The New Cambridge Modern History

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Content: THE NEW CAMBRIDGE MODERN HISTORY VOLUME XII THE SHIFTING BALANCE OF WORLD FORCES 1898-1945 A second edition of Volume XII The Era of Violence EDITED BY C. L. MOWAT CAMBRIDGE AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1968
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY SURVEY: ON THE LIMITS OF MODERN HISTORY By C. L. WAT, Professor of History, University College of North Wales, Bangor Changing views of history Scope of this volume Some characteristics of the century 'Modern'or'contemporary' A new kind of world Advances in science and technology Effects of two world wars 'One world'
page 1-2 2-4 4 5 5-6 6-8 9
CHAPTER II THE TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIAL LIFE By D A V I D THOMSON, Master of Sidney Sussex College and Lecturer in History in the University of Cambridge The standards of living and social changes in different regions . . . Growth of population ; movements of people Urbanisation The influence of cheap transport New conditions in industry Changes in social structure The sharpening of class conflicts in different countries Nationalism Rising standards of living Vital statistics in Europe Improvement in health Property more insecure Mass unemployment Demand for social justice Universal suffrage; the status of women Attitudes towards the family Free public education Mass emotion Social services in Europe Fiscal policies Full employment Mounting expenditure on amenities and luxuries The popular press; the cult of sport
.10-11 11-12 12-13 .13-14 14-15 15-16 16-17 17-18 .18-20 19 20 20-1 21 22-7 22-4 24-6 26-8 28-9 29-32 30 31 32 33-6
CONTENTS
CHAPTER III THE WORLD ECONOMY: INTERDEPENDENCE AND PLANNING
By ASA BRIGGS, Vice- Chancellor and Professor of History, University of Sussex
First world war as a dividing line Temporary nature of pre-1914 system 1900-13: rise in industrial production Europe the centre of economic power United Kingdom industry geared to world trade Growing influence of the U.S.A United Kingdom as Conductor of the orchestra' Sources of discontent and disturbance Origins of twentieth-century interventionism social insurance; tariffs; cartels and trusts Socialisation of large-scale enterprise Imperialism Japan Effect of wartime controls Wartime economic mobilisation in Germany Gradual expansion of controls in the United Kingdom Economic disorganisation in Russia International economic co-operation Collapse of planning after 1918 German and French experiments Instability of the post-war world Waste of manpower and resources Internal inflation; reparations and war debts . . . . Europe's dependence on the U.S.A Return to gold Poverty in the midst of plenty Collapse of economy of the U.S.A.; the Great Depression Financial collapse in Europe The United Kingdom abandons free trade and gold The U.S.A. abandons gold; the New Deal Management rather than planning Soviet planning German planning under National Socialism World population, production and trade Need for world-wide monetary system Place of Europe within the world economic system Social policies Assistance from the U.S.A National growth rates Need to redefine economic 'interdependence Overall planning
page 37 37-9 39 40 40-1 41-2 42 43 44 45-6 46 47 47-8 48 49 49-50 50-1 51 51 52 53-4 54-5 . . 55-6 56 57 58-9 59 60 61 62-3 64-6 66-70 70-5 75-7 77_8 79-80 81 82 83 84-5
VI
CONTENTS
CHAPTER IV
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
By DOUGLAS M C K I E , Professor Emeritus ofthe History and Philosophy of Science in the University of London
Changes towards the end of the nineteenth century
Radioactivity and electrons
Rapid advances in the twentieth century
Astronomy: vastness of the universe
Researches of J. J. Thomson and Rutherford
Transmutations
Atomic weights and numbers
Changing scope of sciences
Vitamins and hormones
Organic Chemistry; new drugs
Crystallography; physiology
Geology; meteorology
Physics; quantum theory; relativity
Biology; genetics
Descent of homo sapiens
Medicine; fevers; immunisation
The internal combustion engine; aeroplanes; rockets
Electricity; wireless
Atomic
fission
Secrecy imposed on scientists by war
Metallurgy
Plastics; artificial fibres; atmospheric nitrogen; dyestuffs
Advances in food production and preservation
Other technological advances
Alliance between science and technology
Scientific education
Development in research
Exchange of knowledge
page 87 87-8 88-9 89 91 92~3 93 94~5 95 95-6 97 97-8 9*H) 99-100 100-1 101 101 102 103 103 104-5 105 106 106-7 107 107-9 109-10 110-11
CHAPTER V DIPLOMATIC HISTORY 1900-1912 By J. P. T. BURY, Fellow of Corpus Christi College and Lecturer in History in the University of Cambridge The Triple Alliance, and the Franco-Russian Alliance Far East : China and Japan Boxer risings (1900) Near East : Turkey and Germany Clash between Great Britain and France in Egypt South Africa: the Boer War (1899-1902) Expansion of the U.S.A. . Growth of armaments France and Russia, and Italy Failure of attempts at rapprochement between Great Britain and Germany . Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902) Russia and Japan in the Far East Anglo-French Entente (1904) vii
112 113 114 115 117 118-19 119 120 120-1 . 122-4 124 125 127
CONTENTS
First Moroccan crisis: Tangier (1905)
page
Germany and France, and Russia
129-30
Algeciras Conference (1906)
130-1
Anglo-Russian Convention (1907)
.131-2
Events leading to the Balkan crisis
I32~3
Effects of annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1908)
I33~4
Germany's naval programme and propaganda
I3&-7
Second Moroccan crisis: Agadir (1909)
137-8
Strengthening of Anglo-French Entente . . . . . . . .
