The Confusion between Art and Design, T Avital

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Content: THE CONFUSION BETWEEN ART AND DESIGN Brain-Tools versus Body-Tools Tsion Avital Holon institute of Technology Faculty of Design Translated by Judy Kupferman Vernon Series in Art
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By the same author ART VERSUS NONART: Art Out of Mind
In memory of my brother Shlomo Yedidyiah Avital For whom science, art and religion Were different aspects of the same thing.
Table of contents
Preface
1
1. Invitation: Can a chair be a sculpture of a chair? 5
1.1 On the need to do away with fake sacred cows
5
1.2 Modernism: The main source of the confusion between art and
design
11
1.3 Duchamp's Syndrome: Camouflage, disguise and fraudulence in
nature and culture
36
1.4 Which art versus which design?
54
1.5 Can a chair be a sculpture of a chair?
57
2. The human tool kit: Body-tools, Brain-tools,
Mind-tools
71
2.1 Body-tools: First-order reality- phenomenal reality
72
2.2 Brain-tools: Second-order reality
103
2.3 Mind-tools: Third-order reality: Structuralism or mind in tools
111
3. The roots of confusion between art and design 3.1 The confusion between object and symbol 3.2 In prehistory there was no distinction between art and design 3.3 The confusion between art and design produced by the Greek concept "tиchne" and Plato's metaphysics
129 130 134 141
3.4 Scientists in no-man's land: Science inadvertently promotes the
confusion between art and design
149
3.5 The confusion between art and design in mathematical art
162
3.6 A whirlpool of confusions between art and design: Self-deceit and
eyewash by academia, museums and some parasites on art
171
3.7 Tools as art?
176
3.8 "Painting": A linguistic trap
191
4. Art versus design: A horde of contradistinctions 195
4.1 There is natural design but no natural art
196
4.2 Art versus design: some basic distinctions
204
4.3 Art versus design: symbol versus object
226
4.4 Art versus design: systemic versus discrete entities
252
4.5 Art versus design: paradigms versus styles
274
4.6 Art versus virtual design
282
4.7 Complementary aspects between art and design
293
5. If it is holy it is not art. If it is art it is not holy: The
confusion between art, design and icon in religious
art
303
5.1 Art and iconoclasm are incompatible
304
5.2 Art, design and iconoclasm in Judaism
312
5.3 Art, design and iconoclasm in Christianity
324
5.4 Art, design and iconoclasm in Islam
347
List of illustrations per chapter
373
Bibliography
395
Index
405
Preface The ideas in this book were created in a very extended process over a period of over thirty three years, during which I taught a course for third year students of design and art whose title was: " Inter-relations between art and design" at the Holon Institute of Technology, Faculty of Design, Israel. The students were from the departments of industrial design, interior design, visual communication design, and for several years there was also a department of art. Each year I began the course with the question: who thinks that design is art? Only a few of about two hundred of the students present raised their hands. My second question was: who thinks that design is not art? Again, only a few students raised their hands. The vast majority of the students could not decide whether or not design is art. Out of curiosity I checked the answers to these questions among experienced designers and architects, including about two hundred members of the Faculty of Design from all departments. Again, the vast majority could not decide whether or not design is art. Some claimed, with justice, that the answer to these questions depends on the manner in which art and design are defined, and therefore they were unable to answer my questions. Surprisingly, cross tabulation of the answers according to the departments to which the faculty belonged did not show dramatic differences between the various departments. This fact indicates that uncertainty as to whether design is art or not lies at a far deeper level than the differences between the various areas of design. Moreover, through years of discussions with students and with experienced designers, I found that both those who think design is art, as well as those who think design is not art, reach their conclusions relying more on baseless conventions, intuition and gut feelings than on a solid theoretical basis which in any case does not exist. The reason for this is simple: in our time, everything and anything may be presented as a work of art. Therefore designers have no clear criterion according to which they can reasonably claim that design is indeed art or not. Therefore, in order to clarify the existing confusion between art and design it is necessary to understand the problem at two different levels: on one hand it is necessary to understand the many different factors that led to this conclusion, and on the other, it is necessary to understand the profound differences that exists in characteristics of the two areas, which in most cases are diametrically opposite. In order to compare the two fields, it is necessary to understand the qualities
2
Preface
that characterized art throughout its twisting evolution over 40,000 years up to our own day. This should be contrasted to characteristics of design, that began about 2.6 million years ago in relation to production of stone tools, and in our own day is done on computer without a necessary connection to material of any kind. The confusion between the two fields is not helpful to either, but just the contrary: it is destructive to both, and especially to design, for art cannot be destroyed more than it already has been. On the other hand, it is important to differentiate art from design in the clearest manner, both in order to protect design from the ills of modern art, and to afford some chance for the rebuilding of art in the future. In order to achieve this purpose, this book proposes a totally new conceptual framework that can help us distinguish most effectively between art and design. Moreover, this book presents for the first time, nearly one hundred distinctions, contradistinctions and comparisons between art and design, thus showing most clearly that art and design are two totally independent domains. In a sense, this book is The Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties") of design from art.
Acknowledgements Each time I finish writing a book or article, along with the satisfaction there is always great sadness that the most important mentor I have had in my life, Nathan Rotenstreich, is no longer alive. He is the first person to whom I would wish to bring the fruit of my labors, and I never cease mourning his premature demise. My deep thanks to David Moalem Maron, who in his sixteen years of service as president of the Holon Institute of Technology where I worked helped me in many ways even though he knew my opinions were controversial. My deep thanks also to Eduard Yakubov, the current President of the Holon Institute of Technology, for his support towards publication of this book. Heartfelt thanks to my translator, Judy Kupferman (PhD in physics), who translated this book from Hebrew to English in an exact and clear manner that exceeded my expectations. Heartfelt thanks also to Wang Zuzhe of Shandong University, who translated my first book into Chinese and Sandra Luz Patarroyo who translated my first book into Spanish, both with unceasing and extraordinary dedication and effort. Thanks to Denes Nagy, the President of the International Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of Symmetry, the most erudite person I know, who is always ready to help me with his enormous fund of knowledge and his sharp sense of criticism. Thanks to Ioannis Vandoulakis
Preface
3
who suggested my book to Vernon Press and to Argiris Legatos, Rosario Batana and Carolina Sanchez for their exceptionally positive attitude, understanding and warm cooperation along the process of publishing this book. Throughout all the years of the development of the ideas presented in this book, the previous book and other essays, I did not in fact have a single colleague in Israel, the country in which I live. The many students I have had over the years, first at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and later at the Faculty of Design at the Holon Institute of Technology, were my real colleagues. The intensive intellectual interaction with them over three decades was the chief means of sifting my ideas, and the grindstone against which all the ideas presented in this book received their form. I have no way of thanking them sufficiently for all that. Thanks to my former assistant, Sandra Folk Kanner, who for many years saved me from much exhausting work. Thanks to Orel Bob, a gifted designer and former student of mine who designed the cover of this book. To Yossi Galanti, who processed all the pictures that appear in this book. Thanks to my brother Avshalom Avital, who took a number of excellent photos for this book. Thanks to Mel Byars and Josiah Kahane who always willingly shared their vast knowledge of design with me. Thanks to my friends and colleagues whom I list in alphabetical order: Pia Aisen, Elise and Patrick Assaraf, Reuven and Janet Cassel, Leonid Dorfman, Alec Groysman, Ozer Igra, Joshua and Kendal Latner, Estelle Alma Mare, Sam Meisels, Vladimir Petrov, David and Eva Shinar, whose caring and friendship have served as vital encouragement for me over the years to keep expressing my views, which often involves swimming against the tide. Finally, thank you to my three sons, their wives and children: Oded and Edna, Yuval and Elisa, Daniel ­ the youngest and my consigliere - who are the main source of warmth and joy in my life. Indeed, emotion is the fuel of mind without which no worthy writing is possible.
Chapter one Invitation: Can a chair be a sculpture of a chair? 1.1 On the need to do away with fake sacred cows Usually writing an introduction to a book is easy in comparison to writing the other chapters of the book, for the introduction is written after all the chapters are completed, and the introduction only needs to give a general and attractive picture of the content of the book, in hope that the reader will be curious enough to read the book or part of it. The trouble is that ideas are not just a logical or informative matter. From the moment we have taken a position with regard to them, we also have an emotional commitment to them, that at times is very strong and even obsessive, and they become part of our identity. Therefore the last thing an author should do is to write things in the introduction that constitute a frontal attack on opinions and feelings of the reader, and thus may annoy or hurt his\her feelings. In this case, almost certainly the reader will close the book, even without really investigating its content, and will recommend to all his\her friends not to waste their time reading this book. When a book contains only a few ideas that may be controversial, they are not written in the introduction but later on, and even then they are wrapped in sweet syrup with the hope that their deviation will not harm the book. At times this even makes a positive contribution to the reputation of the book. Especially if it contains very few innovations, for then such ideas can be like a sharp spice that upgrades cooking that is generally bland. The problem begins when most of the ideas in the book are liable to challenge the opinions of the reader, and then there is no way to camouflage this fact, and this is the case with this book. The situation is particularly bad when the book deals with art and design, which for most people is an emotional rather than a rational issue. For today everything, including nothing, can be presented as a work of art, and there is no opinion that is not ostensibly
6
Chapter one
legitimate with regard to art. Therefore the view that negates this anarchy will not be happily received. As a result of the chaos reigning in art, everyone feels that his\her personal opinion with regard to art is no less relevant than the opinion of a theoretician who has spent decades studying this subject. On this matter I will briefly note that the validity of an idea is contingent on the width and depth of the context in which the idea is rooted. The more personal or emotional the idea, the more it lacks validity from a cultural point of view, although it can be extremely relevant to the person who believes in it. In contrast, the more the opinion is anchored in a wider, deeper and more coherent cultural context, the better the chance that it will be adequate. Moreover, readers who see art as a completely subjective matter, and these are the majority of art lovers today, are not even committed to the criterion of validity. Infinite times have I heard the fallacious sentence: "For me, art is...such and such," as if art is a completely personal matter. Is it even imaginable that someone would dare say the same about other areas of culture such as philosophy, science, literature, poetry, etc. without being taken for a fool? On the other hand, those who consider that art is a purely subjective matter need to reach the inevitable conclusion that art is not a component of culture. Of course they would not agree to this, for then art cannot serve to define their personal identity as "artists." Similarly, the economic value and the justification of an overblown ego that art supplies them with will vanish. In our day many do not absorb the fact that culture does not deal with subjective matters, but only with spiritual or cognitive assets that have importance for all, and everything else sooner or later falls into the trash heap of culture. Actually, the very fact that the execution and understanding of art is perceived today as a subjective matter is in itself evidence that something very fundamental is flawed in modern art. I fear that the present book is indeed overflowing with controversial ideas, and therefore in these introductory words I would like to note that this book is not intended for those who are satisfied with the state of art today, nor for those who are pleased with the complete confusion that exists between art and design. On the other hand, this book is definitely intended for those of the readers who possess some measure of doubt as to whether indeed art today is as important a cultural achievement as it is presented by the art establishment. Evidently the book is especially intended for all those who ponder the question whether art and design are one and the same, or not, and especially for students and lecturers in these two fields. For my part, I can promise the reader that not one idea in this book was written offhand, but every idea presented here has been weighed infinite times in light of study, research and deliberations over
Invitation: Can a chair be a sculpture of a chair?
7
decades. In return I would like to hope that the reader will not rush to judge these ideas based on his\her emotional reactions, but rather based on consideration that is as reasonable, educated and coherent as possible. Probably there are readers who would like to bring counter arguments to the ideas presented here, based on facts of one kind or another. I would like to remind these that a "fact" is a problematic matter, immeasurably more elusive than is generally thought. For facts do not have autonomous existence, but are the fruit of interpretation of a certain state of affairs in light of theories, beliefs, feelings, motivations, etc. In fact, a considerable part of the history of culture and of science in particular was generated by "facts" that dissolved the moment the theories on which these facts were based were refuted. True, it is a fact that an infinite number of works are presented in the best museums as works of art even though after reading this book I hope that the majority of readers will become convinced that these works are not works of art at all, but products of design of one kind or another. In the world of science theories are checked very precisely and for a long time in hope of refuting them to reach a more coherent theory, and perhaps also to win the Nobel Prize. In contrast, in the world of art, penny philosophy such as the theories of the fathers of modernism are taught and pile up and nobody attempts to seriously check them out or refute them, even though they have actually brought about the ruin of art as an area of culture. As we will see below, the main reason for the confusion between art and non-art as well as the confusion between art and design, which is a special case of the first confusion, stem from the fact that the fathers of modernism and the artists who adopted their ways did not at all understand the concept of abstraction. Therefore they confused the abstract with the concrete, art with non-art, and confused art and design. Some of the readers will claim that there is no room for comparison between art and science. To these I would like to say that as long as there was real art, that is, figurative art, there was a great deal in common between art and science, and at their deepest layers. Only since the beginning of the age of modernism is there no common denominator for art and science, but rather they are complete opposites in a great many parameters. In another essay I have shown that from a structural point of view there is a very deep common denominator between the reading of footprints about four million years ago, prehistoric art and modern science, but there is no significant common denominator between these and between that which is called "abstract art" (Avital, 1998a). In my opinion, this fact ought already to awaken serious doubts with regard to the question whether modern art is art at all, and if it is a true component of culture. The concepts "modern art" and "modernism" in art are fairly vague concepts, and so in order to reduce
8
Chapter one
misunderstanding, I will note that in the context of this book, by the terms "modern art" and "modernism" I refer to the totality of works in painting and sculpture that are called "abstract works" or all forms of visual non-figurative works. I am old enough to know that when there is a conflict between rational understanding and an emotional relationship to things, people are not always capable of changing their feelings, even though their brains say the opposite of what they feel. This situation can be respected when the matter is personal, but when the matter is related to culture there is no room for such an approach, and in fact it attests that the speaker does not really understand the subject. Thus for example an art historian who read my first book told me in these words: " I am afraid you are right but my heart can't take it." Another historian told me in a despairing voice: "What you write is completely logical, but what do you expect me to do with everything I've done all my life? To throw it in the trash?" The poor fellow continued teaching students perceptions that he knew to be incorrect, only from his need to continue surviving. I have empathy for these people, who for emotional or existential reasons are incapable of parting from perceptions they know to be incorrect. But fortunately there were also those who reacted completely differently. There was the Dean of the Faculty of Art and Design who resigned from the university after he realized that for dozens of years he had taught nonsense, but he was too old to learn everything anew. His wife scolded me for because of me they lost part of their pension funds, and I did not tell her that because of those ideas my pension is far more tiny. And there was the head of the Department of art history with whom I had a harsh conflict of opinion while I still taught at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. One day he invited me into his office and told me that he had failed two of my students in their MA exams because they identified with my ideas. He failed them so that they would not be able to continue to a doctorate, in order to avoid the possibility of having "another two Avitals" in his department, as he put it. The next day I resigned from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, for I could not bear the thought that young people would risk their future because of my opinions. But thirteen years later that same department head telephoned me and asked to visit me at home. I was amazed, but I agreed. After he sat down in the armchair opposite me, he said to me: "I had to come and tell you to your face that you were right. I am leaving the Department of Art History." And indeed he left this field and went over to another field. And there was an art dealer with courage and exceptional integrity who sold modern art, and closed down his business after he understood that the things he sold were not art at all. In general, my impression is that in recent years there may be the
Invitation: Can a chair be a sculpture of a chair?
