The Success of Sports in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex

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Content: The Success of Sports in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex Diana Bernal, Tim Dunne, Allison Hartnett, Sita McNab, Mike Nixon, Kate Walter, John Warren December 11, 2012 Page 1 of 109
Executive Summary In partnership with the Mayor's Professional Sports Alliance and New York University, this study identifies the factors that have led to the success of sports in the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex, and examines how the cities in the region have used professional sports to improve public revenue and quality of life. The findings show that factors inherently present in the region, such as deep-rooted enthusiasm for sports and a featureless geography, facilitated the success of sports. This success, in turn, made it possible for sports to evolve into a powerful catalyst for further development in areas such as the arts and non-traditional partnerships. These findings lead into recommendations for how the region can continue to drive the success of sports, as well as what other cities can learn from Dallas/Fort Worth's actions. Key recommendations include leveraging multi-use venues and cross-industry partnerships to harness the power of a successful sports industry for further, city-wide development. Interviews with industry and area experts provide the framework for the case study. Nearly 30 people were interviewed including Texas Governor Rick Perry, Arlington Mayor Robert Cluck, Cowboys owner Jerry Jones, and Rangers COO Rick George. The research was limited to interviewees familiar with the Metroplex, and other cities were not investigated. From the onset of this study, it was clear that Dallas/Fort Worth is an ideal example of what a successful sports city is. Sports fans around the United States know the Cowboys as "America's Team," and are aware that the Rangers, Mavericks, and Stars have had championship caliber teams over the past decade. However, this study illustrates that the importance of sports to the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex goes well beyond success on the field and elaborates on how other cities can harness the power of a winning sports culture. Page 2 of 109
Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Significance of Research III. Background on the Metroplex IV. Literature Review V. Research Design VI. Findings/Insights VII. Recommendations VIII. Limitations and opportunities for future research IX. Conclusion X. Works Cited XI. Appendix o Appendix A Interview Protocol o Appendix B Findings, Insights, & Patterns o Appendix C Factors Leading to Success in Dallas o Appendix D Texas Events o Appendix E Texas In-Migration o Appendix F Texas Sports Fast Facts o Appendix G Trust Fund Approvals o Appendix H Handout o Appendix I PowerPoint Presentation
pp 4-6 pp 7-8 pp 9-18 pp 19-29 pp 30-37 pp 38-60 pp 61-73 pp 74-75 pp 76 pp 77-109 --------
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I. Introduction The Mayor's Professional Sports Alliance, an organization formed by the United States Conference of Mayors, in partnership with the Tisch Center at New York University, identified Dallas, Texas as one of the most remarkable success stories with regard to the close ties between professional sports and urban growth and development. The Sports Alliance's determination of Dallas as a successful sports city was significantly based on the "relationships between sports teams, other teams, sports and entertainment facilities, and urban infrastructure and public policy", which the Alliance found to be a central component to success as it relates to "improving public revenue and enhancing overall quality of life" (The Mayor's Professional Sports Alliance). A closer investigation of the importance and influence of these relationships in a location such as Dallas is warranted. Dallas, to be accurate, is in fact the Dallas/Fort Worth area, which is sometimes referred to as the Metroplex. It is an area of connected cities, towns and suburbs, which combine to create a large regional metropolis in North Texas, that includes the more populous cities of Dallas, Arlington and Fort Worth and five professional major league sports teams--the Dallas Cowboys, Dallas Stars, Dallas Mavericks, Texas Rangers and FC Dallas. This case study further explores the success of sports in the Dallas area, specifically with the purpose of examining the proliferation and continued success of sports in the area and determining how professional sports have contributed to the growth and development of the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex. In doing so, this case study seeks to identify the reasons for this success and the ability to sustain five major professional sports teams in the Dallas/Fort Worth area, while exploring Page 4 of 109
the relationships between these teams and cities. Important elements included are amateur sports, the range and use of sports facilities, and the role of the arts, business, and ancillary events as they relate to sports in the Metroplex. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the importance of sports in the Dallas area, the case study relies heavily on interviews with political, sports, business, and cultural leaders as well as research conducted and data gathered from scholarly articles, industry publications and government issued statistics. An analysis was conducted using a combination of these sources, to uncover the connections and influential factors involved in the partnership of professional sports with cities, other industries and entities in the area. In addition, this collaboration was analyzed in order to determine how these important relationships have contributed to the way in which the Dallas/Fort Worth metro area is able to benefit from such a dynamic sports environment. This case study identifies the factors that have led to the success of sports in the Dallas/Fort Worth metro area, and provides insight into the ways in which the Metroplex has subsequently been able to utilize sports as a successful vehicle for economic, cultural, and social development. Ultimately, through continued research and analysis of these aspects, this study draws significant conclusions about the relationship between the Dallas/Fort Worth area and its professional sports teams, in order to make recommendations for entities in Dallas on how to continue to sustain and grow a successful sports presence, as well as recommendations for other U.S. cities on how to capitalize on the presence of major league sports teams. Evidence suggests that the Metroplex area inherently presented ideal conditions for fostering the growth of a thriving sports industry. The factors intrinsic to the Dallas/Fort Worth Page 5 of 109
area that have been identified by this case study as key contributors to the growth of its sports industry include its sports culture, geography, market growth, public support for sports, and the success of its teams. The findings also uncover how sports in the Dallas/Fort Worth area subsequently acted as a catalyst for growth and development of non-sport related entities, creating a symbiotic relationship between the region and the sports industry within it. As this relationship matured, unique partnerships and successful cross-industry events became a staple of the area's wellrounded culture. After discussing the significance of examining the success of sports in Dallas, a brief background will familiarize the reader with the characteristics and nuances of the Dallas/Fort Worth region, leading into a literature review that discusses previous research on related topics. Following the literature review, an explanation of the research design leads into a discussion of findings and insights. In the findings and insights section, the case study highlights the factors unique to the Dallas/Fort Worth region as well as those that may be replicated in other cities. The case study concludes by acknowledging the limitations of the study, as well as pointing out opportunities for future research. Page 6 of 109
II. Significance of Research This case study is significant for several reasons. One, the study aims both to examine the factors that have led to the overall success in sports in the Dallas/Fort Worth area and to identify which strategies can be emulated by other cities in the hopes of achieving similar success. Two, by analyzing the recent stadium projects in the Metroplex, this case study identifies strengths and weakness of public financing used to build professional stadiums. Three, this study suggests opportunities for growth within the Dallas/Fort Worth area, so that the region may continue to elevate the level of success of sports. In sum, this study represents an opportunity to contribute further insight to the ongoing debates regarding the financing, operations, partnerships, and overall role of sports within the Metroplex and potentially in other cities. By examining the factors that have led to the success of sports in the Dallas/Fort Worth area, this study points out the best practices for the successful development of sport in metropolitan cities. In such cases where the agents behind this success are not unique to the Dallas/Fort Worth area, the analysis provides a blueprint for other cities to follow. In addition, this study contributes insight to the ongoing debate about the role of public and private financing in building stadiums. Dallas/Fort Worth's apparent efficacy in paying off publicly subsidized bonds--a task that has proved to be challenging for other cities throughout the United States--is analyzed within this context. Furthermore, this case study examines the role sports have played in fostering non-traditional relationships between the sports, arts, government, and community. Page 7 of 109
In all, the case study aims to provide a framework for understanding the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex as it exists today, including a snapshot of the demographics, geography, infrastructure, and historical connotations of sports in the area. Before analyzing the aforementioned issues, it is imperative to first establish a context for the Dallas/Fort Worth region. The next section of the case study will provide a background of the Metroplex's demographics, makeup, and key characteristics. Page 8 of 109
III. Background
Figure 1a. Dallas/Fort Worth Stadium and Arena Map
Source: Google Maps Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex Area The Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex, located in North Texas, is the 4th most populous metropolis in the United States (United States Census Bureau). The area is made up of two distinct urban areas and counties: the eastern section in Dallas County encompasses the cities of Dallas, Plano, and Irving, while the western side of the Metroplex in Tarrant County contains the urban areas of Fort Worth and Arlington. These major cities are connected by various suburbs and townships, and together make up the area most commonly referred to as "greater Dallas," "the Metroplex," or simply, "Dallas." As the largest metropolitan area in Texas, the Dallas Metroplex acts as a social, cultural, political, and economic hub for the southern United States. Dallas, Arlington, and Fort Page 9 of 109
Worth are the three largest cities of the Metroplex. The current mayors of those cities are Mike Rawlings of Dallas, Betsy Price of Fort Worth, and Robert Cluck of Arlington. Figure 1b. Texas Metropolitan Areas by Population Texas Metropolitan Areas by Population
2012 Population estimate 3
Dallas/Ft. Greater Worth Houston
2.19 San Antonio metro
1.78 Austn metro
0.82 El Paso metro
Source: The United States Census Bureau
Population and Demographics
The Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex is a diverse and densely populated area, with a
significant number of ethnic and foreign-born inhabitants. Culture and tradition in Dallas is
steeped in a mix of traditional Southern, American-Western, European, and Latin-American
(emphatically Mexican) influences. In addition, modern cosmopolitan influences such as a
renowned dining industry and a burgeoning fine arts district have surfaced in the area's cultural
make-up, stemming from Dallas' emergence as an elite global city on an economic, social, and
cultural level.
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Figure 2a. Population of the Metroplex by city
Ft. Worth
Metro total
Source: Texas Dept. of State and Human Services, Population 2012
Figure 2b. Racial make-up of the Metroplex and the state of Texas
Dallas / Ft. Worth 6,955,794 3,417,089
26,403,743 11,493,060 3,032,077 10,600,448
Source: Texas Dept. of State and Human Services, Population 2012
Other 451,548 1,278,158
Travel Services & Infrastructure
Popular attractions in Dallas include the five major professional sports teams, the State
Fair of Texas, Six Flags Dallas, and many other entertainment options such as amusement parks,
golf, recreation, hotel, retail, and food and beverage options. In Dallas alone, there are 2,666
restaurants located within the city limits, making it the city with the most restaurants per capita
(Dallas Convention and Visitor's Bureau). The Metroplex boasts 200 golf courses, and is home
to the model train exhibit in the world, in front of the Dallas Children's Medical Center (Dallas
Convention and Visitor's Bureau). The city's entertainment options and accessibility continue to
appeal to visitors. In 2011, the city of Dallas hosted 28.6 million domestic visitors and collected
an 8.25 percent sales tax on the more than 75,000 hotel rooms in the metro area (Dallas
Convention and Visitor's Bureau).
Economy & Business Development The Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex is a large, vibrant market that ranked 6th in largest output and 7th largest by income in 2010 (Dallas Office of economic development). The region
also boasted a $380 billion gross metro product in 2010, which accounted for approximately
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31.6 percent of Texas's total gross state product (Dallas Office of Economic Development).
Today, the Dallas economy is driven mainly by the transportation, aerospace and defense,
financial services, high-tech electronics, and energy sectors.
The Dallas area is currently home to twenty Fortune 500 companies such as AT&T,
Southwest Airlines, Texas Instruments, Atmos Energy, Exxon Mobil, and JC Penney, as well as
269 locally headquartered companies; each employs more than 1,000 workers globally (Dallas
Office of Economic Development). In addition, nine corporations on Forbes' 2011 list of
America's Largest Private Companies are located in the Dallas/Fort Worth metropolitan area.