139
Italy and Tripoli (1911)
*39
CHAPTER VI
THE APPROACH OF THE WAR OF 1914
By J. . . VYVYAN, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge
'First world war' not world-wide
J4O
Remote and immediate origins
l4°
German reaction to Moroccan agreement
141
Abortive Anglo-German naval talks
141
Redisposition of the British and French
fleets
143
France, Russia and the Balkans
I43~4
Austro-German relations in the Balkan crisis
*44
The Balkan War (1912)
145
Tension between Austria and Serbia: Albania
145-6
Peace Conference in London (1912)
146-7
Scutari episode (1913)
147
Treaty of Bucharest (1913)
148
Austria, the Balkans and Germany
149
Compromise on German military mission to Turkey . , , . . .
I49~5°
Russian rearmament
15°
French military service law
I51
Anglo-German negotiations on extra-European issues
15 !
Stabilisation in Near East and Africa
I51
Habsburg Empire ripe for dissolution
I52
German military dominance
I52
Sarajevo (28 June 1914)
153
Austrian policy approved by Kaiser
154
'Levity rather than a grand design*
155
Preparation of Austrian note to Serbia
155
Germany's blind eye
156
Franco-Russian policy; Great Britain; Germany Austrian ultimatum to Serbia (23 July) . . . . . . . .
157-9 160
Partial mobilisation in Russia (25 July)
161
British proposal for a conference rejected by Germany
161
British warnings
163
Lack of co-ordination in Berlin
164
General mobilisation in Russia the decisive calamity (30 July) . . . .
165
British public unaware of possible results ; breach of Belgian neutrality by Germany
(4 August) the crucial factor
166-8
Britain guarantees the northern coasts
168
Neutrality of Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria and Turkey
169
A'scrap of paper' .
169
viii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER VII
THE FIRST WORLD WAR
By BRIAN BOND, Lecturer in War Studies, King's College, University of London
Warnings ignored
General staffs take charge; Germany well organised
Inferior quality of Austro-Hungarian army
.......
French manpower ill-equipped and poorly used
Marginal role of British Expeditionary Force (B.E.F.)
Central powers hold aloof
Germany's need for a quick decision in the west
Disruption of French plans.
Liege and Mons
Failure of the SchlieЯen plan
The Marne (Sept. 1914)
Trench warfare stabilised
Initial Russian success turned to failure
Naval strategy
Submarine warfare
The German colonies
Air warfare
Germany on the defensive in the west
Small gains in trench warfare; poison gas
Heavy casualties among Allies
West v. East controversy
Dardanelles (March 1915)
Undue deference to generals
The demands of total warfare
Shell shortage and problems of manpower
Italian bargaining
Defeat of Serbia (1915)
Mesopotamia (1916)
German offensive in the west; Verdun (Spring 1916)
Russian failure
The Somme battles (Feb.-Nov. 1916)
First use of tanks
Leadership
Jutland (31 May 1916)
Rumania defeated
Lloyd George
Allied offensive planned for 1917
Peace feelers
Nivelle's failure (1917)
Mutinies in French army
Passchendaele (July-Nov. 1917)
Statistics of casualties
Effects of Russian Revolution . . . . . . . . . .
Critical submarine menace; the convoy system
Italian crisis; Caporetto (Oct. 1917)
Renewed German offensive in spring of 1918
Foch, Supreme Commander (March 1918)
ix
page 171 171-2 172 172-3 173 173 3~4 174 I74~5 175 175-6 176 176-7 177-8 178 178-9 179 179-80 180-1 181 181-2 182-3 183-4 184 185 186 187 187 187-8 188-9 189-90 190 191 191-2 192-3 193 I93~4 194 194-5 195 196-7 П97-8 199 200 200 200-2 202
CONTENTS
Arrival of U.S. troops (June 1918) Defeatism in the German army Allied advance in August 1918 Germany sues for an armistice (3 Oct. 1918) Causes of German defeat A struggle of attrition New means of mobility Spread of nationalism Propaganda
7^202-3 2°3 2O3~4 2O4 2O4~5 2O5 2o6 206-7 20?
CHAPTER VIII
THE PEACE SETTLEMENT OF VERSAILLES
1918-1933
By R O H A N B U T L E R , Fellow o f All Souls College, Oxford
Armistice, 11 Nov. 1918
President Wilson's * fourteen points'
Reservations in authoritative commentary
Isolationsim and idealism in the U.S.A
Peace Conference subject to pressure of current events
Food shortages; blockade of Germany
Problems of new nationalities
French claims on Rhineland
Draft treaty submitted to unconsulted Germans .
Some British modifications
Reparations and war indemnities
The Germans sign (28 June 1919)
Main provisions of the treaty
German resentment
Treaties with Austria, Bulgaria and Hungary
The new map of Europe
Central Europe balkanised
Self-determination
An uneasy western alliance
Italian grievances
The U.S.A. refuses to sign the treaty
French security j e o p a r d i s e d . . .
Greek expedition to Smyrna (May 1919)
......
Near East: British and French at odds . . .
...
Turkey; Mustafa Kemal
Divergence between Britain and France
Allied debts
Occupation of Ruhr (1922)
Reparations; Dawes plan (1923)
Locarno Treaty (1925); Germany enters League of Nations . . .
