THE FUNCTION AND SUBSTANTIATION OF SOME NATURAL PLANT MATERIALS, AC Dweck

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Content: Lecture to the Society of Cosmetic Scientists 22-24th.November 1992 Anthony C.Dweck Herbal Archivist and Research Director Peter Black Toiletries, Cradle Bridge, Mortimer Street, Trowbridge, Wilts. THE FUNCTION AND SUBSTANTIATION OF SOME NATURAL PLANT MATERIALS. As an Herbal Archivist, I have now collected information on some 900 plant species and over 3000 sub species. Though this may sound very impressive, it pales into insignificance compared to some of the Chinese Court Herbals which list some five and a half thousand plants and their medicinal properties. THE REASON FOR COLLECTING DATA It would not be the first time that someone has asked why this information is collected in the first place. Well that is quite a reasonable question under the circumstances, since it does seem strange to be amassing all this knowledge, when much of it is available in one book or another already. But let us look at the requirements. Say for example, that Marketing decide they want to do an Oriental range. In the old days we would have spent days searching for relative books and then a few more days trying to fit the plant extracts to its possible usage. Such an approach takes too much time and excellent plant materials could be missed, depending on which books were consulted, and the chances of finding sufficient substantive information quickly, is most unlikely. The computer first offers potential plants that fit the description of the brief, and then from this list we can search for the specific benefits. Thus for a hair shampoo we would search for a plant under "hair" and "Oriental". If marketing specifically required a yellow flower, then we could include "yellow flower" in the search path. The second and most important reason for collecting data is that of safety. The law requires that a company must be able to prove that it has not been negligent in verifying the safety of its products. Some extracts are prohibited by law already, and these are all listed in the data base (for example Jaborandi, Bay Laurel and Foxglove). See Appendix I.
However, it has become increasingly obvious that this list is far from complete, and that there are many exciting plants that are extremely toxic which would not and should not be chosen for inclusion in cosmetic and toiletry products. It would be easy to pick up as many as three herbals that extol the virtues of a particular plant, and for not one of them to mention the unacceptable risk of using it. NATURE OF THE DATA The data is not restricted to topical application, and data on all medicinal and dietary properties is recorded. The most important aspect of any plant is its chemical content and its effects, and it is in this area that the paper presented will concentrate. EFFECTS OF NATURAL MATERIALS Natural products have been used for thousands of years, they were the basis of modern medicines. Thee same yardstick of modern medicines should not be used to compare natural materials. Modern medicines work very quickly, they are concentrated, they are single components, the results are dramatic, the risks of side effects are very real. Herbal preparations are slow, the result is measured in days rather than hours, in weeks rather days. Nature does things slowly, it is a blend of synergistic chemicals, it does it mildly and it generally does it without side-effects. It is better at preventing conditions from developing in the first place than rapidly curing them. The growth of interest in natural plant materials continues with little sign of abatement. The consumer has developed an understanding of herbs and extracts that pushes the cosmetic industry to search for more and more exotic materials to tempt and satisfy those demands. The more obscure the plant chosen, the harder it becomes to justify the use of the material on the grounds of efficacy and benefit. SOURCE OF DATA Data comes from a number of sources. It comes from published papers, herbals and data bases. Another valuable source is from the producers of natural extracts, though it has to be said that in many cases these sources can be extravagant with the promised effects. It is impossible to give a full reference account for each of the materials discussed, but as a guide, the library of Reference Books used to compile the presentation has been attached in Appendix II.
THE VISUAL MATERIAL The slide material is shown in Appendix III THE PLANTS DISCUSSED 1. Achillea millefolium Common names:- Yarrow, Milfoil Part used:- Whole herb Effects:- Used on sores, wounds, skin diseases, ulcers, inflammations, skin infections, rashes, to prevent baldness. Chemicals present:- essential oil, achillein, stachydrine, choline, glyco-collbetain, poltines, apeginine, achilline, matricine, proazulenes, inuline, ascorbic acid, antibiotic substances, tannins, aconitic acid, asparagine, waxy oil, an enzyme, gum, benzaldehyde cyanhydrin-glycoside, flavones. The azulene content can be up to 40% or more. 2. Alchemilla vulgaris Common names:- Lady's Mantle, Lion's Foot Part used:- Fresh root, flowering stems and leaves Effects:- Used as astringent,for leucorrhea, wounds, to stop bleeding, on cuts and abrasions, soothing, anti-inflammatory. Chemicals present:- tannins, essential oils, saponins, bitter compounds, salicylic acid, gallic acid, fatty acids, sterols, amino acids. 3. Amaranthus caudatus Common names:- Love-lies-Bleeding, Velvet Flower, Red Cockscomb, Prince's feather, Balder Herb, Floramor, Flower Gentle. Part used:- Leaves, flowers Effects:- tonic, demulcent, astringent, cooling properties, as a wash for ulcers and skin problems, reduce tissue swelling. Chemicals present:- Mucilage, sugars, saponins.
4. Anemone coronaria Common names:- Anemone Part used:- not known Effects:- may cause skin irritation Chemicals present:- not known with certainty 5. Anthemis nobilis Common names:- Roman Chamomile Part used:- dried flower heads Effects:- Antispasmodic, antiseptic, wound healing, sedative, anti-inflammatory, tonic. Chemicals present:- azulene and some similar materials found in German Chamomile (see later) 6. Aquilegia vulgaris Common names:- Columbine, Aquilegia Part used:- root, flowers and leaves Effects:- antiseptic, astringent, weakly sedative, used on rheumatic aches and pains, itchy or scabby skin, skin diseases. Chemicals present:- cyanogenic glycosides, aquilegine, emulsin, enzymes. 7. Arctium lappa Common names:- Greater Burdock Part used:- root Effects:- promotes growth of hair, treats skin disorders, used on skin eruptions, boils, dry scaly skin, eczema, psoriasis and skin infections. Regulates the sebaceous function. Chemicals present:- inulin (a polysaccharide), glycosides (arctiine), fatty oils, essential oil, polyphenols, tannins, sterols, some amino acids.