Figure 3a. Businesses & Jobs in the City of Dallas and Dallas/Fort Worth region
City of Dallas Dallas/Fort Worth
Dallas Office of Economic Development
The Dallas/Fort Worth region continues to invest in its growth in an effort to improve
the overall strength of the economy. In 2006, Dallas voters passed a $1.35 billion bond package
to fund various projects such streets and parks, a measure which was passed to improve overall
quality of life. The Dallas/Fort Worth area has a strong, diverse economy that has developed
over time, attracting a variety of businesses from across the globe. As the Metroplex continues
to attract further business development, the arts, entertainment, and sports industries also
Reputation & Cultural Identity of Dallas
Dallas, often referred to as `Big D', has seen its identity and reputation evolve
throughout the years. However, despite the many shifts in the city's history, economic success
and cultural advancement have been consistent. During the latter-half of the 20th century,
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Dallas began to distance itself from being defined solely by the Texas stereotypes of oil and Stetson hats, and the city became known as a diverse metropolis where businesses came to thrive. Within the Metroplex, each city has its own identity. The contrast between Dallas and its neighboring city, Fort Worth, can be characterized by each of their nicknames. Dallas prizes luxury and affluence, often sparing no expense. Fort Worth on the other hand, is known as "Cowtown," embracing its composition of stockyards, boxcars, and grain elevators (Freedman, Rosentraub 68). Dallas identifies itself as being "sophisticated, world-class, and glitzy," and has approached its growing sports industry with the same sensibility. The investments by highprofile owners as well as the regions' citizens have played a critical role in facilitating success within the Dallas sports culture. Professional Sports Dallas/Fort Worth has been ranked in the annual Sporting News as one of the top sports cities in the U.S, topping the list in 2011 ("Best Sports Cities" np). The Dallas/Fort Worth area is host to five major league teams, including the National Football League's Dallas Cowboys, Major League Baseball's Texas Rangers, National Basketball Association's Dallas Mavericks, National Hockey League's Dallas Stars, and, most recently, Major League Soccer's FC Dallas. These teams play in facilities that are located across the entire region of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. The Stars and the Mavericks share the American Airlines Center, located in downtown Dallas, while the Cowboys and the Rangers facilities--Cowboys Stadium and Rangers Ballpark--are located in Arlington. FC Dallas plays its home games in FC Dallas stadium located just north of Dallas in Frisco, Texas. Page 13 of 109
Along with the major league teams, minor league teams also play in the Dallas/Fort Worth region. The Mavericks Developmental League team, the Texas Legends, share the Dr. Pepper Arena in Frisco with the Texas Tornado, a Junior A team in the North American Hockey League. Frisco also has Dr. Pepper Ballpark, home to the Frisco Roughriders, the AA affiliate of the Texas Rangers. The Dallas Diamonds of the Women's Football Alliance play their games at Pennington Field in Bedford, TX. LaGrave Field in Fort Worth is the home the Fort Worth Cats, an independent baseball team in the North American League. While team sports are a dominant part of the sports landscape in Dallas/Fort Worth, the location of the Texas Motor Speedway, the host of some of the biggest NASCAR events in the United States, also figures prominently as destination for sports fan. For horse racing, the region also boasts Lone Star Park, located just outside of Irving. All together, there are ten venues in the Dallas/Fort Worth area dedicated to professional sports of different types and levels. Facilities Of these ten venues, the three major facilities in the Dallas/Fort Worth region are Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, American Airlines Center in Dallas, and the Rangers Ballpark in Arlington. Cowboys Stadium, the grand dame of facilities of not only the area but also the country, opened in 2009 and cost a total of $1.2 billion-- at the time was the most expensive stadium in the history of sports in the US (Mosier np). The American Airlines Center was built as a replacement home for the Mavericks and Stars in 2001. The teams each own 50 percent of the stadium that cost $427 million to build (Howard and Crompton 57). In 1991, voters in Arlington approved a referendum that increased local sales taxes by half a cent in order to pay Page 14 of 109
for the stadium (Howard and Crompton 50). The ballpark cost a total of $191 million, with $161 million, or 84%, coming from the City of Arlington and the other 16% from the franchise, from future commitments of revenue (Howard and Crompton 54). College Sports Texas is home to four teams in the Big12 conference: Baylor, TCU, University of Texas, and Texas Tech. It also has seven Division I teams: Texas A&M, SMU, the University of Houston, Rice University, UTEP, Texas State, and North Texas. The University of Texas Longhorns annually has the largest college athletic budget, one that increased $15 million between 2011 and 2012 to reach a record $153.3 million. This was mainly a result of the university's new television contract with ESPN and the creation of the Longhorn Network. University of Texas has only 17 sports, less than a majority of schools its size, making these figures even more impressive (Smith). Dallas/Fort Worth Media Market The Dallas/Fort Worth region boasts the 5th largest media market in the United States, reaching over 2.5 million TV households, or over 2.6 percent of the country (Nielsen). The only markets larger are New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Philadelphia (Nielsen). As an area where sports are deeply rooted into the culture, Dallas/Fort Worth generally sees sports broadcasts as the highest rated in local media (Duren). During an average week in August, when Page 15 of 109
pre-season football is beginning and baseball is winding down, 4-5 of the top 10 highest rated broadcasts in the area are sporting events (Duren). Historically, the Cowboys have benefited from a consistent wave of popularity, contributing to highly rated broadcasts of their games, although they have only won one playoff game in 16 years (Duren). This fact contradicts conventional perceptions of sports viewership--generally, teams that win are teams that garner the most fans and the highest rating. Arts & Entertainment in the Dallas/Fort Worth Area While sports continue to figure prominently in the media, economics, and culture of the Dallas/Fort Worth area, they are not the only entertainment option available. Alternatives range from long-standing traditional events such as rodeos and the State Fair of Texas, to a growing number of art museums and cosmopolitan restaurants This plethora of options allows residents and visitors to spend their recreation dollars on much more than just professional sporting events. This competition, in turn, presents local Dallas teams with the challenge of keeping their turnstiles revolving and concession stands busy. Similar to most major US metropolitan centers, Dallas has a zoo, an aquarium, a botanical garden, water parks, amusement parks, and a "Medieval Times" attraction. There also are seven state parks and twelve major lakes within two hours drive of downtown Dallas (Atkinson np). The area is also home to historical and cultural attractions such as the Book Depository Museum, the National Cowgirl Hall of Fame, and a Holocaust Museum. Downtown Dallas is also renowned for its wide selection of shopping and dining establishments (Atkinson np). With all of these exciting entertainment options, however, there are still two main Page 16 of 109
attractions that draw the most visitors to Dallas: the State Fair of Texas and the Dallas Art District. The State Fair of Texas was originally established in 1886, and other than for a few years during WWI and WWII, the Fair has been held every year since then ("History of the State Fair of Texas"). This 24 day-long event that begins on the last Friday each September draws upwards of 3 million attendees every year, making it the most attended state fair in the country (in total visits), and second only to the Minnesota State Fair in average daily attendance ("History of the State Fair of Texas"). The State Fair has also served as the catalyst for the construction of some of Dallas' most important landmarks, such as The Cotton Bowl, the Texas Star Ferris Wheel, and Big Tex, a 52-foot cowboy figure that stands in the center of the fair grounds. Since 1929 college football has played a prominent role at The State Fair of Texas with the annual TexasOklahoma match-up, the Red River Shootout. The Fair directly conflicts with the start of the NFL season and the climax of the MLB season--however, the Fair has become such a monumental annual event, that local professional teams have come to embrace it as a valuable opportunity to grow attendance, rather than as direct competition. Teams look to entice Fair visitors to attend sporting events in the area, as a supplemental activity to the fair while they are in town. For many years, the art museums, music venues, and other cultural institutions of Dallas were housed all over town. In 1978, however, Carr-Lynch Consulting recommended that Dallas relocate all of its major art institutions to one area of the city (Olivera np). This consolidation would allow easier access to the museums, and encourage people to visit multiple venues in Page 17 of 109
one day. Sitting on 68 acres on 19 contiguous blocks, the Dallas Arts District was completed in 2012 with the opening of the City Performance Hall (Olivera np). In sum, Dallas/Fort Worth is an ever-growing metroplex consisting of three major cities: Dallas, Fort Worth, and Arlington. These cities, working together, have created a thriving community that draws and maintains residents, businesses, events, and consistently high levels of out-of-town visitors. The background of the area examined in this section of the case study sets the groundwork for a thorough analysis of the effect of sports in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. However, a review of the literature is also necessary to examine the impact of sports development in other urban areas, in order to gain an understanding of the ways in which the situation in the Metroplex is unique, and in which ways it is like other cities that play host to sports. This next section of the study will examine the literature to inform this part of the analysis. Page 18 of 109
IV. Literature Review There has been a significant amount of research done on the impact of professional and amateur sports on a host community. Although the literature covers a wide variety of topics this review will focus on the following themes: the livability of a region, public subsidy of stadiums, the effects of new stadium development, intangible benefits of sports, economic impact of amateur sports, and the relationship between sports and arts and entertainment. This literature review concentrates on these aspects and how they are applied to the success of sports in the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex. Geography and Livability For a city or region, the two aspects of geography that affect quality of life are the constructed and the natural (Helburn 445). Natural geography consists of the resources necessary to sustain human life, such as land, water, and food. Constructed geography consists of the man-made infrastructure that influences the "livability" of a community (Dreiling 15). The American Institute of Architects notes that "safety and security" and "a sense of place" are among the most important factors contributing to the livability of a community. Other quality of life studies point to "the potential for environments, whether natural or built, to promote healing and otherwise positive effects" as an important determiner of quality of life (Eyles 73). Other important factors include tangible aspects such as mixed-use design, transportation, and access to necessary facilities, in addition to social and cultural aspects such as freedom, stability, community environment, and equality. (Dreiling 14, Frenken 157). Changing demographics and populations also affect the cityscape and sense of community. New cultures, people, and demographics can shift the community's identity and Page 19 of 109
introduce new traditions and practices, such as sports and leisure activities (Eyles 63). Additionally, in rural or agricultural areas, sports tend to be one of the only recreation or leisure options available, as access to beaches, mountains, and other natural attractions is rare. In conclusion, cities lacking natural geography rely heavily on the creation of man-made entertainment and must find ways to compensate for their featuring surroundings (Dreiling 16). Public Subsidy of Stadiums As cities fight to remain competitive and promote local growth and development, public ownership of stadiums and arenas has increased over time across different projects (Coates and Humphrey "Stadium" 15). In 1950, the NBA had substantial public ownership of arenas (46 percent), and the NFL had substantial public ownership (at 36 percent). By 1991, at least 65 percent of facilities in the four major sports leagues (NHL, NBA, NFL, and MLB) were publicly owned (16). In addition, Siegfried and Zimbalist found that public coffers contributed close to two-thirds of the $21.7 billion allotted to 95 stadiums or arenas that were built or in development since 1990. The public subsidies of stadiums have been a highly debated and researched topic over the past forty years (Baade and Dye "Economic Rationale" 37, Baade and Dye "Impact" 1, Baade, Baumann and Matheson 795, Coates 565, Coates, and Humphreys "Professional Sports" 335, Siegfried and Zimbalist 95, Zimbalist 17). Much of the research has examined whether or not sports teams and facilities have an economic impact on cities and the surrounding metropolitan areas. Proponents of new stadiums and franchises--such as leagues, team owners, and political and community leaders--attempt to use economic impact numbers to justify public subsidies (Baade and Dye "Economic Rationale, 37" Baade, Baumann and Page 20 of 109
Matheson 795, Coates and Humphreys "Stadium" 16, Coates and Humphreys "Professional Sports" 335, Zimbalist 23). In a survey done by Baade and Dye, city planners were asked, "Do you believe that stadium construction or renovation can be justified on economic grounds?" Of the 20 respondents who were planning on building stadiums, 60 percent said yes, three answered no, two were unsure, and three did not answer ("Stadium" 15). This survey suggests that those involved on the development side use information to convince and gain public support. Siegfried and Zimbalist found that proponents of new stadiums provide misleading "economic-impact statements" that often confuse the public about the true effects of stadiums (110). For example, in 1999, the Baltimore Sun reported that replacing the 36-year-old Baltimore Arena with a new $200 million facility would raise city taxes by $3.8 million and state taxes by $6.3 million, but could generate over $100 million in earnings for the citizens of Baltimore (Coates and Humphreys "Stadium" 16). However, perceptions about the amount and appropriation of the costs and benefits differ among various groups in the community; as a result, the extent to which a government should subsidize stadiums activities remains a subject of public debate (Baade and Dye "Economic Rationale"). New Stadium Development Sports boosters argue that sports teams, facilities, and events bring in large amounts of money to cities that are privileged to host them (Baade, Baumann and Matheson 794). New stadiums, in particular, can maximize revenue opportunities through concessions, parking, luxury suites, club boxes, advertising, and other activities (Baade and Dye "Impact" 2 and Zimbalist 17). Page 21 of 109
In addition to reaping the economic benefits, city officials endorse stadium development projects to avoid the possibility of teams relocating to other cities if new facilities are not built in the current host city (Coates and Humphreys "Stadium" and Zimbalist 23). The threat of relocation forces officials to promote new projects and rally others to support new stadiums. Government decision-makers and politicians, as a result, use public funds to support the construction of new facilities in order to keep franchises from moving and boast overall morale of the city (Coates and Humphrey "Stadium" 18). Zimbalist has also analyzed sports franchises using the law of supply and demand. With a limited supply of sports franchises and the high demand for teams within economically viable cities, officials must compete to procure or retain teams (Zimbalist 17). However, since professional sports teams have a specific and concentrated fan base, and do not necessarily appeal to all the inhabitants of a community, there are groups that oppose using public funding for stadium development. The debate stems from the fact that millions of dollars are invested in these stadiums, when streets, schools, and other vital public services face cuts (Coates, 565). Coates argues that money spent on these facilities comes at the expense of other more important and highly productive public services--causing, for example, a shortage of policemen and firemen, infrequent repairs to streets and highways, and weaker education systems (341). There are always improvements that can be made in large cities, a fact which fuels doubts about whether a city's decision to support the public funding of sports facilities is the right one. Page 22 of 109
Economic Effects of Stadium Development Studies on the effects of franchises and new stadiums on a metropolitan area have found that professional sports are an ineffective means to spur local economic development (Baade and Dye "Impact" 13, Baade and Dye "Economic Rationale" 47, Baade, Baumann, and Matheson 808, Coates 565, Coates and Humphreys "Professional Sports" 336, Coates and Humphreys "Stadium" 18). Using regression analysis to evaluate the impact of sports teams and stadiums on standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA) aggregate income, spending, and development, Baade and Dye found an insignificant impact on area income for all of the nine metropolitan areas studied, except for Seattle ("Impact" 10). In a regression analysis study done on taxable sales in Florida between 1980 and 2005, Baade, Baumann and Matheson found that sports are equally likely to increase or decrease taxable sales (808). Coates and Humphreys used a different approach, examining earnings and employment in defined occupational groups in US cities. The researchers found that earnings and employment in the SIC-industry containing sports facilities--SIC-code 79, Amusements and Recreation--were higher, but that earnings and employment in other sectors, such as retail trade, hotels, and restaurants, were lower ("Professional Sports" 341). All of these studies found that sports, stadiums, and arenas do not have a positive impact on the economy in the host metropolitan area. They also suggest that the presence of new stadiums may even have a negative impact on local development relative to the region (Baade and Dye "Impact" 13). These findings also suggest that the local economy does not benefit from professional sports teams and their facilities and that the money goes to players, coaches, and owners. In fact, players and teams are the ones that benefit the most from publicly subsidized stadiums by Page 23 of 109
receiving higher salaries and revenue (Siegfried and Zimbalist 101). Approximately 55-60 percent of NHL, NBA, NFL, and MLB team revenues are allocated to player compensation. The remaining 40-45 percent goes to owners to help with costs of new facilities and other expenses needed to run a team. The impact of this spending on the local economy depends on how much of it is spent locally and how much is funneled out to other areas (Siegfried and Zimbalist, 106). The amount spent locally is usually low, since most players do not live in the city where they play. In addition, these professional athletes tend to use their money by investing in banks, money market funds, pensions, etc. - thereby causing very to little to no impact on the local economy (Zimbalist 20). Researchers found that each dollar and hour spent on sports teams could be spent somewhere else in the local economy--a phenomenon known as the substitution effect. On the surface it would appear that by the rules of simple economics, one side ­ sports - would be appropriating recreational dollars, tourism dollars, and private and public funding from the other side. The leisure budget of individuals and families, however, is usually inflexible, and limited in terms of both money and time (Baade and Dye "Economic Rational" 41 and Siegfried and Zimbalist 105). Thus, sports teams may cause consumers to reallocate their spending, but they are not likely to increase their overall spending (Siegfried and Zimbalist 105). As Siegfried and Zimbalist have noted, the money one spends going to a game is money that is not spent on other leisure activities (105). The multiplier effect also comes into play in the relationship between sports and other leisure activities. "Changes in the level of economic activity created by visitors to a sports facility or event bring changes in the level of economic activity to other Page 24 of 109