Kellogg Pact (1928)
German evasion of military limitations
Stresemann's policy
Disarmament: amoral obligation
Naval agreements (1921-2)
,
Preparatory Commission on disarmament
Economic blizzard
Settlement undermined
2°9 2°9 210 2I1 212 2I3 2I4 2I5 215-16 2I7 217-19 2I9 219-21 221-2 222 222 223 223-4 224-5 225 226 226-7 . 228 . 228 228 229-30 230-1 231-2 232-3 . 233-4 234 234-6 236-8 238 238-9 239 239-40 24 \
X
CONTENTS
CHAPTER IX THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
By the late J. L. RIERLY Professor of international law in the University of Oxford; revised and rewritten by P. A. REYNOLDS, Professor of Politics, University of Lancaster
Covenant of League part of peace treaties . . . . . . .
page 242
Constitution: Assembly and Council; unanimity rule
243
An international secretariat created
244
Permanent Court of International Justice ; the optional clause . . . . 244
Purpose of the League: international peace and security
245
Serious effect of the absence of the U.S.A
246
Disarmament: Temporary Mixed Commission
247
The Geneva Protocol (1924)
248-50
Locarno Treaty (1925)
250
Germany admitted to the League (1926)
251
Kellogg Pact (1928)
252
Disarmament Conference fixed for February 1932
253
Germany withdraws from the Conference
253
The U.S.S.R. admitted to membership (1934')
253
Disputes: Aaland Islands, Vilna, Corfu
254-5
Japan's invasion of Manchuria (1931)
256
China's appeal to the League
256-7
Lytton Commission censures Japan; Japan gives notice of withdrawal . . 257
Other disputes : Bolivia and Paraguay, Colombia and Peru
257-8
Italy's attack on Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
258
League's dilatory proceedings ineffective
258
Italy gives notice of withdrawal (1937)
260
The U.S.S.R. expelled after attack on Finland (1939)
260
Helplessness in face of German aggression on Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland 260
The International Labour Organisation
261
Communications and transit
261
Rehabilitation of Austrian
finances
262
World Economic Conferences (1927, 1933)
262-3
Health Organisation; refugees; Central Opium Board
263-4
Intellectual Co-operation
264
League's inadequate financial resources
264
Studies of particular problems
264-5
Mandates Commission; minorities
265-6
Danzig; the Saar Basin
266-7
League superseded by the United Nations (1946)
268
CHAPTER X
THE MIDDLE EAST 1900-1945
ByE. KEDOURIE, Professor of Politics in the London School of Economics, University of London
Traditional Muslim society and European society
269
European techniques strengthened absolutism in Ottoman Empire . . . 269
Young Ottomans forced a constitutional change (1876)
270
Centralisation made coup d'йtat easier
271
xi
CONTENTS
Young Turk Revolution (1908)
page
The 'Saviour Officers' and the rise of Enver Bey
271-2
Iran an old-fashioned oriental despotism
273
Rivalry between Great Britain and Russia . . . . . . . .
273
The tobacco protest (1891-2)
273-5
Murder of Nasir ai-Din Shah (1896) .
275
Promised reforms not carried out
276-7
Fundamental Laws (1906, 1907)
278
Muhammad AH Shah abolishes the Constitution
279
Continued Russian pressure
280
Riza Khan proclaims himself Shah (1925)
280-1
Egypt under British control
281
Egyptian independence recognised (Feb. 1922); the Wafd
281-2
Anglo-Egyptian Treaty (1936)
283
Constitutionalism in Iraq a
fiasco
283-4
British mandate; King Faisal
284
French conquest of Algeria
2S5
Treaty of Ouchy (1912); Tripoli ceded to Italy
285
Treaty of Fez (1912); French protectorate over Morocco
285
Nationalist aspirations after second world war
286
Great Britain, France and Russia and the Ottoman Empire . . . .
287
Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916) ; the Treaty of London (1915); Agreement of St Jean
de Maurienne (1917)
287
Complications resulting from these and other understandings . . . .
288
The Balfour Declaration (1917), an ambiguous document
289
Long drawn-out negotiations between France and Great Britain
. . . 289-90
Greeks in Smyrna (1919)
290
Rise of Mustafa Kemal; Treaty of Lausanne (1922)
290-1
Sultanate and caliphate abolished (1924)
291
French mandates over Syria and the Lebanon
292
British mandates over Mesopotamia and Palestine
293
Iraq enters the League of Nations (1932)
294
Problems of Palestine mandate
294
Jewish immigrants from Nazi Germany
295
British and French in Syria
296
League of Arab States
296
CHAPTER XI INDIA AND South-East Asia
I. India, by PERCIVAL SPEAR, Fellow ofSelwyn College and Lecturer in History in the University of Cambridge 2. South-East Asia, by D. G. E. HALL, formerly Professor ofthe History of South-East Asia, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
I. INDIA
Cultural as well as political and economic issues
297
Curzon as viceroy; the partition of Bengal
297-8
Morley-Minto reforms and the easing of tension
298
Industrial and cultural stirrings
299
Impact of the first world war, of the Russian Revolution and of the 'fourteen
P ' o i n t s
299-300
Government of India Act (1921)
300
xii
CONTENTS
India a member of the League of Nations
page 300
Influence of M. K. Gandhi after Amritsar
301
Non-violence; Gandhi's Nationalised nationalism'
302
The younger leaders of Congress
3O2~3
Simon Commission (1927)
303
Round Table Conferences (1930-1)
303-4
Re-emergence of Congress; rift between Muslims and nationalists . . . 304
Government of India Act (1935); the attitude of the princes . . . . 304-5
Gandhi and Congress
3°6
The Muslim League as a mass movement
306-7
Expansion in education and culture
3°7~8
Eastern and Western concepts
308
Detached attitude to second world war
308-9
Effects of war on Indian life and economy
309-10
Deadlock between Congress and Muslim League
310
Effect of Japanese threat
3
Lord Wavell as viceroy
3-12
Lord Mountbatten and independence (14 Aug. 1946)
312
2. SOUTH-EAST ASIA
The Dutch, British and French empires
313--14
Siam: nationalism and traditionalism
315--16
The Philippines under the U.S.A
3
Alarm at invasion of China by Japan
318
Early Dutch indifference to native institutions in Indonesia . . . . 318
Indonesian nationalism; revolt of 1926 suppressed
319
Chinese and Indian immigrants
32>
Malayan patriotism
320
The Federated States and the Straits Settlements
320
Burma quiescent for a long period; dyarchy introduced
321-2
Anti-Indian movement; demand for self-government
322
French Indo-China; the Vietnamese nationalist movement
322-3
Japanese fail to win co-operation . . .