8. Armeria maritima Common names:- Thrift, Sea Pink Part used:- flowers Effects:- antiseptic, some antibiotic action, may cause irritation. Chemicals present:- iodine, fluorine, bromine, salt, plumbagone, naphthaquinone, mucilage. 9. Bellis perennis Common names:- Daisy, Bruisewort, Bairnwort Part used:- flowers Effects:- for bruises, reduce swelling, burns, stiffness and soreness, wounds, skin disorders, spots. It is emollient and ophthalmic. Chemicals present:- saponins, essential oil, tannins, mucilage, flavones, a bitter compound, resin. 10. Borago officinalis Common names:- Borage, Bugloss, Burrage Part used:- Leaves, seeds Effects:- used as eyewash, in inflammation, demulcent, emollient, maintain or restore healthy skin, reduce moisture loss from the skin, Chemicals present:- mucilages, tannin, essential oil, GLA and triglycerides in the oil, tannins, 11. Brassica napus Common names:- Rape Part used:- Seeds Effects:- source of emollient oil, used as basis of vegetable derived ingredients Chemicals present:- glycoside (gluconapine), erucic acid, various essential oils, fatty oil
12. Cakile maritima Common names:- Sea Rocket Part used:- leaves Effects:- used as a salad vegetable Chemicals present:- no data available at the present time 13. Calendula officinalis Common names:- Marigold, Calendula Part used:- leaves, flower petals Effects:- Used for Athlete's foot, fungal infections of the nails, psoriasis, varicose veins, wounds, ulcers, burns, scalds, sprains, bruises and stings. Antiseptic, cicatrising, cleansing, anti-inflammatory, styptic, emollient. Chemicals present:- Carotenoids, resin (calendulin), essential oil, sterols, flavonoids, bitter principle, saponin, amyrin, taraxasterol, oleanolic acid, xanthophyll and triterpene-saponins, tannins. 14. Calluna vulgaris Common names:- Heather, Ling Part used:- flowers Effects:- Used in skin problems, wound healing, acne as a cleanser, remove freckles, on cutaneous eruptions, shingles, antiseptic in wound cleansing Chemicals present:- flavone glucosides, quercitrin, myricitrin, arbutin. 7% tannin, and an alkaloid ericodin, silicic acid and resin, citric and fumaric acids, arbutin, tannins, an oil, ericinol, a resin, ericoline. 15. Campanula persicifolia Common names:- Harebell Part used:- root Effects:- starchy gum used as glue, cooked as vegetable Chemicals present:- starch-like compounds
16. Centaurea cyanus Common names:- Cornflower, Batchelor's Button, Bluebonnet, Bluebottle, Blue Centaury, Blue Cyani, Hurtsickle, Blue-Blow Part used:- flowers Effects:- Used as an eyewash, inflammation of the eyes, weak eyesight, wounds and skin ulcers, hair tonics, bruises Chemicals present:- sterols; cyanin; cyanin chloride and fragasin, organic pigments (anthocyanins) -principally cyanidin - a glycoside (cichoriin), saponins, mucilage and tannins, a bitter compound centaurine (also called cnicine, from Cnicus the Blessed Thistle), some traces of heteroside, cichoriin. 17. Centaurea scabiosa Common names:- Greater Knapweed, Knapweed, Common Knapweed Part used:- roots, seeds Effects:- Used on cuts, bruises Chemicals present:- plant is not completed in data files 18. Chenopodium album Common names:- Fat Hen Part used:- leaves, seeds Effects:- cleanses and heals skin sores. Source of rich oil from the seeds which are nutritious. Chemicals present:- leaves contain iron, vitamins and minerals. Data still being collected. 19. Clematis recta Common names:- Clematis Part used:- leaves, fresh flowers Effects:- used as a wash for infected skin eruptions, inflammations of the ganglia, rheumatism. Chemicals present:- bitter compound protoanemonine, clematitol glucoside, clematidin.
20. Convolvulus recta Common names:- Lesser Bindweed Part used:- flowering plant, rootstock. Effects:- used in fevers and as a purgative, helps reduce the inflammation of mucous membranes. Chemicals present:- data not currently available 21. Crithmum maritimum Common names:- Samphire, Sampier, Sea Fennel, Crest Marine Part used:- whole plant, growing tips Effects:- makes an excellent, aromatic pickle, used in obesity, choleretic, vermifugal, remineralising. One reference only says bacteriostatic, anti-inflammatory, cleanses epidermis. Chemicals present:- mineral salts, oils, volatile oils, iodine, vitamin C, anethol and fenchol, pectin, sulphates, pinene, eugenol, carvacrol and dilapiol. 22. Cydonia japonica Common names:- Quince, Japanese Quince, Japonica Part used:- fruits and seeds Effects:- soothing, demulcent, for irritations of mucous membranes, eye lotions, burns, eye inflammations, chapped lips, hair fixative, wounds, ulcers, chilblains Chemicals present:- mucilage (cydonin), fatty oil, amygdalin, tannin, vitamin C, pectin 23. Cytisus scoparius Common names:- Broom Part used:- flowers Effects:- use against head lice, not for cosmetic use Chemicals present:- sparteine sulphate, scoparin, tannins, essential oil, bitter compounds
24. Daucus carrota Common names:- Carrot Part used:- root Effects:- stimulates the production of sebum, accelerated the formation of skin tissue, used for dry scaly skin, clears complexion, softens blackheads, sores, ulcers, eye problems, acne. Chemicals present:- provitamin A, crystallisable and uncrystallisable sugar, a little starch, extractine gluten, albumen, volatile oil (on which the medicinal properties of the root depend and which is fragrant, aromatic and stimulating), vegetable jelly or pectin, saline matter, malic acid and a peculiar crystallisable, ruby-red neutral principle, without odour or taste, called carotin, vitamins A, B, and C and contains small amounts of E and K, as well as phosphorus, potassium and calcium. 25. Dicentra spectabilis Common names:- Bleeding Heart Part used:- dried tubers Effects:- chronic cutaneous affections Chemicals present:- alkaloids: corycavine, bulbocapnine and corydine; corydaline is a tertiary base; bulbocapnine is present in largest amount and was originally called corydaline. Corydine is a strong base found in the mother liquor of bulbocapnine and several amorphous unnamed bases have been found in it. All these alkaloids have narcotic action. Protopine, first isolated from opium, has been found in several species of Dicentra 26. Dipsacus fullonum Common names:- Teasel Part used:- the herb Effects:- used for eye ailments, styes, whitlows on fingers, reducing facial wrinkles, inflammation of the skin Chemicals present:- insufficient data at the present time.
27. Epilobium angustifolium Common names:- Rosebay Willowherb, Fireweed, Flowering Willow, French Willow, Persian Willow, Rose Bay Willow, Blood Vine, Blooming Sally, Purple Rocket, Wickup, Wicopy, Tame Withy Part used:- flowers, root Effects:- haemostatic, demulcent, astringent, tonic and cutaneous Skin Care problems, emollient, used cosmetically on reddened and delicate skins. Chemicals present:- pectin, mucilage, tannins (up to 20%), mucilage, flavones, sugars, and vitamin C 28. Equisetum arvense Common names:- Horsetail, Equisetum, Shavegrass Part used:- Whole plant Effects:- helps to keep the skin, hair, nails and teeth healthy, preserves the natural elasticity in the skin, restoring skin tone, keep the hair healthy and strong, soothe skin irritations and help to heal minor abrasions, soothe puffy eyelids, healing wounds and soothing chilblains Chemicals present:- silicic acid and water soluble silicic compounds; saponins; phytosterol; flavonoids; aconitic acid; traces of alkaloids, nicotine, palustrine and palustrinine 29. Filipendula ulmaria Common names:- Meadowsweet, Queen of the Meadow Part used:- root, flowers Effects:- restores elasticity to muscle, reduce rheumatic pain in muscles and joints, wash for wounds and sore eyes, astringent, used to bathe cuts, scratches and abrasions. Chemicals present:- contains (in the form of a glycoside) a salicylic aldehyde, spireine; also methyl salicylate, gaultherine, 10% tannin and a sugar, volatile oil, also methyl salicylate; vanillin, heliotropin, ethyl benzoate; also flavonoid glycosides including spiraeoside; sugars; mineral salts.
30. Fucus serratus Common names:- Serrated Wrack, Seaweed Part used:- whole plant Effects:- in hair care is said to improve split ends and enhance the condition of hair that has been damaged by frequent bleaching or dyeing. Stimulate the hair and scalp. Combines with the protein in the hair by means of ionic interaction and so acts as a protective moisturising agent, increasing hair lustre and softness and decreasing its electrostatic charge. Treated hair has more body and is less fly away. Beneficial in anti-cellulite preparations, and it has been used in a number of slenderising products for the hips, thigh and neck areas. Pronounced moisturising effect on the skin, softens the hands and body, and produces soothing face packs or masks. An emollient with smoothing and anti-inflammatory properties. It acts as a moisturiser by its hydrating and protective action of forming a layer on the skin that reduces loss of skin moisture through evaporation. Tissue renewal action, reduces facial wrinkles. In another reference the anti-wrinkle effect is attributed to the silicon that seaweed contains. In cases of psoriasis (where it can be used as a wash) and for the treatment of seborrhoeic skin conditions. Soothing and skin softening such as the elbows, knees and feet. In the treatment of acne, improve the blood circulation in the skin. The iodine in seaweed exerts a positive action on inflammations and secretions of the skin whilst having a disinfectant property. Speeds up the healing process, improves healing of burns and other wounds when incorporated into dressings, beneficial for sprains and bruises. Chemicals present:- vitamins which include A (beta-carotene), vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B12 (cobalamine), C, D, E, K, folic acid, choline. Minerals: iodine, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, nitrogen, magnesium, sulphur, chlorine, copper, zinc and manganese. Trace amounts one finds barium, boron, chromium, lithium, nickel, silver, titanium, vanadium, aluminium, silicon, strontium, molybdenum, cobalt, bromine, lead and arsenic.Amino acids: serine, alanine, arginine, glycine, lysine, asparagine, valine, leucine, isoleucine and tryptophan. Sugars (polysaccharides): fucose, mannose, xylose, galactose and glucose. Other components: alginic acid, alginates, carrageenan, agar-agar, proteins, cellulose, mucilage, mannite, fucitol, algin, mannitol, alginates, fucosterol, iodine-protein complexes, uronic acid derivatives, fucose polymers, sulphated polygalactosides.