9
beginning of movement in the direction of wisdom at least among part of the art world. I have no doubt that the great avalanche is still to come, sooner or later, and every great avalanche begins with imperceptible movements. This process is not easy and not simple, for it is not sufficient to present strong claims in order to refute a view that is rooted in some field, but by nature sooner or later people gain understanding. This is true even in science, which is an immeasurably more rational field and immeasurably more critical than art. True, science itself is certainly rational, but it exists in the hands of scientists or people who are also motivated by irrational motives. In his classic book Kuhn (1970) claimed that a new paradigm is not accepted because scientists realize it is better than the old one, but because scientists that were committed to the previous paradigm die eventually, and only then is the road open to acceptance of the new paradigm. Thus for instance here is an example from our own time. In 1982 Dan Shechtman, a scientist from the Technion in Haifa, Israel, discovered a new set of materials that had previously been unknown, and that he named quasicrystals. For about three decades he paid dearly for this discovery, until he received the Nobel Prize for chemistry for that same discovery: "People just laughed at me," Shechtman recalled in an interview this year with Israeli newspaper Haaretz, noting how Linus Pauling,... mounted a frightening "crusade" against him, saying: "There is no such thing as quasicrystals, only quasi-scientists." (Lannin and Ek, 2011). Then the head of his research team asked Shechtman to leave the team for "bringing disgrace" on the team. Even in science, belief in a certain idea may blind the observer to another possibility, especially if it contradicts his\her belief. In contrast to science, which does not exist without a paradigm, the world of art continues to exist, so to speak, even though it has lost the only paradigm it had: figurative art. Therefore this field today has unlimited tolerance for a jumble of possibilities and whims none of which threatens the existence of another. But when it is claimed that the totality of "abstract art" is not art at all, but at best trivial design, then except for a very few, the majority close their eyes and seal their ears. Tolerance of such a claim is nonexistent, for it threatens the identities of too many people, and threatens economic and other investments at a colossal scale. However, the change will have to come or there will be no art. After a hundred years of stagnation and degeneration, perhaps it is time for the art world to dare to reexamine the axioms of modernism and its true contribution, if any, to culture. Without reexamination of modernism art will be unable to progress beyond the current stagnation and move towards more promising horizons.
10
Chapter one
Let it immediately be said that this book does not deal with any specific schools of art or design, nor with any specific artists or designers, but rather with a far more basic issue. An investigation that is as thorough as possible of the differences between art and design is a necessary condition for construction of a solid theoretical basis that will enable a clear distinction between these two areas that today are assimilated one into the other to the detraction of both. This confusion exists not only among the general public, but also among artists, designers, curators and collectors in both fields. This confusion is also well entrenched in academies that teach these fields, while lacking the ability to clearly distinguish between them, and it exists in museums and galleries of art and design that have no clear criteria to aid them in distinguishing between products of the two fields. Therefore even in the best museums one can see objects of design in the art departments and vice versa. What does this say about the curators and museum directors? That they are incapable of distinguishing between art and design, or that they believe there is no difference between the two areas. This situation creates considerable embarrassment, not only among lovers of art and design, but also among artists and designers. This embarrassment is particularly evident among students in both these areas, whose teachers in fact do not have the necessary theoretical tools to clearly distinguish between art and design. When creating a synthesis between two fields, as is often the case in sciences, the result is creation of a new area, or at least a new layer of knowledge that extracts maximum benefit and insights from both of the fields. For example, astrophysics employs knowledge from the fields of physics and chemistry in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the characteristics of heavenly bodies. The understanding achieved by syntheses of this sort create a far more profound understanding than can be achieved with the help of either of the two fields separately. Syntheses of this sort create new layers of understanding, new viewpoints, and create enrichment of knowledge and of culture. In contrast, when one confuses art and design and creates a muddle of both, one does not create a synthesis but rather a reduction of art to design. A reduction of this kind does not provide us with new layers of knowledge or new insights, but exactly the opposite: all that remains of art is color, form and object, just as with design. Cultural reduction leads to loss of past achievements, creates impoverishment of the two fields and retreat to a stage that was simpler in terms of culture. Therefore, for the benefit of both fields and of those who work in them, it would be best to devote every effort to finding the way to build clear lines of demarcation between them. The confusion between art and design is a special case of the confusion between art and nonart, and so
Invitation: Can a chair be a sculpture of a chair?
11
a significant part of this introductory chapter will be dedicated to the presentation of an extremely brief overview of this issue, which I have discussed extensively and fairly thoroughly in my previous book (Avital, 2003)1. Obviously this introduction is not intended to provide a convincing answer as to the distinction between art and design, but only to arouse the reader's curiosity and to challenge him\her in approaching the following chapters, where far more sophisticated theoretical tools will be presented, that will clearly sketch the difference and the separation between these two areas. Throughout cultural history there has never been a clear distinction drawn between art and design. As long as art functioned in the framework of the figurative conception, this lack of distinction did not impair functioning of the two areas. However, from the start of the 20th century, when the figurative conception in art disintegrated, the demarcation lines between the two areas were totally blurred to the detriment of both, and they were absorbed one into the other. Hence, the confusion and anarchy pervading art in the course of the last century is also the main reason for the current confusion between art and design. All products of design are either objects, concrete or virtual, or compositions of color and form, with or without pictorial and\or linguistic symbols. Because modern art has reduced art to composition of color and form and to objects, the lines of demarcation between art and design have become totally blurred. The aim of this book is to eliminate this confusion as far as possible by pointing out the roots of the confusion and also to present a horde of contradistinctions between the two domains. Discussions of the relationship between art and design usually argue either that design is a kind of art and is therefore not distinct from it, or else that design is fundamentally distinct from art, making their linkage irrelevant. The problem with these two approaches is that they do not propose any solid theoretical justification for the attribution of design to art, nor for its complete differentiation from art. The uniqueness of this essay lies in the attempt to provide as solid a theoretical justification as possible for the differentiation of design from art.
1.2 Modernism: The main source of the confusion between art and design The confusion prevalent today between art and design results from many factors. Some of these are prehistoric and some historic, and they will be
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Chapter one
discussed in Chapters 3 and 5. However, at this stage it is already possible to note that the most dominant factor in the confusion between the two areas in the past hundred years is the total chaos reigning in modern art. The central characteristic of this art is the reduction of art to its perceptual components: color and form. Reductionism is the definition of the whole based on one of its parts. What is an elephant? A large fat animal. What is a hot chick? A girl whose measurements are 90-60-90 cm. What is a human or subject? The responses of the organism to stimuli. What is thought? Electrical activity in the brain. What is art? Composition of color and form. However according to reductionist logic, anything we perceive with our senses is a work of art; the moon is a tennis ball because the moon is round; a cello or viola da gamba might quality as Miss Universe; human is a robotic mechanism and Einstein was a total idiot because the electrical activity in his brain was negligible compared to that of a power station. Reductionism is the result of confusion between necessary and sufficient conditions. Thus, for example, being round is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for something to constitute a tennis ball. Reductionism of the whole to one of its parts is the basis of behaviorism in all its incarnations, whether in psychology, art or any other branch of endeavor. Clever psychologists blush when reminded that until about four decades ago behaviorism was their central concept, while at the same time, in art and in aesthetics, people have not even digested the fact that modernism is a reductionist or behaviorist art with all that this signifies. They do not understand that this pseudo art is built entirely on a complete misunderstanding of art and culture, and in particular on commercial and publicity manipulations. Indeed, color and form may be necessary conditions for works of visual art but they are certainly not sufficient. However, such niceties of thought have never disturbed modernist artists, and even less so the art dealers and directors of galleries and museums of modern art. As long as art functioned as a visual language in the framework of the figurative paradigm, the lack of distinction between art and design did not interfere with the function and existence of each of the two fields. However, from the moment that visual art ceased to function as a visual language, at the start of the 20th century, and became in fact trivial graphic design, or industrial design bereft of any functional value, the border between art and design was totally erased. In brief: Modernism performed a reduction of a symbol-system to objects or arbitrary compositions of form and color, and by so doing, it performed a reduction of art to trivial graphic design. Those most responsible for the destruction and confusion are the founders of modern art, in particular Kandinsky, Mondrian and Duchamp. Possibly Kandinsky was the first artist to abandon the outlook of the Impressionists and Expressionists, who used
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symbols that represented the outer, visible world in order to express their inner world 2. He and Mondrian attempted to express the inner world without external content, but failed completely. The main reason for this failure was that no system of visual symbols exists capable of representing abstract content. That which is really abstract is not visible, and that which is visible is not abstract. They used color and form as a completely arbitrary code for the expression of abstract content, and gave this a theoretical justification lacking any scientific or philosophical basis. The result was a work of meaningless stains which anyone could interpret at will, similar to the stains used in a Rorschach test. Most of the other artists in the 20th century followed blindfolded in their footsteps, without taking any notice of the fact that in doing so, they had in fact left the field of art and passed on to the shallowest area of design. These artists had good intentions, but due to the lack of any theoretical understanding of art, to ignorance and to real or assumed innocence, they passed from the world of art to the world of graphic design and the world of objects, but continued to believe they were operating in the world of art. Presumably the fathers of modernism did not at all understand the significance and the implications of erasure of a system of figurative symbols, and so it is worth reminding the reader of some of the characteristics of figurative art, which were lost in modernism by its reduction to design. The most basic principle of the figurative paradigm from its origin about forty thousand years ago and up to this day is construction of representations of things by means of representation of the graphic common denominator between those things. In other words, representation presents the symmetryasymmetry that is common to some set of things whether real or fictitious. Thanks to this characteristic paintings, figurines and figurative sculptures are readable beyond space and time even tens of thousands of years after they were created. Similarly, because of this characteristic a figurative painting or statue connects certain things and separates them from other things. Therefore a figurative painting or sculpture is also a means of classification, similar to words in language. This is true of the prehistoric drawing of a bull presented by a contour characteristic of that type of bull, it is also true of Botticelli's Primavera, whether there was such a character or not, and it is true of every painting that describes a unicorn even though there is no such creature. A figurative picture that describes a fictitious entity is a kind of hypothesis that tells us that if a unicorn should be found, its visual characteristics will be similar to those that we see in the picture. A figurative picture is a visual generalization just as every image that we have in our minds is a visual generalization, and as every word is a linguistic generalization and every formula is a formal
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Chapter one
generalization. That is, all branches of culture are valuable for the existence of humanity mainly because they all propose different ways to create groupings, classification and hierarchies of the things in our world, whether real, hypothetical or fictitious. We organize our world view with the help of a system of pictorial, linguistic, and formal symbols or their combinations just as is done in science. All symbol systems of all kinds are systems of generalizations, without which we would not be able to construct culture, nor an orderly world view. There is no culture without a symbol system, for it is symbols that enable us to pack the infinity of multiplicities in finite packages of information. Symbols of all kinds are what enable us to construct a bridge between the infinite multiplicity of things and between our finite noesis, our knowledge. The totality of symbols that we have creates a second-order reality, and that is what lends meaning and existence to the world of objects as we know it in the phenomenal reality, which is first-order reality. In short, there is no culture without symbols, and therefore it is impossible to exaggerate the decisive importance of a symbol system for the existence of human culture, and so it is clear that modernism has led to the destruction of art and the impoverishment of culture. Instead of a public and universal visual language, modernism has put forward a jumble of idiosyncrasies and whims lacking any artistic or cultural significance. They did not understand that culture does not deal with private matters unless they have great importance for all. In our day there is confusion between subjectivism and individualism. Genius is revealed when the point of view of a certain individual becomes the point of view of everyone, and this is the deepest significance of individualism. In contrast, subjectivism by its nature has no impact on culture. Thus, for example, ever since publication of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason in 1781, it is clear that there is no absolute reality, but rather the reality that we perceive is the fruit of our interpretation in light of certain organizational patterns of the mind. In this case, the viewpoint of the individual Emanuel Kant became the viewpoint of everyone, or at least of those who have some measure of education. After publication of Einstein's theory of relativity in its two stages (1905, 1915), the understanding of reality or of the fundamental concepts of physics ­ time, space, mass and energy ­ changed completely. After seeing the paintings of van Gogh, it is impossible to view nature in the same way that we have seen it before. Has humanity adopted the viewpoint of any modern artist? It is not surprising that there is no such artist, because for the last hundred years artists have not been born but rather produced. There is almost no person who cannot be turned into a famous "artist," and all that is necessary is massive investment in advertising over time and well-greased public relations. It is true that important people are at times also famous. But if a person is famous this does
Invitation: Can a chair be a sculpture of a chair?