324
Declaration of republics of Vietnam and Indonesia
325
Independence of Union of Burma (1948)
326
Malaya independent within the British Commonwealth (1957) . . . . 326
Singapore gains self-government (1959)
326-7
The Philippines granted independence (1946)
327
Agreement between Netherlands and Indonesia
327
Vietnam's struggle against France
327
Vietnam partitioned (1955)
328
CHAPTER XII CHINA, JAPAN AND THE PACIFIC 1900-1931 By J. W. DAVIDSON, Professor of Pacific History in the Australian National University\ and C O L I N FORSTER, Reader in Economic History in the Australian National University The Far East and Western Imperialism Rise of Japan Drastic reorganisation of the state Industrialisation; foreign trade xiii
329 329-30 330-1 331-2
CONTENTS
Extra-territoriality abolished (1899)
page 33*
China: a cumbrous government and a dynastic decline
332-3
Britain exacts concessions
333
Sino-Japanese war (1894)
333
Rivalry between Western powers
334~5
The Boxer Rebellion (1900)
335
Russia and Manchuria
336
Japan and Korea
336
Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902)
336-7
Attempted rapprochement between Japan and Russia
338
Russo-Japanese War (1904-5)
338-9
Japan annexes Korea and covets Manchuria
339~4°
The weakness of China; autonomy of provincial governments . . . . Sun Yat-sen; the republic; Yuan Shih-k'ai
34° 34*~2
Effects of first world war
342-3
German ports and islands
342-4
Japan's Twenty-one Demands (i915)
344~5
Chinese capitulation
345
Death of Yuan (1916) and subsequent political disorder
346
The U.S.A. and Allies and China during the war
346
China declares war on Germany
347
The U.S.A. recognises Japan's * paramount interest* in China . . . .
347-8
Impact of Russian Revolution
34^
Allies support Russian anti-revolutionary forces
349
Decline of French and British influence in the Pacific
349
Peace Conference (1919): mandates
350-1
Chinese put their case before the Conference
351-2
Japan's demands granted except for claim to racial equality . . . .
352-3
Washington naval talks; Anglo-Japanese Alliance not renewed . . . .
353-6
China and Japan
356-7
Great expansion of Japanese economy
357~6o
The Japanese empire; Formosa and Korea
360
Effect of Great Depression
361
China as a field for foreign investment; the open door'
361-3
Tariff conference in Peking (1925) fails owing to deterioration of conditions in
China
365
Russia settles differences with China
365
Spread of Communist ideas
366
Nationalist government under Chiang Kai-shek at Nanking . . . .
366-7
Growing anti-British feeling; increase in U.S. influence
367
Nationalists in Peking
369
The Manchurian question
369-70
Japan recognises new rйgime in China
370
Renewal of civil war in China
371
Japan seizes Mukden (1931)
371
Military dominance in Japan
371
Japanese invasion of China (1937), a major cause of the second world war
·
372
XIV
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XIII
THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS
By J. C. BEAGLEHOLE, Emeritus Professor of British Commonwealth History, The Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Unpopularity of the British Empire at the turn of the century . . . page 373
Changes in Victorian conception of empire
374
Differences in status and powers
375-6
Aversion to the word * empire'
376
Semi-British societies
377
Racial problems in Canada and South Africa
377-8
Economic and industrial expansion
378
End of suggested imperial federation
379
Demand for consultation
379-8o
Effect of first world war; Dominion Prime Ministers and the Peace Conference . 380-1
The problem of Ireland Dominions act independently Constitutional crisis in Canada (1925)
...
381-3 383-4 384
* Autonomous communities*
385
Precise definition avoided; conflicting interpretations; Statute of Westminster
(1931)
386-8
Each Dominion building its own diplomatic pattern
389
Ottawa Conference (1932)
389-90
The Dominions and the League of Nations
390
Independent declarations in second world war
390
Ireland's neutrality
391
Canberra pact between Australia and New Zealand (1944)
39*
Complicated history of the colonies since first world war
393
The poverty of the colonial peoples
393-4
'Dual mandate', and * indirect rule'
394-6
Tendency to accept status quo
396^7
Contrasts in conditions of native peoples
397-8
Mandates
...