31. Fucus vesiculosis Common names:- Bladderwrack, Seaweed Part used:- see above Effects:- see above Chemicals present:- see above 32. Galium verum Common names:- Lady's Bedstraw Part used:- dried flowering plant Effects:- used as an application to wounds and to cutaneous eruptions, antiseptic, treat slow-healing wounds, skin rashes and ulcerous conditions, spots and pimples, swollen and walk-weary feet Chemicals present:- silicic acid; the presence of saponin is not proved, glycosides, traces of an essential oil, enzymes parachymozine 33. Hedera helix Common names:- Ivy Part used:- leaves Effects:- used to treat rheumatism, arthritis and bruises, promote dilation of the blood vessels and sweating, to treat corns and swollen feet, for ulcers, enlarged glands, boils and abscesses, slow-healing wounds, external wash for sores, burns, cuts, dandruff and other skin problems Chemicals present:- hederacoside; hederagenine, tannins, a saponin (hederin), its aglycone (hederagenin), organic acids and iodine, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, flavonoids
34. Helianthus annuus Common names:- Sunflower Part used:- Seeda Effects:- emollient, soothing effect on the mucous membrane, relieves the pain of arthritis, used on bruises, externally on cuts and bruises, on wounds Chemicals present:- gamma linoleic acid, helianthitanic acid (a tannin), small quantities of inulin and large amounts of levulin, arachidic acid, behenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, vitamin E, albumin; lecithin; betaine; choline. The plant contains potassium nitrate, potassium carbonate, tannins, a flavonic glycoside quercimetrin, histidine. The seeds contain 30% of an excellent fatty oil, albumin, choline, lecithin, betaine and tannin 35. Hyacinthoides non-scripta Common names:- Bluebell Part used:- bulb Effects:- styptic, substitute for starch, gum Chemicals present:- inulin, mucilage 36. Hypericum calycinum Common names:- St. John's Wort, Hypericum Part used:- whole plant, flowers Effects:- cicatrising action on wounds, cuts and bruises. Used as an application on wounds and haematoma, antispasmodic, astringent, nervine, vulnerary, burns, wounds, sores, bruises and other skin problems, varicose veins and mild burns, inflammation reducing, soothing, pain reducing Chemicals present:- tannins, essential oil with a-pinene and sesquiterpene., hyperin, rutin, quercitrin, hypericin and pseudohypericin, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, choline, fat, pectin, phlobaphene, rhodane
37. Jasminium officinale Common names:- Jasmin, Jasmine, Yasmine Part used:- Flowers, Whole plant Effects:- used to treat conjunctivitis, skin ulcers and tumours, increased Я-wave activity and the amplitude of an attention-related brain wave, the contingent negative variable (CNV), complaints of the eye, external application for ringworm, spots and pimples, and dissolves swellings and lumps on the skin Chemicals present:- 0.5% of related indole alkaloids including gelsemine, sempervirene, gelsemicine, gelsedine and gelseverine. The plant also contains beta-methyl asculetin, pentatriacontane and the mono-methyl ether of emodin. The compound present in the highest concentration is benzyl acetate. Other compounds include phenylacetic acid, linalool, benzyl alcohol, methyl anthranilate, methyl heptenone, farnesol, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, cis-linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, nerolidol, cis-jasmone, trans-methyl jasmonate, cis- and trans-ethyl jasmonates, jasmolactone, -jasmonic acid lactone, and methyl dehydrojasmonate. 38. Knautia arvensis Common names:- Field Scabious Part used:- the whole plant, flowers Effects:- chronic skin conditions, eczema Chemicals present:- tannins, a bitter compound, data incomplete at the present time.
39. Lavandula angustifolia Common names:- Lavender Part used:- flowers, plant Effects:- Fungal and other skin infections, rosacea, pruritis, scars, burns, varicose veins, phlebitis, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antirheumatic, heals wounds, good for acne, burns, wounds and insect bites, alopecia, bites, boils, dermatitis, eczema, inflammation, psoriasis, rejuvenation, and sunburn Chemicals present:- - alcohols (under 50%): the main alcohol is lavandulol, plus borneol, terpineol, geraniol and linalol, the last mostly in esterified form (linalyl acetate). - esters (48-52%): directly derived from the alcohols - lavanylyl acetate, linalyl acetate, bornyl acetate. - oxides (2-3%): 1,8 cineole, linalyl oxide, caryophyllene oxide. - coumarin (minute amounts): heniarine, umbelliferone, santonine. - terpenes (less than 5%): myrcene, limonene, ocimene. - sesquiterpenes (about 3%): caryophyllene. There is also a small amount of the ketone camphor, and a minute amount of methyl heptyl ketone (which only exists in the essential oil after extraction by distillation), as well as traces of lactones and aldehydes. Alcohols and esters are the predominant molecules present in 40. Lavandula officinalis Common names:- Lavender Part used:- as above, flowering tops Effects:- as above Chemicals present:- similar to the above
41. Lavatera olbia Common names:- Tree Mallow Part used:- roots,leaves Effects:- antiphlogistic, emollient, tonic for blemished and sensitive skins, remove inflammation, emollient and calming, useful for eczema, skin inflammations, irritated and itching skin, wounds and ulcers Chemicals present:- starch, pectin, mucilage, sugar, fats, tannin, asparagine, and calcium oxalate, mucilage content is generally considered to be 25-35% but that of the homogeneous mucilaginous polysaccharides is much lower. Mucilage composed of l-rhamnose, d-galactose, d-galacturonic acid, d-glucuronic acid in the molar ratio of 3:2:3:3, with a molecular weight of about 34000 (as the ammonium salt). 42. Linaria vulgaris Common names:- Toadflax, Flaxweed, Pennywort, Butter and Eggs Part used:- flowers Effects:- applied to skin irritations, skin diseases and scrofula, skin sores and ulcers, anti-inflammatory properties Chemicals present:- phytosterol, mannitol, fat, sugar, tannin, colouring matter, mucilage, glycosides; linarin and pectolinarin 43. Lonicera periclymenum Common names:- Honeysuckle Part used:- dried flowers and leaves Effects:- to fade freckles on the face, antiseptic, slightly astringent, for skin infections, sunburn, reduce swellings (particularly in mumps), to sores, wounds, ulcers will promote healing and allay heat Chemicals present:- mucilage; an amorphous glucoside; salicylic acid; sugars; invertin; bitter compound (xylosteine), pectin
44. Malva sylvestris Common names:- Common Mallow Part used:- see Tree Mallow Effects:- as for Tree Mallow Chemicals present:- similar for Tree Mallow 45. Matricaria recutita Common names:- German Chamomile Part used:- flowering tops Effects:- antispasmodic, antiseptic, wound healing, sedative related, anti-inflammatory, tonic, soothing for conjunctivitis and sore eyes. Chemicals present:- chamazulene, alpha-bisabolol, an unsaturated monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, apigenin and angelic acid, coumarins (umbilliferone), matricaria-proazulene (guaianolide) named matricine. Other components of the essential oil are (-)-alpha-bisabolol (INN: Lecomenol), the bisabolol oxides A and B, cis-and trans-en-yn-dicycloether. Other important constituents of Matricaria chamomilla are many flavonoids (among other apigenin, luteolin, quercitrin, as well as their corresponding glycosides), chlorogenic acid, umbellige-rone and herniarin (coumarin-compounds). 46. Matricaria recutita Common names:- German Chamomile Part used:- see above Effects:- see above Chemicals present:- see above