15
not imply that he\she is of some importance. From this point of view, there is no modern "artist" who is really important, because they have no impact on culture. Not surprisingly, the only artist of the 20th century who has important impact on our perception is Magritte, but he is not an "abstract" artist, but a truly abstract artist: a figurative artist who sings a song of mourning for figurative art in a surrealist tune. Actually, the relationship between figurative and modern art is analogous to the relationship between a cow and a hamburger (see figures 1.1-1.4). A figurative painting and a cow are both systems. A figurative painting is constructed of a system of pictorial symbols which has layering and an inherent connection between all its components. A cow is a biological system that is immeasurably more complex than any pictorial system. It has enormous layering, which includes a great many subsystems that function together to create the living cow. While the pictorial system is static, the biological system is dynamic for as long as the cow is alive. When a cow is slaughtered and ground up one has a hamburger. It contains the same materials that were in the cow, but its chaotic order is the result of breakage of all the systemic connections which were once the living cow. Similarly, "abstract" painting which has been created from a painting by Rembrandt (fig. 1.3 and 1.4) smearing the original painting with the help of Photoshop contains the same colors as the original but it is a pictorial "hamburger;" it is the result of breakage of all the systemic connections that were in Rembrandt's figurative painting. Therefore a hamburger is not a cow, and "abstract painting" is neither a painting nor a work of art.
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Chapter one
1.1. Top left. White with brown cow on autumn green meadow. Copyright: Darya Petrenko. © 123RF Stock Photo 16657346. The relation between a cow and hamburger is analogous to the relation between a figurative painting and 'abstract art'. In both cases, the hamburger and the 'abstract painting' are the consequence of the destruction of the systemic structure of the cow and of Rembrandt's painting.
1.3. Top right, Rembrandt van Rijn. St. Peter in Prison (St. Peter Kneeling), 1631. Oil on panel, 59 x 48 cm. Gift of Michael and Judy Steinhardt, New York to AFIM, The Israel Museum Collection B01.0148 Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem by Avshalom Avital.
1.2. Bottom left. Fresh raw minced beef meat on red tray isolated over white background. Copyright: Greg Gerber. © 123RF Stock Photo 22513211.
1.4. Rembrandt gone "abstract". Done by the author using Photoshop brush arbitrarily in order to transform Rembrandt's painting into an "abstract" or pictorial hamburger. One hardly needs any artistic or other talent to do that.
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List of illustrations per chapter Illustrations in chapter one 1.1. Top left. White with brown cow on autumn green meadow. Copyright: Darya Petrenko. © 123RF Stock Photo 16657346. 1.2. Bottom left. Fresh raw minced beef meat on red tray isolated over white background. Copyright: Greg Gerber. © 123RF Stock Photo 22513211. 1.3. Top right, Rembrandt van Rijn. St. Peter in Prison (St. Peter Kneeling), 1631. Oil on panel, 59 x 48 cm. Gift of Michael and Judy Steinhardt, New York to AFIM, The Israel Museum Collection B01.0148. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem by Avshalom Avital. 1.4. Rembrandt gone "abstract". Done by the author using Photoshop brush arbitrarily in order to transform Rembrandt's painting into an "abstract" or pictorial hamburger. One hardly needs any artistic or other talent to do that. 1.5. Artist: Claude Monet (1840­1926) Title: Haystacks, (Sunset). 1891. Medium: Oil on canvas. Current location: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. wikidata:Q49133. Accession number: 25.112. Inscriptions: Signature: bottom left - in red. Notes: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, online database. Source: Photographer Unknown. Wikimedia, Public domain. 1.6. Title: Untitled - First Abstraction, 1910 (pen, ink & w/c on paper) Creator: Kandinsky, Wassily (1866-1944) Nationality: Russian Location: Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France Medium: pen, ink and watercolour on paper. Date: 1910 (C20th) Dimensions: 49x64 cms Credit: Untitled - First Abstraction, 1910 (pen, ink & w/c on paper), Kandinsky, Wassily (1866-1944) / Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France / Bridgeman Images. Image number XIR156895.
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1.7. Piet Mondrian (1872­1944) Title Blossoming Apple Tree, 1912. Oil on canvas. Dimensions Height: 78.5 cm (30.9 in). Width: 107.5 cm (42.3 in). Current location: Gemeentemuseum Den Haag. Accession number 55-1934 .Place of creation Paris. Object history: From circa 1913 until 1934: Conrad Kickert (1882-1965), Paris. 1934: Given to the Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, The Hague, by Conrad Kickert, Paris. References: Gemeentemuseum Den Haag online catalogue, as Bloeiende appelboom. Bildarchiv Foto Marburg, Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur, object 20360867, as Blьhender Apfelbaum. Source/Photographer Unknown. Wikimedia, Public domain. 1.8. Piet Mondrian (1872­1944). Composition No.IV. 1914. Oil on canvas. Dimensions 88 Ч 61 cm (34.6 Ч 24 in). Accession number 0334319. Inscriptions Signature and date bottom left [MONDRIAN.1914 Source/Photographer: Gemeentemuseum Den Haag. Wikimedia, Public domain. 1.9. Kazimir Malevich (1878­1935). Black Square,1915. 79.5x79.5 cm. Oil on linen. Source: Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Wikimedia, Public domain. 1.10 Lavender Mist: Number 1, 1950. (oil, enamel & aluminium paint on canvas. 221x299.7 cms), Pollock, Jackson (1912-56) / National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, USA / Bridgeman Images. 1.11. It is true that eggs are normally oval and off-white. But if something is oval and off-white, it is not necessarily an egg. Actually of all the eggs in this basket only one is a natural egg and all the rest are made of stone. We are easily mistaken because we reduce the egg to only two of its numerous properties and disregard the rest. Photographer: Avshalom Avital. © The author. 1.12. It is true that some Irish lasses have flowing red tresses; but if one has flowing red tresses it does not entail that one is an Irish lass. See image 1.16. Copyright: Veronika Petrova. © 123RF Stock Photo 32866649. 1.13. A flower disguised as a female insect. Wild orchid called Mirror Bee Orchid (Ophrys speculum speculum or Ophrys ciliata). Arrabida mountains, Sesimbra, Portugal. Photographer: Armando Frazao. © 123RF Stock Photo 19547565. 1.14. A fish disguised as floating seaweed. Leafy seadragon also known as Glauert's seadragon. Copyright: Krzysztof Wiktor. © 123RF Stock Photo.
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1.15. A plant disguised as stone. Aizoaceae Lithops Aucampiae. Lithops, called also Flowering stones, pebble plants or living stones. Copyright: Philip Bird. © 123RF Stock Photo 22150390. 1.16. Right. Red Irish setter dog. Copyright: Veronika Petrova © 123RF Stock Photo 32866649 1.17. Top. A well camouflaged insect. Spotted praying mantis, on leaves in Tamil Nadu, South India. Copyright: petervick167. © 123RF Stock Photo 20855579. 1.18. Bottom. Red fish assimilated in red coral. Sea Whip Goby Bryaninops. Copyright: Christopher Brandl. © 123RF Stock Photo 25934318. 1.19. Side view of female kudu antelope with bird over back. Due to its coloring this antelope effectively blends into the background especially if observed from a distance. Copyright: Francisco De Casa Gonzalez. © 123RF Stock Photo 28026686. 1.20. Lion in Tanzania national park. Copyright: mhgallery © 123RF Stock Photo 26214108. For both the antelope and the lion camouflage is crucial but for opposite reasons. For the antelope camouflage is a means of hiding from the carnivores. For the predators camouflage is necessary in order to take its prey by surprise; otherwise chances for a kill become slim and risky for the predator. 1.21. Top. One of these two leaves is a butterfly. 1.22. Bottom. The dark "leaf" unfolds into splendid wings. © Ofer Raviv. The two photos are reproduced here by kind permission of Ofer Raviv who was my student. 1.23. Top. Frog hiding in the autumn leaves perfectly camouflaged. Copyright: Iegor Khimchenko. © 123RF Stock Photo 23710425. 1.24. Bottom. Yemen chameleon isolated on black background. Copyright: Pavlo Baishev. © 123RF Stock Photo 23900250.
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1.25. Cuttlefish changing color. These pictures of the same individual were taken only a few seconds apart. This broadclub cuttlefish (Sepia latimanus) can go from camouflage tans and browns (top) to yellow with dark highlights (bottom) in less than a second. Cuttlefish, especially Sepia apama, can change not only the colors, form and textures of their bodies, they can even change their bodies instantaneously to look like females of their kind so they can join the 'harem' of the alpha male and mate with the females when the big macho is not watching (Ebert, 2005). They are rightly called the chameleons of sea but they are far more sophisticated at disguise and camouflage than any chameleon. © Nick Hobgood, Wikipedia, Creative Commons. 1.26. Rembrandt Harmenszoon. van Rijn (1606-69). Rembrandt Self Portrait, as the Apostle Paul. (oil on canvas). Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. The Netherlands. ©The Bridgman Art Library, DGA 4349811 1.27. Pierre Soulages, (b. 1919). "Peinture 162 x 114,5 cm, 30 Novembre 1956", 1956. © ADAGP, Paris 2013 Franz Marc Museum/AKG IMAGES. 1.28. Auguste Rodin (1840­1917), The Thinker, Musйe Rodin. Phtographer: Wilburn White. © 123RF Stock Photo. 3202613 1.29. Anthony Caro (b. 1924), Back Cover Flat (1974), Steel, rusted & varnished, 71 x 98 x 30"/180.5 x 249 x 76cm. Copyright is Barford Sculptures Ltd.Photo credit is to Valerie Burton. 1.30. Michelangelo (1475-1564) on copper engraving from 1841. Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. Engraved by G.P.Lorenzi from a drawing by A.Tricca after a self-portrait by Michelangelo. Copyright: Georgios Kollidas. © 123RF Stock Photo 9247234. 1.31. Details from the background of fig. 1.30. 1.32. (Bottom right) Abstract pencil scribbles background collection. Paper texture. Copyright: Liliia Rudchenko. © 123RF Stock Photo 27998052. 1.33. Details from the background of fig. 1.32. This scribble is hardly distinguishable from some works of Twombly or millions of those done by students during boring lectures. 1.34. Examples of "monochrome:" This is a method of coloring cloth, furniture, walls and doors, not paintings. It lacks all the characteristics of painting except the trivial fact that it has one color. Similarly, if you have a sack of concrete that does not mean you have a house. Therefore all cases of monochrome are graphic design of the poorest sort and not art.
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1.35. A Chinese tea set which is clearly not functional. Such dishes were made for the sake of amusement and irony. Photographer: Avshalom Avital. © The Author. I am grateful to Mr. Zhao Zheng Xu and his wife, who gave me this tea set in my visit to Xian in October, 2011. 1.36. Press citron design. Philippe Starck Juicer. Anti-functional design. Photographer: isifoto . ©iStockphoto #4707882 1.37. Nude woman (Venus of Willendorf ), from Willendorf, Austria, ca. 28,00025,000 BCE. Limestone, 4 1/4 high. Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. De Agostini Picture Library / E. Lessing / The Bridgeman Art Library 1.38. Tools set forth in prehistoric cave windows Pinar (GRANADA). Copyright: Paco Ayala. © 123RF Stock Photo 4319182. 1.39. (Left) the number "2". 1.40. (right) Yellow lemons hanging on tree. Copyright: InГicio Pires. ©123RF Stock Photo. 12980837. 1.41. Magritte, Renй 1898-1967. The legend of the centuries), 1950. Oil on canvas, 55 x 46 cm. Private collection. Credit line: akg-images. 1.42. "Broken Chair" monument in the "Place des Nations Unies" square in Geneva, Switzerland. Broken Chair is a monumental sculpture in wood by the Swiss artist Daniel Berset, constructed by the carpenter Louis Genиve. Copyright: Victor Pelaez Torres ©123RF Stock Photo. 10780936 1.43. Alice in wonderland looking into a dollhouse. Copyright: anyka. ©123RF Stock Photo. 9492498.
Illustrations in Chapter two 2.1. Hand-tools are extensions of hands. Design originated in tool making for instrumental functions. A hand-tool is an extension of the hand and a specific case of body tools, all of which are extensions of some organ of our body. Photo ©: the author. Photographer: Avshalom Avital. 2.2. Levels of reality. I am indebted to my ex-student Yael Horowitz for making this beautiful illustration of levels.