399
Between the wars
399-400
British grants for colonial projects
400-1
Constitutional development after 1945
401
India, Pakistan, Ceylon
401
Failure of federation in the West Indies
402
National self-government
402
CHAPTER XIV THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
By the late I S A A C D E U T S C H E R
Culmination of a long process
Comparison with the French and English Revolutions
Lack of real parliamentary institutions in tsarist Russia
Poverty and discontent of peasantry accentuated by disorganising effect of the first world war
Industrial backwardness Progressives alarmed at defeatist influences round the Tsar
....
403 403 404 404-5 405 406
2
XV
CM I%
CONTENTS
Assassination of Rasputin (Dec. 1916)
page 407
Ever-increasing chaos
407
Elemental power of revolution not realised at
first
407-8
Sequence of events, Feb.-March 1917
408-9
The provisional government and the Petrograd soviet
409-10
Government's determination to continue the war
410
Soviets in close touch with popular moods
410-11
Soldiers'deputies admitted to Petrograd soviet
411
Four phases of events between the abdication and the seizure of power by the
Bolsheviks
412-13
Cleavages between Mencheviks and Bolsheviks
413-14
Socialist Revolutionaries
415
The Petrograd soviet leaders
416
Attitudes towards the war
417
Clamour for reform in the countryside
418
Postponement of a constituent assembly
418-19
Arrival of Lenin (April 1917) and the demand for proletarian dictatorship . . 419-20
Shrewdness and elasticity ofthe Bolsheviks
421-2
Collapse of Russian offensive in the south-west
422
Temporary eclipse of Bolsheviks; flight of Lenin (July 1917) . . . . 422-3
Coalition under Kerensky and his clash with Kornilov
423-4
Germans capture Riga; momentous shift to left
424
Bolsheviks gain a majority in the Petrograd soviet
425
Kerensky convenes a Democratic Conference
425
Return of Lenin (Oct. 1917)
426
Insurrection under Trotsky
426-7
Revolutionary Military Committee
427
The October Revolution; Bolsheviks in control
427-8
Council of Peoples' Commissars under Lenin
429
The Peace of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918)
. 431
Civil war
432
Foundations of a single party system
432
CHAPTER XV THE SOVIET UNION 1917-1939
By G E O R G E K E N N A N , Professor in the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton
Outstanding problems
433
Small support for Bolsheviks; danger to them of elections Socialist Revolutionaries split Elected Assembly suppressed The problem of the war Punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918)
433-4 434 434 434-5 435
The peasantry; opposition to Communists; separatist tendencies Allied military intervention; extravagant expectations Massacre of the Tsar and his family (July 1918) Triumph of Communist forces Soviet-Polish war (1920) The Russian Federated Soviet Socialist Republic Rйgime of terror Relations with other countries High degree of centralisation
. . . 436-7 437-41 442 443 * 443 444 445 445 446
xvi
CONTENTS
Drastic lowering of living standards; labour unrest
page 447-8
Kronstadt mutiny (Feb. 1921)
.
448
New Economic Policy (NEP)
448
Famine (1921-2)
....
449
Rapid recovery; the kulak; the N E P men
450-1
Death of Lenin (21 Jan. 1924)
451
Stalin as General Secretary of the Party
452
Suppression of Lenin's political testament .
453
The triumvirate against Trotsky
453
Stalin eliminates rivals
454
Foreign relations: the Rapallo Treaty (1922)
454
New constitution; Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (USSR) . . . .
455
Trotsky banished (1927)
455
Economic recovery
456
Relations with Germany, Great Britain aud China
456-7
Propaganda trials (1928-33)
458
Goal of an industrial and military autarky
458
Collectivisation: an agrarian revolution
458-9
First Five-Year Plan (1929)
459
Liquidation of the kulaks
460
Intensive programme of industrial construction
461
Appalling conditions by 1932; famine.
462
Death of Stalin's wife (Nov. 1932)
463
Two new factors: Nazis in Germany, Japanese in Manchuria . . . .
463-4
Change in foreign policy; Litvinov as Foreign Minister
464-5
Stalin's reign of terror
465-7
The Spanish Civil War
467-8
Breakdown of negotiations with Britain and France
468
German-Soviet Pact (Aug. 1939)
468-9
Survey of Russian society and economy since the revolution . . . . 469-72
CHAPTER XVI GERMANY, ITALY AND EASTERN EUROPE
By E L I Z A B E T H W I S K E M A N N
Vitality of the German Empire The Reichstag could criticise but not control Tortuous character of Wilhelm II Influence of the General Staff Results of rapid industrialisation Gulf between classes Three million Poles alienated
..
...
..
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY I9OO-I9I4 Austria predominantly Slav Government under the Emperor Francis Joseph Magyar domination in Hungary Austria-Hungary an anomaly in Europe The great landed magnates Effect of the annexation of Bosnia
THE BALKAN PENINSULA Nationalist aspirations unsatisfied Effect of Turkish rйgime
xvii
473 473-4 474 474 474-5 475 476 476-7 477 477-8 478 479 480 480 481
CONTENTS Serbia the Slav centre , . . Violent emotional clash between nationalities The Balkan W a r (1912) . . . .
page 481 481 482
ITALY I9OO-I914 New social problems Industrialisation of northern Italy Moderate social reforms The State and the Vatican Extreme poverty of the south Demand for an aggressive foreign policy Italy's declaration of war against Austria-Hungary (May 1915) .