47. Melissa officinalis Common names:- Melissa, Lemon Balm Part used:- flowering tops and leaves Effects:- heal and soothe minor cuts and abrasions, mild antiseptic properties, soothe irritations of the skin and protect it from infections Chemicals present:- monoterpene aldehydes citral and citronellal, monoterpene alcohols geraniol, linalool and citronellol. It also contains neral, geranial, b-oleanolic acid, geranyl acetate, geraniol and nerol. Rosemarinic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechutannic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid derivatives with glycoside like bonds. Other constituents include a bitter, succinic acid, wax, ursolic acid, triterpenes of the lupane, oleanane and ursane types. Substances which show particularly marked sedative effects are caryophyllene, linalool, citrals, limonene and eugenol 48. Mentha spicata Common names:- Spearmint Part used:- leaves and flowering tops Effects:- cooling and slightly anodyne, for itching skin conditions, anti-inflammatory, application to wounds, treat skin complaints Chemicals present:- essential oil with menthol, menthone, jasmone, tannin, bitter principle, 49. Myosotis arvensis Common names:- Forget-me-not Part used:- whole plant Effects:- cicatrizer, ophthalmic and astringent Chemicals present:- tannin, resin, mucilage and salts
50. Oenethera biennis Common names:- Evening Primrose Part used:- seeds, occasionally whole plant Effects:- used to treat eczema, brittle nails and general skin dryness, nappy rash and psoriasis, skin irritations and rashes, skin eruptions, increases skin's resistance to UV exposure, increases blood flow through the tiny blood capillaries of the skin, atopic eczema, helps the skin to retain moisture Chemicals present:- essential fatty acids (EFA), of which two are of particular importance gamma linoleic acid (GLA) and linoleic acid. 51. Ononis repens Common names:- Restharrow Part used:- root, flowers Effects:- delays the healing of wounds (one reference only), arthritis and chronic skin disorders Chemicals present:- an essential oil, a flavonic glycoside (ononine), onocerine, ononide, saponin, spirosin, ethereal compound, fatty oil and tannin 52. Origanum onites Common names:- Marjoram Part used:- leaves Effects:- antiseptic action, astringent, varicose veins, gout, rheumatism, and stiff joints, application for sprains, bruises, rheumatic and muscular pain Chemicals present:- -terpinene, gamma-terpinene, 4-terpineol, sabinene, linalool, carvacrol, cis-sabinene hydrate and trans-sabinene hydrate with linalyl acetate, ocimene, cadinene, geranyl acetate, citral, estragole, eugenol, 3-carene, cis-sabinene, flavonoid glycosides (luteolin-7-diglucoside, apigenin-7-glucoside, diosmetin-7-glucuronide), tannins, caffeic acid, labiatic acid, rosmarinic acid, steroids (e.g. beta-sitosterol), triterpenoids (oleanolic acid, ursolic acid etc.) paraffins (e.g. n-triacontane), protein (ca 13%) vitamins (especially A and C) and others
53. Papaver rhoeas Common names:- Red Poppy, Field Poppy Part used:- flowers Effects:- expectorant, some emollient action on the skin Chemicals present:- anthocyanins, mecocyanin and cyanidol; mucilage; traces of crystalline alkaloids, rhoeadine, rhoeagenine and rhoearubine 54. Plantago lanceolata Common names:- Plantain, Ribwort Part used:- leaves Effects:- remedy for wasp and bee stings, relieves irritation and pain, for nettle sting, mosquito bites, stops bleeding from minor cuts and abrasions. A strong infusion is a useful remedy for shingles and other skin problems. Lotion to bathe itching irritated areas until relief is obtained. Cleansing herb, closes the pores and refines coarse skin, furunculosis, Chemicals present:- mucilage; a pentacyclic triterpene; oleanolic acid; a glycoside; aucubin (rhinanthin); the enzymes emulsin and invertin; potassium salts (to 0.5%); citric acid. The seeds contain a trisaccharide planteose; aucubin; choline; various organic acids. 55. Plantago major Common names:- Greater Plantain Part used:- see Ribwort Effects:- see Ribwort Chemicals present:- see Ribwort 56. Polemonium coeruleum Common names:- Jacob's Ladder Part used:- whole plant Effects:- astringent, certain inflammatory diseases Chemicals present:- data not available at the present time
57. Primula vulgaris Common names:- Primrose, Primula Part used:- leaves, flowers, root Effects:- skin problems and blemishes, help prevent or reduce wrinkles, said to remove spots, skin wounds, reduces the swelling of bruises. Chemicals present:- saponins, the sapogenins of which are based on the triterpene-aglycones priverogenin A and B, and about 0.1% volatile oil. The root is predominantly used and contain 5-10% saponin, and also glycosides and 0.25% of a volatile oil 58. Pulmonaria officinalis Common names:- Lungwort Part used:- leaves Effects:- astringent, demulcent and emollient, used for all kinds of wounds, an effective eye wash for tired eyes Chemicals present:- phytsterol, mucilage, silicic acid, carotene, saponin and vitamin C 59. Pyrus malus Common names:- Apple Blossom Part used:- flowers Effects:- none reported Chemicals present:- unknown 60. Ranunculus bulbosus Common names:- Buttercup, bulbous buttercup, acrid crowfoot, crowfoot, crowfoot buttercup, Cuckoo buds, Frogwort, King's Cup, Meadowbloom, Pilewort, St. Anthony's Turnip Part used:- roots, leaves, flowers Effects:- used to remove warts, counter-irritant to sciatica and rheumatic pains, treatment of skin conditions (herpes, eczema, erysipelas, pruritis), arthritis and also rhinitis, piles, and haemorrhoids . Can be irritant at high doses. Chemicals present:- anemonol
61. Ranunculus ficaria Common names:- Lesser Celandine Part used:- fresh herb Effects:- relieves haemorrhoids or piles, for external abscesses, fresh juice to remove warts. Chemicals present:- Vitamin C, probably contains traces of an acrid principle resembling or identical with anemonin, protoanemonin, anthemol; tannins 62. Rosa canina Common names:- Wild Rose, Dog Rose Part used:- the fruit Effects:- see below Chemicals present:- see below 63. Rosa canina (frutus) Common names:- Rosehips Part used:- the fruit Effects:- tissue regeneration with good results in maintaining the tissue texture, skin freshness in ageing prevention and attenuation of scars and stains, effect in the skin cell membranes, the defence mechanisms, the growth and other physiologic and biochemical processes related to tissue regeneration - explain its tissue regenerating properties (scars, skin burns, early aging etc). Tested on cheloids, acne scars, multiple erythema, surgical scars etc, chapped hands and lips, anti-wrinkle agent and in body lotions to smooth the skin. It is also used as a moisturiser and in the treatment of burns, scars and ulcers and in hair preparations, especially for dry and damaged hair Chemicals present:- Vitamin F, vitamin E, 5.5-6.0% of saturated fatty acids, about 15% of mono-unsaturated acids, such as oleic and palmitoleic acids, a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids; 45% of the total fatty acid content is linoleic acid and 33% linolenic acid.
