The Effect of Teaching Topically Grouped Idiomatic Expressions on the Retention of Intermediate Iranian EFL Learners, P Birjandi, N Baradaran

Tags: Foreign Language Teaching, EI, Emotional Intelligence, New York, Journal of Personality Assessment, Journal of Business and Psychology, cloze test, intelligence, J. Mayer, Cambridge University Press, emotions, intrapersonal intelligences, information processing, interpersonal intelligence, J. D. A. Parker
Content: . . . . «» . . . : () () . . .[ ] . . . . () F-Test The Effect of Teaching Topically Grouped Idiomatic Expressions on the Retention of Intermediate Iranian EFL Learners
foreign Language Teaching Journal
Dr. Parviz Birjandi, Ph. D. in TEFL, Islamic Azad University (Science and Research Compus) Email: [email protected] & Nahedeh Baradaran
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Intelligences. New York: Basic Books. Goleman. D. (1995). emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books. Goleman, D. (1998). Working With Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books. Hedlund, J., & Sternberg, R. J. (2000). Integration Social, Emotional and Practical Intelligence. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of Emotional Intelligence (PP. 136-167). NewYork: Jossey-Bass. Kelly, G. A. (1995). The Psychology of Personal Construct. New York: Norton. Mandell, B., & Pherwani, S. (2003). Relationship Between emotional Intelligence and Transformation Leadership Style: A Gender Comparison. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(3), 387-404. Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2002). Emotional Intelligence: Science and Myth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mayer, J. D., Pipaolo, M. T., Salovey, P (1990). Perceiving Affective Content in Ambiguous Visual Stimuli: A Component of Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, Cambridge University Press. Mayer, J. D. & Geher, G. (1996). Emotional Intelligence and the Identification of Emotion. Intelligence, 22, 89113.
Mayer, J. D. & Salovey. P. (1997). What is Emotional Intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Mayer, J. D. (1999). Emotional Intelligence: Popular or Scientific Psychology? APA Monitor, 30, 50. [Shared Perspectives Column] Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P. Caruso, D. (2000b). Models of Emotional Intelligence. In R. J. Stenberg (Ed)-The Hand Book of Intelligence (pp. 396-420) New York: Cambridge University Press. Mayer, J. D. (2001). A Field Guide to Emotional Intelligence. In J. Ciarrochi, J. P, Forgas, J. D. Mayer (Eds). Emotional Intelligence in Everyday Life (pp. 3-24). Philadelphia: Psychology Press. Mayer, J. D. (2001). Primary Divisions of Personality and Their Scientific Contributions: From the Trilogy-ofMind to the Systems Set. Journal for the Theory of social behavior, 31, 449-477. Roberts, R. D., Zeidner, M., & Matthews, G. (2001). Does Emotional Intelligence Meet Traditional Standards for an Intelligence? Some New Data and Conclusion. Emotion, 1. Spencer, L, and Spencer, S. (1993). Competence at work. New York: Willey. Thorndike, E. L. (1920). Intelligence and its Uses. Harper's Magazine, 140, 227-235.
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demonstrate more empathy, relate better interpersonally and more socially responsible than men. On the other hand, men appear to have better self-regard, are more self-reliant, cope better with stress. And more flexible, solve problem better, and are more optimistic than women. Similar gender patterns have been observed in almost every other population sample that has been examined with the EQ-I (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). While the results of the current study indicate that males and females differ in self-respect, emotional self-awareness, flexibility and reality testing categories. It could also be the case that Gender differences do exist but measurement artifacts such as overestimation of ability on the part of males are more likely to occur with self report measures. More research is required to determine wheter or not gender differences do exist in emotional intelligence. Conclusion and Implications This study was conducted to probe the possible effect of EQ on intermediate EFL learners' performance on cloze test. The findings reveal that EQ significantly affected the performance of the EFL learners on cloze tests. As for the second research question, the effect of gender on EQ was established. The findings indicate that there is difference between male and female EQ. Female EQ is more than male EQ. Furthermore, Males and females do not vary in all EQ categories. They are different in selfrespect, emotional self-awareness, flexibility and reality testing categories. And there are not significant differences in other EQ categories. Teachers should try to develop learners' EQ
which has positive effect on learning English. By developing EQ, learner will take charge of their own learning. Teachers must acknowledge and respect students' EQ and help them develop it. References Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Hulti-health system. Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and Social Intelligence: Insights From the Emotional Quotient Inventory. In R. Bar-On & I. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Development, Assessment, and Application at Home, School, and in the Workplace (pp. 363-388). San Franisco: Jossay-Bass. . (2005). The Impact of Emotional and Social Intelligence on Performance. In Vanessa Druskat, Fabio Sala, and Gerald Mount (Eds.), Linking Emotional Intelligence and Performance at Work: Current Research Evidence. Mahwa, Nj. Lawerence Erlaum. Becker, T. (2003). Is Emotional Intelligence a Viable Concept? Academy of Management Review, 28, 192195. Brackett, M., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). Convergent Discriminate, and Incremental Validity of Competing Measure of Emotional Intelligence,. Personality and social psychology Bulletin, 29, 1147-1158. Cherniss, C. (2000). Emotional Intelligence: What is it and Why it Matters. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting for the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, L. A. Ciarrochi, J. V., Chan, A. Y., & Caputi, P. (2000). A Critical Evaluation of the Emotional Intelligence Concept. Personality and individual differences, 28, 539-561. Covey, S. (2004). The 8th Habit: From Effectiveness to Greatness. New York: Free Press. Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional Intelligence: In Search of an Elusive Construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989-1015. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple
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different fields like educational settings. The results of the current study indicate that EQ plays an important role in EFL learners' performance on cloze test and this finding is consistent with findings which suggest a correlation between EQ and using vocabulary strategies, reading comprehension and listening. These results also confirm Bar-On & Parker's (2000) claim that "succeeding in different fields like educational settings linked to personality psychology". The results indicated that a person with an above average score on EQ test will probably obtain an above-average score on the other test (cloze test). According to the results demonstrated through t-test, it was found that there was gender difference. This showed that female EQ was more than men EQ. The results confirm Mayer and Geher (1996), Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (1999), and more
recently Mandell and Pherwani's (2003) findings that women are more likely to score higher on measures of emotional intelligence than men, both in professional and personal settings. Also, Brackett and Mayer (2003) found that females scored higher than males on EI. When measured by a performance measures (the Mayer-SaloveyCaruso Emotional intelligence test). However, Bar-On (1997) clamis that no differences have been revealed between males and females regarding overall ESI. However, statistically significant gender differences do exist for a few of the factors measured by the EQ-I, but the effects are small for the most part. Based on the North American normative sample (Bar-On, 1997), females appear to have stronger interpersonal skills than males, but the latter have a higher intrapersonal capacity, are better at managing emotions and are more adaptable than the former. More specially, the Bar-On model reveals that women are more aware of emotions,
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As Table 3. illustrates, there is significance relationship between EQ and Cloze tests. This result rejects the first null hypothesis and confirms the effect of EQ on learners' performance on cloze test. Descriptive statistics of male and female carried out for finding the difference between males and females. Table 4 illustrates that female EQ mean is more than male one.
Table 4. Descriptive statistics of male and female
Group Statistics
Std. Std.Error
Mean Deviation Mean
314.60 41.654 4.391
329.23 40.918 4.313
Table 5. T-test for determining the statistical significance of the difference between means on two sets of scores T-Test
Levene's Test for Equality of Variances
Independent Samples Test t-test for Equality of Means
F sig T df (2-tailed) Difference
EQ EQual variances 0.001 0.975 -2.378 178 0.018 assumed
EQual variances not assumed
-2.378 177.943 0.018 -14.633
std.Error Difference 6.155 6.155
95%Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -26.779 -2.488 -26.779 -2.488
According to the results demonstrated through t-test, it was found that there was gender difference. This showed that female EQ was more than men EQ. Also, the level of significance was less than .0.5. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. It was concluded that there was a meaningful difference between male and female EQ. The ranking of EQ category means
demonstrated that interpersonal relationship category has the highest mean, while flexibility one has the lowest mean. In order to locate the exact EQ categories which differ in males and females, t-test was run for each EQ category. The results showed that the difference of male and female EQ, only in selfrespect, emotional self-awareness, flexibility and reality testing categories, were significant because the level of signigicance of these categories are less than.05. And males are the same as females in interpersonal relationship, impulse control, problem solving, stress tolerance, empathy and assertiveness categories. This finding seems to confirm the previous scholars' propositions e.g.,Ciarrochi, Chan, & Caputi, 2000; Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Roberts, Zeidne, & Matthews, 2001; Mayer, 1999; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000b. In fact, EQ has already been considered as an important aspect of selfconfidence, leadership skill, flexibility, motivation and educational settings (McClelland, 1975). Mayer et al. (1990) defined EI as a mental ability model. They argued that thinking about feeling is a cognitive skill that can be developed with practice and over time. From 1990 to 1994; Salovey and Mayer wrote numerous articles on the topic of EI. They argued that EI was a true intelligence which include the ability to identify emotions, understand them, make decisions based on others' emotions, and manage one's own emotions (Mayer, 2001). To be demarcated as an intelligence, EI needed to measure personality traits. Links to personality and its effects were made by many theorists who studied what people were trying to achieve and the behavior that were most likely to bring about the desired effects (BarOn & Parker, 2000). As personality Psychology was developing, it was linked to success in
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cloze test. First, the researchers gave a proficiency test which was Michigan Proficiency Test to determine the level of learners participated in this research, and then she selected the intermediate students and put the other students aside. At defined time after explaining how to respond the items, Bar -On EQ measurement test administered to them. Then immediately researchers told students not to leave the class to respond the cloze tests. They explained students how to respond to these items. Students were also told that they should respond to the questions without discussing with their classmates. Design The dependent variable of this research was the scores of cloze tests. The independent variable was EQ scores. Since the researchers did not have any control over the manipulation of the independent variable and because there was no treatment, an "ex post facto" design, a subcategory of descriptive research, was followed. In this research, the researchers aimed at exploring the degree of relationship between variables rather than a causeand-effect directionality. Results and Discussion Initially, descriptive statistics were carried out for all measures involved in this study. The results are reported in Table 1. Table 1. Descriptive statistics for different tests on this study
Then Pearson correlation test was run. Table 2 illustrates the correlation coefficients between EQ and learners' performance on cloze test.