. -. ...
482 482-3 483 483 484 484 484
THE AFTERMATH OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR
Dream of a Great-German world power
Italian gains
Mussolini's rise to power and the end of all freedoms
'Stabbing the German army in the back*
German minorities in the Austrian succession states
Spartakists and Communists in Germany
Locarno (1925)
Industry and poverty concentrated in Vienna . . . . . . .
Czechoslovakia under Masaryk
Yugoslav Triune Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes .
.
Landed magnates regain control in Hungary .
The new Poland and its problems
The Baltic provinces
Turkish resurgence under Kemal .
Breakdown of parliamentary government in Poland and Yugoslavia . .
485 485-6 486-7 487 487-8 488 488 489 489 . 490 490 49O-* 491 491 . 491
THE GREAT DEPRESSION! HITLER BECOMES GERMAN CHANCELLOR
End of prosperity in Germany and the rise of Adolf Hitler Collapse of Austrian finances . . National Socialism in Germany Hitler becomes Chancellor (Jan. 1933) and seizes full power Spread of totalitarian ideas in Austria and Hungary
....
492 492 493-4 494-5 495-6
*GLEICHSCHALTUNG* IN GERMANY AND AUSTRIA
Suppression of liberties in Germany Hitler's aims A ruthless police state The Churches and Nazism Final break with pre-1914 ruling class
496
...
497
497
...
498
498
CZECHOSLOVAKIA I 9 2 9 - I 9 3 8 A satisfactory constitution The Sudeten Germans An approach to Russia The German occupation of Austria (March 1938) Czechoslovakia destroyed (March 1939) The German Mitteleuropa . . . .
499
499-500
...
500
501
50*
502
xvm
CONTENTS
THE ATTACK UPON POLAND EXPANDS INTO A SECOND WORLD WAR
Steel Pact between Germany and Italy
page 502
Pogrom in Germany
503
Poland's attempted appeasement of Germany
503
Lebensraum
504
Collapse of France
504
The Balkan peninsula subdued .
504-5
Germany's attack on Russia (June 1941)
505-6
Reign of terror extended; the extermination of the Jews
506
Guerrilla warfare in the Balkans
507
North Africa, and Stalingrad
507
Industrial unrest in Italy; arrest of Mussolini (25 July 1943) . . . . 507-8
The Russian advance
508-9
Attempted assassination of Hitler (20 July 1944)
. 509
Allies invade France
509
Rumania and Bulgaria desert Germany
. 510
The Poles and Hungarians revolt
510
The swan-song of east European aristocracy
511
CHAPTER XVII
GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, THE LOW COUNTRIES AND SCANDINAVIA
By M A U R I C E C R O U Z E T , Inspecteur gйnйral de Instruction publique, Paris. Translated by . LLOYD-JONES, Lecturer in French, University College of North Wales; Bangor
The transformation of society
512
THE POLITICAL SYSTEM AND THE ORGANISATION OF SOCIETY AT THE BEGINNING OF THE CENTURY
Universal suffrage, but representation in the hands of the ruling class Trade Unions and socialists
..
513-14 514
GOVERNMENT BY THE LIBERAL BOURGEOISIE: I 9 O O - I 9 I 4
Political rather than social problems dominant
The Dreyfus affair (1899)
French parties and groupings
Social conservatism and revolutionary trade-unionism
,.,.
Reawakened nationalism
Military service law
social democratic parties in Scandinavia
Holland and Belgium
Problems of the Liberal government in Great Britain (1906) .
Party truce at outbreak of first world war
Dissensions leading to virtual war-dictatorships
State controls and labour problems; the working-class movement . .
Victory followed by disturbances
Conservative hegemony in Great Britain
Social and cultural advances
Bloc National Rйpublicain in France .
Tripartite union in Belgium
The neutral countries
xix
514 514-15 515 516 517 517-18 518 518-19 519-20 521 522-3 . 523-4 524-5 525 525 525-6 526 526-7
CONTENTS
THE INTER-WAR YEARS I 9 2 I - I 9 3 9 Post-war problems French attitude to Great Britain and Russia Delays in dealing with economic and social problems in France . Transformation of the classes of society New industrial bourgeoisie Demands for an authoritarian rйgime in France Political conditions in Great Britain and France compared Weakness of European currencies . Labour government in Great Britain (1924) The General Strike (1926) Influence of banking interests in France The Great Depression; policy in Great Britain British Union of Fascists Rearmament Effects of Depression in Scandinavia and the Netherlands Crisis of parliamentary system in France Various movements; spread of totalitarian ideas; 6 Feb. 1934 . Front populaire Rising hopes in the working class Drift to the right ; ruling class intent on revenge Public opinion in disarray Belgium as disturbed as France
page 527 527 . . . 527~8 528-9 529 530 530-1 531 53i"2 53* 533 534 536 536 537-8 539 . . . 54*~2 542 542 543 544 544~5
THE SECOND WORLD WAR I939~I945 British economy strictly controlled The Beveridge Report Labour in power, 1945 Vichy France; an arbitrary rйgime . . . . . . . . . Collaboration and resistance Sweden's neutrality Norway, Denmark and Holland occupied (Apr,-May 1940) . . . Occupation of Belgium less oppressive Resistance in France Socialist parties become reformist
547 547 547 548 549-50 550 . 550-2 552 552~4 555
CHAPTER XVIII
THE United States of America By Sir D E N I S B R O G A N , Emeritus Professor of Political Science in the University of Cambridge
Theodore Roosevelt, President (1901-9). Republican Panama William Howard Taft, President (1909-13). Republican Woodrow Wilson, President (1913-21). Democrat 'The New Freedom* Mexico First world war Republicans reject Treaty of Versailles Warren Gamaliel Harding, President (i 921-3). Republican Ku-Klux-Klan; prohibition; corruption Calvin Coolidge, President (1923-9). Republican
...