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2.3. Dissectors: Handaxe (Top), Spheroid (Left), Pick (Right), Chopper (Bottom) Ubeidiya, Lower Palaeolithic, 1,500,000 y.o. Photo. © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. 2.4. Kitchen knives on the brown wooden table. Copyright: garloon. © 123RF Stock Photo 1754118. 2.5. Ax chopping wood on chopping block. Copyright: Deyan Georgiev. © 123RF Stock Photo 23158516. 2.6. A saw is sawing through the wooden board. Copyright: Atthidej Nimmanhaemin.© 123RF Stock Photo 13805911. 2.7. Funny young girl cutting her hair with scissors. Copyright: Igor Dutina, 123 ©RF Stock Photo 6617509. 2.8. An assortment of hand-tools. All hand-tools are various extensions of hand. Copyright: citalliance. © 123RF Stock Photo. 12352911 2.9. Close up of a pregnant woman's stomach, isolated on black background. Copyright: Gary Steele. © 123RF Stock Photo 8131369. 2.10. Until a few decades ago, Bedouins at the Negev of Israel used the camel's stomach as a container for water. The photo is reproduced here by kind permission of Dr. Victor Frostig. © Dr. Victor Frostig 2.11. Big bottle for cooler. Copyright: Polina Ryazantseva © 123RF Stock Photo. 13750511 2.12. Top. Young woman cook isolated on white. Copyright: Elnur Amikishiyev. © 123RF Stock Photo 27553532. 2.13. Bottom. Set of sequence sizing of green ceramic bowls. This set of bowels is concrete example of recursion, nesting and self-embedding or hierarchy. Copyright: Worakitti Saichol. © 123RF Stock Photo 19786901 2.14. Green plastic cutlery tray with checked cutlery and wooden spoons on wooden table. Copyright: belchonock. © 123RF Stock Photo 17578427. 2.15. Top. Grinding stone with fresh herbs Copyright: jaggat. © 123RF Stock Photo 5695474 2.16. Bottom. Pureed strawberries in blender Copyright: Michael Gray. © 123RF Stock Photo 12783368
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2.17. Katsan, Namibia - April 26: Bushmen in hunt in the Katsan place on April 26, 2008, Namibia. All clothes are extensions of skin: Early version. Copyright: Alexander Mitrofanov. © 123RF Stock Photo. 8945156 2.18. Collection of females dress isolated on white Copyright: alexkalina. © 123RF Stock Photo. 4701969 2.19. Professional workers, businessman, cook, pilot, doctor, builders. Despite the vast differences of the semiotic loading of these costumes, eventually they are all body tools and therefor fashion design is design, not art. Copyright: Andriy Popov. © 123RF Stock Photo. 17738995 2.20. Odessa, Ukraine - May 9 Parade Celebrating Victory Day in the Second World War 1941-1945 Veterans and soldiers May 9, 2012 in Odessa, Ukraine. Copyright: agusyonok. © 123RF Stock Photo 26643979 2.21. Right. Detail of the head and upper torso portions of a silk burqa. © Steve Evans from India and USA Creative Commons. 2.22. Bottom. Woman lying on the sand at the ocean coast. Copyright: Ivan Mikhaylov © 123RF Stock Photo 11368219. 2.23. The village Zumaglia near Millan. © F. Ceragioli. Wikimedia Commons. 2.24. Top. Man standing in front of a cave entrance. Photographer- andreiuc88: © 123RF Stock Photo. 11386256 2.25. Stone Age hut of reeds at the lake. © Tt | Dreamstime.com 2.26. A beautiful and colorful African round Ndebele hut in South Africa. In the Ndebele tribe only the women decorate their houses. Copyright: Anke Van Wyk. © 123RF Stock Photo. 933016 2.27. Top. Medieval dry stone hut in north of Catalonia Spain. ©123RF Stock Photo. 13472545. 2.28. Middle. Upscale single family house on Head Island, South Carolina. Photographer: Jim Pruitt. © 123RF Stock Photo 11379619 2.29. Right. Facade of Old Scandinavian Farm House. Copyright: abstrand. © 123RF Stock Photo 2646706. 2.30. Right. Nasrid Palace-Alhambra ,Granada in Spain. Copyright: Jacek Cudak. © 123RF Stock Photo. 2.31. Bottom. Interior architecture design of church, Italy. Copyright: kubais. ©123RF Stock Photo. 10657747.
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2.32. Brain-tools are all symbols systems; visual, verbal or formal. They are the precondition of body tools. In a larger sense, they are the indispensable condition of culture and all of its domains including design and technology. 2.33. Top. Piet Mondrian (1872-1944). Composition with Red, Blue and Yellow, 1930. Private: Collection /Giraudon / The Bridgeman Art Library. 2.34. Bottom. Stella, Frank (b.1936) Gray Scramble (single), 1969 (acrylic on canvas), 175.3x175.3 cms. Private Collection. Mayor Gallery, London, The Bridgeman Art Library. 2..35 Illustration of hand ax. Copyright: Denis Barbulat © 123RF Stock Photo 10397557
Illustrations in Chapter three 3.1. Front cover of Edible Art: Forty-Eight Garnishes for the Professional by David Paul Larousse. Published by John Wiley & Sons, INC. 1986. This photo is reproduced here by kind permission of John Wiley & Sons, INC. © John Wiley & Sons, INC. 3.2. Marcel Duchamp. Urinal (Fountain). The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. 1917/1964 (Replica of 1917 original). The Vera, Silvia, and Arturo Schwartz Collection of Dada and Surrealist Art. Photo: Avshalom Avital. 3.3. Replica of The Spear Thrower of La Madeleine. © Photo and caption are reproduced here by kind permission of Occoquan Paleotechnics LLC, 3.4. Perforated baton with low relief horse, Late Magdalenian, about 12,500 years old, from the rockshelter of La Madeleine, Dordogne, France. Made from reindeer antler. © Author: johnbod, Creative Commons. 3.5. Mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Dayr al-Bari, Thebes, Egypt, near Valley of the Kings. Designed and built by Senenmut, the steward and architect of Queen Hatshepsut about 3500 years ago. This is one of the earliest cases in which we know the name of the architect who designed a monumental building. Photographer: Martin Molcan. © 123RF Stock Photo. 17666387
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3.6. Top. Spartan helmet. Image. Copyright: Thomas Sztanek. © 123RF Stock Photo 6751295. 3.7. Bottom. 3000 year old pottery from the town of Ancient Thira on the island of Santorini Greece. Copyright: Brenda Kean. © 123RF Stock Photo 13946398 3.8. Top. Engraved ochre from Blombos Cave Project, c. 75 - 80,000 year old. © Chris Henshilwood. This image is reproduced here by kind permission of The Center for Development Studies, University of Bergen. 3.9. Prehistoric carved lion, Vogelherd Cave, Germany. The figurine is engraved with very similar geometric crosshatches found in Blombos and dated at 30,000-36,000 years. © Credit: Javier Trueba/MSF/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY 3.10. Engravings made on a Pseudodon fossil whose origin is in Trinil (Java, Indonesia). Photographer: Wim Lustenhouwer Images 3.10 and 3.11 are reproduced here by kind permission of Josephine Joordens, VU University Amsterdam. 3.11. Bottom. Detail of 3.10 Photographer: Wim Lustenhouwer. 3.12. Illustration - Wild horse. Copyright: Andreas Berheide. © 123RF Stock Photo 10825085 3.13. Any circle is a specific case of the formula P=2R, hence it is a particular, not a universal. As such it is design, not art. 3.14. Op. by Slavik Jablan, 2000. Both graphics 3.10 and 3.11 by Slavik Jablan were inspired by the possibility of using a very simple modular tile: a square with a set of diagonal strips or the same square designed as a Truchet tile. Such a module (called by the author "Op-tile") has been used in art from prehistoric times (Paleolithic, Mezin, Ukraine, 23 000 B.C.), as well as in Op-art. The graphic "Op" is an exercise on this theme, based on the use of complementary colors and transparency effect obtained in this way. "Turn" is a modular black-white puzzle based on Op-tile, processed in Paint Shop Pro using geometrical effects (Twirl). © Slavik Jablan
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3.15. Turn. by Slavik Jablan, 2010. Slavik Jablan was a professor of mathematics at ICT College of Vocational Studies (Belgrade, Serbia) and the editor of the online journal Visual Mathematics, (VISMATH). Prof. Jablan was a dear friend and colleague and he granted me the permission to reproduce his two works in this book shortly before he passed away. © Slavik Jablan 3.16. Colored figure from fractals. Copyright: Artyom Rudenko. © 123RF Stock Photo 6428405. 3.17. Leonardo Design manufactures wrought iron furniture, lighting and accessories. The versatility of each design encourages endless placements including formal, informal and outdoor furniture. We always try to be innovative, creating new forms, using new materials and discovering new technologies. http://www.leonardodesign.co.za/contact.htm © The image is reproduced here by kind permission of Leonardo Design. 3.18. A pair of Clovis points found by Dick Daugherty measuring about nine inches long near East Wenatchee, and dated ca. 11.000 years BP. "They are the largest ever found, and not of the common chert but of translucent chalcedony ­ true works of art". (Mehringer, 1988) (my italics.) Photographer: Warren Morgan. © National Geographic. 3.19. The Doors of Paradise in Battistero di San Giovanni, Duomo Cathedral, Florence, Italy. Photographer: Keith Levit, ©123rf Stock Photo 180665 3.20. Detail of the Doors of Paradise in Battistero di San Giovanni, Duomo Cathedral, Florence, Italy. Photographer: Kiril Stanchev, ©123rf Stock Photo 13255059 3.21. Vatican Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo Buonarroti. Rome, Italy. Copyright: fefo. © 123RF Stock Photo 7086439. 3.22. Pierre Armand, Avalanch (1990), Tel-Aviv University campus. © Yair Talmor\Wikimedia Commons. The image is reproduced here by kind permission of Tel-Aviv University Gallery.
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3.23. Top. Roberto Sambonet, Pesciera / Fish-kettle, steel, 1957. Sambonet SpA production. Courtesy Roberto Sambonet Archive, Milan Photo by Serge Libiszewski 3.24. Anish Kapoor. Chicago, IL (2004). Cloud Gate and Chicago skyline on October 6, 2011 in Chicago, Illinois. Cloud Gate is the artwork of Anish Kapoor as the famous landmark of Chicago in Millennium Park. Photographer: Songquan Deng. © 123RF Stock Photo. 12559717 3.25. Description: Plastik ,,Balancing Tools" des Bildhauers Claes Oldenburg am Vitra Design Museum. Date 22 October 2006. Source Own work. Author --Wladyslaw Disk © Wikimedia Creative Commons.
Illustrations in Chapter four 4.1. Natural design in the author's garden Photographed by the author. 4.2. Design by birds. Baya Weaver nests. Ploceus philippinus Weaver Bird/Finch, Tempua (Malay). Photographer: Yogesh More. © 123RF Stock Photo. 13727154, 4.3. Design by insects. Termite hill in Kenya. Photographer: Keith Levit. ©123RF Stock Photo. 7187962 4.4. Design by bees: Bees work on honeycombs. Photographer- Dmytro Smaglov: ©123RF Stock Photo. 14163857 4.5. Top, 4.6 Bottom. One of these two paintings was done by an animal and the other by a human "artist". Can you honestly tell which is which? The solution is on the next page. 4.5. This work was done by Babe, an elephant at the Niabi Zoo, Illinois. This work is reproduced here by kind permission of the Niabi Zoo. 4.6. This work was done by a human. Abstract hand drawn background. Copyright: Maria Dubova. © 123RF Stock Photo 12693503.
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4.7. Female figurine from Berekhat Ram, Golan Heights, Volcanic material 3.5 x 2.5 x 2.1 cm., Lower Paleolithic 233,000 years ago, and one of the oldest figurines ever found so far. Discovered by Prof. Naama Goren-Inbar of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Israel Antiquities Authority Accession number: IAA 1993-492. © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem 4.8. Top. Tulip Fields at Sassenheim, near Leiden, 1886 (oil on canvas), Monet, Claude (1840-1926) / Sterling & Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, USA / The Bridgeman Art Library. 4.9. Right. Le Principe du Plaisir, 1937 (oil on canvas), Magritte, Rene (18981967) / Ex-Edward James Foundation, Sussex, UK / The Bridgeman Art Library. 4.10. Top. Old vintage wooden chair and table. Photographer: Phaitoon Sutunyawatchai. © 123RF Stock Photo.: 14848655 4.11. Bottom. Suit jacket hanging on a hanger. Photographer: pitrs. © 123RF Stock Photo. 12853943 4.12. Mother and Child, c.1869 (oil on canvas), Merle, Hugues (1823-81) © Sterling & Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, USA / The Bridgeman Art Library. Art is implicative. Merle's painting is about compassion and nourishment. 4.13. Nice businesswoman in miniskirt isolated on white. Copyright: kostudio. © 123RF Stock Photo 13711142. 4.14. Hong Kong residential buildings. Copyright: Leung Cho Pan. © 123RF Stock Photo 22210576. 4.15. Vinci, Leonardo da (1452-1519). The Lady with an Ermine (Cecilia Gallerani), 1496 (oil on walnut panel). © Czartoryski Museum, Cracow, Poland. / The Bridgeman Art Library. 4.16. Old man. Photographer: Laurin Rinder © 123RF Stock Photo. 11141777 4.17. Pair of old boots isolated on the white background. Photographer: Roman Ivaschenko. © 123RF Stock -8805776 4.18. Old school car calls the 1917 the first production car built in Japan. Photographer: Ruzanna Arutyunyan. © 123RF Stock Photo. 7454131
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4.19. Top. The Procuress, Dirck van Baburen, 1622. Oil on canvas. Source/Photographer.http://cgfa.sunsite.dk Wikimedia Commons, Public domain. 4.20. Bottom. Han van Meegeren's forgery of The Procuress by Dirck van Baburen. Source: Courtauld Gallery. Wikimedia Commons, Public domain. 4.21. Unfinished automobiles in a car plant. Photographer: Rainer Plendl. © 123RF Stock Photo 8406198 4.22. Adoration of the Golden Calf, 1546 (oil on canvas), Tintoretto, Jacopo Robusti (1518-94) / Church of the Madonna dell'Orto, Venice, Italy / Cameraphoto Arte Venezia. © The Bridgeman Art Library. 4.23. Bottle opener. Phtographer: Cristi Love © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd 14926621 4.24. Top. The project of residential house. 3D image. Photographer: Valerijs Kostreckis. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd 12638686. 4.25. Bottom. Sea landscape painting - acrylic paints on hardboard. Photographer: makingfaces. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 12903253 4.26. Graphical representation of self-embedding: In the cognitive world the depth of self-embedding or recursive inclusion relations depends only on our capacity of abstraction. This depth determines the stratification of our thinking and our perception of reality. CODIS- stand for the complementarity of connectivity-disconnectivity. I am indebted to my former student Ziv Rotem-Bar who did for me this beautiful illustration. 4.27. Self-embedding of plastic bowls. © StockFreeImages.com 6281389 4.28. Graphical illustration of metaphor by the author. 4.29. Ancient Assyrian wall carvings of lion-headed men. About 645-635 B.C.E From Nineveh.Copyright: kated6. ©123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 12341697. 4.30. Top. Magritte, Rene (1898-1967). The Explanation, 1952 (oil on canvas). Private Collection. The Bridgeman Art Library. © ADAGP, Paris 2012. 4.31. Bottom. A student's chair. Photographer: Joel Rapoport
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4.32. Girl with a Pearl Earring, c.1665-6 (oil on canvas), Vermeer, Jan (Johannes) (1632-75) / Mauritshuis, The Hague, The Netherlands / The Bridgeman Art Library. 4.33. Traffic street road signs clip. All-free-download.com 4.34. Flags. All-free-download.com 4.35. Abstract 3d illustration of network structure concept. Copyright: Maxim Kazmi. ©123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 9351257. 4.36. Unicorn Horse - A unicorn buck prances in the magical forest full of beautiful flowers and trees. ©123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 21017760. 4.37. Collection of objects over white background. Copyright: Coroiu Octavian. ©123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 19357541 4.38. What do you see? The flower of an artichoke, 3d abstract color flower or star; microbiological organic shape; virus macro, an ornament for old violet women's hat? Copyright: katisa ©123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 19881379. 4.39. Without images and concept our reality would be totally chaotic and our cognitive world would be impossible. (Illustration by the author). 4.40. Our images, concepts and theories are means of classification and ordering of reality. (Illustration by the author). 4.41. Reality keeps changing throughout the history of culture because the concepts and theories with which we interpret and map reality keep changing. (Illustration by the author). 4.42. Top, right. What is the name of this book? ©The photo of the book is reproduced here by kind permission of Raymond Smullyan. 4.43. Bottom right. Brown Labrador puppy on yellow ground. Copyright: Vladislav Ageshin. ©123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 8271210. 4.44. Bottom left."an abstract painting" done by the author, not Jackson Pollock. It was done in less than one minute by splashing few colors on a piece of cardboard, using three syringes filled with my children's water colors. This great painting was signed ­ Mastul, meaning "stoned" in Arabic. Objects and all the so-called "abstract paintings" have no reference and no self-reference. Moreover we have to use words in order to refer to them such as "abstract expressionism" whatever it means.
