve to heighten its valuation in the eyes of its members. Members are likely to think of themselves as "special" people, which would heighten their attractiveness to each other and increase the likelihood of interaction and cohesiveness. (4) The best atmosphere for increasing group cohesiveness is one that is relaxed and cooperative. Again the Bohemian Grove, the Rancheros, and the Roundup Riders are ideal examples of this kind of climate. From a group-dynamics point of view, then, we could argue that one of the reasons for upper-class cohesiveness is the fact that the class is organized into a wide variety of small groups, which encourage face-to-face interaction and ensure status and security for members. In summary, if we take these several common settings together--schools, resorts, corporation directorships, and social clubs--and assume on the basis of members' testimony and the evidence of small-group research that interaction in such settings leads to group cohesiveness, then I think we are justified in saying that wealthy families from all over the United States are linked together in a variety of ways into a national upper class. Even if the evidence and arguments for the existence of a socially cohesive national upper class are accepted, there is still the question of whether or not this class has the means by which its members can reach policy consensus on Issues of importance to them. A five-year study based upon information obtained from confidential informants, interviews, and questionnaires has shown that social clubs such as the Bohemian Club are an important consensus-forming aspect of the upper-class and big-business environment. According to sociologist Reed Powell, "the clubs are a repository of the values held by the upper-level prestige
groups in the community and are a means by which these values are transferred to the business environment." Moreover, the clubs are places where problems are discussed: On the other hand, the clubs are places in which the beliefs, problems, and values of the industrial organization are discussed and related to other elements in the larger community. Clubs, therefore, are not only effective vehicles of informal communication, but also valuable centers where views are presented, ideas are modified, and new ideas emerge. Those in the interview sample were appreciative of this asset; in addition, they considered the club as a valuable place to combine social and business contacts) The revealing interview work of Floyd Hunter, an outstanding pioneer researcher on the American power structure, also provides evidence for the importance of social clubs as informal centers of policy-making. Particularly striking for our purposes is a conversation be had with one of the several hundred top leaders that he identified in the 1950s. The person in question was a conservative industrialist who was ranked as a top-level leader by his peers: Hall (pseudonym] spoke very favorably of the Bohemian Grove group that met in California every year. He said that although over the enhance to the Bohemian Club there was a quotation, "Weaving spiders come not here," there was a good deal of informal policy made in this association, He said that he got to know Herbert Hoover in this connection and that he started work with Hover in the food administration of World War I. Despite the evidence presented by Powell and Hunter that clubs are a setting for the development of policy consensus, I do not believe that such settings are the only, or even the primary, locus for developing policy on class-related issues. For policy questions, other organizations are far more important, organizations like the Council on Foreign Relations, the Committee for economic development, the Business Council, and the National Municipal League. These organizations, along with many others, are the "consensus-seeking" and "policy-planning" organizations of the upper class. Directed by the same men who manage the major corporations, and financed by corporation and foundation monies, these groups sponsor meetings and discussions wherein wealthy men from all over the country gather to iron out differences and formulate policies on pressing problems. No one discussion group is the leadership council within the upper class. While some of the groups tend to specialize in certain issue areas, they overlap and interact to a great extent. Consensus slowly emerges from the interplay of people and the ideas within and among. the groups.'3 This diversity of groups is made very clear in the following comments by Frazar B. Wilde, chairman emeritus of Connecticut General Life Insurance Company and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Committee for Economic Development. Mr. Wilde was responding to a question about the Bilderbergers, a big-business meeting group that includes Western European leaders as well as American corporation and foundation directors: Business has had over the years many different seminars and discussion meetings. They run all the way from large public gatherings like NAM (National Association of Manufacturers) to special sessions such as those held frequently at Arden House. Bilderberg is in many respects one of the most important, if not the most important but this is not to deny that other strictly off-the-record meetings and discussion groups such as those held by the Council on Foreign Relations are not in the front rank4