sectors and, therefore, create a multiple effect throughout the economy" (Crompton 18). Many economists agree that the substitution and multiplier effects often cause sports and other leisure activities to compete directly for recreational dollars (Baade and Dye "Economic Rational", Crompton, Zimbalist). Since the Dallas/Forth Worth area encompasses a large region, this case study will consider how much is spent in the economy by outside people. Growth of Amateur Sports While there is evidence of a substitution effect in professional sports that may lessen its economic impact on a community, the continuing growth of the amateur industry and its potential to create an impact cannot be dismissed). High school sports participation in the US is at an all-time high. More than 55 percent of students enrolled in high school are also participating in athletics (Kurtzman in Willis 55). The growth of soccer is particularly noteworthy, with the number of youth and high school soccer players in the United States doubling to 4.04 million and 730,106 players respectively since 1990, according to the United States Soccer Federation. Youth sports activities also attract proportionally larger visitor groups that spend more than adults in a host city for any other sort of sporting event (Kurtzman in Willis 56). College sports are currently seen as more of a business than as part of university life. College stadiums have larger capacities than professional sports facilities, collegiate athletes are viewed as celebrities by the media and local communities, Saturdays are reserved around the country as college game day, and even private seat licenses are required in some stadiums. Given the tremendous growth of amateur sports, it's important to examine the influence and impact it has on host cities (Smith). Page 25 of 109
Intangible Benefits of Amateur Sport Numerous studies have indicated that amateur sports brings individuals and communities together, fostering trust, reciprocity, and a sense of security (Mulholland 40; Delaney and Kearney in Mulholland 40; Townsend in Mulholland 41). Combined, these factors create the social capital of the community (Mulholland 40). Regions with greater social capital tend to be safer, better governed, and more affluent, with its citizens often leading more content lives, and benefiting from being healthier, safer and having a higher chance of being employed than those in communities with lower social capital (Delaney and Kearney in Mulholland 22). A study performed in Australia in 2002 found that people in a community viewed sport and recreation as essential to the social and economic well-being and sustainability of their regions (Townsend in Mulholland 38). The subjects in Townsends' study felt that it kept their community together and furthered community pride and loyalty. The analysis also found that amateur sports were the only remaining social infrastructure in some declining areas (Townsend in Mullholland 22). Studies in Canada and Australia also showed that the presence of amateur sports, and participation in them, helps new residents integrate more rapidly into the society (Mulholland 42). It should be noted that none of the research regarding the intangible benefits in sports was conducted within the United States. Amateur Sports as Catalyst for Revitalization The presence of amateur sports in some cities is a main factor leading to the revitalization of an area. Indianapolis, Indiana, currently known as the amateur sports capital in the United States, was once considered a dying city. Indianapolis used public and private funds to build state-of-the-art facilities that attracted amateur sporting events. The city began luring Page 26 of 109
amateur sporting events with the creation of not-for-profit entities like the Indiana Sports Corporation. Other cities have witnessed the success that hosting amateur sporting events has brought to the area, and have created similar not-for-profit corporations with the hope that they will see similar results. Indianapolis also became the headquarters for six national governing bodies, the International Baseball Federation, and the Pan Am Games (38 nations, more than 4,000 athletes, and 27 sports) (Hersh). An economic impact study of Utah in 1985 stated, "[Amateur] Sporting events have the potential of producing significant revenue for the state." Statements such as this one are often made based on assumptions, but it is difficult to find literature that shows the monetary amounts that amateur sports bring to an area, specifically referencing smaller scale amateur sports leagues and teams rather than large-scale events such as those hosted by Indianapolis. The Relationship between Arts & Entertainment and Sports When examining the impact of sports development on a community, research has also analyzed the relationship between sports and other leisure alternatives in a city (Eckstein and Delaney; Crompton; Montgomery and Robinson; Seaman). One common area of focus is the extent to which the arts and other non-sports entertainment can affect the culture and economy of a region. Another key question is whether the presence of the arts and other entertainment activities tend to be complimentary, supplementary, or inconsequential to the sports industry. The literature also shows that a renowned and consolidated arts district can create a positive economic & social impact on the surrounding community. In a study conducted by the Performing Arts Research Coalition (PARC)," 8 out of 10 respondents agree or strongly agree Page 27 of 109
that the performing arts improve the quality of life in their community" (Kopczynski and Hager). The Arts & Economic Prosperity III (A&EPIII) study from 2007 found that "communities that invest in the arts reap the additional benefits of jobs, economic growth, and a quality of life that positions those communities to compete in our 21st century creative economy." In fact, there has been a great increase in consumer spending on the performing arts in the last half-century. "Even excluding the for-profit media arts, consumer spending for the performing arts alone in the sports-mad United States grew from being one-half as great as that of spectator sports in 1970 to approximate equality in 1985, and then 50% greater by 1997" (Seaman 88). In all five communities that participated in the PARC study (Austin, Boston, MinneapolisSt. Paul, Sarasota, and Washington, D.C.) more people attended a live performing arts event at least once in the past year than have attended a professional sporting event (Kopczynski and Hager 2). According to one study, the growth of the arts scene in a region has been shown to activate more people in the community; many of who also patronize sports: "Frequent attendees of performing arts events are nearly twice as likely to attend professional sporting events and almost three times as likely to attend amateur sporting events than those who are non-attendees" (Montgomery 2). By this rationale, a robust arts and entertainment culture may in fact contribute to the success of local sports teams by encouraging community involvement. Kopczyinski and Hager's PARC study suggests that sports do not compete against the consumption of music or cinema (25). Montgomery concluded that "we find that while there are significant differences in the audience make up and demographic effects on attendance for different events, there is little evidence that arts and sports compete for audience" (13). Page 28 of 109
Overall, sports and stadiums/arenas have an effect on the quality of life of a community. The literature found that constructed geography, such as sports venues, could improve a region's livability. In addition to these new facilities, professional sports can increase civic pride in a region, but are an ineffective means for local economic growth. Amateur sports have a similar intangible benefit on the community and help create a sense of loyalty, but unlike professional sports they may help revitalize an area and also provide significant revenue for a region. Furthermore, the literature shows that the success of local sports teams may be enhanced by a diverse arts and entertainment culture. This case study will expand on this literature by analyzing the effects of each of these factors on the Dallas/Fort Worth metro area. The research design and method of data collection & analysis will be outlined in the next section, to provide a background on how the analysis is conducted. Page 29 of 109
V. Research Design The research design that serves as the foundation for this case study involved a careful analysis of scholarly articles and trade publications, which was used to lay the groundwork and direction for the study. Interviews were also a key part of the design--both scope and research--to identify insights and patterns about the Dallas/Fort Worth area and how sports have grown in the Metroplex, and how they have affected the region. First, scope interviews were used to identify a research sample, as well as to uncover areas for analysis and focus. Second, using insights from scope interviews and scholarly research, a set of 10 research questions was devised, which would be used in the research interviews conducted. These questions were based on key patterns found in preliminary research, and were meant to uncover how sports became successful in the region. Third, a research sample was identified and contacted, and research interviews were conducted with key figures in the industry. Finally, the insights collected in the interview were analyzed to draw findings and insights that would inform the study's conclusions and recommendations. Method of Collecting Data Data was collected from interviews, documents, statistical reports, and economic reports. This case study primarily used qualitative data to uncover possible factors that contributed to the successful development of sports in the Dallas/Fort Worth area, and to deduce what role the sports industry has played in the community and economics of the city. As previously mentioned, this qualitative data included scholarly articles and trade or industry publications that highlighted the current landscape as it relates to sports development, census and municipal documents and data that identified the demographics of the area and trends in Page 30 of 109
growth, and interviews that helped determine popular perception and strategies used to revitalize the city. While scholarly articles, trade publications, and municipal data were essential in informing the study as to the current landscape, the key method for data collection used within the research design was interviews. In order to get an accurate picture of sports and success in Dallas, this research relied on interviews with industry professionals with experience in the Dallas/Fort Worth area, who have positions, expertise and first-hand knowledge of the characteristics of the region. An interview protocol of ten general questions, with an open-ended, unstructured format, was employed across all interviews. Five industry-specific questions were added specifically for various interviewees depending on their expertise. The research included a number of scoping and research interviews, conducted by at least two team members, one to take notes and one to conduct the interview. Interviews were recorded and subsequently transcribed for analysis. Sampling Method For the purpose of this case study, the sampling method chosen was a type of nonprobability method: purposive sampling. This was due to the need for people at a certain level of expertise or position within the franchises, companies and governments of the Dallas/Fort Worth area. After conducting a total of ten scope interviews to drive the direction of the research and identify a possible sample population, subjects were contacted and research interviews were scheduled. Twenty-two research interviews were conducted with people specifically chosen based on their expertise or position in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. The categories determined for sample population used in research interviews are as follows: Page 31 of 109
1. Academics A. Experts (i.e. Economics) B. Scholars (i.e. Professors) 2. Sports & Venue Officials A. Professional Team Officials and Executives B. Venue Officials and Executives C. Collegiate and Other Sports Officials and Executives 3. Dallas/Fort Worth Area Leaders (Non-Political) A. Visitors Bureau Heads B. Cultural Leaders 4. Politicians and Local State Administrators A. High-Level Government Representatives B. Local State Administrators and Other Area Officials Figure 5a lists the individuals who were interviewed as part of the research interview portion, and their positions. Page 32 of 109
Figure 5a. Interview Subjects The subjects in Figure 5a, which are listed in alphabetic order, were chosen based on their role or expertise in relation to sports development, with a focus on this with experience in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. The demographics of the interview subjects represented a distribution between the four aforementioned categories of Academics, Sports & Venue Officials, Non-Political Leaders, and Political and Local State Administrators, with 4, 11, 3, and 4 respectively in each category. The high concentration of Sports & Venue Officials (50% of the sample) reflects the focus of the study, which is based on the sports industry. Most are highly Page 33 of 109
educated professionals. Ages ranged between 30 and 85, although a median age was not identified since it is not relevant to the case study. Roughly 82% were male and 18% female, reflecting a possible gender skew in the sports and political professions. Data Analysis The data gathered from the interviews was analyzed using pattern analysis and triangulation with scholarly articles and municipal data to reach conclusions and insights. The ten research interview questions used to uncover general patterns about sports development in the Dallas-Fort Worth area, based on the responses collected from all research subjects. The five industry-specific questions were used to compare answers within industries, to uncover how different sectors have contributed to and benefited from the success of sports in Dallas. After research interviews took place, the transcripts from each were used to begin the analysis process. Interviews were analyzed separately by multiple group members in order to remove bias and strengthen the findings. After each interview, the transcripts were passed along to two members of the research team, then another three to analyze the data individually and objectively. Once all the interviews were analyzed, recurring themes were identified as key findings. These findings were compared to previously recorded data from scholarly articles and municipal data. This method of analysis was essential to identify individual perceptions, while comparing the findings from each interview and document used, to uncover trends and patterns. Finally, the insights and commonalities were analyzed further in order to develop a set of recommendations for the Metroplex and opportunities for growth, as well as recommendations for other cities. Page 34 of 109
Limits With the goal of maintaining the focus of the case study and ensuring the validity of the research conducted, the study imposed limits on the scope of research and analysis to be undertaken prior to its onset. The scope helped narrow the focus of research and to provide reasonable boundaries, in an effort to eliminate areas of research that are not vital to the purpose of the case study. One limit was that the case study was introduced as a collaboration between New York University and the US Conference of Mayors and the Sports Alliance, shifting the focus of the study to look more closely at certain factors than others. Many of the questions initially asked in interviews stemmed from a handout provided with the input of the US Conference of Mayors and the Sports Alliance. This case study focused on the Dallas/Fort Worth region, thereby eliminating other areas of Texas that are not close enough to have an effect on, or be affected by, the presence of sports teams and related infrastructure in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. In terms of the research interviews, the sample was limited specifically to industry experts who have an intimate knowledge of Dallas. The sample selection process eliminated experts in the field who are from outside the community, with little knowledge of the scenarios present in Dallas/Fort Worth. An exception to that rule was the inclusion of economic impact experts who have expertise on the effect of sports have on communities (i.e. Mark Rosentraub, Dan Mason and Frank Hawkins). The chronological timeframe was narrowed to include an emphasis on the past 50 years, due to the evolution of the Dallas/Fort Worth area into the metropolis that encompasses the Page 35 of 109
cities of Arlington, Dallas, and Fort Worth. Prior to the past 50 years, the cities involved were different entities, making any previous information irrelevant and not applicable to the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex as we know it today. Validity and Reliability There are inherent limitations in all interview-based research, especially when the majority of interviews take place over the phone. Critical elements such as reading body language and the ability to gauge the reaction of the interviewee made it difficult to ask the correct follow-up questions. Much of the framework for the interview portion of the study was based off of scope interviews with New York University faculty members. The initial interviewees were conducted based off of expertise, as well as convenience. Since the Dallas/Fort Worth is from 1500 miles from New York City and many of the interviewees live in the region, the study experienced contacting, timing, and availability issues with potential interview candidate. Once the interview process started, the research relied on references made by interviewees to build a base of other potential contact--which could add bias as there was no randomization intrinsic to the design. It should be mentioned that each interviewee was an acquaintance of a member of the research team or of a previous interviewee. This may have produced a social desirability bias, where the interviewee may respond with what he or she perceives to be the "desired" answer--either what he or she thinks the interviewer wants to hear, or what the person who recommended him or her may have wanted the response to be. Page 36 of 109
Lastly, access to pertinent, credible data was difficult to obtain. Many data holders were hesitant to release figures due to confidentiality concerns. Even when confidentiality was assured, many parties remained reluctant. Page 37 of 109
VI. Findings/Insights The analysis of data uncovered a two-phase process occurring in the Dallas/Fort Worth area that led to the success of sports. This process began with the rapid growth of sports in the Metroplex, made possible by key characteristics such as a strong sports culture, geography, accessibility through transportation, market growth, public support for sports, increased team owner investment, and the success of local teams in the region. These key characteristics, in turn, made it possible for sports to evolve into a powerful driving force for growth. As sports became most successful in the area, the region's grassroots efforts, development of the arts district, non-traditional partnerships, and multi-industry events developed that success into subsequent growth for the region on a larger scale. Success of Sports in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex Sports-Centric Culture Research of popular opinion and perception in Texas has shown that sports transcend beyond a mere hobby--they have become part of a shared cultural identity. When Texas Governor Rick Perry was asked, "What do sports mean to the Dallas/Fort Worth region?" His reply encompassed the general sentiment in the area: "Everything" (5 Dec. 2012). Donna Lopiano, former Director of Women's Athletics at the University of Texas, explained that Texas used to be a series of small towns strung together by highways (4 Oct. 2012). Given the lack of the manufacturing and tourism industries within these small towns, high school sports-- particularly football--became a key part of molding the identity of the towns. Throughout the interview process, multiple interview subjects cited that, in Texas, religion and sports are commonly perceived to be the only two things that bring people together (Lopiano 4 Oct. 2012, Page 38 of 109