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4.45. Monotheism. (Illustration by the author) 4.46. All Gizah Pyramids. ©Ricardo Liberato\Creative Commons [Wikimedia] 4.47. Space landscape near active black hole star with accretion disc. Copyright: PaulPaladin. ©123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 22543619. 4.48. Rose. There are at least 150 know species of roses and thousands of hybrids made from them. Photographed by the author. 4.49. Sculpture "Janus" in the Summer Gardens of St. Petersburg. Russia. In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus is the god of beginnings and transitions, thence also of gates, doors, passages, endings and time. Copyright: Alexander Trofimov ©123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 24578012 4.50. Top. A holon is a systemic entity. It includes all the subsystems\holons bellow it, but it is included by the subsystems or holons above it. Indeed, a system is a set of interconnected holons, or a stratified holon. 4.51. Bottom. In the systemic world, destruction or change of any holon in the system, affects the whole system, because every holon is connected, directly or indirectly, to all other holons in that system. This is true for organisms and figurative paintings as well because they are systemic. This is not true for most objects. 4.52. Urban blossom. Photographer: Mark Stahl. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 3284748. 4.53. Top. Colorful DNA strings under microscope. Photographer: Ivan Cholakov. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd.3351600. 4.54. Bottom. Paul Gauguin (1848­1903) Landscape from Pont-Aven, Brittany, Date 1888. Medium oil on canvas. 90.5 Ч 71 cm (35.6 Ч 28 in). Current location: Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek Copenhagen. Source/Photographer The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by Directmedia Publishing GmbH. Wikimedia Commons, Public domain. 4.55. Top. Black kitchen utensils on silver hooks, on wooden background. Photographer: serezniy. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 17515134 4.56. Middle. Winter warm lady's clothes on a white background. Photographer: Andrey Armyagov. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 7905331. 4.57. Bottom. A beautiful Spanish apartment building with lovely glass windows. Photographer: Darryl Brooks. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 5414503.
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4.58. Top. spiral galaxy NGC6744. Systemic order. Photographer: Wolfgang Kloehr. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 4041720. 4.59. Middle. Model of atom. Photographer: gl0ck33. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 10253281 4.60. Bottom. Bacteria. Photographer: Sony Sivanandan. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 10629226 4.61. Top. Sequoia. Photographer: Galyna Andrushko. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 8232637 4.62. Middle. Mossy wall. Photographer: Suchart Somboontakoeng. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 15282102. 4.63. Bottom. Mom and baby Humpback whales swim through clear tropical waters. Photographer: Corey Ford. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 4661925. 4.64. Top. A close-up of numerous types of worn river rock (stones) Copyright: Vince Clements. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 4967089. 4.65. Middle. Background of red brick wall pattern texture: serial order. Photographer: Danil Roudenko. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd .14048233 4.66. Bottom. Vintage, retro metal kitchen device for chopping meat- grinder. assembling the parts of this device is dictated by its mechanism design. Photographer: Aleksandr Volkov. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 12996537 4.67. Top. Men shoes. Photographer: evaletova. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 11514414 Discrete entities. 4.68. Middle. Empty university class room. Discrete and serially ordered entities. Photographer: Truembie. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 9842331 4.69. Bottom. Plates, glasses, cup and cutlery on wooden table: Discrete entities. Photogarpher: Olga Yastremska. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 11954391 4.70. Heinrich Bьnting (1545 ­ 1606). Stylized world map in the shape of a clover-leaf (the three classical continents of Europe, Asia, Africa), with Jerusalem at the center. Wikimedia Commons. 4.71. Babylonian map of the world, ca 500 BCE. The earth is a flat disk surrounded by cosmic ocean. Courtesy of the British Museum. Map showing Assyria, Babylonia and Armenia. Wikimedia Commons. 4.72. Evolution of the universe in the past 13.7 billion years. Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team. Wikimedia Commons.
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4.73. Top. Holbein the Younger, Hans (1497/8-1543) Portrait of Erasmus, 1523 (oil and egg tempera on panel), / Private Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library 4.74. Bottom. Paintings depicting mammoth and cattle, from the Chapel of the Mammoths (cave painting), Paleolithic / Grotte de Pech Merle, Lot, France. The Bridgeman Art Library. 4.75. Top. Two very tall high rise buildings in Mississauga Ontario. Photographer: kurtvate. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 11000614 4.76. Bottom. A row of terraced houses in Glasgow West End, Scotland. Photographer: Claudio Divizia. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 8071003 4.77. Top. A row of summer clothes hanging on the rack. Copyright : satina. ©123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 12657903 4.78. Suburban culdesac homes aerial in the eastern United States: Discrete entities in serial order. Photogarpher: klotz. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 13419096 4.79. Big aged tree in a park with red leaves during fall. © 123RF Stock Photo Ltd. 15329327 4.80. 3D Printer by Formlabs. From the designer's point of view, the photo on the screen is not a work of art but a virtual model of the actual model built by the machine according to an algorithm. Photographer: Andy Ryan. © Formlabs. 4.81. Workshop of Hans Holbein the Younger 1497/8 (German). Title Portrait of Henry VIII. Date 1537 ­ 1547. Oil on canvas. Height: 2,390 mm (94.09 in). Width: 1,345 mm (52.95 in). Walker Art Gallery. Source/Photographer eAHC0d0WiemXSA at Google Cultural Institute, zoom level maximum. Wikimedia Commons, Public domain. 4.82. Top. The Scream, 1893 (oil, tempera & pastel on cardboard), Munch, Edvard (1863-1944) / Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, Norway / The Bridgeman Art Library © The Munch Museum/ The Munch-Ellingsen Group/ BONO, Oslo 2013 4.83. Bottom. Illustration of a red armchair on a white background. photographer: Viktoriya Malova. © 123RF Stock Photo 13285876 4.84. Graphic illustration of analytic and synthetic tendencies in language and design.
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Illustrations in chapter five 5.1. The Adoration of the Golden Calf - Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad of Landsberg (12th century). Date: circa 1180 Source: Hortus Deliciarum. Author: Herrad von Landsberg Photographer: Dnalor_01. Wikipedia, Public domain. 5.2. Asa destroys the idols and forbids worship in local shrines. Date: 1372. Source: Petrus Comestor's Bible Historiale (manuscript "Den Haag, MMW, 10 B 23" Author: An illustrator of Petrus Comestor's Bible Historiale, France, 1372. Wikimedia, Public domain. 5.3. Second Temple Model of the ancient Jerusalem (Israel). Copyright: flik47. © 123RF Stock Photo 17163936. 5.4. Magdala is the name of ancient town located on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. In the synagogue from the time of the second Temple, a rectangular stone was found with an engraving of the seven branched candelabra. Photograph: Hanay. Creative Commons. 5.5. "Mona Lisa of the Galilee". Ancient mosaic at The Synagogue. Floor in Tzippori (Sepphoris), Israel. © Tomisti, Creative Commons. 5.6. 14th century German illuminated Haggadah for Passover. Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain. {{PD-Art}}. (Author and source are not mentioned in this Wikimedia page. User: Bender235. 5.7. Hanukkah Lamp. Christian Gottlieb Muche, 1717-1772; Master 1746. Breslau (Wroclaw, Poland), 1761-72. Silver: repoussй, engraved, traced, punched, parcel-gilt, and cast. 5 15/16 Ч 11 1/16 Ч 1 7/8 in. (15.1 Ч 28.1 Ч 4.8 cm) The Jewish Museum, New York. Public domain. Purchase: Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Klingenstein Gift, JM 26-64. 5.8. Jewish ornament in interior of old synagogue in Jerusalem, Israel. Copyright: Emanuel Kaplinsky © 123RF Stock Photo 17703181 5.9. Michelangelo's Pietа in St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican. © Stanislav Traykov.Wikimedia Commons
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5.10. The Duck-Rabbit Illusion. Description: English: "Kaninchen und Ente" ("Rabbit and Duck"), the earliest known version of the duck­rabbit illusion, from the 23 October 1892 issue of Fliegende Blдtter. http://diglit.ub.uniheidelberg.de/diglit/fb97/0147?sid=8af6d821538a1926abf44c9a95c40951&zoomlevel=2). It is captioned, "Welche Thiere gleichen einander am meisten?" ("Which animals are most like each other?") Date: 23 October 1892. Source: Detail from scanned page of Fliegende Blдtter, full page: Flegende-Blatter-1892.png. Author: Unknown. © Wikimedia Commons, Public domain. 5.11. Top. Part of the terra-cotta army at Xian, an army of thousands of terracotta armed soldiers, chariots and horses also made of terra-cotta. They were built and buried near the grave of the first Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (260-210 BCE) because of the belief that this army would guard the Emperor in the next world. For the Emperor, his contemporaries and builders of this army, this was not a giant work of art but an army, the equivalent of a real army in this world. Photographer: The author. 5.12. Bottom. This Photo was taken by Robin Chen in summer 2005. It shows one of the terra cotta soldiers and his terra cotta horse. © Robin Chen. Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain. 5.13. Jizo statues at Zj-ji temple in Tokyo. In the big garden of this temple there are many sad lines in which each statuette is a tragedy of some mother. Photograph: The author. 5.14. Jizo statues at Zj-ji temple in Tokyo. When I photographed this figurine in the spring of 2011, the woolen clothing in which the figurine was dressed appeared fairly new and the flowers looked completely fresh. These two facts attest that for the temple workers and the mothers who maintain these figurines, take care that they will not feel cold and that they have fresh flowers beside them, these figurines are not works of art but a substitute for the lost baby. Photograph: The author. 5.15. Late 14th-early 15th century icon illustrating the "Triumph of Orthodoxy" under the Byzantine empress Theodora over iconoclasm. Patriarch Methodios I of Constantinople is on the top right, close to the Virgin. Date: 1375-1425. Source: National Icon Collection (18), British Museum. Author Anonymous. Photographer: Alexandar.R. Wikipedia Public domain.
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5.16. Destruction of icons in Zurich 1524. Source: "Panorama de la Renaissance" by Margaret Aston. Author: Anonymous. Public domain, Wikimedia Commons. 5.17. Top. A statue of Buddha. Credit: Drents Museum. 5.18. Bottom. A scan reveals the body of a nearly 1,000-year-old Buddhist monk inside the statue of Buddha. Credit: Drents Museum. The two images 5.17 and 5.18 are reproduced here by the kind permission of Drents Museum, Holland. 5.19. Description: Bernese Collection of the Historisches Museum Bern. Fragments from Berna cathedral, Pietа of a bohemian manufacture (Prague), 1400-10 c. Date: 22 May 2014, 13:01:40. Source: Own work. Author: Sailko. © Wikimedia Commons 5.20. Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht - evidence of former Iconoclasm still in evidence. Date: 2003. Source: Own work. Author: Arktos. © Wikipedia Creative commons 5.21. Photo of Turkish tiles, found in Rustempasa Mosque, in Istanbul Turkey. © Stock Images (Dreamstime): Turkish Tiles by Sufi70. ID:4245444. 5.22. Tiled entrance into Jame (Friday) mosque in Yazd, Iran. Copyright: Ilia Torlin. © 123RF Stock Photo 6088036. 5.23. Nasrid Palace- Alhambra, Granada in Spain. Probably one of the most sophisticated, profound and beautiful works ever done in design. In this work all mindprints or meta-structures of mind are present and in the most spectacular way ever done in design. Copyright: Jacek Cudak. © 123RF Stock Photo 10938349 5.24. Top. Fine architectural detail at the Alhambra Palace in Southern Spain. Photographer: Yves Remedios. Source: Flickr. Creative Commons. 5.25. Bottom left. Folio from a Koran. Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper. H: 41.1 W: 31.6 cm. Egypt. Date 14th century. Source http://www.asia.si.edu/collections/zoom/F1930.57.jpg Author: in Mamluk dynasty. Public Domain. {{PD-1923}} Wikimedia Commons.
