Martin J. Ball, Sara Howard, Stefan Frisch, Judith A. Gierut, Fiona E. Gibbon, Associate Professor, the University of New Mexico, Berlin, acquisition, Daniel A. Dinnsen, linguistics, Joan L. Bybee, Angela D. Friederici, Discourse Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Michael R. Perkins, Jacqueline A. Guendouzi, the British Library, Shula Chiat Linguistics for Clinicians, Sociolinguistics, Language Disorders, Cross-Linguistic Perspectives, Communication Disorders, Speech Impairment, Nicole M�ller, Martha Crago, phonological development, Communication Impairment, developmental language disorders, clinical research, Martin Ball, language change, Louis M. Goldstein, Adele W. Miccio, sustainable forestry policy, Graphicraft Limited, Brent Wilson, Alison Ferguson, Syntax and Semantics, Ray D. Kent, Wolfram Ziegler, Eeva Leinonen, Contributors, Barbara M. H. Bernhardt, Bill Hardcastle, Shaheen N. Awan, Conversation Analysis, Pascal H. H. M. van Lieshout, Blackwell Publishing, Doris B. Hawthorne, Sonja A. Kotz, Nuala Ryder, Ray Wilkinson, Karima Kahlaoui, Shelley E. Scarpino, Tara L. Whitehill, Jack S. Damico, C.O.S. Printers Pte Ltd, Barbara Marler, Speech & Hearing Sciences and Cognitive Science, Day-Care Clinic of Cognitive Neurology, Potsdam, Leipzig, the German Academy of Natural Sciences Leopoldina, psychology, Source-filter, vowel quadrilateral, phonological hierarchy, language comprehension, Queen Margaret University, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive, Universities of Leipzig, Brain Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Berlin Brandenburg Academy of Sciences, Max Planck Institute of Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, cognitive psychology, University of Potsdam, Honorary Professor, the University of Bonn, Neurolinguistics, semantic processing, City University, Maria Black, research methodologies, Linguistic Society of America, research articles, Harald Clahsen, Newcastle University, Contributors Jack S. Damico, research project, Linguistics for Clinicians, language development, child language acquisition, University of British Columbia, University College London, upper panel, language acquisition, speech and language therapy courses, Understanding Children with Language Problems, clinical linguistics, Shula Chiat, second language acquisition, language processing
Notes on Contributors iii The Handbook of Clinical Linguistics Edited by Martin J. Ball, Michael R. Perkins, Nicole Mьller, and Sara Howard
Notes on Contributors i The Handbook of Clinical Linguistics
iBi laNcokteswonelClonHtriabuntdorbs ooks in Linguistics This outstanding multi-volume series covers all the major subdisciplines within linguistics today and, when complete, will offer a comprehensive survey of linguistics as a whole. Already published: The Handbook of Child Language Edited by Paul Fletcher and Brian MacWhinney The Handbook of Phonological Theory Edited by John A.
Goldsmith The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory Edited by Shalom Lappin The Handbook of Sociolinguistics Edited by Florian Coulmas The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences Edited by William J. Hardcastle and John Laver The Handbook of Morphology Edited by Andrew Spencer and Arnold Zwicky The Handbook of Japanese Linguistics Edited by Natsuko Tsujimura The Handbook of Linguistics Edited by Mark Aronoff and Janie Rees-Miller The Handbook of Contemporary Syntactic Theory Edited by Mark Baltin and Chris Collins The Handbook of discourse analysis
Edited by Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen, and Heidi E. Hamilton The Handbook of Language Variation and Change Edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes The Handbook of Historical Linguistics Edited by Brian D.
Joseph and Richard D. Janda The Handbook of Language and Gender Edited by Janet Holmes and Miriam Meyerhoff The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition Edited by Catherine J. Doughty and Michael H. Long The Handbook of Bilingualism Edited by Tej K. Bhatia and William C. Ritchie The Handbook of Pragmatics Edited by Laurence R. Horn and Gregory Ward The Handbook of Applied Linguistics Edited by Alan Davies and Catherine Elder The Handbook of Speech Perception Edited by David B. Pisoni and Robert E.