XX
556-60 558-9 560-1 561-4 561-2 562 562-3 564 . 564-8 566-8 56S-9
CONTENTS ·The business of the United States is business' Herbert Hoover, President (1929-33). Republican The Great Depression Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President (1933-45). Democrat The New Deal Latin America UnEmployment Insurance The Supreme Court Industrial unrest Foreign relations;'cash and carry*; Lend-Lease Pearl Harbour (7 Dec. 1941) The United Nations The changed position of the U.S.A
page 570-1 571-3 571-3 . . . . 573-82 574-8 577 577-8 578-9 579 580-1 581 583 583
CHAPTER XIX LATIN AMERICA By J. H. PARRY, Professor of Oceanic History; Harvard University Political independence only; end of European interference Pan-Americanism Brazil; Argentina Chile; Mexico Dependence on exports Latin-American Catholicism Vigorous intellectual life Progress in Argentina The Mexican Revolution (1910-11) Intervention by the U.S.A Theodore Roosevelt's policy Dollar diplomacy . Growing importance of Latin America in world affairs The first world war; the League of Nations Economic effects of the war Foreign investment Chile's economic plight Argentine and Uruguayan beef industry A period of peace and prosperity Oil Concern for welfare of labour Constitutional radicalism The Great Depression A period of revolutions: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico Urge towards economic independence The Pan-American idea; 'good neighbour' policy The second world war Perуn in Argentina Strengthening of constitutionalism Decline in world trade
584 584-5 585-6 586-8 588 589 589-90 590-1 59i 592 592~3 593~4 594-5 594-5 595-6 596 596-7 597 597-8 598 598-9 599-600 601 601-5 605-6 606-8 608-9 610 610-11 611
XXI
CONTENTS CHAPTER XX LITERATURE 1895-1939 By A. E. DYSON, Senior Lecturer in English Studies; University of East Anglia Significance of Hardy's Jude the Obscure Henry James's late novels E. M. Forster; Rudyard Kipling; Joseph Conrad Need for endurance; change and violence Thomas Hardy as a poet War poetry: Rupert Brooke and Wilfred Owen The Georgians; the Imagists What is 'modern'? Joyce's Ulysses; Eliot's The Waste Land Scott Fitzgerald; Franz Kafka; D. H. Lawrence Ironists Poets of the 1930s Graham Greene; George Orwell Drama: Ibsen, Strindberg, Chekhov, Shaw Irish Dramatists American dramatists The poetic drama Lapis Lazuli
page 613 614-15 615-19 619-20 620-1 621-2 623-4 625 626-30 630-2 632-3 633-4 634-5 635-8 638-9 639-40 640 641-3
CHAPTER XXI
PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGIOUS THOUGHT
I. Philosophy, by RENFORD BAMBROUGH, Fellow and Dean of St John's College and Lecturer in Moral Science in the University of Cambridge
2. Religious Thought, by the Very Reverend W. R. MATTHEWS, K.C.V.O., formerly Dean of St Paul's
I. PHILOSOPHY
The philosophical situation at the turn of the century English-speaking idealists Principia Mathematica Ludwig Wittgenstein The Vienna Circle Ayer's phenomenalism 'Linguistic' philosophy Neglect of historical studies in philosophy Anglo-Saxon and Continental philosophy Existentialism
644-6 646 646 647-9 649 649-51 653 653 655-6 656
2. RELIGIOUS THOUGHT Naturalism Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Freud Meaning in history Nature in religion The times not propitious for the discussion of religious ideas Liberal Protestantism Modernist movement
....
656 657 657-8 658-9 659 659-60 660
xxii
CONTENTS Social gospel 'The historical Jesus* Restatement of orthodox doctrines Mysticism Barth's theology of crisis Russian and Eastern Orthodox writers The Ecumenical movement
page 661 661-2 662 662-3 663 663-4 664
CHAPTER XXII
PAINTING, SCULPTURE AND ARCHITECTURE
By M. E. COOKE, Senior Lecturer in History and the History of Art; University College of North Wales, Bangor
PAINTING
A revolutionary art Divisionism and symbolism Fauvism; cubism; * Papier Collй' Futurism; expressionism; abstraction Dada; surrealism The German Bauhaus 'Unit One' U.S.A: the'Ash Can School';'Action Painting*
...