Bishop np). The intensity that communities display in relation to football has created a `Friday Night Lights' atmosphere throughout the state, where small towns essentially shut down on Friday evenings to support their local high school football team. In a state where "football ranks near faith and family "(Bishop np) it is no surprise that Texas has the highest participation (808,806) in high school sports in the United States (Bishop np). The emphasis that Texans place on investing in high school football is exhibited by the more than 100 stadiums that have been built--financed by voter-approved bonds--in a period of five years (Warbelow in Mulholland np). A prime example of this is Allen High School, located in Allen, Texas, where an 18,000-seat football stadium was constructed in the fall of 2012. At a cost of $60 million, it ranks as the state's fifth largest stadium overall (Merchant np). The enthusiasm of Texans for high school football is shown by the fact that 63 percent of voters voted in favor of the $119 million bond for this project (Merchant np). The omnipresence of football in Texas was also highlighted by the number of interviewees who pointed out the focus on coverage of youth football and cheerleading in local papers (Green 19 Oct. 2012, McCombs 1 Dec. 2012). This growing interest in high school athletics can also be seen in various popular-culture depictions of Texas' sports-loving reputation and culture, such as recent Hollywood blockbusters such as Varsity Blues and Friday Night Lights. This passion for sports, which originated in small towns across Texas, created a sports-loving culture that would eventually also be embraced by Texas' larger cities. A tangible effect of this sports-centric culture can be seen in the analysis of high school sports participation of Texas compared with several other large states (Figure 6a). Page 39 of 109
Figure 6a. High School Sports Participation By State, Specific Sports
Source: National Federation of State High School Association
Figure 6b. High School Sports Participation By State, Gender
Total HS Participants Male
New York
Source: National Federation of State High School Association As the two charts above illustrate, Texas has the highest participation in the United States for high school sports across football, basketball and baseball. It is evident that the sportobsessed culture of Texas is not simply a thing of the past. Present-day Texas has the same
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passion and fervor towards sports as the state has had traditionally, as exemplified by the number of participants in high school sports across the state. Geography The research also points to another key factor that has contributed to the success of sports in the Metroplex--the natural geography of the region. Given the barren landscape and lack of natural features, the Metroplex has come to rely on sports as its primary form of entertainment. This point was consistently mentioned throughout the interview process: "Sports are particularly important in Dallas, where there is not a mountain where you can go skiing, an ocean where you can go to the beach. So sports mean a lot because they provide very special entertainment that has been a big part of the Dallas lifestyle" (Cahalane, 7 Nov. 2012). Lopiano echoed the sentiment, saying, "Texas is a huge land mass know for agriculture, oil and ranches. The land is naturally featureless and depends on sports for an identity" (4 Oct. 2012). A lack of natural entertainment forced the region to develop man-made infrastructures that added to the livability of the region (Dreiling 15). In a related trend, the region has had a history of securing public funds to contribute to financing stadiums, suggesting that the stakeholders and the citizens in the region understand the importance of creating man-made entertainment options to provide leisure opportunities. The continuous public support in funding sports facilities contributed significantly to the pervasiveness of sports. Transportation Transportation within the Dallas/Fort Worth also plays a part in the development of sports in the area, as it is dominated mostly by car travel throughout the Metroplex's extensive highway and road system. Several of the experts interviewed noted this transportation Page 41 of 109
preference as a "car culture," (Cahalane, 7 Nov. 2012, Swindell 16 Nov. 2012, Cramer 9 Oct. 2012) and that this method of travel impacts the professional sport venues. Access to Cowboys Stadium and the Ballpark in Arlington is limited to car and private bus service, only the downtown American Airlines Center is accessible by the Dallas Area Rapid Transit, the Metroplex's leading public transit system. Despite this lack of major public transportation there have been minimal negative impacts caused by traffic or congestion, as the highway system in the Metroplex effective handles 100,000 person events on a weekly basis along with the routine commuting of 6.5 million people (Swindell 16 Nov. 2012). Recently, the DART system has been expanding, and efforts to promote public transportation in Dallas/Fort Worth have been increased. The development of more public transportation options in the future could reduce parking costs at the facilities, and promote positive community initiatives that help the environment and provide greater access to sports facilities. Team Success & Market Growth Given the geography and culture of the area, as well as options for transportation in the area, sports were a natural fit for the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex. In addition, the professional sports landscape in the region also benefited from the success of the Dallas Cowboys in the 1970s. Prior to the team's emergence, Dallas was reeling from the negative connotations associated with being the city where President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. However, the success of the Cowboys transformed the franchise into "America's Team," which subsequently helped Dallas to rebuild its image (Rosentraub 27 Oct. 2012, Zotos 1 Oct. 2012). For several years, many people associated Dallas solely with the tragic, chaotic incident, but the growing public support for "America's team" during the Cowboys' successful run helped Americans Page 42 of 109
begin to move away from this perception (Rosentraub 269). In addition, the success of the Cowboys in the 1970s made the team the most popular in the state. Soon after, the region began its transformation into the sports mecca it is today. By the end of the 1970s, the Dallas/Fort Worth area was home to the Cowboys as well as the Texas Rangers. As the chart below illustrates, over the next three decades, the region welcomed professional basketball, hockey, and soccer, while also experiencing a rapid population increase, which enabled the area to support a diverse sports landscape (McCombs 1 Dec. 2012, Cramer 9 Oct. 2012). The on-field successes of the Stars, Rangers, and Mavericks have also helped raise general interest in the teams, strengthening the diverse sports culture of the region. Thanks to championships in hockey and basketball, and two baseball World Series appearances, fan affinity grew for teams other than the perennially popular Dallas Cowboys, as illustrated below. Page 43 of 109
Figure 9a. Mavericks Winning Percentage & Attendance Source: Figure 9b. Rangers Winning Percentage & Attendance Source: Page 44 of 109
Figure 9c. Stars Winning Percentage & Attendance Source: ESPN This can be attributed to the sense of community and shared experience that comes with a winning team, which inspires and brings people together (Cahalane, 7 Nov. 2012, Schuder 4 Dec. 2012, McCombs 1 Dec. 2012). As Mayne noted "when a team is winning, the hot dogs taste better, the parking lots are easier to get out of, and the ushers are nicer" (18 Oct. 2012). This positive sentiment translates into a direct, measurable impact. An increase in fan attendance is just one byproduct of team success and fan affinity. As the city diversified and grew its population and the sports landscape grew to accommodate more options and teams, city officials, event planners, venue officials, and local team owners saw the appeal of having a well-balanced, year-round sports schedule that provided an option for every type of fan and maximized the usage of sports venues. "DFW sports are successful because they have a balanced sports calendar and the city uses sports as a marketing tool," noted Tara Green, CRO of American Airlines Center (19 Oct. 2012). In sum, the population boom, from 2.35 million in 1970 to 6.33 million in 2010, was one of the main factors Page 45 of 109
that led to Dallas/Fort Worth supporting multiple teams and subsequently using their presence as a marketing tool for the region. Public Support For Venue Financing As the number of teams grew, the prevailing sports culture of the region and the lack of natural features made the construction of additional sporting options a necessity--a feat made possible by extraordinary public support for the construction of venues. Figure 8A shows a breakdown of the baseball, basketball, and football venues in terms of cost, public/private financing, the length of the public bonds, the amount of time the bonds actually took to pay off, and the percentage of total voting that approved the use of public financing to supplement building costs. As the chart shows, between the three largest venues in the region, taxpayers approved roughly $585 million in public financing. This public support stems not only from the sportscentric culture that dominates the region, but also the sound structuring of public bond repayment plans. The Metroplex's ability to pay off previous stadium bonds well ahead of schedule has not only made local voters more willing to support public financing, but has also Page 46 of 109
freed local taxpayers of a potential financial pitfall. In contrast, in 2010, New Jersey taxpayers were still paying off $113 million of publicly financed bonds for the Meadowlands Complex, which includes a stadium that has recently been demolished and is now a parking lot (Belson np). Year-Round Events & Tax Revenue One factor contributing to the Dallas/Fort Worth region's ability to avoid facing similar issues is the emphasis placed on using venues for as many events as possible year-round. For example, instead of just using Cowboys Stadium solely for the Dallas Cowboy's scheduled home games, Jerry Jones and team officials have turned the venue into a year-round attraction (Stephen Jones, 3 Dec. 12). The Texas Rangers COO attributes the city's ability to pay down the bonds and stadium debt to the "the generation that we have of income [coming] back to the city, in the taxes that they have for the events that we have in our games...that's an obvious impact" (George 29 Nov. 2012). Across different teams, this emphasis placed on creating additional events has increased tax revenues, which helps to pay down stadium debt ahead of projections (Mayne 18 Oct. 2012, Cahalane, 7 Nov. 2012). In addition, the City of Arlington is unique in that it is a tax positive city, largely because it does not spend as much tax revenue on things that other cities do, such as schools, fire department and police department (Boland 1 Oct. 2012, Cramer 9 Oct. 2012). This helps the city repay bonds through taxes faster than most cities, and retire debt early, a factor which voters might have taken into account when approving bond financing for Cowboys stadium (Cramer, "Facts and Figures" np). Just five and a half years later, the City of Arlington is ahead of schedule in bond payments, because tax revenue is far better than anticipated by the Page 47 of 109
conservative estimates made when the deal was passed (Mosier np). In 2010 the city was able to "generate more than $27 million from taxes dedicated to that debt" which called for a payment of only $20.4 million that year (Mosier np). Owner Investment in Venues & Fan Experience In addition to public support, unique tax circumstances, and the use of year-round events to pay off debt, another unique factor in sports development in the Metroplex has been the willingness of high-profile team owners to invest in their teams and their facilities. Highprofile owners such as Mark Cuban and Jerry Jones have taken the entrepreneurial philosophy that aided them in their business careers and applied it to the teams they own. Mike Cramer, former President of the Texas Rangers and Dallas Stars, describes their ownership style as "adder-onner, a dynamic ownership that believes that bigger is better" (9 Oct. 2012). As former Senior Vice President of the NFL's Media Group Frank Hawkins has noted, "There is no question, Jerry Jones is the best salesman in the world" (1 Nov. 2012). As savvy businessmen who were not solely reliant on their sports teams for revenue, Mark Cuban and Jerry Jones used their personal wealth in ways that other owners generally do not, with the intention of making the most of their venues. Stephen Jones described his family's commitment to making Cowboys Stadium a multi-use venue, saying, "When we were building Cowboys Stadium we thought that it was about a $650M project to start with. Then as we started to build it and really have our vision sink in, we wanted it to be much more than just 10 games for the Cowboys. We wanted it to be a venue where great sports events would take place. We certainly invested more money...up to $1.2B" (3 Dec. 2012). The strategy evident in their investment and Page 48 of 109
ownership approach has been to find creative ways to best maximize their venues, and develop non-traditional revenue streams (Mayne 18 Oct. 2012, Hawkins 1 Nov. 2012). Overall, the recently constructed venues in the Dallas/Fort Worth area are high-quality projects that prioritize amenities and better experiences for fans. This was manifested in the case of the American Airlines Center, where owners of the Dallas Stars & Mavericks ended up investing $287 million, instead of their original commitment of $100 million. Their desire to build a world-class venue drove more than double their investment by the project's end (Walker). "The great finishes and top of the line `everything' sets the tone for the fans and atmosphere," noted Brad Mayne, former CEO of American Airlines Center (18 Oct. 2012). Jerry Jones has also continued to proactively identify unique opportunities to create new revenue streams and an enhanced fan experience. Most recently, Jones partnered with Victoria's Secret to open a PINK retail shop (the brand's contemporary sportswear line) within Cowboys Stadium (McMahon np). Jones' forward-thinking business strategy demonstrates his commitment to providing service and retail options for all potential audiences, and has provided fans with a unique stadium experience. Other local team owners have followed suit, providing fans with high-quality amenities and special in-game events, such as the Texas Rangers, who are updating their stadium, club area, and media capabilities (George 29 Nov. 2012). The level of quality in facilities has been an important contributor to the continued success of the sports industry in the area, due to this enhanced fan experience. "As a sports property, you can't control whether you win or lose--what you can control is the fan experience," (Cahalane, 7 Nov. 2012). Rick George, COO of the Texas Rangers, and Nolan Ryan, Page 49 of 109
owner of the Rangers, both note that while team success is important in getting fans to the venue, it is the job of the venue to create fan affinity and in turn, fan loyalty, by providing a memorable and enjoyable experience (George 29 Nov. 2012, Noto np). Philanthropic Ethos A philanthropic ethos exists in the Metroplex that is not often seen in American cities. Evidence of this ethos is visible in the area's willingness to donate to museums and the arts and financially support the construction of massive, and many, high school stadiums (Green 19 Oct. 2012, Mayne 18 Oct. 2012, Cramer 9 Oct. 2012, Schuder 4 Dec. 2012). Although this tradition has been ingrained in the Texas culture for some time, a new, stronger form of philanthropy has emerged over the last twenty years. This was driven by the newfound wealth spurred by the telecommunications and tech industries and was maintained by a booming economy in the 1990s and early 2000s (Schervish and Havens; Schervish; and James in Sales 121). Sales states "These Texas philanthropists want to do more than just have a one-way transfer of funds; through the lens of their business mindset they want to be strategically involved, see measurable returns, and know their `investment' is having an impact" (121). Stephen Jones describes the visibility of sports as a perfect vehicle for philanthropy, where an impact can be seen: "Whenever you are visible like the Dallas Cowboys, and you have a lot of people in the community, all walks of life contribut[ing] to the success of the Cowboys... Obviously, for the NFL, Cowboys Stadium is a big platform... in terms of the people who like to tune in, see the Salvation Army, what we do at halftime, our Pink with the players wearing pink...all of those things are just a small way that we can give back to the people that need to either be saluted or need help" (3 Dec. 2012). The high-profile nature of not only the Cowboys, but all teams in the Page 50 of 109
area, have made sports an ideal way to channel he philanthropic ethos exhibited by inhabitants of the region. As mentioned previously, this philanthropic backing is seen in taxpayers' approval to publically finance stadiums in the Metroplex in addition to the willingness of team owners to invest heavily in the construction of sports facilities (Cramer 9 Oct. 2012, Mayne 18 Oct. 2012, Hawkins 1 Nov. 2012). This philanthropic attitude is not seen in other areas such as New York City or Phoenix, Arizona. There areas are incredibly wealthy, yet lack individuals and community members that have as strong a philanthropic drive. However, in Dallas, the success of sports, the philanthropic ethos, and a predominant sense of civic pride have come together to create a phenomenon which has benefited sports overall. Stephen Jones describes the philanthropic culture as a feature unique to the Metroplex in saying, "People are proud of North Texas, and people have a lot of civic pride in terms of what North Texas stands's deep-rooted." He explains that although civic pride in the area originally led to the philanthropic culture, the philanthropic ethos that is now present in the culture circles back and enhances civic pride: "the fact that North Texas does so much for so many, certainly leads to the civic pride, but it is certainly I think tied together." He described how sports in the Metroplex act as a positive experience for all its residents, building the civic pride in the area, "I think sports in Texas is a common thing that everybody can get to...whether its people who are having tough times or have things going their way." (3 Dec. 2012). This philanthropic ethos, and the way that is has been channeled into the sports industry, is a prime example of how the pre-existing conditions present in the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex have come together to provide a perfect alignment of events that caused Page 51 of 109
sports to flourish. Due to the ideal conditions present in the area, stakeholders in the Metroplex did not need to set out to employ a strategy to grow sports--they simply had to capitalize on the pre-existing characteristics of the area. Overall, the conditions present within the Dallas/Fort Worth over the past half-century promoted the rapid growth of a well-balanced sports industry. The geographical make-up of the area, in addition to the omnipresent sportsculture, success of teams, rapid market growth, abundant public support, owner investments in venues and fan experience, and a sports-friendly philanthropic ethos all contributed to the now-robust sports scene in the Metroplex. This thriving sector, in turn, began to contribute to success across in other aspects of the Dallas/Fort Worth area. Politicians, business leaders, and other key stakeholders began to accept the potential of sports to grow other areas within the Metroplex, and began concerted efforts to capitalize on the overall success of the sports industry in order to reap the benefits throughout the region. Sports as a Vehicle for Growth Since the 1970s, the Dallas/Fort Worth area has grown into the 4th largest metro area in the US and supports a thriving, multi-faceted sports industry. In turn, this diverse sports industry has acted as a catalyst for further growth in youth sports involvement, in the development of a successful arts and entertainment industry, and in assisting many nontraditional, cross-industry partnerships. Investment in Youth Sports As sports became more successful in the Dallas/Fort Worth region, professional sports teams showed a commitment to investing in youth outreach initiatives, with the intention of Page 52 of 109