64. Rumex acetosa Common names:- Sorrel Part used:- leaves, stems, Effects:- for skin infections, boils eczema and acne, psoriasis, swellings Chemicals present:- 1.3% oxalate and oxalic acid, anthracene derivatives and Vitamin C, potassium oxalate, mucilage 65. Rumex obtusifolius Common names:- Sorrel, Dock leaf Part used:- see above Effects:- see above Chemicals present:- see above 66. Salvia officinalis Common names:- Sage Part used:- Effects:- for dandruffs, loss of hair, fatty hair and skin, cellulitis, sluggish or congested ulcers and on wounds, astringent and anti-inflammatory, treat skin problems, for wounds, antifungal, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antiperspirant, protects the skin. heal skin lesions which will not heal, heal old festering wounds. Cited for use on boils, lesions, chilblains and treating sweaty feet Chemicals present:- essential oils, saponin, tannins, picrosalvin (bitters), resin, fumaric acid, ursolic acid, oleanic acid, and other oxytriterpenic acid, germanicol, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, pentosene, wax and nicotinic acid, additionally a diterpenediphenol carboxylic acid, n-triacontane have been identified. Sage extract contains six flavones and eight flavone glycosides. Interesting amongst them is a substance which has an effect on tuberculosis bacilli and an estrogenic constituent. The essential oil contains thujone, borneol, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, d-camphor, d- and l-alpha-pinene, salvene, dipentene, a sesquiterpene, linalool and picrosalvin.
67. Santolina chamaecyparissus Common names:- Cotton Lavender Part used:- whole herb Effects:- used as a wound herb, remedial rub for aches and pains and is also mildly insecticide, to heal ringworm and scab. Chemicals present:- essential oil; bitter principle; unknown substances. More data required. 68. Senecio aureus Common names:- common groundsel Part used:- see Ragwort below Effects:- see Ragwort below Chemicals present:- see Ragwort below 69. Senecio jacobaea Common names:- Ragwort, Stinking Nanny, St. James's Wort, Staggerwort, Ragweed, Dog Standard or Fireweed Part used:- fresh plant, dried aerial parts Effects:- for inflammation of the eyes, application to ulcers, wounds, antiseptic lotion for cleansing wounds, arthritis, myalgia and sciatica, dissolve swellings, treatment of all skin ailments, gatherings, inflamed areas, tumours - soft and hard - and all types of swellings. Also for boils, abscesses, whitlows. Chemicals present:- alkaloids including jacobine, jaconine and jacodine, and flavonoid glycosides, senecionine 70. Silene dioica Common names:- Red Campion Part used:- no information available Effects:- none reported Chemicals present:- none reported
71. Silene maritima Common names:- Sea Campion Part used:- no information available Effects:- none reported Chemicals present:- none reported 72. Solidago virgaurea Common names:- Golden Rod, Verge d'or, Solidago, Goldruthe, Woundwort, Aaron's Rod Part used:- leaves Effects:- anti-inflammatory and aids wound healing. Externally the tisane is successfully used as a lotion or in compresses for wound healing, chronic eczema. The crushed leaves are used for wounds, sores and insect bites, cicatrisation of old ulcers, astringent. It is used externally as a poultice or as an ointment to assist tissue healing, varicose ulcers, eczema and slow healing wounds. Chemicals present:- volatile oil, tannin, saponins, flavonoids, and an astringent principle, various organic acids - mainly citric, tartaric and oxalic; unknown substances 73. Tanacetum parthenium Common names:- Feverfew Part used:- flower heads, leaves and sometimes the flowering stems Effects:- soothes swellings and open wounds, applied locally relieves pain and irritation of insect bites. Made into a lotion by adding the tincture to distilled water and applying to the body, it protects against attack by flying insects Chemicals present:- essential oil with camphor (so-called chamomile camphor), bitter compounds, tannins and mucilage. Essential oil containing camphor, terpene, borneol, various esters and a bitter substance. Parthenolide, pyrethrins and santamarin
74. Taraxacum officinale Common names:- Dandelion Part used:- leaves Effects:- skin complaints and often an effective remedy in most forms of rheumatism, skin washes and face masks, decoction is applied to breast abscesses also boils etc. on other parts of the body. The juice is applied to remove warts. Eczema and all eruptions on the surface of the body, regeneration of both blood cells and tissue, soothing action on eczema, ulcers and distressed skin. Chemicals present:- latex, inulin, iron, niacin, potash, vitamins A and C, vitamin B, amino acids, sterols, lactupicrine 75. Thymus vulgaris Common names:- Thyme Part used:- plant, leaves Effects:- wound healing, antiseptic and deodorant. Thyme baths are said to be helpful for neurasthenia, rheumatic problems, paralysis, bruises, swellings, and sprains. A salve made from thyme can be used for shingles, for boils, sores and for hair loss, as a paint in ringworm, in eczema, psoriasis, broken chilblains, parasitic skin infections, burns. Chemicals present:- thymol, carvacrol, cymene, pinenes, borneol, linalool. 76. Trifolium pratense Common names:- Red Clover Part used:- flowering tops Effects:- relief from itching in skin disorders, specific for acne, boils and similar eruptions, eczema, skin problems especially with irritation, indicated for chronic skin disease. Specifically it is for eczema and psoriasis. Chemicals present:- various phenolic glycosides including trifoliin and flavonoids, isoflavones such as biochanin A, formononetin, genistein, daidzein, pratensein, and trifoside, flavones, coumarins etc., trans- and cis- clovamide, phaselic acid, a galactoglucomannan, sugars, protein, a volatile oil containing furfural, resins, fat, minerals (particularly rich in magnesium, copper and calcium), phosphorus, vitamins etc.
77. Trifolium repens Common names:- White Clover Part used:- see Red Clover Effects:- as above Chemicals present:- as above 78. Ulex europaeus Common names:- Gorse Part used:- flowers Effects:- some astringent action, flea repellant Chemicals present:- tannins. No further data available at the present time. 79. Urtica dioica Common names:- Stinging Nettle Part used:- leaves Effects:- Externally it utilises the hyperaemia produced and the irritant effect achieved via the cutaneous nerves. It can be used to treat neuralgic and rheumatoid pain, particularly with degenerative and chronic arthritic conditions, such as lumbago and sciatic pain, chronic tendinitis, sprains and many other similar conditions. Included in foot baths to draw out impurities and ease tiredness. Astringent, tonic, it is also applied to burns and skin disorders because of its blood-purging attributes. Reputed to stimulate hair growth when applied to the scalp. To heal abrasions and irritations, and used to grow hair, cited for use in eczema. Recommended for cutaneous eruptions, infantile and psychogenic eczema, epistaxis, melaena. Chemicals present:- formic acid as a major constituent, added to which there is hystamine, a high proportion of chlorophyll and iron, plant enzymes, many minerals and in the stinging hairs a nettle poison
80. Verbascum densiflorum Common names:- Mullein Part used:- leaves Effects:- used to bathe painful haemorrhoids. Mullein oil can be used to stop irritation and relieve chilblains and haemorrhoids. It is soothing and softening and will help to heal painful bruises, effective remedy for boils, whitlows and virulent spots. Chemicals present:- mucilage, saponins and tannins, hydrocarbons, ketone alcohols, beta-sitosterol and a triterpenic alcohol in addition to a number of related iridoids 81. Vinca minor Common names:- Lesser Periwinkle Part used:- flowering stems Effects:- used for treating inflammatory skin conditions, good vulnerary plant, for healing bruises, astringent Chemicals present:- Seven alkaloids have been isolated, also C19-C20 indole alkaloids, vincamine, tannins, saponins, pectin and organic pigments 82. Viola riviniana Common names:- Violet Part used:- leaves Effects:- use in subduing acute inflammation, antiseptic, may be applied to wounds to stimulate healing, possibly acts as an antibiotic, compress for various swellings, use in skin conditions such as eczema, the treatment of skin diseases, soothing and healing, it is applied to slow-drying wounds, ulcers, rashes, for chronic and persisting skin conditions, scrofula, eruptions, children's eczema Chemicals present:- glucosidal principles, derivatives of salicylic acid, all parts of the plant, particularly the rhizome, contain saponins; the subterranean stock also contains an alkaloid (odoratine). The flowers contain essence of violets, consisting of a blue pigment and an aromatic compound (irone).