Table 2. Correlation coefficient for tests used in this
EQ test Cloze Test
EQ test Cloze test
Pearson Correlation 1
Pearson Correlation 0.745
**.Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
According to the results demonstrated, a significant correlation was found. The correlation coefficient was above the expected correlation and this shows that the relationship was strong enough to contribute learners' performance on cloze test to EQ. The inferential statistics of this research showed that the correlation coefficient between two variables is .745. It indicated that there is positive correlation between independent and dependent variables. Also, there was a direct relationship between two variables. In other words, the changes of EQ had direct influence on cloze test changes. The results of the current study indicate that EQ plays an important role in EFL learners' performance on cloze test. In order to investigate the research hypotheses, at first, ANOVA analysis was conducted, the results are reported in Table 3.
cloze test EQ test
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Skewness
statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Error. Statistic Error
38.42 5.479 0.207 0.181 -0.449 0.360
431 321.92 41.821 0.532 0.181 -0.640 0.360
Table 3. ANOVA test for the EQ and Cloze tests
Model 1 Regression Residual Total
Sum of Squares Df 2982.800 1 2390.950 178 5373.750 179
Mean square F 2982.800 222.062 13.432
Sig .000(a)
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they were intermediate learners, the researcher gave them proficiency test to become sure that all of them were intermediate. The participants ranged from 18 to 28 years old. Instrumentation In order to examine the research hypotheses of this study, two tests (Bar-On EQ test and Nelson cloze test) were prepared. Nelson cloze test consisted of 60 multiple choice items in five separate cloze test passages. Bar-On EQ test consisted of 90 questions. Each category was related to 6 items in the questionnaire. Subjects should respond to each item by selecting one of the five degrees of completely agree, agree to some extent, disagree and completely disagree that is based on Likert scale. Also, Michigan proficiency test was used for selecting intermediate EFL learners. Procedure At first, researchers standardized Nelson cloze test. She made an appointment with the supervisor of Shokuh's institute and explained what she wanted to do. They planned when two tests were
administered. The two tests were Nelson cloze test and Michigan proficiency test. The participants were 20 female intermediate EFL learners. The researchers explained the proficiency test and its parts and gave them one example for each part and told them that they had only 90 minutes to answer it. After the first test they had a short break and then they had to answer the next one, Nelson cloze test, which was 60 multiple -choice questions in 45 minutes. The researchers explained them there were 5 separate cloze test passages and they had to answer them by themselves without discussing with each other. After the result of test piloting, They made an appointment with Quchan and Mashhad Azad university chancellors. Then they introduced her to the heads of English departments. They explained what They wanted to do. Then co operatively they planned a schedule to define when and where tests should be administered. Again she made another appointment with the supervisor and teachers of male branch of Shokuh's institute and a schedule planned to where and administering the proficiency test, EQ test and
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to thrive in the future. Many people have expressed opinions about the scientific viability of emotional intelligence (EI). EI has been said to matter twice as much as IQ (Goleman, 1998, p.31). It has also, according to some, "proven resistant to adequate measurement" (Becker, 2003, p.194). Others have claimed that a "considerable body of research" suggests that EI provides the basis for competencies important "in almost any job" (CHerniss, 2000, p.10). But, "EI appears to be more myth than science..." (Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2002, p.547). The study of EI even raises the question of whether there can be too many intelligences (Hedlund & Sternberg, 2000). EI from this theoretical perspective refers specifically to the cooperative combination of intelligence and emotion (e.g., Ciarrochi, Chan, & Caputi, 2000; Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Roberts, Zeidner, & Matthews, 2001). Here, one finds no unusual claims for the potency of EI; quite the contrary, researchers seek to expose popular claims as unfounded, given the evidence thus far (e.g., Davies et al., 1998; Mayer, 1999; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000b). Our own research, and that of many other researchers, fits within these bounds. An analysis of variance of the North American normative sample (n=3, 831) was conducted to examine the effect of age, gender and ethnicity on EQ-I scores (Bar-On, 1997b). The Bar-On model provides the theoretical basis for the EQ-I. According to this model, emotional-social intelligence is a cross-section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves, understand others and relate with them, and cope with daily demands. To summarize these findings, the Bar-On model reveals that older people are more emotionally and