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5.26. Bottom right. Artist Unknown. The marriage procession of Dara Shikoh. Illustrated manuscript. Date 1740s. Dimensions Height: 585.8 mm (23.06 in). Width: 380 mm (14.96 in). Current location National Museum, Delhi. Source/Photographer bgHzb-tIM0fEkA at Google Cultural Institute, Wikimedia Commons, Public domain. 5. 27. The destruction of idols at the Kaaba. Muhammad (top left and mounted at right) is represented as a flaming aureole. From Hamla-i haydarо ("Haydar's Battle"), Kashmir, 1808. Source: Histoire Geographie 5ieme Nathan. Author Unknown. Wikimedia, Public domain. 5.28. The Taller Buddha of Bamiyan before (left picture) and after destruction (right) by the Taliban in March 2001. To distinguish the two statues, the taller and smaller Buddhas (55 m and 37 m) from each other: Look at the form of the statues niche. The niche of the taller Buddha is much more precise. Date: 24 October 2009, 14:09 (UTC). Source: Buddha_Bamiyan_1963.jpg Buddhas_of_Bamiyan4.jpg. Author: Buddha_Bamiyan_1963.jpg: UNESCO/A Lezine; Original uploader was Tsui at de.wikipedia. Later version(s) were uploaded by Liberal Freemason at de.wikipedia. Buddhas_of_Bamiyan4.jpg: Carl Montgomery Derivative work: Zaccarias. Wikipedia, Creative Commons.
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Index
A a priori condition, 115 Abas, S. J, 395 Abraham, 312 abstract expressionism, 32, 386 abstract expressionist, 32, 201 abstract geometry, 29 abstraction, 7, 18, 19, 24, 25, 27, 29, 32, 35, 56, 57, 60, 65, 66, 70, 136, 154, 161, 171, 193, 194, 198, 211, 216, 227, 228, 247, 249, 263, 270, 285, 293, 294, 350, 352, 369, 385 action painting, 32 aesthetic experience, 186 aesthetic value, 55, 246 aesthetics, 12, 30, 34, 70, 129, 150, 151, 173, 186, 187 Agobard of Lyons, 341 Al-Aqsa, 349 Albers, 108 Alhambra, 347, 348, 351, 357, 379, 392, 401 Alloway, L, 395 alphabetic writing, 144 ambiguity, 169, 222, 239, 290, 308, 341 Amish, 325 analytic, 18, 216, 217, 294, 296, 389 analyzers, 83, 85 Andrea Pisano, 178 aniconic, 305, 324, 335, 361, 366 animal art, 183, 193, 200, 201 animals, 25, 37, 38, 39, 59, 60, 79, 97, 104, 108, 115, 119, 124, 134, 137, 145, 155, 161, 162, 185, 186, 193, 196, 198,
201, 202, 203, 210, 216, 225, 227, 247, 274, 350, 357, 366, 371, 391 Anish Kapoor, 186, 188, 383 anthropology, 122 anthropomorphic, 121, 122, 136, 137 Anthroposophy, 25 Anti-functional design, 52, 377 antinomy, 66, 244 apes, 113, 199, 210 aphairesis, 18 applicative, 27, 214 arabesques, 347 Arch of Titus in Rome, 317 architecture, 24, 27, 54, 91, 96, 97, 102, 139, 172, 195, 206, 207, 211, 269, 276, 298, 307, 319, 348, 349, 366, 379 Aristotelian, 198, 277 Aristotle, 18, 111, 116, 276 Armand, 181, 182 art critics, 182, 185 art dealers, 12 Art Nouveau, 272 art of the future, 21, 36, 279, 284 Arthur Koestler, 252 artificial intelligence, 106, 368 artistic value, 87, 130, 132, 164, 182, 225, 236, 287 Asa king of Judea, 313 Avital, 1, 5, 3, 7, 11, 17, 18, 21, 27, 34, 36, 54, 70, 108, 112, 119, 122, 128, 149, 158, 187, 194, 199, 206, 280, 301, 352, 355, 367, 373, 374, 377, 380, 395, 396 B Babylon, 316
406
Index
Bartos, F.M, 402 Basic Research, 173 Bateson, G, 396 Batler, M., 396 Bauhaus, 27, 130, 276 beauty, 24, 25, 129, 142, 164, 186, 187, 212, 329, 348, 351 Bednarik, R.G., 396 beginning of art, 151 behaviorism, 12 behaviorist art, 12 behaviorists, 115 Being, 111, 116, 122, 127, 129, 144, 339, 353, 355 Belting, H, 396 Bertrand Russell, 66, 244 Besanзon, A, 304, 397 Bezalel the son of Uri, 315 Bible, 312, 313, 316, 318, 356, 390, 403 Big Bang, 36 bilateral symmetry, 119 birth of design, 75 Bishop Serenus of Marseilles, 336 Blombos, 120, 151, 153, 156, 157, 158, 161, 162, 381, 399 body art, 135 body decoration, 91, 121, 157, 158, 206 body-tools, 69, 72, 87, 88, 90, 96, 97, 102, 107, 108, 109, 112, 202, 307 Boethius, 18 Boko Haram, 357 Botticelli, 13, 24, 58, 185, 212 bowerbirds, 196 brain-tools, 20, 55, 56, 69, 71, 72, 74, 76, 87, 89, 96, 98, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 113, 126, 130, 132, 134, 135, 170, 175, 178, 182, 188, 202, 204, 205, 232, 237, 241, 246, 306, 307, 351, 356 Brookes, P, A., 397 Brooks, V, 400 Buddhas of Bamyan, 364 Buddhist, 332, 392
Byzantine, 330, 338, 349, 391, 398, 399, 401 Byzantine iconoclasm, 338 Byzantium, 338 C caliph Abd al-Malik, 352 Callaway, E., 397 calligraphy, 347, 351, 352 camouflage, 5, 37, 39, 375, 376 Canaanite idols, 312 Carey, M, 350 Carl Djerassi, 214 Catholicism, 324 Chaim Soutine, 187 chaotic processes, 184 Chevalier and Gheerbrant, 30 Chevalier, J, 397 chimpanzees, 84, 115, 119, 196, 199 Chimps, 210 choice, 113, 126, 128, 150, 172, 271, 280, 356 Christensen, C.C, 397 Christianity, 226, 237, 304, 305, 306, 307, 311, 324, 330, 332, 335, 336, 338, 339, 341, 343, 347, 352, 364, 366, 371, 372, 397, 398, 399, 400, 403 Christo, 183, 307 Church of the Nativity, 306 Cirlot, 30, 397 Claes Oldenburg, 186, 190, 383 classification, 13, 14, 34, 55, 57, 89, 114, 121, 134, 190, 202, 241, 309, 386 classificatory function, 56 class-name, 63, 65, 69, 88, 146, 154, 164, 207, 226, 235, 239, 287, 351 Claudius of Turin, 341 Clive Christian, 236 closed endedness, 226 closed-ended, 126, 228, 251, 287, 292, 296, 297, 330 clothes, 87, 89, 165, 185, 228, 239, 241, 315, 367, 379, 387, 389
Index
407
clothing, 52, 87, 88, 91, 94, 107, 173, 206, 298, 316, 391, 400 Cloud Gate, 188, 383 code, 13, 90, 91, 94, 96, 97, 156, 198, 236, 237, 241, 318 Code of Jewish Law, 318 coding-decoding system, 20, 199 cognitive, 6, 18, 37, 52, 54, 57, 60, 61, 65, 84, 105, 113, 115, 119, 123, 127, 137, 142, 149, 150, 156, 158, 162, 198, 202, 204, 210, 211, 216, 217, 225, 230, 231, 234, 235, 236, 239, 246, 252, 263, 272, 276, 278, 283, 284, 294, 296, 297, 298, 307, 351, 385, 386 commercialization of art, 39 common denominator, 7, 18, 65, 84, 89, 97, 102, 107, 121, 130, 136, 154, 184, 191, 204, 210, 270, 275, 280, 351, 368 communication, 55, 74, 104, 105, 113, 170, 195, 205, 207, 227, 301 comparison, 5, 7, 123, 247, 269, 291, 352 Comparison-Imparison, 123, 356 Complementarity - Mutual Exclusiveness, 111, 116, 353, 356 complementary, 18, 106, 112, 116, 120, 293, 294, 296, 297, 298, 301, 327, 328, 351, 355, 366, 381 completeness, 61, 251 computerization, 282, 283, 284 conceptual nodes, 88 conceptual thinking, 21, 60, 309, 311, 369 concretization, 207, 284, 351 connecting tools, 74, 83, 85, 114 connectivity, 55, 114, 115, 116, 120, 125, 202, 237, 241, 247, 249, 250, 263, 294, 296, 298, 351, 356, 385 connectivity-disconnectivity complementarity, 115 connectors, 74, 79, 237
consciousness, 79, 87, 88, 105, 106, 183, 190, 211, 212, 220, 222, 225, 230, 231, 232, 241, 297, 298, 299, 349 Constantine, 335, 338, 398, 399 Constantine V, 338 Constantine VI, 338 Consumer culture, 369 consumption, 299 containers, 74, 79, 80, 84, 96, 97, 114, 123, 206, 230 contingent order, 269 contour, 13 Coolidge, L, 404 Copernicus, 277, 372 Copi, I. M, 397 Costume Institute, 89 Council of Hieria, 338 creativity, 60, 90, 105, 127, 139, 183, 185, 186, 203, 297 Creswell, K.A.C., 397 crows, 196, 210 Cubism, 278 Cubists, 21 Cultural reduction, 10 cultural regression, 368 culture, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 17, 18, 20, 21, 25, 30, 32, 34, 36, 37, 55, 61, 72, 75, 79, 84, 87, 89, 104, 105, 106, 107, 111, 112, 119, 120, 127, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 141, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 158, 162, 165, 171, 172, 174, 183, 185, 187, 190, 198, 199, 214, 217, 222, 249, 274, 280, 281, 293, 296, 297, 299, 304, 305, 311, 318, 319, 324, 325, 329, 349, 351, 352, 357, 364, 366, 368, 369, 370, 380, 386 Cyril Mango, 308 D Dan Shechtman, 9 Daniel Berset, 190, 377 Daoism, 116, 117 Das, S. R, 397
408 De Stijl, 24, 27, 29 de Waal, F, 397 deconstructive, 21 deductive, 211 degrees of freedom, 56, 125, 127, 225, 292 DeLoache, J. S., 397 demarcation lines, 11 Democritus, 136, 263 denominations, 306, 310, 324, 361 d'Errico. F, 399 Determinism - Indeterminism (Probability, Selection, Choice), 111, 126, 353 Deuteronomy, 316 devolution, 202 Dewey, J, 397 differentiation, 11, 88, 89, 142, 216, 217, 230, 241 Discovery News, 403 discrete, 105, 227, 252, 255, 257, 269 disguise, 36, 37, 39, 52, 376 disorder, 125, 184, 201 disposability, 91, 281 disposable, 214, 278, 281, 282, 299 disposable culture, 299 dissectors, 74, 76 Dome of the Rock, 349 Duality between symbol and symbolized, 65 Duchamp, 12, 17, 21, 36, 39, 52, 87, 90, 132, 182, 203, 278, 380 Duchamp's Syndrome, 36, 37, 39, 52, 87, 90 Duck-Rabbit illusion, 327 Duomo in Florence, 178 E E. S. Fedorov, 348 Ebert. J, 398 Ebert. J., 398 economic value, 6, 217, 220, 225, 235, 236, 367, 369
Index Edwin Hubble, 187, 263 Eidos, 144, 148 Einstein, 12, 14, 90, 187, 276, 277, 278, 357, 403 Einstein's theory of relativity, 14 elimination, 18, 24, 65, 69, 154, 161 Emanuel Kant, 14 emotions, 104, 288 Emperor Charlemagne, 341 Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, 331, 391 empirical, 122, 149, 150, 202, 217, 263, 294, 296 Empress Irene, 338 energy, 14 epigraphs, 352 Epiphanius of Salamis, 335 epistemology, 106, 129 Erasmus, 19, 389 eroticism, 24 Ettinghausen, R., 398 Eugene Rabkin, 90 Eusebius of Caesarea, 335 exemplification, 285 Exodus, 303, 308, 312, 315, 316, 318 experiential, 109, 307 expression, 13, 24, 25, 27, 32, 60, 75, 88, 105, 120, 130, 136, 137, 156, 163, 171, 184, 198, 207, 231, 232, 280, 281, 287, 290, 308, 309, 351, 355, 365, 366 Expressionists, 12 expressiveness, 55 extended intelligence, 106, 368 extension of the skin, 87, 91 extensity, 250 externalization, 55, 108, 234, 279, 284 externalizations of images, 234 F faith, 25, 309, 327, 336, 339, 342, 351, 364, 366
Index
409
fashion, 27, 36, 54, 55, 74, 87, 89, 90, 91, 97, 102, 108, 113, 195, 207, 211, 214, 269, 276, 277, 279, 298, 307, 379 fashion design, 89, 298 Fedorov, E. S., 398 feelings, 1, 5, 7, 8, 104, 106, 137, 332 fictitious, 14 figurine from Berekhat Ram, 159, 384 figurine from Tan-Tan, 159 Finney. P.C., 398 first-order reality, 14, 72, 88, 96, 98, 104, 106, 108 Fischer, V., 398 Fish-kettle,, 188, 383 Florence Baptistery, 178 Forest, D, 190, 398 form, 3, 10, 11, 12, 17, 18, 20, 24, 30, 38, 39, 54, 55, 58, 65, 90, 104, 111, 113, 115, 120, 124, 125, 126, 132, 135, 136, 144, 158, 163, 171, 192, 196, 198, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 276, 280, 284, 293, 305, 331, 348, 351, 357, 361, 371, 376, 393 formula is a formal generalization, 14 Found Art, 17, 284 fractal geometry, 170 fractal structures, 163, 169 Francis Bacon, 187, 276 Fraser, J. T, 398 Frazer, J. G, 398 G Galileo, 90, 122, 187, 276, 277, 372 Gauguin, 272, 387 Gelb, I. J. A, 398 generalization, 13, 17, 18, 19, 24, 25, 27, 29, 34, 55, 57, 61, 63, 65, 66, 69, 79, 105, 108, 122, 132, 134, 136, 145, 146, 154, 156, 161, 164, 171, 187, 198, 206, 211, 217, 227, 230, 247, 249, 250, 251, 263, 277, 285, 293, 327, 335, 350, 367