building fan affinity and participation overall. "All the teams have made an effort to connect with the youth and families in the community. Playing and learning the sport ­ you can more easily identify and relate to professional athletes" (Cahalane, 7 Nov. 2012). Professional hockey has seen a surge in participation due to their grassroots efforts, as shown in the chart below: Figure 10a: Growth of Registered Hockey Players in Texas Source: United States of Hockey Before the Dallas Stars arrived in 1993, the number of registered hockey players in the Metroplex was 868. Seventeen years later, the figure stood at 10,909 (Stepneski np). The Stars' proactive approach of building the sport in the region was the main reason for this growth (McDonnell 11 Sept. 2012, Cahalane, 7 Nov. 2012). The Stars invested in eight hockey rinks, strategically located throughout the Metroplex, and developed the necessary infrastructure to promote the sport across the region. In 1993, there were zero high school hockey teams in the region. In 2011, there were 65 (Cahalane, 7 Nov. 2012). Along with building facilities, the Stars supported and promoted local youth leagues, as part of a strategy to build interest in a sport that was essentially non-existent in the region before 1993. The grassroots success story of hockey in the Metroplex has provided a blueprint Page 53 of 109
for growth that is now being emulated by other Sun Belt markets (Cahalane, 7 Nov. 2012, Mason, 4 Nov. 2012). Parise described the cause-and-effect relationship between professional and amateur sports by saying, "I would surmise the success and popularity of pro sports and big-time collegiate athletics drive the popularity of amateur sports. I would say, yes, the presence of professional sports has increased youth participation" (19 Nov. 2012). This, in turn, helps expand each team's potential fan base, helping to further grow the sport overall. Arts & Entertainment Development Realizing sports can have a positive effect on a city, but that there must be more to a city than just sports, politicians began to prioritize the development of a well-rounded community featuring an equally strong arts and entertainment industry (Green 19 Oct. 2012, Schuder 4 Dec. 2012). This vision began to develop in the late 1980s is presently coming to fruition in the form of a state-of-the-art, thriving arts district in downtown Dallas (Schuder 4 Dec. 2012). Given the popularity of sports in the Metroplex, non-sport entities from the arts, tourism, and commercial sectors saw the value in partnering with the industry. The city has long used sports as a marketing tool. Former Dallas Mayor Ron Kirk said, "Sports is a big part of our economy. We have to keep it because that's part of what gives us the ability to `sell' ourselves" (Alm). Over the past twenty years, politicians throughout the Metroplex recognized sports as a magnet for attracting visitors, conventions, and new business, and have fullysupported efforts to build up the infrastructure of sports - a philosophy found to be engrained in the political culture of the region. With the infrastructure in place and a thriving sports Page 54 of 109
culture, politicians looked to use the asset of sports to help grow other industries in the region (Alm, Cluck 12 Nov. 2012). The arts scene in the Dallas/Fort Worth region has experienced steady growth over the past few decades and has made the area a cultural hub for the south western United States. In fact, Dallas' Arts District is one of the reasons that young professionals may be flocking to the ring of neighborhoods surrounding downtown, and it is attracting tourists from around the world" (Olivera np). The Dallas Arts District is also important for attracting and keeping businesses in the region. Rob Stein of the Dallas Museum of Art stated that it is important to their "corporate sponsors and funders to have an artistic and cultural community as well as a community with sports amenities and sports teams is an important recruiting aspect for them to recruit and retain talent" (Stein 27 Nov. 2012). Strong art and culture scenes like the one in the Dallas/Fort Worth region "are magnets for tourists, and tourism research repeatedly shows that cultural travelers stay longer and spend more" (A&EPIII 1). The presence of this newly consolidated arts district, along with world-class, multipurpose sports venues, has made the Metroplex a draw for performers, celebrities, theatre, and opera alike. The same commitment and enthusiasm that helped sports become so successful is now similarly present in the arts and entertainment sector in the Metroplex (Stein 27 Nov. 2012). Cross-Industry Partnerships & Events With passionate constituents in both the sports and arts world, the Metroplex has benefited from partnerships between the two industries and the creation of unique, wildly successful crossover events. The presence of stakeholders who have influence in both fields has Page 55 of 109
helped such partnerships develop. One such stakeholder is Bill Lively, a key fundraiser for the AT&T Performing Arts Center and Head of the Dallas Super Bowl committee, who was able to leverage high-level partnerships between the sports and arts communities. His presence on the North Texas Super Bowl Host Committee ensured the Arts District would reap the benefit of the high-profile event, and be host to several Super Bowl-related functions (Schuder 4 Dec. 2012). This is an example of how the Metroplex has benefited from members of the "power elite," such as Bill Lively, having a key stake in multiple sectors, helping to forge these non-traditional partnerships. Another key partnership developed between the Super Bowl Host Committee and city leaders, who made a concerted effort to give each city in the region a presence throughout the Super Bowl hosting period. For example, by spreading out media headquarters between cities like Dallas, Arlington, and Fort Worth, city officials ensured that each city benefited from the media exposure that came with the event. This initiative also ensured that visitors traveled to all parts of the Metroplex, with the intention of distributing visitor spending throughout the region (Rishe np). NFL Senior Vice President for Events, Frank Supovitz, recognized the potential success of this strategic collaboration, stating, "I believe that Super Bowl XLV will be a new standard against which all others will be judged" (Horrow and Swatek). The 2010 NBA All Star Game serves as another example of a unique partnership. Traditionally NBA All Star Weekend is a three-day event utilizing a convention center and the local NBA arena. In Dallas, however, Jerry Jones and Mark Cuban saw value in using Cowboy Stadium to host the main event, while using the American Airlines Center and convention center to host smaller, ancillary events. These owners collaborated to leverage all their assets Page 56 of 109
with the purpose of creating exposure and driving revenue across all of their teams. This cooperation has been a result of the Metroplex being a very cohesive community, that feels if everyone is doing well, then "the tide would raise all boats" (Mayne 18 Oct. 2012, George 29 Nov. 2012). In other cities such as New York, teams are often territorial and don't reach out to partner with other teams in the area, which thwarts initiatives that may benefit the sports industry in the area overall (Boland 1 Oct. 2012, George 29 Nov. 2012). Jerry Jones and Cowboys Stadium have also blurred the line between the sports and non-sport sectors. From its initial development, Cowboys Stadium was envisioned as a multipurpose entertainment venue, not just a football stadium. The facility was specifically built and engineered to have the versatility and flexibility that would enable it to host a wide range of diverse events throughout the year (Decker, Dowd, Platten). Stephen Jones, son of Cowboys owner Jerry Jones, has said that the franchise's emphasis on bringing events to Cowboys Stadium was emphasized as a means to have the taxpayers "get their money's worth" (Mosier). The Cowboys' official description of their venue is one of which has "become a powerful catalyst in attracting a wide range of events (national and international) that will define the future of the region for generations to come" (2012 Media Guide 10). Cowboys Stadium has attracted and hosted numerous small and large events of all kinds, including the first Super Bowl in North Texas, the NBA All- Star Game, the Cotton Bowl Classic, concerts, a college football kickoff series, women's professional bowling, world championship boxing, Monster Jam, Professional Bull Riding, numerous international soccer games, the 2013 NCAA regional tournament, and the 2014 Final Four (2012 Dallas Cowboys Media Guide). Along with the unique strategy of building a versatile sports venue that would also play host to a diverse range Page 57 of 109
of events, Jerry Jones also offers paid tours of the Cowboys Stadium 365 days a year, adding even more access to the stadium for fans, and growing additional revenue streams year-round (Stephen Jones 12-4-12, George 29 Nov. 2012). Another distinctive feature of Cowboys Stadium is that it is home to a museum-caliber collection of art, specially commissioned by Jerry Jones. The collection includes works from many famous artists around the world, evoking football in their installations and paintings (Spiegelman, Stein 27 Nov. 2012). Jones and Cowboy Stadium have also created non-traditional partnerships with other local entertainment industries to provide residents with some one of a kind experiences. One example of such partnerships took place in 2011 when the Dallas Opera partnered with Cowboys Stadium to show a simulcast of Magic Flute at the stadium. The event turned out to be a success and provided great public relations for the two stakeholders and is something they hope to continue on an annual basis (Schuder 4 Dec. 2012). These are only some of the partnerships built in the area as a result of the sports industry. Multiple parties from different industries coming together to create successful partnerships are commonplace in the Page 58 of 109
Metroplex, as illustrated in Figure 10b. This chart represents different unique partnerships that have been formed in the area as a result of the presence of sports, as well as the parties involved in each. For example, as previously discussed, the Super Bowl depended on the collaboration between leadership from the region's three largest cities. The Red River Rivalry, NBA All Star Game, and Klyde Warren Park also benefited from these partnerships. The Events Trust Fund is also a partnership that developed between key stakeholders in the sports, arts and entertainment, and political sectors. The trust fund helps a city, county, or endorsed non-profits apply for and attract an event to come to Texas. Should the event chose Texas to be the host, an estimate of how many taxes the event will generate is made by the Page 59 of 109
state comptroller (Zimbalist 105). The city, county, or non non-profit can be reimbursed after the event, up to the amount of the estimate. Instead of putting the entire responsibility of attracting major events (ones that will benefit many businesses in the region) solely on the host committee, the trust fund assists such committee in the bid process and helps take on some of the inherent risk that comes with hosting a major event (Zimbalist 105). This Events Trust Fund is a key outcome of the cross-industry collaboration that the Dallas/Fort Worth area has employed in the aftermath of a successful sports industry. In conclusion, there were many factors that consistently appeared as contributors for the success of sports in the Dallas/Forth Worth metroplex: sports culture, geography, market growth, public support, success of teams, owner investments, philanthropic ethos, grassroots effort, non-traditional partnerships, and cross-industry events. The intrinsic characteristics of the Metroplex, such as a sports-rich tradition as well as the feature-less geography established a foundation for a flourishing sports industry. As the market expanded and could accommodate more and more professional sports teams, the community benefited from the unifying presence of sports and their appealing, attractive nature. Once a strong sports industry was in place, ambitious politicians, team owners and other stakeholders saw that sports could act as a vehicle to promote growth and partnerships in the region ­ both for private and public benefit. The effects of such partnerships have been cyclical, where all parties involved have reaped benefits. In all, the success of sports in the region has been vital in helping the Dallas/Fort Worth area become a more well-rounded and appealing city to a wider range of residents and visitors than before. Page 60 of 109
VII. Recommendations The findings of this study can be distilled to create recommendations for how the Dallas/Fort Worth area can continue to cultivate a successful sports industry, as well as provide strategies for other cities to use in constructing a similarly successful sports landscape. The case study will first outline the recommendations relevant to how the Metroplex can sustain its current successes as well as continue to build upon on them in the future. Next, the case study will provide insights that other cities can take away from the successes of the Metroplex and potentially implement similar practices in their own cities. Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex Youth Sports With sports acting as a vital asset to the Dallas/Fort Worth region, the community must continue to be proactive in sustaining its success and actively look to build upon it in the future. The first step the region must take is to expand its investment in youth sports. As the findings state, investing in infrastructure, venues, and leagues at the grassroots level has proven to be a strong vehicle in boosting youth participation, which in turn perpetuates the strong sports culture that is so important to the region. "Sports start here at a young age, the parents are behind their kids playing youth soccer, playing youth football and it leads up into high school sports," said Stephen Jones (personal interview 3 Nov. 2012). Since the inherent sports culture of Texas is vital to the overall success of sports in the region, then providing many opportunities for exposure to sports at an early age is critical. For example, the growth of hockey over the past 15 years shows how youth participation can directly be enhanced by the investment in new sport. Making the youth sports Page 61 of 109
landscape as inclusive as possible by providing diverse options will ultimately lead to more avid fans and active participants in the region. In the Dallas/Fort Worth region, the recent investment in hockey has progressed from a sport with very few fans and amateur participants to a prominent part of the overarching sports culture. "It's a great success story. The city was great to welcome the Stars to Dallas but when they moved there wasn't the infrastructure like there was in northern cities to promote the sport from the grassroots youth level. So the Stars built and invested in 7-8 community rinks right now, to grow the sport from the kids up. When the Stars moved in 1993 there were zero high school hockey teams and last year there were 65. Recently the first Dallas hockey youth participant has made the NHL, drafted a few years ago, kid from Dallas started hockey career playing in Dr. Pepper Dallas Stars youth centers" (Cahalane 7 Nov. 2012). Sports that currently find themselves as niche sports in the region should look to hockey as an example of how to grow its popularity. Although most niche sports will not have the investment opportunities of a major local professional team, by taking advantage of existing facilities, exposure to the sport and increase youth participation can be attained. Figure skating can take advantage of the Dr. Pepper Dallas Stars youth centers or a sport like lacrosse can utilize football and soccer fields. The Dallas Stars and ice hockey have shown that greater access to a sport leads to more options for kids to participate. The region has shown that it is willing to accept new sports if the right investments are made, something that it should continue to do in other sports in order to see continued success. Page 62 of 109
Partnerships Team owners, politicians, venue officials and other business stakeholders should continue to build on successful cross-industry collaborations. The Metroplex has shown it can support a diverse sports industry as well as a newly thriving Arts District. The region should look to leverage the popularity of these industries to promote further growth throughout, as seen in the partnership between the Dallas Opera House and Cowboys Stadium. This partnership was built between two seemingly disconnected entities that uncovered an overlapping target audience. Jennifer Schuder of The Dallas Opera stated that they initially wanted to partner with an entity with a strong marketing component that could help it reach audiences that the Opera generally does not (4 Dec. 2012). Once partnered with the Cowboys on the magic Flute simulcast, the Dallas Opera found a crossover target audience-- Cowboys suite owners who were also Opera House patrons. The pattern of sports fans in the Dallas/Fort Worth area that are also patrons of the arts was an important aspect discussed by Rob Stein of the Dallas Museum of Art. "From our perspective, the popular appeal of Cowboys Stadium and what it may do to catalyze interest in contemporary art is only a good thing for us" (27 Nov. 2012). However, there is still plenty of room for growth which can strengthen the bond between sports and the arts. " I think there's a fairly large segment of both audiences that do not overlap, so for us to grow art lovers that are also Cowboys fans, and vice versa, is really only a good thing" (Stein 27 Nov. 2012). Other businesses in the region should continue to explore non-traditional partnerships in hopes of creating mutually beneficial endeavors. Such collaborations have helped the region draw high-profile events and become an attractive and Page 63 of 109
well-rounded destination, a trend that stakeholders in the region should strive to continue. Transportation As previously noted in the findings section, the Metroplex's preferred method of transportation is car travel, and the sports facilities reflect this trend in their design (Cahalane, 7 Nov. 2012, Swindell 16 Nov. 2012, Cramer 9 Oct. 2012). Despite this popular method of travel working effectively, future transportation issues will come from congestion, pollution, and costs associated with car travel. The accessibility mass transportation provides to stadiums has been extremely successful for some other large market teams: "What makes the Yankees and the Mets work is that they are at the nexus of mass transit. Both teams get almost two-thirds of the fans to the games and away from the games on mass transit" (Rosentraub 27 Oct. 2012). The success of the sports teams in the Dallas/Fort Worth region can and has had an effect on transportation infrastructure. Rangers COO Rick George talked about "the importance of sport, professional sport in particular, in a market. I know that the road system around us had grown and it has gotten better because of the income that we are bringing back to the city where they can improve the infrastructure" (29 Nov. 2012) Despite a culture in the region focused on driving, the Metroplex has begun to invest in substantial initiatives to expand the Dallas Area Rapid Transit system (DART), which sports can help facilitate. As gas prices continue to rise and the usage of mass transit becomes increasingly necessary, local sports entities should look to supplement the traditional driving culture by incentivizing fans to use mass transit. Teams in the Dallas/Fort Worth area could implement practices from other cities like Phoenix and New York City. Page 64 of 109
In Phoenix, fans of the Arizona Diamondbacks and the Phoenix Suns are allowed complementary usage of the city's light rail system with the purchase of a game ticket "Light Rail Helps Take Fans" np). The New York Mets have partnered the Long Island Railroad to run promotions involving discounted game tickets with the purchase of a train tickets ("Take the Train to the Game" np). Teams in Dallas/Fort Worth can implement similar initiatives to incentivize event attendee to use mass transit over driving. Collaboration between teams and the DART would create a mutually beneficial partnership. Teams would make their events more accessible, while the city would see a reduction in traffic congestion related to the event and an increase in exposure and support for the expanding mass transit system. Inclusive Marketing Given the changing racial makeup of the city, and the influx of transplants drawn by a strong job market, the region's demographics are evolving (Texas Dept. of State and Human Services). Mike Cramer commented that population growth of the region has put people in the area to support sports (9 Oct. 2012). As seen in Figure 11a, the population growth in the area has also shifted the demographics of the region over the past 10 years, resulting in a more racially diverse community. Page 65 of 109