Remez The Blackwell Companion to Syntax, Volumes IV Edited by Martin Everaert and Henk van Riemsdijk The Handbook of the History of English Edited by Ans van Kemenade and Bettelou Los The Handbook of English Linguistics Edited by Bas Aarts and April McMahon The Handbook of World Englishes Edited by Braj B. Kachru; Yamuna Kachru, and Cecil L. Nelson The Handbook of Educational Linguistics Edited by Bernard Spolsky and Francis M. Hult The Handbook of Clinical Linguistics Edited by Martin J. Ball, Michael R. Perkins, Nicole Mьller, and Sara Howard
Notes on Contributors iii The Handbook of Clinical Linguistics Edited by Martin J. Ball, Michael R. Perkins, Nicole Mьller, and Sara Howard
iv Notes on Contributors
© 2008 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd
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The handbook of clinical linguistics/edited by Martin J. Ball . . . [et al.] p. ; cm. -- (Blackwell handbooks in linguistics; 24) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4051-3522-1 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Language disorders. 2. Linguistics. I. Ball, Martin J. (Martin John) II. Series. [DNLM: 1. Language Disorders. 2. Linguistics. WL 340.2 H2354 2008]
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Notes on Contributors v
List of Figures
Notes on Contributors
Martin J. Ball, Michael R. Perkins, Nicole Mьller,
and Sara Howard
Part I Pragmatics, Discourse, and Sociolinguistics
1 Discourse Analysis and Communication Impairment
Nicole Mьller, Jacqueline A. Guendouzi, and Brent Wilson
2 Conversational Implicature and Communication Impairment
3 Relevance Theory and Communication Disorders
Eeva Leinonen and Nuala Ryder
5 Pragmatic Impairment as an Emergent Phenomenon
Michael R. Perkins
6 Conversation Analysis and Communication Disorders
7 Clinical Sociolinguistics
Jack S. Damico and Martin J. Ball
8 Systemic Functional Linguistics and Communication
Alison Ferguson and Julie Thomson
9 Cross-Linguistic and Multilingual Perspectives on
Communicative Competence and Communication Impairment:
Pragmatics, Discourse, and Sociolinguistics
Zhu Hua and Li Wei
vi NCoontetsenotns Contributors
Part II Syntax and Semantics
10 Chomskyan Syntactic Theory and Language Disorders
11 Formulaic Sequences and Language Disorder
12 Syntactic Processing in Developmental and Acquired
13 Morphology and Language Disorder
14 Normal and Pathological Semantic Processing of Words
Karima Kahlaoui and Yves Joanette
15 Neural Correlates of Normal and Pathological Language
Stefan Frisch, Sonja A. Kotz, and Angela D. Friederici
16 Bilingualism and Language Impairment
Jan de Jong
17 Cross-Linguistic Perspectives on the Syntax and Semantics
of Language Disorders
Martha Crago, Johanne Paradis, and Lise Menn
18 Interfaces between Cognition, Semantics, and Syntax
Maria Black and Shula Chiat
Part III phonetics and phonology
19 Instrumental Analysis of Articulation in Speech
Fiona E. Gibbon
20 Instrumental Analysis of Resonance in Speech
Tara L. Whitehill and Alice S.-Y. Lee
21 Instrumental Analysis of Phonation
Shaheen N. Awan
22 Acoustic Analysis of Speech
Ray D. Kent and Yunjung Kim
23 Clinical Phonetic Transcription
Barry Heselwood and Sara Howard
24 Comparisons in Perception between Speech and
Tessa Bent and David B. Pisoni