geometric ornamentation, 347, 352, 355 geometric patterns, 154, 347, 352 Gero, S, 399 Gerrit Rietveld, 27 Gheerbrant, A, 397 Gibbons, A, 399 God, 25, 141, 305, 309, 312, 313, 315, 316, 324, 327, 335, 341, 350, 355, 361, 365, 366, 372 Golden Calf, 222, 312, 385, 390 Goodman, N., 399 Goren-Inbar, N., 399 Goya, 21 Grand Ise Shrines, 306, 307 Grand Mosque in Mecca, 306 graphic common denominator, 13 graphic design, 12, 17, 27, 32, 36, 55, 102, 108, 109, 135, 152, 153, 158, 161, 162, 163, 165, 170, 186, 195, 199, 202, 203, 206, 207, 211, 234, 272, 277, 298, 301, 318, 347, 351, 357, 376 Great Schism of Christianity, 324 Greco-Roman gods, 330 Greek philosophy, 145, 355 grindstones, 83, 85 grouping, 55, 60, 84, 121, 134, 190, 198, 241 groupings, 14 Guggenheim Museum, 255 Gutmann, J., 399 H H.G. Wells', 30 Hadith, 355 Hamill. P, 399 hand tools, 72, 204, 232 Hans Holbein, 19, 389 Harold Koda, 90 Hatra, 364 Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 8 Hechinger Collection, 182, 399 Hellenistic, 142, 318, 349
410
Index
Hellenistic-Roman, 318 Henry VIII, 19 Henshilwood, C. S, 399 Heraclitus, 116 hierarchic structure, 35, 36 hierarchy, 20, 35, 72, 84, 88, 94, 106, 111, 124, 125, 144, 146, 155, 156, 159, 166, 184, 199, 227, 237, 247, 275, 294, 353, 356, 378 Hierarchy - Randomness, 111, 124, 353 Hochberg, J, 400 Hofstadter, D. R, 400 Holbein, 19, 389 holiness and art are mutually exclusive, 305 holon, 66, 69, 252, 255, 387 holy, 303, 304, 305, 306, 315, 316, 319, 325, 338, 351, 364 hominids, 74, 104, 107, 113, 114, 115, 119, 158, 206, 352 Homo Erectus, 158 Homo habilis, 113 Homo sapience, 153 homology, 121, 136 hot pants, 214 Huldrych Zwingli, 343 humanism, 344 hunters-gatherers, 79 Hussitism, 343 hypothesis, 13, 230, 234, 235, 255, 263 hypothetical, 14 I iconoclasm, 304, 305, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 324, 325, 330, 338, 342, 347, 361, 364, 365, 366, 391, 392, 397, 398, 399, 400 iconoclasts, 304, 335, 338, 341, 342, 343, 364 iconodulism, 324, 325, 330, 336, 341, 342 iconography, 310
icons, 303, 304, 305, 308, 309, 310, 315, 325, 327, 329, 330, 338, 339, 344, 352, 361, 365, 366, 391, 392, 403 idealization, 61, 65, 69, 250, 285, 329, 350 Ideas, 27, 136, 144, 403 ideographs, 144 idiosyncrasies, 14, 130, 287 idol worship, 304, 305, 307, 313, 316, 318, 342, 366 idolatry, 305, 309, 312, 313, 324, 331, 335, 336, 338, 341, 342, 344, 364, 365 idols, 304, 307, 309, 312, 338, 341, 361, 390, 393 Ihde, D, 400 image making, 59, 60, 202, 293, 355 images, 13, 17, 29, 55, 59, 60, 61, 65, 69, 74, 87, 104, 107, 108, 111, 113, 115, 116, 119, 120, 123, 125, 126, 127, 135, 137, 145, 146, 153, 154, 156, 158, 162, 183, 202, 204, 206, 207, 211, 212, 217, 228, 230, 232, 234, 235, 241, 249, 263, 277, 279, 282, 283, 284, 285, 287, 291, 292, 293, 294, 296, 297, 298, 305, 308, 309, 310, 311, 313, 316, 318, 324, 325, 330, 332, 335, 338, 339, 341, 342, 349, 355, 361, 374, 377, 382, 385, 386, 392, 397, 398, 399, 400, 403 images are proto-symbols, 104 imaging, 241, 285, 287, 290, 292, 301, 343 imitation, 27, 35, 141, 144, 146, 148, 287 impermanence, 281 implicative, 27, 87, 212, 384 implicit information, 263 Impressionism, 184, 187, 211, 278, 344, 367 Impressionists, 12, 21, 183 inclusion relations, 79, 116, 227, 228, 230, 255, 269, 356, 385 inclusion-exclusion, 79, 84, 206 incommensurability, 277 individualism, 14
Index
411
inductive, 211 industrial design, 1, 12, 54, 97, 102, 105, 186, 190, 195, 207, 211, 269, 279, 298, 299, 307 Industrial Revolution, 367 innate, 106, 112, 114, 115, 119, 121, 127, 150, 206, 210, 270 innate organizational principles, 210 innate organizational structures, 106, 121 inner space, 30, 79, 116, 123, 206 innovation, 184, 225, 277, 281 inside-outside, 79 installations, 281 instrumental, 61, 74, 105, 115, 137, 181, 186, 188, 202, 204, 206, 210, 211, 225, 246, 250, 252, 272, 283, 294, 296, 297, 298, 307, 377 intelligence, 36, 112, 296 interconnectedness, 227, 271 interior design, 1, 102, 109, 195, 207, 298 International Arts & Artists (IA&A)., 183 interpretation, 7, 14, 20, 35, 106, 112, 145, 149, 151, 153, 158, 161, 162, 207, 241, 275, 290, 306, 308, 319, 327, 329, 350, 355, 361, 364, 401 interrelatedness, 255 invariant, 125 invention of printing, 21, 106, 311, 369 Iraq, 305, 361, 364 Isfahan Mosque, 347, 357 ISIS, 305, 357, 361, 364, 372, 395, 396 Islam, 226, 237, 304, 305, 307, 324, 344, 347, 348, 349, 350, 355, 361, 365, 366, 368, 372, 397, 398, 399, 400, 403 Islamic art, 305, 347, 348, 350, 351, 361, 372, 403 Israel, 1, 3, 9, 90, 305, 312, 313, 318, 319, 324, 330, 371, 373, 378, 380, 384, 390, 399 Iziko South African Museum, 151
J James Joyce's Ulysses, 272 Jan Hus, 342, 372 Jasper Johns, 17 Jewish art, 305, 319 Jewish law, 319 John Calvin, 343 John Dewey, 186 John Hechinger, 182 John Wycliffe, 342 Jones, W.R, 400 Joordens, J.C. A, 400 Joshua, 3, 312 Judaism, 226, 237, 304, 305, 307, 312, 313, 318, 324, 343, 348, 364, 366, 371, 397, 398, 399, 400, 403 K Ka'aba, 361 Kandinsky, 12, 17, 18, 21, 30, 35, 70, 278, 373 Kant, 14, 90, 187, 357 Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, 14 Kantian philosophy, 206 Kapoor, 188, 383 Karel Appel, 184 Kayser, M, 400 Kennedy, J. M, 400 Kepler, 187, 277 kinetic sculpture, 103 King David, 316 King Herod, 316 King Hezekiah of Judea, 313 King Josiah, 313, 316 King Solomon, 316 Kittler, R, 400 Koestler, A., 400 Kooyman, B. P, 400 korismos, 18 Kuhn, T. S, 400
412
Index
L language, 12, 13, 17, 19, 21, 24, 55, 56, 57, 58, 66, 74, 79, 84, 90, 96, 104, 105, 107, 113, 121, 135, 141, 145, 146, 148, 153, 155, 156, 161, 164, 184, 188, 191, 198, 199, 202, 203, 206, 210, 217, 226, 227, 231, 232, 234, 235, 236, 237, 244, 246, 255, 269, 270, 271, 272, 279, 280, 281, 285, 294, 296, 329, 351, 352, 366, 389, 399 Lao-Tzu, 117, 128 L'Art Trouvй, 17 Lawrence Alloway, 255 layering, 15, 19, 35, 39, 88, 139, 183, 237 learning, 20, 104, 114, 115, 150, 199, 290 Leo III, 338 Leonardo da Vinci, 175 level of abstraction, 19, 24, 136, 211, 217, 270 levels of order, 35, 228, 230, 281 levels of organization, 35, 269 Levi-Strauss, C, 400 Libri Carolini, 341 Licinius, 335 lines of demarcation, 10 linguistic generalization, 13 linguistic symbols, 11 linguistics, 122 Linus Pauling, 9 Lippold, A, 400 literature, 6, 34, 107, 125, 192, 198, 263, 272, 273, 309, 319, 365, 372 Living Buddha, 339 logical types, 178 Lorenzi, R., 400 Lorenzo Ghiberti, 178 Louis Genиve, 190, 377 Lovett, R., 401 Lucian Freud, 187
M magic, 60, 137, 350 magical, 59, 60, 121, 137, 139, 204, 239, 304, 324, 339, 364, 386 Magritte, 15, 169, 183, 207, 211, 212, 231, 234, 351, 377, 384, 385 Maimonides, 318 maker of images, 284 Malevich, 21, 29, 30, 35, 108, 165, 374 Man, J., 401 Mango, 308, 401 Marc Chagall, 319 Marй A. E, 401 Martin Luther, 343 Mary, 214, 310, 325, 329 Mary Quant, 214 Maseko, A. N, 401 mass, 14 mass culture, 369 mathematics, 30, 107, 125, 154, 165, 170, 171, 186, 198, 244, 271, 327, 348, 382, 395, 401 McGrew, W. C, 401 meaning, 14, 18, 19, 25, 27, 30, 34, 56, 57, 63, 70, 91, 96, 97, 104, 106, 125, 141, 142, 144, 149, 154, 155, 161, 174, 192, 198, 199, 202, 226, 230, 237, 239, 241, 250, 251, 252, 263, 269, 271, 277, 278, 287, 290, 291, 306, 311, 327, 332, 347, 352, 369, 386 Mecca, 361 mechanistic, 88, 178, 252 Medieval Sourcebook: Iconoclastic Council, 754, 401 Mehringer, P. J. Jr, 401 Mel Byars, 3, 273, 301 mental template, 126 metaphor, 230, 231, 232, 234, 298, 385 metaphorical, 228, 230 metaphorization, 60, 207, 232, 298 meta-symmetry, 204 Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, 89
Index
413
Michaelangelo's Pieta, 325 Michalski, S, 401 Michelangelo, 58, 325, 327, 329, 376, 382, 390 Middle Ages, 142, 311, 341 Midrash Rabbah, 312, 401 mindprints, 36, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 119, 120, 125, 127, 135, 136, 210, 270, 292, 294, 298, 351, 352, 353, 355, 392, 395, 396 mindprints theory, 355 mind-reality, 72, 106, 111, 112, 166, 353 mind-tools, 69, 72, 112 minimalism, 24, 272 Minimalist, 272 minimalist streams, 32 miniskirt, 214, 298, 384 Mithen, S., 401 Mizu-ko, 332 Mizuko kuy, 332, 397 modern art, 8 modernism, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 17, 20, 21, 30, 34, 35, 52, 55, 57, 58, 60, 165, 192, 272, 273, 275, 276, 278, 280, 281, 284, 307, 344, 366, 367 Modigliani, 272, 276 Mohammed, 350 Mondrian, 12, 17, 18, 21, 24, 25, 27, 35, 108, 154, 165, 211, 212, 214, 278, 374, 380, 401 monotheism, 91, 304, 305, 307, 309, 312, 318, 324, 336 monotheistic, 88, 247, 304, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 324, 361, 365, 366 monotheistic religions, 88, 304, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 324, 361, 365, 366 mortar and pestle, 74, 83, 85, 114 Moses, 305, 312, 315, 401 Muhammad, 361, 372, 393 Munch, 25, 212, 236, 287, 389 Mureika, J, 401 music, 195, 198, 273, 291 mutual exclusiveness, 116, 309 mythology, 121, 136, 325
N Nagy, D, 401 Narcissus, 59 natural design, 196, 198, 202, 203 naturalistic art, 27 Nazism, 237, 357 Nebuchadnezzar the Second, 316 necessary and sufficient conditions, 12 Neo-Classical, 344 Neoplasticism, 25 nesting, 84, 230, 271, 378 Newman, 35 Newton, 90, 187, 276, 277, 278 Niabi Zoo, 201, 383 Nicene Council, 341 Niels Bohr, 117, 326 Nimrud, 364, 402 noetic, 63, 65, 104, 247, 249 noetic time, 65, 247, 249 nonart, 10 non-representational art, 54 notation, 204 notator, 204 novelty, 183, 185 O objectification, 292 Oholiab the son of Ahisamach, 315 Old Testament, 324 ontology, 106, 129 Op Art, 108 Open endedness - Closed endedness, 111, 126, 353 open-ended, 126 open-endedness, 55, 60, 203, 225, 226, 231, 232, 250, 296, 297, 369 order, 1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 15, 20, 30, 63, 65, 69, 72, 74, 80, 87, 89, 96, 98, 102, 103, 104, 106, 108, 111, 113, 115, 116, 119, 122, 123, 124, 125, 130, 132, 134, 135, 136, 148, 155, 159, 162, 165, 173, 174, 178, 181, 182, 183, 188, 193,
414
Index