83. Viola tricolor Common names:- Wild Pansy, Heartsease, Garden Violet, Johnny Jumper, Step-mother, Love-in-Idleness, Call me to you, Three faces in a Hood, Heart of Trinity, Herb Constancy, Herb Trinitatis, Jack jump up and kiss me, Three face under a hood, Kit run in the fields, Stepfathers and Stepmothers and Butterfly Flower Part used:- aerial parts, root, flowers Effects:- promotes wound healing and relieve inflammations, use on eczemas, skin inflammations, micro-crust, acne and skin itching, has natural sun screening properties, for skin diseases, healing herb, can be used externally to soothe and relieve pain, for skin complaints, spots, pimples, heals sores and other skin ailments. Chemicals present:- saponins, salicylates, a flavonic glycoside (violaquercetin) and other chemical components. Flower contains violanine, which is blue, and a coumarinic and delphinidic anthocyanoside, salicylic acid.
APPENDIX I
FORBIDDEN PLANT MATERIALS
According to the 1989 Cosmetic Safety Act
Schedule No. Name of Substance
Translation
11. Aconitine and its salts
12. Aconitum napellus
Monkshood
(leaves,roots and galenical preps)
13. Adonis vernalis and its preparations Adonis
43. Ammi majus and its galenical preparations Bishopsweed
51. Anamirta cocculus (fruit)
*******
57. Apocynum cannabinum and its preparations Cannabis
63. Atropa belladonna and its compounds Belladonna
129. Calabar bean (see 547)
130. Cantharis vesicatoria and cantharides ********
144. Chenopodium ambrosioides American wormseed oil
(essential oil)
or Mexican goosefoot
145. Cherry laurel water (see 577)
180. Claviceps purpurea
Ergot
its alkaloids and galenical preparations
187. Colchicum autumnale
Autumn Crocus or
and its galenical preparations Meadow Saffron
193. Conium maculatum
Hemlock
(fruit, powder, galenical preparations)
197. Croton tiglium (oil)
Croton
198. Curare and curarine
212. Datura stramonium Thornapple or Jimsonweed
(and its galenical preparations)
243. Digitalis purpurea
Foxglove (digitaline and all of its heterosides)
379. Hyoscyamus niger (leaves, seeds powder Henbane
and galenical preparations)
386. Cephaelis ipecacuanha and related species
(roots, powder and galenical preps.)
396. Juniperus sabina
Savine
(leaves, essential oil and galenical preparations)
397. Laurel oil
398. Laurus nobilis (oil from seeds)
Laurel
402. Lobelia inflata
Lobelia
and its galenical preparations
486. Nux vomica and its preparations Quaker Buttons
Poison nuts
547. Physostigma venenosum
Calabar bean
549. Phytolacca spp and their preparations Poke Root
553. Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes
Jaborandi
and its galenical preparations
577. Prunus laurocerasus
Cherry Laurel
579. Pyrethrum album
Pyrethrum
and its galenical preparations
585. Rauwolfia serpentina
Indian Snakeroot
589. Schoenocaulon officinale Lind.
Sabadilla
(seeds and galenical preparations).
alkaloids and their salts
596. Solanum nigrum
Black Nightshade and its galenical preparations
600. Squill and its preparations (see 649)
603. Stropanthus species
Strophanthus
and their galenical preparations
605. Strychnos species and their galenical preparations
649. Thevetia neriifolia Juss. Thevetia tree nut glycoside extract
696. Urginea scilla Stern. (see 600)
Squill
and its galenical preparations
700. Veratrum spp and their preparations Hellebores
703. Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3
APPENDIX II
THE REFERENCE MATERIAL
HERBAL AND PLANT RELATED BOOKS B1. Hans Fluck: medicinal plants, 1988 W.Foulsham & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0-572-00996-8 B2. Ceres: The Healing Power of Herbal Teas, 1984 THorsons Publishers, ISBN 0-72251578-8 B3. M.Wright: The Complete Book of Garden Plants, 1984 Rainbird ISBN 0-7181-2307-7 B4. R.Genders: Flowers and Herbs of Love, 1978 Longman and Todd ISBN 0-232-51409-7 B5. R.C.Wren: Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, 1985 8th impression, published C.W.Daniels. ISBN 0-85032-009-7 B6. M.Grieve: A Modern Herbal, 1984 Savvas Publishing. ISBN unknown. B7. D.Hoffmann: The Herb Users Guide. 1987 Thorsons Publishing. ISBN 0-7225-1288-0 B8. J.Lust: The Herb Book, 1986, 16th. impression, Bantam Publishing. ISBN 0-553-17273-5 B9. C.F.Leyel: Herbal Delights. 1987 Faber and Faber ISBN 0-571-14850-6 B10. C.F.Leyel: Elixirs of Life. 1987 Faber and Faber ISBN 0-571-14849-2 B11. M.Scheffer: Bach Flower Therapy. 1986. Thorsons Publishing ISBN 0-7225-1121-3 B12. R.Trattler: Better Health through Natural Healing. 1985 Thorsons Publishers. ISBN 0-7225-1382-8 B13. S.Price: Practical Aromatherapy. 1987 Thorsons Publishing ISBN 0-7225-1525-1 B14. R.Tisserand: The Art of Aromatherapy. 1987 C.W.Daniel & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0-85207-140-X B15. D.D.Buchman: Herbal Medicine: The Natural way to get well and stay well. 1987. Century Hutchinson ISBN 0-09-153691-X B16. J.Valnet: The Practice of Aromatherapy. 1986. C.W.Daniel Co. Ltd. ISBN 0-85207-140-X B17. A.Huxley: Natural Beauty with Herbs. 1977 Darton, Longman, & Todd. ISBN 0-232-51388-0
B18. R.Lautier, A.Passebecq: Aromatherapy, the use of plant essences in healing. 1979 Thorsons Publishers. ISBN 0-7225-1145-0 B19. M.Tisserand: Aromatherapy for Women. 1985. Thorsons Publishing. ISBN 0-7225-1119-1 B20. M.Mitton: Herbal Remedies-Skin Problems. 1984. W.Foulsham ISBN 0-572-01254-3 B21. M.Mitton: Herbal Remedies-Stress and Tension. 1984. W.Foulsham. ISBN 0-572-01254-3 B22. E.Mindell: New and Revised Vitamin Bible. 1985. Warner Books ISBN unknown. B23. L.Mervyn: Thorsons Complete Guide to Vitamins and Minerals. 1986 Thorsons ISBN 0-7225-1273-2 B24. H.Winter-Griffith: The Vital Vitamin Fact File. 1988. Thorsons Publishing ISBN 0-7225-1693-2 B25. F.J.Wheeler: The Bach Remedies Repertory. 1988 C.W.Daniel Co.Ltd. ISBN unknown B26. B.H.M.A.: The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia 1983 ISBN 0-903032-07-4 B27. S.Bunney: The Illustrated Book of Herbs. 1984. Octopus ISBN 0-7064-1489-6 B28. M.Stuart: The Encyclopaedia of Herbs and Herbalism. 1986. Orbis ISBN 0-85613-700-6 B29. D.Potterton (ed): Culpepper,s Colour Herbal. 1983. W.Foulsham ISBN 0-572-01152-0 B30. The British Pharmaceutical Codex 1973. The Pharmaceutical Press ISBN 0-85369-084-7 B31. Efamol literature: Essential Fatty Acids- A review of Evening Primrose Oil. B32. I.Stein: Royal Jelly. 5th impression 1986 Thorsons Publishing ISBN 0-7225-1225-2 B33. Thorson's Editorial Board: The healing power of Pollen with propolis and Royal Jelly. 1989 new edition. Thorsons ISBN 0-7225-1878-1 B34. M.Polunin: Minerals - their crucial role in your health. 1987. Thorsons ISBN 0-7225-0935 B35. P.Holford: The Whole Health Guide to Elemental health. 1983. Thorsons ISBN 0-7225-0877-8 B36. Superdrug: Vitamins for Health. 1988. Mandarin Offset (Hong Kong) ISBN 0-86178-497-6