25 Phonological Analysis, Phonological Processes
Adele W. Miccio and Shelley E. Scarpino
26 Constraints-Based Nonlinear Phonological Theories:
Application and Implications
Barbara M. H. Bernhardt and Joseph P. Stemberger
Notes on ConCtroibnutetnorts vii
27 Optimality Theory: A Clinical Perspective
Daniel A. Dinnsen and Judith A. Gierut
28 Government Phonology and Speech Impairment
Martin J. Ball
29 Articulatory Phonology and Speech Impairment
Pascal H. H. M. van Lieshout and Louis M. Goldstein
30 A Cognitive Approach to Clinical Phonology
Anna Vogel Sosa and Joan L. Bybee
32 Coarticulation and Speech Impairment
Bill Hardcastle and Kris Tjaden
33 Vowel Development and Disorders
Carol Stoel-Gammon and Karen Pollock
34 Prosodic Impairments
Bill Wells and Sandra Whiteside
35 Speech Intelligibility
36 Connected Speech
Sara Howard, Bill Wells, and John Local
37 Sociophonetics and Clinical Linguistics
Gerrard Docherty and Ghada Khattab
38 Cross-Linguistic Phonological Acquisition
viii Notes on Contributors Figures
15.1 Left-hand side: View of the left hemisphere with the cortical
gyri that are most relevant for language processing.
Right-hand side: Neurocognitive model showing the different,
subsequent phases of syntactic and semantic processing and
the brain areas that support them.
18.1 Three scenes: (a) kiss only, (b) chase/flee, (c) give/take.
19.1 Photograph of artificial plate placed on top of the plaster
impression of the upper palate and teeth.
19.2 EPG printouts for four children's productions of /S/
in the phrase a shop.
19.3 X-ray image of a child with velopharyngeal dysfunction.
19.4 (a) An example of a sagittal ultrasound image of the tongue.
(b) An example of a coronal section.
19.5 Lower-lip and tongue-tip movement recorded using
21.1 Cepstral analysis results for normal, mild breathy, and
moderate breathy sustained vowel samples.
21.2 Typical stroboscopic image of the vocal folds in a patient with
bilateral edema, erythema, and asymmetry of vibration.
21.3 Components of a High-Speed Video (HSV) system for
high-speed laryngeal/phonatory analysis.
21.4 An example of the KayPentax utility program to convert
HSV to Digital Kymographic (DKG) images.
21.5 An example of an EGG trace (upper panel) and the
differentiated EGG (DEGG lower panel).
22.1 Source-filter theory applied to the vocal tract.
22.2 Elaboration of the source-filter theory to show that the
transfer function includes the formant pattern and the
Notes on ContrFibiguutorers ix
22.3 Simplified model of fricative production in terms of a back
and front cavity separated by an articulatory constriction.
22.4 The classic F1F2 chart for vowels.
26.1 The phonological hierarchy from the level of the prosodic
phrase to the moras.
26.2 The feature hierarchy, showing Root (manner) features,
Laryngeal features, and Place features.
26.3 Feature adjacency.
29.1 A schematic and simplified representation of the revised
AP model, based on coupled nonlinear oscillators.
31.1 From stored lexical forms to speech movements.
33.1 Monophthongs of American English plotted on a vowel
37.1 Distribution of GOAT variants in Watt's (2002) study.
37.2 Frequency of occurrence of affricated and unaffricated
variants of (ch) in Jarabo-Larenzo's (1998) data from
Santa Cruz de Tenerife.