665 665 665-7 668 670-1 671 672 672-3
SCULPTURE
Recovery under Rodin
673
Futurist and surrealist sculpture
674
ARCHITECTURE The influence of William Morris Art Nouveau Frank Lloyd Wright Developments in Austria and Germany Gropius 1919-23: a heyday of ideas Le Corbusier England and America Scandinavia; Italy Le Corbusier again
675-6 676 676-7 677 677-8 679-80 680-2 682 683 683
CHAPTER XXIII DIPLOMATIC HISTORY 1930-1939 By D. C. W A T T , Reader in international history in the London School of Economics, University of London Effect of economic crisis on political issues Germany's approach to Austria Breakdown of international order in the Far East France in search of allies The World Disarmament Conference (1932) German approach to France Isolationism of the U.S.A Collapse of World Economic Conference (1933) xxiii
684 685 685-6 687 687-8 688-9 689 689-90
CONTENTS
Hitler's plans
, - page 690
Crisis in Austria
691
Germany and Japan leave the League of Nations
691
British arms programme
692
Japan and China
692
German-Polish non-aggression pact
693
Failure of putsch by Austrian Nazis
694
Laval and Mussolini
694-5
The Stresa Conference (1935)
695"6
Franco-Soviet pact (1935)
^^
Abyssinia (Ethiopia) ; sanctions against Italy
696-8
The Hoare-Laval understanding
698
Smaller nations disturbed
699
Turkey at Montreux Conference (1936)
700
Belgium to be 'exclusively Belgian'
7°°
U.S.A.: Neutrality Act (1937)
700-1
'Gentleman's Agreement between Great Britain and Italy
701
The established order of the 1920s shattered
701-2
Japan and China
702-3
Anti-Comintern Pact (1936)
7°3~4
Civil War in Spain; reactions of powers
704-6
Hitler's attitude to Great Britain
706-7
Neville Chamberlain's policy
707-8
European position at the end of October 1937
709
United front in China
709-10
President Roosevelt's 'quarantine' speech
710-11
The U.S.A., Great Britain and China
711-12
British hopes for a settlement
712-13
Another Austrian crisis
714
Anschluss by force (March 1938)
715
The Sudeten German problem
715-16
Russian proposals
716-17
Threats to Czechoslovakia
717-18
Sudeten settlement impossible
718-19
Renewed Russian efforts
719-20
Meetings between Chamberlain and Hitler at Berchtesgaden and Godesberg
(15 and 22 Sept. 1938)
720-I
The Munich Conference (29 Sept. 1938), and its effects
722-3
Polish and Hungarian reactions
723
End of Spanish Civil War (Jan. 1939)
724
Collapse of negotiations between China and Japan
724-5
German occupation of Bohemia and Moravia (March 1939) . . . .
725-6
Danzig and the Corridor
726
Hitler disconcerted by British reaction to Munich
727
War-nerves
728-9
Failure of moves for collective action
729
Italy invades Albania (April 1939)
729
Change in Russian policy
730
The'Pact of Steel'(May 1939)
731
Abortive British-Russian negotiations . . . . . . . .
731
Nazi-Soviet pact (23 Aug. 1939)
733-4
War
734
xxiv
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XXIV
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
By Sir B A S I L L I D D E L L H A R T
Failure between the wars to appreciate role of mechanical power . . page 735-6
Tank-cum-air theory accepted in Germany and Russia
737
Out-dated attitude of cavalry men
737-8
Reluctance of Britain to mechanise
738
Germany able to build a small army of high quality and mobility . . . 739
Failure to check Hitler in the Rhineland
740-1
Austria and Czechoslovakia
74*
The German blitz on Poland
742-4
The Phoney War
745
Germany moves into Norway and Denmark Germany attacks France
746-9 749~52
Dunkirk (26 May-4 June 1940)
753~4
France forced to ask for armistice (21 June 1940)
755~7
Britain's perilous position
757-8
Why did Hitler halt?
758-9
Extension of war to the Mediterranean
759
Wavel success in North Africa.
759-61
Fatal Greek diversion
761-4
Rommel's successes
764-5
Far East defences neglected
765
German invasion of Russia (22 June 1941)
766-8
German repulse at Moscow
768
Reasons for the German failure in Russia
769
Stalingrad (Feb. 1943)
770
Japanese successes .
77i~5
British retreat in North Africa; Tobruk (June 1942)
776-8
First battle of Alamein the turning point
779
British advance and Anglo-American landing in North Africa (Nov. 1942). . 779-82
Defeat of German-Italian army in Africa
782-4
Sicily and the Italian campaign
785
Allied armies land in Normandy (6 June 1944) . . · . · . .
785-8
Russian offensive maintained
789
End of war in Europe (8 May 1945)
790
End of war in Far East (8 Sept. 1945)
791-2
The atomic bomb : was its use justified?
792-3
Superior industrial power and material resources with sea power brought victory 794
Comments on strategy
794~7
CHAPTER XXV DIPLOMATIC HISTORY OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
By Sir L L E W E L Y N WOODWARD, formerly Professor of Modern History in the University of Oxford and Professor in the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton
Hitler exaggerated faults of earlier rйgоmes His dealings with Italy, Japan, Russia and Vichy France The New Order' .
798 798-9 799-800
XXV
CONTENTS Soviet suspicions of its Allies U.S. policy of non-involvement before 1942 * Lend-Lease ' . . . . . . . . . . Difficulties of an agreed diplomatic policy Economic warfare The U.S.A., Great Britain and Vichy France British and U.S. policy in the Far East Russia and the future of Poland The Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations Unconditional surrender Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam The United Nations Polish problem a test between Russia and Western powers Disunity?
page 800-1
801-2
.
803
803-4
804-5
805-6
808-9
810-11
. . . 811-12
813
814-15
815-17
817-18
818
INDEX
....
819
XXVl

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