Figure 11a. Dallas Racial Composition 2000 Figure 11b. Dallas Racial Composition 2010 Source: US Census Bureau Local teams must be cognizant of this fact and make necessary adjustments to their marketing strategy. As the findings mention, sports have the ability to unify diverse communities (McCombs 1 Dec. 2012, George 29 Nov. 2012). Local sports teams should embrace this opportunity and make a concerted effort to be inclusive and involve the community at large. Marketing campaigns should not rule out any demographic--over time, a team's target audience can expand. One example of a team that embraced the changing demographics of its city was the New York Mets in 2005. "General Manager Omar Minaya promised in the off-season that the Page 66 of 109
2005 Mets would mirror New York's diverse population. He wanted local fans to look at their team and see a representation of their city" (Jenkins p1). The team launched a "Los Mets" campaign, targeting a rapidly growing Latin-American audience in its market. This campaign was an effort to connect to the more diverse fan base in the area. The Metroplex should also embrace its changing demographics, and similarly create inclusive marketing campaigns that make a concerted effort to reach out to all of its potential audiences. It took them a while to get it right but Mets hosting ethnic nights throughout the season have been an excellent idea. According to Professor Wayne McDonnell, "Every ethnic group can claim ownership of the team for that night. Foods, music, and celebrities from each culture along with targeted promotional giveaways bring fans closer to the team and the venue (10 Dec 2012). It is apparent that the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex has been growing and changing, what the businesses and municipalities have done over the past few decades to capitalize on the sports industry has been incredibly successful. Yet, that does not mean it is time to stop here. There are many opportunities to strengthen the community going forward. In the next section, recommendations for what other cities can learn from Dallas/Fort Worth will be discussed. Other Cities While no two cities are exactly the same, one city looking to improve itself can look at another's success to see what they've done well and try to emulate it. The Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex is a unique entity, but that does not mean other cities cannot adopt the region's strategies in hopes of improving their community. A community does not have to be as large as Page 67 of 109
the Dallas/Fort Worth area to utilize its best practices. By altering what makes the Metroplex successful in a manner more befitting of their city's scale, any community can adopt pieces of the strategies in an effort to strengthen their own sports landscape. Stadiums Given the featureless geography of the region, stakeholders in Dallas/Fort Worth realized the necessity for man-made entertainment. Over the past 25 years, team owners and local residents have participated in public/private partnerships to fund the construction of three major league venues. Cowboys Stadium and American Airlines Center were able to differentiate the in-venue experience by constructing state-of-the-art venues. The quality of the facilities and the ability to provide and all encompassing entertainment experience contributed to the success of these facilities. While the final cost of construction went well-above initial projections, the end result turned out to be well worth the extra investment. According to Cowboys owner Jerry Jones "Certainly with our particular stadium there was a public private partnership in building it and then once you get in to getting Super Bowls, Final Fours and the NBA All Star games we have great relationships with our community our board of mayors, our North Texas commission; it's certainly vital in terms of what it takes to host these events" (Personal Interview 3 Dec. 2012) The state-of-the-art facilities attracted more events and more diverse consumers, which in turned helped pay off the public debt more quickly. Other cities can follow the proactive approach of venue officials to attract a wide array of events, which makes the venues more appealing to a larger audience. As Ben Cahalane expressed, "If people like sports or entertainment, then they will spend at least one night a year in American Airlines Center" (7 Page 68 of 109
Nov. 2012) During the construction of the venues in the Metroplex, investing extra money to make the facilities elegant helped to expedite the repayment of debt. Venues in the Dallas/Fort worth region were able to attract a variety of events year-round, which helped bring in eventgoers and subsequently tax dollars on a consistent basis--which contributed to early debt repayment. The versatility of the venues have made them destinations not just for sports fans, but for fans of many of types of entertainment. Texas Governor Rick Perry elaborated on this point. "Hosting diverse events throughout the year makes the Dallas area more attractive to potential visitors and improves residents' quality of life" (5 Dec. 2012). Additionally, The Metroplex has provided an example of how conservative estimates on taxable revenue streams, such as attendance and parking figures, as well as maximizing the number of taxable events can result in debt repayment way ahead of schedule. By projecting less events and lower revenue streams in the planning stages, it became easier to see higher revenue streams than anticipated once the venue was functional. By building state of the art facilities, Dallas/Fort Worth became a viable option for major events that had long ignored the Metroplex. "First of all it all starts with the facilities. I think North Texas, Arlington and Dallas in particular, have some of the greatest facilities in the country if not the world, especially when you start wanting to take it past the local teams and get other events" (Stephen Jones 3 Dec. 2012). Brian Hernandez of University of Texas at San Antonio discussed how they were the goto city in Texas to host the NCAA Final Four tournament for decades. Once the American Airlines Arena and Cowboys Stadium were finished, Dallas/Fort Worth became a legitimate threat to take these events over (8 Nov. 2012). Tara Green added, "The American Airlines Page 69 of 109
Center is now third only to Madison Square Garden and the Staples Center in terms of the number of events per year held in the venue, with 190 (19 Oct. 2012). Collaboration Other cities can also look to the Dallas/Fort Worth region as a model for effective, nontraditional collaborations across multiple industries. As Rick George stated, "Sure, we compete with other teams over things like sponsors, but we also help each other. We share ideas and use each other's events to host our own clients in suites, skyboxes, etc... Success raises all the boats, and I think it does in this area because we do have strong collaboration (29 Nov. 2012). When discussing lessons to be learned from the region, Jennifer Schuder emphasized "the importance of synergy and the personalities involved" (4 Dec. 2012). The non-territorial atmosphere in the area provides an environment for many to succeed. Stephen Jones commented on the role of partnerships necessary to put a big event, "You have to have participation and elbow grease from the entire community. You must have financial participation not only from the municipality, but support from individuals in the community. The event certainly helps all of the hotels, motels, restaurants and retail - it certainly helps everything thrive" (3 Dec. 2012). While the long-term effects of such partnerships remain to be seen, the short-term ramifications have proven beneficial for all parties involved. Other cities should prioritize the creation of similar cross-industry partnerships in order to add value to the community and provide benefits to each member of said partnership. Events Trust Fund Page 70 of 109
A contributing factor to these venues bringing in big-time events has been the Texas Event Trust Fund. Other states looking to attract similar large-scale events should consider implementing a major events trust fund such as the one in place in Texas. An event trust fund would help other communities offset costs of hosting sporting and non-athletic events, and help draw out-of-state visitors that would increase spending and tax revenue for local and state government. As seen in the Dallas/Fort Worth region, the presence of an events trust fund can help overcome financial obstacles that would otherwise have prevented an event from taking place in the area. One event that would not have occurred in Texas without the fund was the November 2012 U.S. Grand Prix. Without the assistance of the fund, the $25 million sanction fee would not have been able to be met by race officials. 60% of the 110,000 tickets for the race were sold to out-of-state visitors, who bring outside money into the state. Such major events are more likely to bring in new revenues to the region, as opposed to events targeting local or state audiences, which simply leads to a rearrangement of spending (Zimbalist 105). The large number of college football games between out-of-state universities hosted at Cowboys Stadium and the Cotton Bowl serve as further examples of big ticket events bringing new money into the region. Stephen Jones commented, "Our vision was that one day Cowboys Stadium would have host the same number of college football games as we do NFL games" (3 Dec. 2012). Such ambitious strategy is assisted by the presence of the trust fund, a state entity that can be implemented in other cities/states. Youth Sports Page 71 of 109
One takeaway from Dallas/Fort Worth is that investment in youth sports has been important in establishing and promoting a successful sports environment. As the findings discuss, the Metroplex has done a good job sustaining their tradition as a sports-rich culture by developing an affinity for sports at the grassroots level. Other cities should make a concerted effort to build youth programs through clinic, camps, and leagues. According to Ben Cahalane "A lot of the `Sun Belt' teams in hockey, NHL have look to the Stars for recipe for success: they won the Stanley Cup, built a new arena. The way we grew the sport from the ground up was really important" (7 Nov. 2012). A diverse range of options can lead to increases in overall youth sports participation, as was true in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. Cities should not just focus on the traditionally popular sports in the region, but develop infrastructure and access to encourage participation in new sports. By substantially investing in youth sports, children are exposed to them early on and more likely to develop a fandom that will sustain over time. Summary In sum, as stated by Mayor Robert Cluck of Arlintgton, "Major sports venues contribute in so many ways to Quality of Life and contribute so many resources to the public. Sports venues give us the necessary resources to keep the city safe and to have a good time" (12 Nov. 2012). There are many things the Metroplex has done to help grow sports in the region, which has helped improve the overall quality of life in the area. While the region has made tremendous strides in recent decades, there are still areas where they can improve in order to sustain and further develop this success. The Dallas/Fort Worth area provides other cities with a blueprint to help cultivate a more successful sports landscape, and an example of how to Page 72 of 109
utilize that success to improve the city beyond just the scope of sports. Sports can help build civic pride which in turn strengthens the entire community. "It's just a tremendous sports area, and I think it helps make your civic pride, it helps make you proud to be a part of the state of Texas" (Jerry Jones 3 Dec. 2012). Page 73 of 109
VIII. Limitations and Opportunities for Future Research As with any research, there were factors throughout the process that potentially affected the collection and analysis of data. The study is given credibility by acknowledging such limitations. There is always the potential for bias among interviews, access, scope, and other critical factors in a research study. The below section points out several limitations this study faced. Throughout the research process certain topics were identified as potential contributors to the success of sports in Dallas--such as the strength of college and minor league sports in the region. However, this case study excluded minor league and collegiate sports, and focused on professional, youth and high school sports, which play a more significant role in the tri-city region. In addition to college and minor league sports, future studies could examine the role of non-traditional professional sports such professional bull riding, motorsports, and women's professional football, and how they relate to success in the Metroplex. Another limitation was related to the timing of the study, which may have affected the responses from interviewees. Given the fact the research was conducted in the midst of a presidential election, some of the politicians interviewed may have been less forthcoming with their responses. By doing the study in a non-election year, future researchers could gather answers in a less politically sensitive climate. Given the unique multi-city makeup of the Metroplex, the applicability of the findings to other cities may be limited. Furthermore, cities lacking the inherent qualities of the region, such as featureless geography and sports-centric culture, may be limited in how much they can apply the strategies that were successful in the Dallas/Forth Worth area. Comparing the results and Page 74 of 109
conditions in the Metroplex with other cities could enhance this particular study. Future studies could also focus on the analysis of other cities, to determine the individual factors that contribute to the success of sports in those regions. This study took necessary precautions to minimize these limitations as best possible. Despite steps taken, all studies contain a certain level of bias. Acknowledging this study's limitations enhances the validity and credibility of the research. Due to time constraints, when looking at success of the Dallas Fort Worth region, the study did not analyze the economic impacts of sports. Further studies could be enhanced if more quantifiable measurements of success were considered, such as economic, job, and business development. Lastly, the study focused on interviews with high profile individuals in the Dallas/Fort Worth region. Further studies could survey fans, citizens, and those not directly involved with the sports and entertainment industry, to obtain their perspective on sports in the region. This will provide new insights that are more representative of the local population. Page 75 of 109
IX. Conclusion The initial popularity of sports in the state of Texas started at the grassroots level and worked its way up to the professional ranks. With a featureless geography present, the Dallas/Fort Worth region realized the need for man-made entertainment. Given the sportsloving culture throughout the state of Texas, sports naturally became the heart of that entertainment. The sports industry soon took advantage of the Metroplex's rapidly expanding market, one able to support a plethora of sports options from amateur to professional. As the sports industry in the region began to flourish and new state-of-the-art venues became part of the local landscape, the Metroplex began using sports as a marketing tool to attract citizens, businesses, companies, and tourists. With sports, an attractive asset, bringing notoriety to the region, city officials saw the value of partnering with the local sports world. Recently, sports have become a vehicle to promote growth for the entire city in an effort to make the Dallas/Fort Worth area a more well-round place to live, work, and visit. With nontraditional, cross-industry partnerships in place, the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex serves as an example to other cites how to successfully leverage a flourishing sports industry. Page 76 of 109
Works Cited Alm, Richard. "Sports is high priority for Kirk ­ Dallas Mayor Supports Push for Better Venues, calls for Area Unity." The Dallas Morning News, 5 Dec. 1995. Web. 8 Oct. 2012. This short, local newspaper article, brought to light a theme that is a part of Dallas sports, facility envy, and politicians use of sports, through facilities, in order to make Dallas a destination city. Anholt, Simon. "Chapter 14: Branding Places And Nations." Brands & Branding (2003): 213226. Business Source Complete. Web. 19 Oct. 2012. This chapter examines place-brand strategy, a plan for defining the most realistic, most competitive, and most compelling strategic vision for a country. It suggest that place branding has an important role in the future of brand and marketing, but may lead to a wide gap between the rich and the poor places in the world. More importantly for our research, it discusses the role Image plays on a city. "Arts & Economic Prosperity III: The Economic Impact of Nonprofit Arts and Culture Organizations and Their Audiences." Sept. 2007. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. . This is a study of the nonprofit art and culture industry's impact on the nation's economy from 2007. This study is done every five years and the goal is to use statistics to demonstrate the value of arts and culture locally, statewide, and nationally. The written report will give insight into how arts and culture are important to a community such as Dallas as well as similar cities and regions that may be applicable. The perspective of industry and government leaders will help build the case of how vital arts are to a city's success. "Arts & Economic Prosperity IV: The Economic Impact of Nonprofit Arts and Culture Organizations and Their Audiences." Sept. 2012. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. . This is a study of the nonprofit art and culture industry's impact on the nation's economy from 2007. This study is done every five years and the goal is to use statistics to demonstrate the value of arts and culture locally, statewide, and nationally. Due to the recent publication of this report, the data within are better for analyzing current economic situation for the investment in and benefits of the arts. Particularly useful is the chart of all cities, regions, and states in relation to spending and revenue. This is also the first of these studies that Dallas participated in. Page 77 of 109
Atkinson, Jim. "High Dallas Style." Travel and Leisure. June 2003. Web. 27 November 2012. . This article reviews top restaurants and shopping spots in Downtown Dallas and describes the area as being much more than people outside of Dallas would expect. This national magazine gives an unbiased depiction of how Dallas has built up their dining and shopping industries to make it a key reason for tourists to visit. Although the article is from 2003 it shows that Dallas has been a relevant destination for dining and shopping for at least ten years. Baade, Robert A. "Professional Sports As Catalysts For Metropolitan Economic Development." Journal of Urban Affairs. 18.1 (1996): 1-17. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. Although this article is somewhat dated from 1996, it is one of the most cited pieces about the topic of sports and economic development. Baade argues that hosting professional sports teams causes a threat to the economic state of the city. It is the owners and players who reap the benefits of team relocation, not the taxpaying public. The results of Baade's study suggest 1). the addition of a professional sports team or facility realigns leisure spending versus adding to it, therefore not assisting in job creation, and 2). the fan base is far too unfamiliar with the city to make a significant contribution to metropolitan economic activity. His arguments will provide a wellrounded perspective on the issue of whether Dallas has actually benefitted from the presence of its teams and facilities. Baade, Robert, Robert Baumann, and Victor Matheson. "Big Men on Campus: Estimating the Economic Impact of College Sports on Local Economies." Regional Studies 45.3 (2011): 371-80. Print. Big Men on Campus was written to illustrate the influence college sports has on the local economies of Florida State University (Tallahassee, FL) and the University of Florida (Gainesville, FL). Although many studies argue the economic benefits college sports, and sports in general, bring to an area, they are often funded by athletic boosters to encourage host cities to build new sports facilities. Therefore, these studies are unreliable and people are misinformed. This particular study found that men's college basketball did not bring a statistically significant amount of economic funds to either Gainesville or Tallahassee. In contrast, football at both universities brought in between two and three million per game. Nevertheless, these figures are much lower than the figures presented in a majority of the studies funded by athletic boosters. This article provided us with a realistic background on the economics of college sports, which supplemented our analysis of amateur sports. The study gave a solid background on the questionable validity of other economic impact studies, particularly on college sports. These insights are important for us to understand since we are looking at so Page 78 of 109