37.3 Frequency of occurrence of pre-aspirated variants of (t) in
Docherty et al.'s (2006) data from Newcastle children.
x Notes on Contributors Notes on Contributors Elisabeth Ahlsйn is Professor of Neurolinguistics at the Department of Linguistics and the SSKKII Center for Cognitive Science, Gцteborg University. Her main areas of research are neurolinguistics, pragmatics, and communication disorders. She teaches neurolinguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive science, communication analysis, and linguistic research methods
. She coordinates a number of Research Project
s on communication disorders in adults and children, focusing on pragmatics, semantics, gesture, and ICT support. Shaheen N. Awan is Professor of Speech Pathology at Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania
. His research interests are in acoustic analysis of normal and disordered speech/voice and digital signal processing. His clinical work is focused on the administration and interpretation of stroboscopy, as well as other aspects of the assessment and treatment of voice disorders. Martin J. Ball is Hawthorne Endowed Professor, and Head of the Department of Communicative Disorders, at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. He is co-editor of the journal Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics and of the book series Communication Disorders across Languages (Multilingual Matters). His main research interests include sociolinguistics, clinical phonetics and phonology, and the linguistics of Welsh. He is the immediate Past President of the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association. His most recent books are Clinical Sociolinguistics (Blackwell, 2005) and, co-authored with Nicole Mьller, Phonetics for Communication Disorders (Erlbaum, 2005). Tessa Bent is an NIH postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Brain and Psychological Sciences at Indiana University. Her research has focused on speech intelligibility, perceptual learning, and the perception and production of non-native prosody. Her Research Report
s have appeared in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
, the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, and Linguistics.
Notes on Contributors xi Barbara M. H. Bernhardt is an Associate Professor in the School of Audiology and Speech Sciences, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
, specializing in child language acquisition, specifically on phonological development, assessment, and intervention. Maria Black has taught linguistics and psycholinguistics at University College London
since 1980. Her research focuses on psycholinguistic approaches to language impairments in adults with aphasia. She has published studies on semantic, syntactic, and prosodic aspects of aphasia, and has co-authored with Shula Chiat Linguistics for Clinicians (Arnold, 2003), a textbook in clinical linguistics. Joan L. Bybee is Distinguished Professor Emerita in Linguistics at the University of New Mexico. She has published books and articles on phonology, morphology, and language change. She is Past President and Fellow of the Linguistic Society of America. Shula Chiat has taught linguistics and language development on speech and language therapy courses for many years, at City University and at University College London. Her research focuses on psycholinguistic approaches to language impairments in children. She is author of Understanding Children with Language Problems (Cambridge, 2000), and co-author with Maria Black of a textbook, Linguistics for Clinicians (Arnold, 2003). Harald Clahsen's first degree was in German philology and sociology (1978). He went on to do research in first and second language acquisition, which led to his PhD in 1981. Over the following years his research focused on developmental language disorders, which led to his postdoctoral degree (Habilitation) in linguistics in 1987 at the University of Dьsseldorf. Since then, he has also studied grammatical processing in native speakers
and language learners using psycholinguistic experimentation. He has written seven books and over one hundred research articles
on first and second language acquisition, language disorders, and language processing. He has received the Gerhard-Hess Award from the German Science Foundation for his work on language acquisition and an award for his book on child language disorders. He has coordinated several large research projects, and he co-edits Benjamins' book series on Language Development and Language Disorders. In addition to acquisition, disorders, and processing of language, his research interests include theories of morphology and syntax. Martha Crago is a Professor and Vice-Rector at the University of Montrйal. Her research and publications focus on language acquisition and socialization in monolingual and bilingual children who are typical and atypical learners and speakers of a variety of languages including English, French, Inuktitut, and Arabic languages.