Generally speaking, then, it is in these organizations that leaders within the upper class discuss the means by which to deal with problems of major concern. Here, in off-the-record settings, these leaders try to reach consensus on general issues that have been talked about more casually in corporate boardrooms and social clubs. These organizations. aided by funds from corporations and foundations, also serve several other functions: NOTES 1. They are a training ground for new leadership within the class. It is in these organizations, and through the publications of these organizations, that younger lawyers, bankers, and businessmen become acquainted with general issues in the areas of foreign, domestic, and municipal policy 2. They are the place where leaders within the upper class hear the ideas and findings of their hired experts. 3. They are the setting wherein upper-class leaders "look over" young experts for possible service as corporation or governmental advisers. 4. They provide the framework for expert studies on important issues. Thus, the Council on Foreign Relations undertook a $1 million study of the "China question" in the first half of the 1960s. The Committee for Economic Development created a major study of money and credit about the same time. Most of the money for the studies was provided by the Ford, Rockefeller, and Carnegie foundations." 5. Through such avenues as books, journals, Policy Statements, discussion groups, press releases, and speakers, the policy- planning organizations greatly influence the `climate of opinion" within which major issues are considered. For example, Foreign Affairs, the journal of the Council on Foreign Relations, is considered the most influential journal in its field, and the periodic policy statements of the Committee for Economic Development are carefully attended to by major newspapers and local opinion leaders. It is my belief, then, that the policy-planning groups are essential in developing policy positions that are satisfactory to the upper class as a whole. As such, I think they are a good part of the answer to any social scientist who denies that members of the upper class have institutions by which they deal with economic and political challenges. However, the policy-planning groups could not function if there were not some common interests within the upper class in the first place. The most obvious, and most important of these common interests have to do with the shared desire of the members to maintain the present monopolized and subsidized business system, which so generously over-rewards them and makes their jet setting, fox hunting, art collecting, and other extravagances possible. But it is not only shared economic and political concerns that make consensus possible. The Bohemian Grove and other upper-class social institutions also contribute to this process: Group-dynamics research
suggests that members of socially cohesive groups are more open to the opinions of other members, and more likely to change their views to those of fellow members.6 Social cohesion is a factor in policy consensus because it creates a desire on the part of group members to reconcile differences with other members of the group. It is not enough to say that members of the upper. class are bankers, businessmen, and lawyers with a common interest in profit maximization and tax avoidance who meet together at the Council on Foreign Relations, the Committee for Economic Development, and other policy-planning organizations. We must add that they are Bohemians, Rancheros, and Roundup Riders. Notes 1. Wallace Turner, "Rockefeller Faces Scrutiny of Top Californians: Governor to Spend Weekend at Bohemian Grove among State's Establishment," New York Times, July 26, 1963, p. 30. In 1964 Senator Barry Goldwater appeared at the Grove as a guest of retired General Albert C. Wedemeyer and Herbert Hoover, Jr. For that story see Wallace Turner, "Goldwater Spending Weekend in Camp at Bohemian Grove," New York Times, July 31, 1964, p. 10. 2. James M. Naughton, "Nixon Drops Plan for Coast Speech,' New York Times, July 31, 1971, p. 11. 3. There is a special moisture-proof building at the Grove to hold the dozens of expensive Steinway pianos belonging to the club and various camps. 4. Robert Pattridge, "Closer to Heaven on Horseback," Empire Magazine, Denver Post, July 9, 1972, p. 12,1 am grateful to sociologist Ford Cleere for bringing this article to my attention, 5. E. Digby BaltzeII, Philadelphia Gentlemen (New York: Free Press, 1958), chapter 12, and C. William Domhoff, The Higher Circles (New York: Random House, 1970), p. 78. 6. Baltzell, Philadelphia Gentleman, pp. 248-51, and Domhoff, The Higher Circles, pp. 79--82. For recent anecdotal evidence on this point, see Stephen Birmingham, The Right People (Boston: Little, Brown, 1968), Part 3. 7. Interlocks in Corporate Management (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965) summarizes much of this information and presents new evidence as well. See also Peter Dooley, "The Interlocking Directorate," American Economic Review, December, 1969. 8. Neill C. Wilson, Los Rancheros Visitadores: Twenty-fifth Anniversary (Rancheros Visitadores, 1955) p. 2. 9. Pattridge, "Closer to Heaven on Horseback." p. 11. 10. Dorwin Cartwright and Alvin Zander, Group Dynamics (New York: Harper & Row, 1960), pp 74-- 82; Albert J. Lott and Bernice F. Lou, "Group Cohesiveness as Interpersonal Attraction," Psychological Bulletin 64 (1965):259--309; Michael Argyle, Social Interaction (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1969), pp. 220--23. lam grateful to sociologist John Sonquist of the University
of California, Santa Barbara, for making me aware of how important the small-groups literature might be for studies of the upper class, Findings on influence processes, communication patterns; and the development of informal leadership also might be applicable to problems in the area of upperclass research. 11. Reed M. Powell, Race, Religion, and the Promotion of the American Executive, College of Administrative Science Monograph No. AA-3, Ohio State University, 1969, p. 50. 12. Floyd Hunter, Top Leadership, U.S.A. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1959), p. 109. Hunter also reported (p. 199) that the most favored clubs of his top lenders were the Metropolitan, Links, Century, University (New York), Bohemian, and Pacific Union.

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