B37. W.C.Evans: Trease and Evans, Pharmacognosy. 13th edition. Balliere Tindall ISBN 0-7020-1357-9 B38. R.Marks: The Sun and your Skin. 1988. MacDonald & Co. ISBN 0-356-14740-1 B39. D.C.Jarvis: Arthritis and Folk Medicine. 1968. 8th printing Pan Books ISBN unknown B40. G.J.Binding: About Pollen-health food and healing agent. 1980. Chaucer Press. ISBN 0-7225-0660-0 B41. R.Marks: Acne - Advice on clearing your skin. 1984. Dunitz ISBN 0-906348-53-6 (-52-8 in paperback) B42. J.Marks: A guide to the vitamins- their role in health and diseases. 1979. Medical and Technical Publishing Co.Ltd. ISBN 0-85200122-3 B43. J.Marks: The vitamins _ their role in medical practice. 1985. Medical and Technical Publishing Co.Ltd. ISBN 0-85200-851-1 B44. Roche: Vitamin Compendium. F.Hoffmann la Roche, Basle Switzerland. ISBN unknown. B45. M.Budd. The Little Honey Book 1984. Judy Piatkus (Publishers) Ltd. ISBN 0-86188-459-0. (lent by P.Riley) B46 R.F.Weiss. Herbal Medicine. (translated from the 6th. german edition of Lehrbuch der Phytotherapie by A.R.Meuss). The Bath Press 1986. ISBN 0-906584-19-1. B47 Christina Probert Jones: Marks and Spencer: Extracts from Nature. 1989 Tigerprint. no ISBN No. B48 E.G.Thomssen: Modern Cosmetics. 3rd. edition 1947 published by Drug and Cosmetic Industry B49 A.Y.Leung: Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients used in food,drugs and cosmetics. John Wiley 1980 ISBN No. 0-471-04954-9 B50 R.G.Harry: Harry's Cosmeticology 7th. edition 1987 Longmann, edited Wilkinson and Moore. B51 W.Hale-White. Materia Medica , Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 26th Edition, J.A.Churchill 1944 B52 R.G.Harry: The Principles and practice of modern cosmetics - vol 2. Cosmetic Materials. 2nd. edition 1963 published Leonard Hill B53 M.Reiger: Surfactants in Cosmetics. 1985. Martin Dekker Inc. ISBN. 0-8247-7262-8
B54. The Merck Index 11th Edition. An encyclopaedia of chemicals drugs and biologicals. 1989 ISBN. 911910-28-X. published Merck B55. P.Back. The Illustrated Herbal. 1987. Hamlyn Publishers through Octopus Books printed in Hong Kong by Mandarin. ISBN No.0 600 553 361 B56. M.Scott (ed) An Irish Herbal. The Aquarian Press 1986 ISBN 0-85030-532-2 B57. F.Bloomfield: Miracle Plants. Jojoba and Yucca. Century Publishing. 1985. ISBN No. 0 7126 1008 1 B58. M.Evans: A guide to herbal remedies. C.W.Daniel. 1990 ISBN No. 0 85207 221 B59. L.Manniche: An ancient Egyptian Herbal. 1989 British Museum Publications. ISBN No. 0-7141-1704-8 B60. P.Schauenberg, F.Paris: Guide to Medicinal Plants. 1990 First paperback edition (Paris 1974). Lutterworth Press ISBN No. 0-7188-2820-8. B61. F.N.Hepper: Pharaoh's Flowers. 1990 HMSO ISBN No. 0-11-250040-4 B62. C.Stockwell: Nature's Pharmacy. 1989 Arrow edition. The Guernsey Press Co.Ltd. ISBN No. 0-09-965760-0 B63. CTFA: Cosmetic Ingredient Handbook. 1988 published the CTFA Inc. Library of Congress Catalogue card No. 88-071506 B64. J.Wiseman: The SAS Survival Handbook. 1986, William Collins & Co. Ltd. ISBN No. 0-00-272774-9 B65. S.Y.Mills: The A-Z of Modern Herbalism, A comprehensive guide to Practical Herbal Therapy. Thorsons 1989 (retitled) ISBN No. 0-7225-1882-X B66. E.F.W.Powell: The Natural Home Physician, A Book for Every Household. Health Science Press 1981 reprinted 2nd ed. ISBN No. 0-85032-092-5. B67. M.Howard: Traditional Folk Remedies, A comprehensive Herbal. Century paperbacks. 1987. ISBN No. 0-7126-1731-0. B68. R.Mabey: Le livre des Plantes utiles, translated from the English title The New Age Herbalist by Robert Laffont (ISBN No.0-02-063350-5 Gaia Books Ltd.), ISBN No. 2-221-06406-2 (French ed) B69. R.Phillips: Les plantes aromatiques et medicinales (originally Elm Tree Books 1987) Bordas 1987 ISBN No.2-04-012946-4 translation by Nadine de Winter.
B70. P.Forey: Plantes medicinales. Translated by Noelle Akoa. (first published in English 1989 by Atlantis Publications) now ISBN No. 2-7000-1916-4 by Librairie Grund. B71. J.C.Marchina: Sante et beaute de votre peau. 1983 Editions Dangles. ISBN No. 2-7033-0255-X. ISSN 0180-8818. B72. F.Perry: Macdonald Encyclopaedia of Plants and Flowers. 1987 5th reprint, Macdonalds. ISBN No.0-356-10399-4. B73. D.Conway: The Magic of Herbs. 1975 Readers Union published Jonathon Cape Ltd, ISBN No. unknown. B74. L.Gordon: A Country Herbal. 1980 Webb and Bower (publishers) Ltd. ISBN No.0-906671-09-4 B75. M.Hooper: Herbs and medicinal plants 1984, 1989 Kingfisher Books ISBN No. 0-86272-484-8 B76. M.Castro: The complete homoeopathy Handbook - a guide to everyday health. 1990. Macmillan. ISBN No. 0-333-55581-3 B77. J.de Bairacli Levy: The illustrated herbal handbook for everyone. 1991 4th edition. Faber and Faber. ISBN No. 0-571-16099-9. B78. R.Fitter, A.Fitter and M.Blamey: The Wild Flowers of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins 4th edition, reprinted 1989.ISBN No.0-00-219715-4. B79. D.Hoffmann: The New Holistic Herbal. Element. Second impression 1991. ISBN No. 1-85230-193-7 B80. D.Hoffmann: Thorsons Guide to Medical Herbalism - a comprehensive and practical introduction. reprinted 1991, formerly The Herb users guide. ISBN No. 0-7225 2494 3 (see B7). B81. Tang.S., Palmer.M.: Chinese Herbal Prescriptions - A practical and authoritative self-help guide. 1986. Rider & Company, an imprint of Century Hutchinson Ltd. ISBN no. 0-7126-9470-6 B82. Bremness.L.: The complete book of herbs. published CLB (Colour Library Books) 1988 original copyright Dorling Kindersley Ltd., this copy 1991. ISBN No. 0-86283-893-2 B83. Turrill, W.B.: British Plant Life (Collins New Naturalist Series). Bloomsbury Books London, Collins. First published 1948, reprint 1989. ISBN No. 1-870630-83-1 B84. Pierpoint Johnson, C. and John E.Sowerby (illustrator): A Concise Encyclopaedia of Wild Flowers. Gallery Books 1989. ISBN No. 0-8317-9441-0. B85. Rose,J.: Jeanne Rose's Modern Herbal. 1987. Pedigree Books published by The Putnam Publishing Group. ISBN No.0-399-51394-9
B86. Simonetti, G.: Simon and Schuster's Guide to Herbs and Spices. A Fireside Book published by Simon and Schuster Inc. 1990. ISBN No.0-671-73489-X B87. Lang, D.C.: The complete book of British Berries. 1987. Threshold Books. ISBN No. 0-901366-34-X. B88. Hutchens, A.R.: Indian Herbalogy of North America. 1973 First paperback edition. Shambhala. ISBN No. 0-87773-639-1. B89. Boericke, W., Dewey, W.A.: The twelve tissue remedies of Schussler. Second Indian edition, Roy Publishing House, 1963, Calcutta 14, India. No ISBN No. issued. B90. Martindale. The Extra Pharmacopoeia. 29th. Edition. 1989. The Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN. No.0-85369-210-6. B91. Phillips, R.: Seashells and Seaweeds. Elm Tree Books. London. ISBN No. 0-241-12028-4. B92. Subik, R.: Cacti and Succulents. Treasure Press. 1989 (originally Hamlyn 1968) ISBN No.1-85051-380-5. B93. Chiej, R.: The Macdonald Encyclopoedia of Medicinal Plants. 1984, reprinted 1988. Macdonald Orbis. ISBN No. 0-356-10541-5 (hb), -10542-3 (pb). B94. Launert, E.: The Hamlyn Guide to Edible & Medicinal Plants of Europe and Northern Europe. 1981, 4th. impression 1989. Hamlyn. ISBN No.0-600-56395-2. B95. Smith, T.: Homoeopathic Medicine, a doctor's guide to remedies for common ailments. 1982. Fifth impression 1984. Thorsons. ISBN No. 0-7225-0775-5. B96. Browning, G.H.: The children's book of wild flowers and the story of their names. 1927 reprint 1929 W.R.Chambers. Pre ISBN system. B97. Pickles,S.: The Language of Flowers. 1990. Penhaligon B98. Bastyra, J., Canning, J.: A gourmets book of fruit. Salamar Books. ISBN No. 86101-421-9. B99. Treben, M.: Health from God's Garden, herbal remedies and glowing health for well-being. 1987. Thorson. ISBN No. 0-7225-1476-X. B100. Graham, J.: Evening Primrose oil, its remarkable properties and its use in the treatment of a wide range of conditions. 1984. Thorsons. ISBN No. 0-7225-1749-1. B101. Gerard: Gerard's Herbal. Ed. Marcus Woodward. Studio editions. First published 1985, this edition 1990, ISBN No. 0-94649-527-0.