xii Notes on Contributors Jack S. Damico is the Doris B. Hawthorne Eminent Scholar in Communication Disorders and Special Education
at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. He earned a master's degree in communicative disorders at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center in 1976 and a doctorate in linguistics at the University of New Mexico in 1985. His research interests include language as a synergistic phenomenon and language as social action. His primary research focus is applications of qualitative research methodologies
in communicative sciences and disorders including language and literacy
, clinical aphasiology, language disorders in children, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and service delivery to multicultural populations. He has published over one hundred articles and chapters and has authored or edited several books including Clinical Aphasiology: Future Directions (with Martin Ball; Psychology Press, 2007), Special Education Considerations for English Language Learners
: Delivering a Continuum of Services (with Else Hamayan, Barbara Marler and Cristina SanchezLopez; Caslon, 2007), and Childhood Language Disorders (with Michael Smith; 1996, Thieme Medical). Jan de Jong is an Assistant Professor and Senior Researcher at the University of Amsterdam (Amsterdam Center for Language and Communication). At present, he is involved in a research project on Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in Turkish-Dutch bilingual children with SLI. His previous research addressed the grammatical symptoms of SLI in Dutch (inflectional morphology and argument structure) and the linguistic precursors of dyslexia. Daniel A. Dinnsen is Chancellor's Professor of Linguistics and Cognitive Science and Adjunct Professor of Speech and Hearing Sciences at Indiana University, Bloomington. His research draws on the latest developments in linguistic theory and is recognized for its theoretical and empirical discoveries about phonological acquisition and disorders. Gerrard Docherty is Professor of Phonetics at Newcastle University, UK. His research is focused on investigating aspects of variability in speech production with a particular interest in determining how the phonetic performance of speakers is shaped by the various dimensions (physical, linguistic, cognitive, and social) of spoken communication, with a view to developing theories which account for the systematic properties of speech in its social context. While much of his recent work has focused on sociophonetic variability in normal adult speakers, he has also carried out research on the acquisition of speech sound patterning in children and on the nature of speech in populations of speakers with impaired speech production. Alison Ferguson is Associate Professor and the Speech Pathology Discipline Convenor at the University of Newcastle, Australia, with over 20 years experience in the field of speech-language pathology. She has a strong track record of funded Clinical Research
, mainly in the area of linguistic applications to
Notes on Contributors xiii aphasia (impaired language due to brain damage), and has published widely in international peer-reviewed journals. Angela D. Friederici is Director of the Max Planck Institute
for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, and Honorary Professor at the Universities of Leipzig, Potsdam, and Berlin. She studied linguistics and psychology. Dr. Friederici received her PhD from the University of Bonn and spent her postdoctoral period at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
. Her main field of research is neurocognition of language, particular language comprehension. She is a member of the International Neuropsychological Symposium and the German Academy of natural science
s Leopoldina, and Vice-President of the Berlin Brandenburg Academy of Sciences. Stefan Frisch studied psychology, philosophy, and linguistics at the Universities of Heidelberg, Berlin, Leipzig, and Potsdam. He has been working as a research assistant
at the Max Planck Institute of Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig and at the University of Potsdam. He is now in the neuropsychology department at the Day-Care Clinic of Cognitive Neurology, University of Leipzig. His research interests focus on electrophysiology and imaging of normal and impaired cognition, as well as on neuropsychological treatment. Fiona E. Gibbon is a speech and language therapist and Professor and Head of Speech and Hearing Sciences at Queen Margaret University in Edinburgh. Her research focuses on the use of instrumentation to diagnose and treat speech disorders. She has published over seventy papers in professional and scientific journals and as book chapters, and has been awarded numerous research council- and charity-funded grants. Her research was awarded the Queen's Anniversary Prize for excellence in 2002. She is a Fellow of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists. Judith A. Gierut is Professor of Speech & Hearing Sciences and Cognitive Science and Adjunct Professor of Linguistics at Indiana University, Bloomington. Her research draws upon linguistic and psycholinguistic theories in the process of language acquisition by children with typical and atypical speech sound development. Gierut is recognized for her innovative integration of linguistics, cognitive psychology, and speech pathology in assessment and experimental treatment of phonological disorders. Louis M. Goldstein received his PhD in linguistics from the University of California at Los Angeles
. He is Professor of Linguistics and Psychology at Yale University
and a Senior Scientist at Haskins Laboratories. His research focuses on aspects of articulatory phonology, both experimental and modeling, and also on the emergence of phonological structure.