196, 201, 204, 217, 227, 231, 244, 269, 271, 272, 288, 291, 292, 296, 298, 301, 306, 309, 310, 311, 316, 318, 327, 330, 331, 335, 339, 341, 344, 348, 356, 365, 370, 371, 373, 375, 386, 388, 389 organismic, 88, 178, 252, 257 organismic-systemic, 88 organized ambiguity, 222, 290 ornamentation, 341, 347, 348, 349, 351, 355 Orthodox Church, 336 over complexity, 32 over simplicity, 32 P pagan cultures, 304 Painting, 127, 148, 182, 191, 285, 290, 399 Pamuk, O, 402 paradigm, 9, 12, 13, 21, 30, 91, 149, 173, 185, 187, 272, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 284, 290, 292, 344, 367, 368, 369 paradigmatic, 274, 278 Parmenides, 116 Particular versus class-name, 63 particulars, 17, 88, 165, 235 pattern, 56, 153, 157, 161, 163, 204, 351, 355, 388 Peirce, C.S, 402 people of Israel, 305, 312, 313, 315, 318 perception, 15, 87, 90, 98, 123, 139, 146, 152, 169, 171, 183, 185, 187, 211, 212, 222, 225, 227, 250, 279, 282, 305, 329, 330, 331, 385 permanence, 90, 91, 190, 280, 281, 282 permanence-transience, 90, 91 Persian culture, 349 Pesciera, 188, 383 petitio principia, 355 Petitio Principii, 156 Pharaoh Akhenaten, 309
phenomenal reality, 14, 72, 98, 106, 108, 190 philosophy, 6, 7, 20, 25, 27, 30, 34, 60, 70, 107, 122, 129, 136, 142, 145, 148, 154, 183, 186, 194, 198, 206, 225, 325, 327, 355, 365, 368 Phoenicians, 145 phonetization of writing, 144 photography, 56, 104, 105, 107, 190, 244, 279, 350 physical time, 247, 249 physics, 14 Picasso, 278 pictorial connector, 56 pictorial text, 19, 108 pictorial universal, 56 Pierre Armand, 17, 382 Pissarro, 272 Planck, 276 plastic arts, 280, 365 Plato, 24, 27, 116, 129, 136, 141, 142, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 187, 402 Platonic, 142, 144, 198 Platonic metaphysics, 142 plurality, 113, 121, 211, 309 poetry, 6, 34, 107, 186, 198, 234, 263, 272, 273, 365 Pollock, 35, 169, 170, 236, 374, 386, 403 Pуlya, 348, 402 polytheism, 307, 310 polytheistic, 309, 310 Pope Gregory, 336, 341, 343 poverty of the sculptural lexicon, 59 prehistoric, 11 Pre-Socratic philosophy, 122, 325 Pre-Socratics, 276 primatologists, 199 principle of contradiction, 116, 117 principle of the excluded middle, 116 probabilistic, 126 processors, 74, 83, 85, 86 Protestant Reformation, 338, 341 proto-art, 59, 308 proto-brain-tools, 74
Index
415
pseudo-mysticism, 30 pseudo-philosophy, 30 psychology, 12 Ptolemaeus, 277 Q quantum mechanics, 187, 272, 276 Quran, 318, 352, 355, 365, 402 R Rabba Genesis, 312, 401 Rabbi Yosef Karo, 318 radial symmetry, 119 random, 32, 111, 124, 126, 170, 184, 192, 255, 269, 356 randomness, 125, 166, 287, 294 rationalistic, 122 Rauschenberg, 17 ready-mades, 17 reality, 14 Receptacles, 79 recursion, 84, 125, 163, 166, 269, 378 recursive, 104, 125, 163, 230, 237, 263, 356, 385 recursive connectivity, 125 Recursiveness (Recurrence) - Singularity, 125 reduction, 10, 12, 13, 17, 20, 21, 24, 25, 37, 38, 57, 113, 123, 124, 126, 165, 199, 214, 225, 273, 344 reductionism, 12, 24, 52, 368 reductionist, 12 redundancy, 195, 270, 271, 272 reference, 32, 66, 69, 104, 153, 156, 159, 184, 190, 237, 244, 246, 272, 278, 287, 301, 348, 386 reflexive, 66, 104 Reformation, 311, 324, 338, 342, 343, 344, 347, 367, 397, 399, 401 regression, 57, 171, 203, 368, 369 relativistic, 24, 327 relics, 306, 336, 361
religious, 55, 88, 91, 96, 128, 237, 239, 303, 304, 305, 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 315, 316, 318, 319, 324, 325, 327, 330, 332, 335, 338, 342, 343, 344, 350, 352, 361, 364, 365, 366 religious art, 305, 310, 325, 365 religious context, 304, 305, 308, 309, 325, 338, 365, 366 religious iconography, 310, 325 religious images, 310, 324, 330, 338 Rembrandt, 15 Renaissance, 184, 187, 311, 344, 367, 376, 392 Renй Magritte, 187 repetition, 269, 272, 356 representation, 13, 24, 27, 29, 59, 60, 61, 69, 113, 121, 132, 134, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 157, 163, 164, 182, 194, 210, 212, 275, 277, 279, 282, 284, 287, 316, 318, 324, 325, 343, 349, 350, 352, 366, 385 representational art, 54, 141, 142, 350 Retro style, 279 reversible, 279 Rice, T. D, 402 Roberto Sambonet, 188, 383 Rococo, 272 Rodin, 58, 376 Roman Catholic Church, 344 Roman church, 342 Roman Empire, 324, 330, 335, 371 Romans, 313, 324 Rome, 317, 324, 382 Roochnik, D, 402 Rorschach test, 13 Rothko, 108, 165 Rudolf Steiner, 25 Russell, 244, 402 S sacred art, 310, 365 safety factor', 271 Saint Augustine, 34
416
Index
Sangir site, 88 Sasanian dynasty, 349 savage capitalism, 368 science, 5, 6, 7, 9, 14, 20, 30, 34, 60, 107, 122, 126, 136, 149, 150, 154, 158, 162, 170, 171, 173, 183, 186, 198, 206, 207, 225, 255, 263, 275, 278, 279, 280, 301, 325, 326, 327, 348, 352, 365, 368, 372, 396, 397, 399, 403 sculpture, 5, 8, 13, 17, 21, 36, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 66, 74, 103, 105, 107, 145, 146, 159, 164, 186, 187, 190, 195, 198, 277, 293, 305, 308, 309, 310, 325, 343, 365, 377 Second Council of Nicaea, 338 Second Temple, 319, 324, 390 second-order reality, 14, 88, 104, 106, 108 secular, 89, 305, 319, 338, 343, 344, 350, 366 secular art, 305, 319, 343, 344, 350 secular iconoclasm, 366 self-embedding, 79, 84, 159, 163, 227, 237, 263, 269, 280, 356, 378, 385 self-mummification, 339 self-reference, 66, 104, 159, 190, 244, 246, 386 self-similarity, 163, 169 semantic and syntactic density, 222 semantics, 20, 39, 159, 237, 255, 269, 366 Semaw. S, 402 semiotic, 88, 96, 239, 379 semiotic layer of clothing, 88 Sensations, 104 separating tools, 72, 74, 114 series, 32, 255, 398 Shinto, 310 simplification, 18, 24, 27, 57, 154, 156, 171, 298 simulation, 285, 301 singularity, 125, 166 social learning, 104, 200 Socrates, 116, 144
space, 14 Spalding, J., 402 special case, 7, 10, 29, 34, 56, 61, 63, 70, 88, 164, 186, 239, 347 specialization, 74, 217, 294 specification, 54, 111, 217, 251, 285 Spehar, B, 403 Spinka, M, 402 St. Peter's Basilica, 307, 325, 390 Stacey, J, 402 Star of David, 226, 237, 306 states of affairs, 207 states of mind, 104, 105, 207, 298 Stoneking, M, 400 stratification, 19, 57, 202, 227, 263, 269, 285, 385 Streamlining, 272 structural, 7, 35, 111, 112, 121, 136, 184, 198, 210, 270, 277, 279, 280, 294, 350, 353, 355, 366, 367, 368 structural art, 36 structural determinism, 112 structuralist, 136, 150, 292 style, 91, 109, 172, 184, 185, 196, 216, 236, 239, 271, 272, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 288, 290, 298, 318, 344, 349 subjectivism, 14, 327 substitute, 27, 59, 60, 61, 139, 145, 146, 148, 155, 204, 227, 272, 287, 290, 291, 304, 308, 310, 315, 325, 329, 331, 332, 335, 336, 339, 342, 343, 365, 391 substitution, 59 sub-symbols, 19, 66, 146, 199, 256 subsystems, 15 suggestion is not symbolization, 32 Sumerians, 211 Sunni, 361 super-symbols, 199 Suprematism, 29, 30, 70, 402 Suprematist, 30 surface structure, 35 Surma, 24 Surrealism, 184, 211
Index
417
surrealistic paintings, 263 sustainability, 210, 281 sustainable culture, 299 sustainable design, 299 syllabographic-phonetic writing, 144 symbol system, 12, 14, 19, 34, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 63, 66, 69, 87, 105, 107, 111, 134, 181, 185, 199, 216, 228, 234, 236, 237, 239, 255, 263, 271, 285, 291, 292, 294, 296, 306, 308, 311, 328 symbolic significance, 151, 153, 161 symbolism, 30, 399 symbolization, 52, 59, 65, 108, 109, 132, 151, 156, 198, 207, 285, 287 symmetric geometric patterns, 347 symmetric Islamic patterns, 347 symmetry, 13, 27, 119, 120, 136, 166, 204, 275, 294, 298, 348, 351, 355, 395, 398 symmetry-asymmetry, 13, 119 synagogues, 237, 335, 351 Synod of Elvira, 330, 335 syntactic complexity, 169, 269 syntax, 20, 39, 159, 210, 237, 255, 269, 366 synthesis, 10 synthesizers, 83, 85 synthetic, 18, 216, 217, 294, 296, 389 Syria, 305, 361, 364 system, 13, 15, 19, 32, 34, 54, 56, 58, 60, 66, 87, 96, 105, 108, 130, 148, 156, 159, 165, 172, 183, 185, 202, 203, 217, 227, 234, 236, 252, 255, 263, 270, 273, 280, 291, 294, 296, 297, 300, 326, 347, 365, 368, 387 systemic connections, 15 Systemic Painting, 255, 395 systemic structure, 35, 184, 255 systems of generalizations, 14 T Tabernacle, 315, 316 Taj Mahal, 351
Taliban, 357, 361, 364, 393 Tan-Tan, 159 Taylor, R.P, 403 tиchne, 141, 142, 147 Temple Mount, 306 Terra-Cotta Army, 331 textile design, 211 The Bean, 188 the Bible, 305, 308, 315, 316, 318, 365 the Black Stone at Kaaba, 306 The Country of the Blind, 30 The Critique of Pure Reason, 106, 187 The Cross, 324 The Ecclesiastical Dogma, 343 The Edict Of Milan, 335 the emperor's new clothes, 30 the fallacy of affirming the consequence, 37, 58 The Gates of Paradise, 178 The Holly Bible, 403 The Incompleteness Principle of Representation, 61, 250 The Lollards movement, 342 The principle of complementary, 116 The Republic, 144 the return to visual thinking, 369 The Second Commandment, 316 The Terra-Cotta Soldiers, 331 The Zj-ji Temple, 332 Theodosius I, 335, 400 theory of everything, 368 Theosophy, 25 Thomas Wynn, 239 Thompson,H, 403 tiling, 348, 353 time, 14 Tintoretto, 222, 301, 385, 401 Titus, 317, 324 tools, 2, 10, 11, 20, 39, 59, 60, 61, 69, 71, 72, 74, 76, 78, 79, 80, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 96, 97, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 111, 113, 115, 116, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 132, 135, 136, 137, 142, 148, 150, 157, 158,
418
Index
162, 170, 175, 178, 181, 182, 183, 185, 188, 190, 196, 202, 203, 204, 206, 210, 211, 214, 217, 228, 232, 234, 236, 237, 246, 250, 274, 284, 292, 293, 294, 296, 297, 300, 307, 329, 351, 352, 356, 368, 377, 378, 379, 380, 397, 403 top-down hierarchical process, 124 totemistic culture, 121 transcendental structuralism, 36, 112 transformation, 18, 65, 66, 69, 111, 119, 120, 125, 132, 154, 166, 206, 234, 249, 294, 353, 356, 366 Transformation-Invariance, 125 transience, 91, 190, 281 transient, 281 Trinil, 120, 158, 162, 381, 400 Turner, 21 twentieth century art, 32 U uncertainty, 1, 112, 225, 290 unisex, 214, 298 unity, 113, 121, 144, 211, 297, 309 universal, 14, 17, 20, 24, 39, 56, 69, 88, 144, 145, 146, 148, 159, 164, 204, 226, 235, 280, 287, 288, 329, 351, 381 universal paradigm, 39 V Van Donkelaar, P., 403 Van Gogh, 14, 211, 212, 236 Vasarely, 108 Venus of Willendorf, 60, 377 verbal symbols, 19, 109, 157, 270, 301 Vermeer, 35, 169, 301, 386 Viegas, J, 403 Virgin Mary, 310
virtual design, 134, 282, 283, 284, 285, 287, 290, 291, 292 virtual object, 107, 134, 164, 287, 290, 292 virtual particular, 287 visual communication, 1, 55 visual generalization, 13 visual language, 12 visual thinking, 21, 27, 59, 60, 113, 148, 309, 311, 366, 369 vocabulary, 60 W W.C. Jackson, 232, 234 Walker, J. A, 403 Weinberg. J, 403 Welch, A, 403 Welch, S.C, 403 Western Wall, 306 Wheeler, J. A, 403 Whitfield, J., 403 Witelson, S. F., 403 writing, 2, 3, 5, 59, 60, 105, 106, 122, 136, 137, 139, 140, 144, 146, 148, 192, 202, 206, 232, 308, 311, 330, 332, 349, 352, 364, 370 writing system, 348 Wynn, T., 404 X Xian, 331, 377, 391 Y Yates, R, 399 yearning for the transcendental, 369 Yin-Yang, 18, 116, 117 Yves St. Laurent, 27

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