many economic impact studies and now know to be careful of the source and purpose of the study, as that may influence its reliability. Baade, Robert A., Robert Baumann, and Victor A. Matheson. "Selling the Game: Estimating the Economic Impact of Professional Sports through Taxable Sales." Southern Economic Journal 74.3 (2008): 794-810. ProQuest. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. This study used monthly taxable sales data to estimate the economic impact of professional sports on local economies. The study looked at the period of January 1980 through June 2005. The results do not support the claims that new stadiums or franchises can have hundreds of millions of dollars of annual local economic impact. Instead, new stadiums, arenas, and franchises, as well as mega-events, are just as likely to decrease taxable sales as to increase them. Baade, Baumann, and Matheson conclude that cities should be careful when looking at economic impact estimates by sport boosters, since the numbers may not be accurate. Baade, Robert Anthony, and Richard F. Dye. "An Analysis of the Economic Rationale for Public Subsidization of Sports Stadiums." (2001): 37-47. ProQuest. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. This study by Baade and Dye compared a city's economic landscape both before and after a stadium was built. The authors believed this was a good method to evaluate a stadium's economic contribution to a city. Baade and Dye found that there was not a statistically significant increase in municipal economic activity increase with a new stadium or sports franchise. Research should continue to look at other ways to that stadiums or professional teams impact a city. Baade, Robert F., and Richard F. Dye. "The Impact of Stadiums and Professional Sports on Metropolitan Area Development." Growth and Change (1990): 1-14. Ebscohost. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. Baade and Dye conducted a regression analysis to evaluate the impact of stadiums and sports on the standard metropolitan statistical area aggregate income, spending, and development. This research was done because of the increase in cities that are being encouraged to subsidize sports stadiums as a economic development tool. The results show that new or renovated stadiums or arenas have an uncertain impact on economic activities in the region, there might also be a negative effect. Further research can analyze the intangible benefits of professional sports to a metropolitan area like "civic pride" and identification with teams to see if public subsidization can be justified. "Best Sports Cities: The List from1 to 271." 4 Oct. 2011. 8 December 2012. This article is a comprehensive list of the top sports cities in the United States for the Page 79 of 109
period of summer 2010 to summer 2011. The cities are ranked based on various categories, including but not limited to, won-lost records, postseason appearances, applicable power ratings, number of teams and attendance. Dallas ranks at the top of this list. Bishop, Greg. "A $60 Million Palace for Texas High School Football." The New York Times: 30 Jan. 2011. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. . Bishop clearly illustrates the deeply rooted tradition of football in Texas in this New York Times article. The article highlights schools such as Allen High School in Allen, Texas that have built professional-level football stadiums worth millions of dollars, hold waiting lists for several years, and in which nearly 400 families enter a lottery for 70 seats. The schools have records of sending their athletes to top college football programs and then reaching the NFL. A $60 Million Palace provides extensive background on the almost religious nature of high school sports in Texas. Nevertheless, it fails to express the other side of the argument that perhaps these schools are spending too much on high school sports facilities and should put aside more money towards programs that will benefit the educational experience of their students. Boland, Robert. Personal Interview. 1 Oct. 2012. NYU Professor. Scoping interview for perspective on topic as well as inquiries into other people to speak with. An expert in the field of sports franchises and their relationship with all stakeholders. Brooks, Arthur C. and Roland J. Kushner. "What makes an Arts Capital? Quantifying a City's Cultural Environment." International Journal of Arts Management. Vol. 5 No. 1 (2002): 12-23. This study examines how to quantify the arts economies of a city and looks at 20 US metropolitan areas to compare. The authors develop comprehensive comparative arts measures to investigate the level, quality or health of a city's arts and culture. Dallas is one of the 20 metropolitan areas in the study. Part of the authors' conclusions is that although many cities claim to be an "arts capital" of something, this is not quantifiable attribute but is still used as a way to garner investment in their communities. Cahalane, Ben. Telephone Interview. 7 Nov. 2012. VP of Hicks Sports Group. Research interview with expertise in sports in the Dallas/Fort Worth as he oversaw sponsorship and media sales for the Dallas Stars Hockey Club, Dr Pepper Arena and the Dr Pepper StarCenters. Page 80 of 109
Caplan, Jeff. "Local giants gather to talk sports, economy." ESPN Dallas, 5 Jan. 2011. Web. 30 Sep. 2012. This blog post from's local Dallas site is an overview of some of the topics of discussion that came up during the National Sports Marketing Network North Texas Chapter's first annual event. This event included executives from Dallas Fort Worth area venues, teams and event committees, including Mark Cuban. While it does not go into great detail, which is unfortunate, the article points out some issues in the sports industry in the area, and more importantly directly quotes the members of the discussion, thereby allowing for the reader to find out the opinions of the executives on certain matters. One of these opinions brought up what is a very interesting and not much talked about side to Cowboys Stadium, that it is detrimental to other sports in the area due to its monopolizing events and audiences. This is an extremely important insight and something that needs to be looked into further through research as well as interviews. Carlisle, Candace. "Season Tickets, ads, sponsorships selling well for North Texas pro teams." Dallas Business Journal. American City Business Journals (2010): n.p. Bizjournals. Web. 28 Sep. 2012. This article is a discussion of the changes and financial growth of the advertising and corporate sponsorship markets in the nation in general but looked at through the use of specific cases of each of the main Dallas area professional sports teams, and how the advertising and sponsorship industries are playing out in their specific franchises. It also gives a status of the ticket sales for a few of the franchises, and what some of the lower ranked area franchises are doing in order to compete with all teams. Chapin, Tom. "Identifying the Real Costs and Benefits of Sports Facilities." Lincoln Institute of Land Policy (2002): n.p. Web. 07 Sept. 2012. The article acknowledges public spending on stadiums is rife with inadequate information on major issues, and decision makers often have a limited understanding of the real costs and benefits of sports facilities. While not harping on the aforementioned issues, the article provides a baseline of information that ought to be required of decision makers: 1) A broad understanding of the existing literature on sports facilities and economic development, and 2) an awareness of the full range of costs and benefits of such projects. The article also discusses the five main lines of argument advocates use for sports facilities: 1) economic impact from visitors due to increased spending (new money) 2) stimulation of other development 3) increased community visibility 4) enhance community image 5) psychic income. Essentially, advocates break reasoning into `economic impact' and `non economic impact', and then explain the thought process Page 81 of 109
towards each. The article provides a chart including what is generally considered and not considered by the public sector in terms of cost and benefit when assessing whether or not public money should be used. Chema, Thomas V. "When Professional Sports Justify The Subsidy, A Reply To Robert A. Baade." Journal Of Urban Affairs Vol. 18.1 (1996): 19. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. Chema supports the argument that professional sports teams are beneficial to the host city, both economically and culturally. He wrote this article in response to Robert Baade's article which argued that sports teams are a detriment to its host city and its people. Chema says that sports venues will always be a catalyst for economic development if they are in an urban setting and integrated into current city infrastructure. He states that a major error in Robert Baade's argument is that he only looked at nonurban facilities that weren't planned to be used as economic tools. Further, Chema says Baade focused on multiuse stadiums of the 60s and 70s that were purposely separate from the city. This debate shows that it is important to look at the context of the sports facilities in Texas, for instance, the fact that the Texas Rangers play in Arlington, which is not an urban setting. Cluck, Robert. Telephone Interview. 12 Nov. 2012. Mayor of Arlington since 2003. Research interview focusing on the relationship between Arlington and the other cities in the region and the sports landscape. Coates, Dennis, and Brad R. Humphreys. "Professional Sports Facilities, Franchises, and Urban Economic Development." Public Finance and Management 3.3 (2003): 335-57. Ebscohost. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. Coates and Humphreys critically review the literature on the role of professional sports as an engine for economic development. Also, it looks at cities that are interested in using new stadiums as the focal point for urban renewal projects. The review shows that numerous previous studies found no economic impact of professional sports facilities and franchises on income and employment. Another factor to consider when looking at this issue is voting referendums, to see how long it took to pass and how many people were in favor of the construction. Coates, Dennis. "Stadiums and Arenas: Economic Development of Economic Distribution?" Contemporary Economic Policy 25.4 (2007): 565-77. Ebscohost. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. This study reviews the literature on stadiums and franchises and the effect on local economic development. Coates describes various studies that have been done and their findings. From his literature review, Coates concluded that when there are positive effects on local economics that are usually focused in small geographic areas. This can mean that there is a redistribution of development rather than new growth in the Page 82 of 109
economy. With the increase trend in public subsidization, Coates says this will continue to be a highly researched topic and suggests ways to conduct research in the future. Coates, Dennis, and Brad R. Humphreys. "The Stadium Gambit and Local Economic Development." Regulation 23.2 (2000): 15-20. ProQuest. Web. 8 Oct. 2012. This article examines the effect of publicly funded stadiums on real per capita income in 37 metropolitan areas. The results show that professional sports had no measurable impact on the growth rate of real per capita income in the sample. This is a new approach to determine the economic effects of stadium deals. Coates and Humphreys, in addition to discovering the lack of benefits from the public, discovered that stadiums may have a negative impact on the local economy. Also, owners are reaping substantial benefits from the value of their teams, but the public may be suffering. Future research can be done on individual sports to see if the effects on real per capita income are the same for each or if they vary. Cramer, Mike. Telephone Interview. 9 Oct. 2012. Former President of Texas Rangers. Research interview focusing on the Rangers and Stars and their relationship to Dallas/Fort Worth. Mr. Cramer is an expert on the business of sports, collective bargaining, mega-stadiums and revenue enhancement Crompton, John L. "Economic Impact Analysis of Sports Facilities and Events: Eleven Sources of Misapplication." Journal of Sport Management 9.1 (1995): 14-35. Print. This study examines errors made in economic impact studies leading to inaccurate results. Included in these errors are inaccurately defined areas of impact, misrepresentation of multiplier effects, and measuring only benefits but omitting costs. This study is an excellent resource for explaining the key terms in economic impact studies and is also useful in ensuring our analysis of economic data remains consistent and accurate. Dallas Convention and Visitor's Bureau. Statistics & Reports. Web. 15 Sept. 2012. The Dallas CVB is the authority on tourism and travel planning for the Dallas / Ft. Worth metro area. This non-profit independent organization publishes reports and data, as well as manages and promotes travel, hospitality, and entertainment. The organization works with both the public sector and private businesses and aims to promote sustainable development through tourism. "Dallas Cowboys Complex Project Election." City of Arlington, TX :: Government :: City Secretary's Office :: Election Archives. n.p., 2 Nov. 2004. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. Page 83 of 109
. From the official city of the Arlington, TX government website, this page discuss the specifics of the Dallas Cowboys Complex Project Election measure. The measure that was voted on and eventually passed imposed a sales tax with the city at a rate of 0.5%, a tax at a maximum rate of 5% on the gross rental receipts from the short-term rental in the city of a motor vehicle, a tax on the occupancy of a room in a hotel located within the city at a maximum of 2%, an admissions tax on each ticket sold (not exceeding 10% of the price of the ticket) to any event held at the Dallas Cowboys Complex Development Project, and a tax on each parked motor vehicle in a parking facility of the Dallas Cowboys Complex Development at a maximum rate of $3.00 per vehicle. Early voting on the measure began on Oct. 18, 2004 and the official voting day was November 2, 2004. Dallas Cowboys Media Guide. Dallas Cowboys Football Club, Ltd. Texas: Irving, 2012. Print. The Dallas Cowboys Media guide was an essential source for valid, credible facts and unique information about the Dallas Cowboys. It was an important source for team executive information as well as the Cowboys business and community partnerships, that are what make the Cowboys unique and are important to know about to understand the presence of the Cowboys in the Dallas area. Dallas Office of Economic Development. "Demographic profile of Dallas and DFW". Web. Sept. 15 2012. This report published by the Economic Development Office of Dallas illustrates the racial and ethnic make-up of the Metroplex. By obtaining demographic information from an economic source the research can examine how diversity in the region impacts regional financial growth, including the sports industry. "Dallas, TX: The Handbook of Texas Online." Texas State Historical Association. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. The History of Dallas as told by the Texas State Historical Association, this handbook gives a detailed explanation and analysis of Texas State history. The text also presents significant social and cultural perspectives on the residents of Dallas and the construction and development of the region. As a text published by the state the author evidently is proud of the history and people of Texas and therefore some information is skewed towards the writers and little explanation is given for less wholesome points in history especially Native American disapora and the assassination of JFK. Page 84 of 109
Danielson, Michael N. Home Team: Professional Sports and the American Metropolis. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. Print. This book analyzes the relationship between professional sports teams and cities across the four major sports leagues in the United States (and Canada). Danielson's research and collection of large amounts of data allowed him to analyze the complex connection and webs that exist between urbanization and professional sports teams. A major part of the text is dedicated to the growing (or what was at the time growing) role of politics and professional sports teams, during the era when stadiums shifted from private to more public funding. The interplay between urban development, teams, and governments is the basis of this book, which although written in 1997, gives a very in depth and sound analysis of the connection between teams and place in politics, community, business, and a number of other factors. Some of the important analyses done by Danielson, that could be helpful to this project, include metro areas with two or more teams, owners with two or more franchises in the same market (Hicks example), and metro areas with major league teams located in the suburbs. Although politics and urban development are the main focus of this text, with social connection to sport a side issue, this text serves as a good starting point in understanding the basics of how a city and a professional team interconnect and how those numerous levels of connection are related to each other and the impact on the city and team, as well as a look into the changes in stadiums and leagues etc that occurred in the 1990's. Decker, Guy, Joseph Dowd, and David Platten. "The Art of Engineering." Structure Magazine. Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. This article describes the engineering aspects that went in to building Cowboys Stadium. It was very useful in the fact that it introduced the idea that Jerry Jones had intended from the start to create a versatile facility, and one with unique things such as art, in order to attract visitors year round. Dehring, Carolyn A., Craig A. Depken, and Michael R. Ward. "The Impact of Stadium Announcements on Residential Property Values: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Dallas/Fort Worth." Contemporary Economic Policy 25.4 (2007): 627-38. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. This study examines the impact of the potential new Dallas Cowboy Stadium on residential property values during the search for a new host city in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. The results show that residential values in the city of Dallas increased after the announcement was made about a possible new stadium and property values fell throughout the rest of Dallas County, which would have paid for the proposed stadium. Also, a few announcements about a publicly subsidized stadium in Arlington, Texas led to a decrease of about 1.5 percent for property values in Arlington. The decline was almost equal to the tax burden residents would have to pay for hosting the Cowboys. Page 85 of 109