B102. Bianchini F., Corbetta F,.: The Fruits of the Earth. Translated from the Italian by Mancinelli A.Bloomsbury Books, London. ISBN No. 1-870630-10-6. B103. Overseen and written by Peter Hawes and Mark Holloway: The Wildlife of Hengistbury Head. Bournemouth Parks. 1988 B104. Beazley, M.: Fruit - A connoisseur's guide and cookbook. Alan Davidson and Charlotte Knox. 1991. Mitchell Beazley Publishers. ISBN NO. 0-85533-903-9. B105. Norman J.: The Complete Book of Spices. Colour Library Books. 1992. ISBN No. 0-86283-926-2. B106. Huxley A.: Mountain Flowers of Europe. Blandford Press. First published, this edition 2nd revised 1986. ISBN No. 0-7137-1846-3. B107. Keville, K.: The Illustrated Herb Encyclopaedia - a complete culinary, cosmetic, medicinal and ornamental guide to herbs. Grange Books. 1991. ISBN No. 1-85627-175-7. B108. Bristow, P.: The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Wild Flowers.1992. Chancellor Press. (originally Octopus books - The Illustrated Book of Wild Flowers) ISBN No. 1-85152-138-0. B109. Hoffmann, D.: Welsh Herbal Medicine. 6th impression 1992. Abercastle Publications. ISBN No. 1-872887-04-X
APPENDIX III
SLIDES PRESENTED
SLIDE No. REF No 82 E 41 B 47 C 1B 15 B 20 B 8C 78 B 23 6C 62 C 69 A 10 C 35 5B 21 B 33 C 26 C 17 B 45 B 68 E 59 A 7B 13 B 3A 77 C
Common name 13 Yarrow 48 Lady's Mantle 31 Love-lies -bleeding 33 Anemone 24 Chamomile, Roman 45 Columbine 26 Burdock 38 Thrift (Sea Pink) Daisy 33 Borage 32 Rape 17 Sea Rocket 30 Calendula Heather 43 Harebell 30 Cornflower 5 Greater Knapweed 27 Fat Hen 41 Clematis 14 Lesser bindweed 10 Samphire 9 Quince 7 Broom 22 Carrot 11 Bleeding Heart 50 Teasel
Latin name Achillea millefolium Alchemilla vulgaris Amaranthus caudatus Anemone coronaria Anthemis nobilis Aquilegia vulgaris Arctium lappa Armeria maritima Bellis perennis Borago officinalis Brassica napus Cakile maritima Calendula officinalis Calluna vulgaris Campanula persicifolia Centaurea cyanus Centaurea scabiosa Chenopodium album Clematis recta Convolvulus arvensis Crithmum maritum Cydonia japonica Cytisus scoparius Daucus carrota Dicentra spectabilis Dipsacus fullonum
SLIDE No. REF No 64 C 37 E 52 E 71 E 70 A 40 C 38 C 76 C 4A 67 C 39 B 28 C 42 A 43 B 50 A 80 B 36 B 49 A 14 C 16 A 44 A 74 29 A 25 B 63 C 51 A 57 C 56 E
Common name 35 Rosebay Willowherb 16 Horsetail 15 Meadowsweet 9 Serrated wrack 31 Seaweed 6 Lady's Bedstraw 14 Ivy 29 Sunflower 6 Bluebell 25 St. John's Wort 25 Jasmin 20 Field Scabious 27 Lavender 29 Lavender 48 Mallow, Tree 16 Toadflax 49 Honeysuckle 32 Mallow, Common 44 Chamomile, German 29 Chamomile, Wild 25 Lemon Balm Spearmint 13 Forget-me-not 21 Evening Primrose 8 Restharrow 10 Marjoram 46 Poppy 12 Plantain (Ribwort)
Latin name Epilobium angustifolium Equisetum arvense Filipendula ulmaria Fucus serratus Fucus vesiculosis Galium verum Hedera helix Helianthus annuus Hyacinthoides non-scripta Hypericum calycinum Jasminium officinale Knautia arvensis Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula officinalis Lavatera olbia Linaria vulgaris Lonicera periclymenum Malva sylvestris Matricaria recutita Matricaria recutita Melissa officinalis Mentha spicata Myosotis arvensis Oenethera biennis Ononis repens Origanum onites Papaver rhoeas Plantago lanceolata
SLIDE No. REF No 55 E 31 B 58 B 48 A 2B 9B 46 A 66 A 65 C 72 A 73 66 B 22 B 61 C 60 A 12 A 11 E 30 E 27 B 24 A 79 B 18 C 19 32 B 75 A 53 C 54 A 81 A 34 B
Common name 14 Plantain (Greater) 47 Jacob's Ladder 6 Primrose 12 Lungwort 36 Apple Blossom 37 Buttercup 39 Lesser Celandine 24 Rosehip 39 Rose, Wild 46 Sorrel Sorrel 28 Sage 26 Cotton Lavender 40 Groundsel 36 Ragwort 18 Campion,red 19 Campion, sea 1 Golden Rod 12 Feverfew 7 Dandelion 31 Thyme 15 Clover, Red Clover, White 4 Gorse 4 Stinging Nettle 10 Mullein 8 Lesser Periwinkle 40 Violet 15 Heartsease
Latin name Plantago major Polemonium coeruleum Primula vulgaris Pulmonaria officinalis Pyrus malus Ranunculus bulbosus Ranunculus ficaria Rosa canina Rosa canina Rumex acetosa Rumex obtusifolius Salvia officinalis Santolina chamaecyparissus Senecio aureus Senecio jacobaea Silene maritima Silene maritima Solidago virgaurea Tanacetum parthenium Taraxacum officinale Thymus vulgaris Trifolium pratense Trifolium repens Ulex europaeus Urtica dioica Verbascum densiflorum Vinca minor Viola riviniana Viola tricolor

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