socially intelligent than younger people, females are more aware of emotions than males while the latter are more adept at managing emotions than the former. The present research aimed at probing the relationship between EQ and learners' performance on cloze test. Furthermore, it intended to examine whether EQ differs in males and females. More specifically, the following questions motivated the present study: 1. Is there any significant relationship between Iranian intermediate EFL learners' performance on cloze test and their EQ? 2. Does gender have any effect on Iranian intermediate EFl learners' EQ? To examine the above research questions, the following corresponding null hypotheses were formulated. H01: There is no positive or negative relationship between EQ and Iranian intermediate EFL learners' performance on cloze test. H02: EQ is not different between males and females. Method Participants In this study, a sum of 180 male and female participants (90 males and 90 females) were selected from the total population of the BA students of English titerature and translation and teaching in Islamic Azad university of Mashhad and Ghuchan and FCE students of Shokuh institute (N=290). First, the researchers gave a proficiency test which was Michigan proficiency test to 290 Iranian EFL learners. Then she selected the intermediate students and put the other students aside. Those who were in Shokuh institute were studying in FCE classes to be prepared for the First Certificate Exam in English. Although shokuh's principle said that
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Abstract This paper reports on a study which investigated the relationship between Emotional Quotient (EQ) and Iranian intermediate EFL learners' performance on cloze test. The objective has been to discover whether gender has any effect on EQ. And if so, which EQ categories distinguish between males' and females' EQ. Bar-On EQ test and Nelson cloze test were administered to 180 intermediate learners, 90 males and 90 females. The results indicated that there was a positive relationship between EQ and Iranian intermediate EFL learners' performance on cloze test so the higher the EQ score, the higher the cloze test score. Also, females have a higher EQ than males. But this difference is not in all EQ categories. The EQ categories which are different between males and females are: self-respect, emotional self-awareness, flexibility and reality testing. The other EQ categories were the same between them. Therefore, it is concluded that EQ as an influencing factor in improving the participants' performance on cloze test must be considered in teaching and testing. Key Words: EQ, Nelson cloze test, Bar-On EQ test
Introduction Emotional intelligence (EI) is not new to this century. From 1900-1969 research related to emotions began (Mayer, 2001). In fact the link between EI and social intelligence may have begun with Robert Thorndike (1905), who wrote about 'the law of effect', which is the study of what effect a behavior was likely to produce. Several decades later in the 1940s, Ohio State leadership studies showed that consideration for others is liked to a leader's effectiveness (Cherniss, 2000). To improve their hiring or management positions, AT & T relied on the assessment center in 1956. The aspects measured by the assessment center are similar to the emotional competencies of having interpersonal and communication skills (Cherniss, 2000). Kelly (1955) established "the theory of personality", describing how a person's expectations and anticipations affect behavior. EI concepts continued to develop when Howard Gardener (1983) coined the term "multiple intelligences". He argued that having interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences were as important as intelligences measured by IQ. Intrapersonal intelligences, according to Gardener, inclued
having the ability to understand and differentiate among emotions. He defined interpersonal intelligence as the ability to assess other's emotions or moods and act on that information, and intrapersonal intelligences as assessing one's own feelings. The first few years of the 1990s could be referred to as the birth of the concept of EI. EI, though referred to sporadically before 1990, was defined by Mayer et al. (1990) as: "A type of emotional information processing that includes accurate appraisal of emotions in oneself and others, appropriate expression of emotion, and adaptive regulation of emotion in such ways as to enhance living" (p.773). From 1993 to 2000, EI began to become popular in the business world. Spencer (1993) viewed skill in perceiving other's emotions on highly evident in successful managers and sales people. Goleman (1995) proposed EI studies to everyday life matters. He referred to EI as one of the top predicators of life succcess, which he considered reachable by anyone. Stephen Covey (2004) writes that emotional intelligence is the gateway to understanding what a person truly needs in order
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