This study provides opportunities for future research on whether or not property values in Arlington were affected both during and after Cowboy Stadium construction. DeMause, Neil. "Why Do Mayors Love Sports Stadiums?" The Nation. 27 July 2011. Web. 07 Sept. 2012. . This 2011 article discusses many aspects of the stadium building process. There is a brief history of the public's role in the stadium building process, and then a discussion on how the public's role has modified over the years from giving straight cash to teams to more creative, less-scrutinized subsidizes such as tax-breaks, free land, and tax-free loans. Despite many studies contradicting the alleged benefits of publicly financed stadiums, the article discusses why many politician disregard such studies and engage in the process of supporting public funding despite many potential drawbacks. Overmatched legal teams and strong lobbying are two of the main reasons teams/leagues continue to garner public support for stadium funding despite questionable data in their favor. The article also provides a solution, one in which cities will not bid against each other for a team, in order to take away a team/league's biggest threat: the threat of moving. Two additional authors are prominently cited throughout the piece: Robert Baade (who has done research on the economic impact of new stadiums) and Judith Grant Long. Dodds, DeLoss. Telephone Interview. 6 Dec. 2012. University of Texas at Austin Athletic Director. AD since 1981. Mr. Dodds has extensive knowledge of sports in Austin and Texas. Excellent perspective on the importance of college sports to the state. Dreiling, Helene. "What makes a Community Livable: Livability 101". The American Institute of Architects (2005): n.p. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. This publication addresses the physical aspects of city planning an their effect on quality of life. The layout and design of urban and suburban spaces contributes to the livability of an area and the general sense of space and community. In regards to sports and development, access to health and sports facilities has shown to greatly improve physical health of a community but also creates opportunities for recreation, leisure and also economic development. Duren, Rand. "Dallas TV ratings: Football preseason starts strong; can the Cowboys keep it up?" Dallas News. 23 Aug. 2012. This article reports on the top rated shows in the Dallas market from 8/19 to 8/26. Five out of ten were sports broadcasts. Duren also acknowledges the prominence of football Page 86 of 109
in typical top 10 broadcasts, and notes that sports broadcasts in general are popular in the area. Eckstein, Rick and Kevin Delaney. "New Sports Stadiums, Community Self-Esteem, and Community Collective Conscience." Journal of Sports & Social Issues 26.3 (2002): 235247. Web. 27 November 2012. This study examines how supporters of new stadiums use both tangible economic benefits and intangible community self-esteem benefits in order to sway the public to invest tax dollars. Their findings are that new stadiums can help develop previously downtrodden parts of a city. A key example given is the growth of the inner harbor of Baltimore when Camden Yards and Ravens Stadium were built. This development had a direct effect on making Baltimore a more palatable destination for out-of-town fans to travel to games and stay to spend more money outside the sports venues. Evans, Everett. "Admiring the Arts." The Houston Chronicle. 22 Sept. 2012. . This article reports on a study done in 2012 of Houston citizens and their thoughts on the importance of the arts in the community. It also compares sports spectator statistics with those that patronize the arts. Although it is about a survey of Houston and not Dallas, this study still gives an idea of how the arts are important to Texans and the growth of this perception of late. There are some useful quotes and statistics included, that relate to our project. Eyles, John & Allison Williams. "Sense of Place, Health, and Quality of Life". Ashgate Publishing, 2008. The relationship between health and happiness of a community is addressed in this text. The authors present case studies of communities where social aspects and local pride play a major part in the health of a community. In order to have that sense of community certain things must bring communities together, such as sports, which promote health and camaraderie. For Dallas, this text demonstrates how a community can rally behind sports and how the availability of such sport positive affects quality of life. "For the City as a Whole: Planning, Politics, and the Public Interest in Dallas, Texas". The Journal of American History 87.3. (2000): 1090-1091. This section from the Journal of American History examines the rise of Dallas as a worldclass city. The passage addresses the area's beginnings as a cattle and ranchers town during the United States' Western migration. The article highlights the success of the Page 87 of 109
Dallas Cowboys and their undeniable connection with the city of Dallas. By comparing and mentioning the assassination of a sitting United States President within the same context as a football team, the reader of this historic journal comprehends the cultural atmosphere of Dallas sports, and the important role the Cowboys play in Dallas society. Freedman, Samuel G. "For Dallas, A Growing Identity Crisis." The New York Times. 6 Aug. 1984, Final ed., sec. C: 17. Print. A 1984 New York Times piece discusses that the growing Dallas area is experiencing an identity crisis among high-society. Caught between the traditional cowboy culture of Texas and the desire of glitz and glamour that often accompanies the presence of wealth, the article discusses that many wealthy residents of Dallas want the finer things wealth provides in cities like New York, Chicago and Los Angeles. Because of their desire to separate from the traditional Texas stereotype as well as their desire to emulate those who have enjoyed wealth for quite some time, the author believes that the highsociety in Dallas has no true identity of their own. Frenken, Koen. "Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography". Edward Elgar Publishing: New York, 2007. The text examines the importance of evolution and change within economic regions as societies and industries continue to adapt. The author presents reasons for changes in industries such as natural resource depletion, and offers solutions and alternative methods of managing resources and human capital. The presents evidence that diversity within cities major industries can prevent major lapses in the economy if one industry encounters problems or slow growth. In regards to Dallas this text demonstrates the regions success in shifting from and oil and petroleum based economy, to the more modern and relevant technology and new energy sectors. George, Rick. Telephone Interview. 29 Nov. 2012. Texas Rangers COO. Research interviewee who has spent nearly 25 years as a sports executive on the professional and collegiate level. Has been with the Rangers since 2010. Interview focused on the Rangers and importance of professional sports in Dallas. Grant, Evan. "Decade in Dallas/Fort Worth sports was a tumultuous 10." Dallas Morning News. McClatchy-Tribune Information Services, 27 Dec. 2009. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. This article from the Dallas Morning News was written just before the turn of the decade in 2010 as a "look back" type of article regaling the good, the bad, and the ugly from the world of sports in Dallas over the past decade. This article, although not scholarly, does give useful information and is a helpful format to go over many years of sports in Dallas and be able to see the important occurrences, whether good or bad. It Page 88 of 109
includes high school, college, Olympic, and professional sports giving anecdotes from off the field happenings to a discussion of player trades and the overall performance of the professional teams. It is helpful to see this information grouped together in order to see disparaging things such as the Cowboys lack of success on the field occurring in the same decade as the billion-dollar stadium project. Green, Tara. Telephone Interview. 19 Oct. 2012. CRO of the American Airlines Center. Research interview focusing on the venues relationship to the cities as well as the importance of maximizing the dates that a venue hosts events. Guetzkow, Joshua. "How the Arts Impact Communities: An Introduction to the literature on arts impact studies." Princeton University. June 2002. This study examines to what extent communities benefit from having both nonprofit and for-profit arts investments and opportunities. The importance of having a set art district is a key factor according to the author. In assessing how sports and the arts complement or supplement each other, this article will aid in understanding the role the arts play in a community. The author's results raise more questions than they answer, but this is still useful in our research. Hanson, Royce. "Civic Culture and Urban Change: Governing Dallas". Wayne State University Press: Detroit, 2003. This book discusses Dallas and its historical, governmental, and industrial progression throughout the 20th century. As the physical layout of the city changed and developed, as did the structure of government, adjusting along with changes in the population. As Dallas developed and became a world-class city, the structure of government also changed to increase incentives for business and continued to develop its own unique entrepreneurial spirit. The reflection of this attitude is evident in the growing number of successful business based out of and working in Dallas. This text effectively demonstrates Dallas' importance with regards to business and politics on the international stage. The constant monitoring and shifting of government and policy reflects the city's willingness to adapt and make changes in order to have continued economic and cultural success. Harmaakorpi, Vesa, Kaarina Kari, and Satu Parjanen. "City Design Management As A Local Competitiveness Factor." Place Branding & Public Diplomacy 4.2 (2008): 169-181. Business Source Complete. Web. 19 Oct. 2012. This paper looks at the importance of the built environment and the aesthetic matters on a competitive city. It defines city-design management as a conceptual way of emphasizing the importance of an attractive living environment. The paper provides a Page 89 of 109
literature review that clearly defines Identity, Image, and Reputation as they pertain to cities. Hawkins, Frank. Telephone Interview. 1 Nov. 2012. NYU Professor. Served as Senior Vice President, Business Affairs and head of Strategic planning for the NFL's media group. Has intimate knowledge in the process of financing and building stadiums. Helburn, Nicholas. "Geography and the Quality of Life". University of Colorado, 2010. This text addresses the role of geography and land use in communities. Physical and natural geography heavily influence the initial settlement and development of an area. As societies' grow and use resources the geography changes as well. The two basic principles of geography mentioned in the text apply to Dallas' ability to shift it natural and constructed environments. Hernandez, Brian. Telephone Interview. 8 Nov. 2012. Associate Athletics Communications Director, UTSA. Research interview sharing his perspective on professional and collegiate sports. His views on Dallas/Fort Worth from San Antonio in relations to acquiring major sporting events was particularly useful. Hersh, Phil. "Indianapolis Blueprint A Model For Other Cities." Chicago Tribune.05 July 1987. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. Indianapolis Blueprint A Model for Other Cities discusses the rise of amateur sporting events in Indianapolis. The city founded the Indiana Sports Corporation, a not-for-profit entity, in 1980 to lure amateur sports events to help it create a new image from its unflattering reputation as "India-No-Place." The article credits amateur sports events as generating substantial economic revenue for the area. To its fault, there is never a discussion of whether that money was kept in the area, whether it was substituted spending, etc. This article focuses on the amateur sport events and competitions Indianapolis hosts, not amateur sports in the sense of youth and high school sports. It does not allow one to see the influence that amateur sports events have on a community beyond the supposed economic impact figures. Although it mentions that other cities have created corporations similar to the Indiana Sports Corporation, it does not mention whether these areas have become more successful as a result. Page 90 of 109
"History of the State Fair of Texas." State Fair of Texas. Web. 13 Oct. 2012. This article is a comprehensive history of the State Fair of Texas. Data on attendance figures as well as the cultural importance in the state are discussed. The role it plays in college sports with the Red River Shootout are also touched upon. Hollander, David. Personal Interview. 1 Oct. 2012. NYU Professor. Scoping interview for perspective on topic as well as inquiries into other people to speak with. Horrow, Rick and Karla Swatek. Beyond the Scoreboard: An Insiders Guide to the Business of Sport. Champaign: Human Kinetics, 2011. Print. This is a book that goes in-depth in describing the intricacies involved in numerous areas of sports business and the professional sports industry. From facility development, video gaming, events, sponsorship, technology, to specifics on what goes into planning a Super Bowl or the economics involved in the fantasy sports industry. It brings in numerous examples and case studies to further describe different issues and occurrences in sports business as well as interviews and other contributions from league commissioners and industry executives. The chapter on the Super Bowl, emergence of digital technology, and sponsorship are the three main chapters that relate and contribute a basic and thorough understanding of many of the issues that are involved in MetLife's sponsorship of the New Meadowlands and how they can maximize their brand exposure and even revenue with the upcoming 2014 Super Bowl. The book mentions the study done by Joyce, Julius and Associates after the 2009 Super Bowl in Tampa Bay, Florida, in which they estimated the overall media exposure for the brokerage firm Raymond James (the stadium's naming rights holder) to be $37.3 million due to their name being front and center on the stadium throughout the week and during the game itself. Horrow, Rick, and Karla Swatek. "Dallas Weekend May Be Biggest-Ever Sports Party." Businessweek.Com (2010): 7. Business Source Complete. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. This article discussed the numerous corporate events occurring in the Dallas area during Super Bowl weekend in 2011. It most notably discusses the return of large and lavish events after two years of Super Bowl weekends seeing less parties and corporate hospitality due to recession-based cut backs. This article is important because they tied the fact that the parties and hospitality were back and better than ever with the fact that Dallas has an economy that was not hurt a lot by the recession and one that was ripe with Fortune 500 companies, therefore creating even more desire for companies from all over to attend or entertain in Dallas. Page 91 of 109
Howard, Dennis R., and John L. Crompton. Financing Sport. 2nd ed. Morgantown: Fitness Information Technology, 2005. Print. Howard and Crompton's text is a detailed overview and analysis of all areas relating to the business of sports. While it includes college sports, sponsorships, concessions and many other topics, the main focus tends to lean towards the many issues surrounding all things stadium and financing related. From understanding the difference in outside visitors spending, the issues with economic impact analyses, to the societal and nonmonetary benefits to a community, this text covers a great number of topics that will be extremely useful and necessary to understand while researching the relationship between a city (cities) and sports teams. Jones, Jerry. Email Interview. 6 Dec. 2012. Owner, President, and General Manager of the Dallas Cowboys since 1989. One of the most successful businessmen in all of US sports. His knowledge of the sports landscape makes him an expert on all aspects of the industry. Jones, Stephen. Telephone Interview. 3 December 2012. VP/COO of the Dallas Cowboys. Research interview focusing on the Cowboys and their relationship with the cities and other teams. Also focused on relationship with sports and the arts and philanthropy. Kelso, Stirling. "Female Patrons of State Arts Share Inspirations." The New York Times. 24 December 2011. . 30 Sept. 2012. This article profiles some of the major female patrons of the arts in Texas. Each short segment explains a brief background of each person and what programs she is most active with. Women have been a driving force in influencing the arts in Texas. Gene Jones, the wife of Cowboys owner Jerry Jones is among those profiled. Her goal to bring the arts to those who have not been regularly exposed to it reinforces the importance of the gallery at Cowboys Stadium. Kopczynski, M., and M. Hager. "The Value of the Performing Arts in Five Communities: A Comparison of 2002 Household Survey Data." Washington: Urban Institute and Performing Arts Research Coalition (2003): n.p. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. This study gathers information on the value of performing arts to both the community and for individual venues. 10 pilot communities around the United States took part in the study. While none of the DFW cities participated, Austin did. While the majority of Page 92 of 109
this study focuses strictly on the arts, it does look at participation rates in comparison to sports and other leisure activities. The theme of stressing the importance of a strong arts community has certainly become apparent in Dallas since the development of the Dallas Arts District. Kotler, Philip. Marketing Places Europe. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 1999. Print. Within Kotler's book about how to attract investments, industries, residents, and visitors to cities, communities, regions, and nations in Europe, the author presents a clear, precise definition of the term Image as it pertains to cities. Kuriloff, Aaron, and Darrell Preston. "In Stadium Building Spree, U.S. Taxpayers Lose $4 Billion.", 5 Sept. 2012. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. . This article gives 10,000-foot view of the issue of public financing. A brief description of the history of stadium finance is followed up by a more in-depth look at the process that unfolded in Dallas which led to Arlington bidding on Cowboy Stadium. Includes an indepth discussion of the tax increases and lease agreement between Arlington and the Cowboys that led to the ultimate agreement between the two parties. The article also briefly discusses The Tax Reform Act of 1986, which was originally meant to curb public subsidies for stadiums, but instead backfired and opened the floodgates for even more subsidies. "Light Rail Helps Take Fans Out to the Ballgame." 11 April 2009. 3 December 2012. This article describes the Arizona Diamondbacks campaign in conjunction with the Metro for discounts when taking the train to stadium. "Local Television Market Universe Estimates." Nielsen. Web. 29 Sep. 2012. Nielsen TV Market ranks for 2011-2012. Outlines ranks of all TV markets in US, comparing their 2010-11 rank to their 2011-12 rank. It also notes how many TV homes comprise each market in 2011 and 2012. Lopiano, Donna. Telephone Interview. 4 Oct. 2012. Former University Texas at Austin Women's Athletic Director. Research interview focusing on her time working in Texas. Spoke predominantly on Texas' sports culture. Page 93 of 109
Magee, David. Playing To Win: Jerry Jones and the Dallas Cowboys. Chicago: Triumph Books. 2008. Print. This book gives a history of the Dallas Cowboys since Jerry Jones purchased the team in 1989. The backdrop of the book includes details of the Dallas-Ft. Worth area's economy over this time period. Although the book concludes before Cowboy Stadium opens, the financing, design and construction are an important part of the final chapters. Mason, Dan. Telephone Interview. 4 Nov. 2012. Sports Economic Expert. Research interview focusing on general sports economics knowledge. Mayne, Brad. Telephone Interview. 18 Oct. 2012. Former President & CEO of the American Airlines Center's Operating Company. Research interview focusing on his time in Dallas, the importance of sports, and details on how the venue runs. McClimon, Tom. Telephone Interview. 26 Sept. 2012. US Conference of Mayors. Scoping interview for background on project and inquiries into what politicians to speak with. McCombs, Red. Telephone Interview. 1 Dec. 2012. Former NFL & NBA Owner. Research interview discussing history of sports in Texas and Dallas/Fort Worth. Also spoke on the importance of sports in the Texas culture. McDonnell, Wayne. Personal Interview. 11 Sept. 2012. NYU Professor. Scoping interview for perspective on topic as well as inquiries into other people to speak with. Further discussions about sports, specifically baseball, and its use of marketing to reach a diverse array of demographics. McMahon, Tim. "Victoria's Secret at Cowboys Stadium.", 28 Sep. 2012. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. . This article breaks down Jerry Jones' business acumen in deciding to partner with Victoria's Secret to open a PINK store in Cowboys stadium. This is one of the examples Page 94 of 109
of how he has built new partnerships that go above and beyond the typical partnerships and business ventures seen at football stadiums. Melville, Adrian. "Sports Is Helping To Spur Growth In Boston." Forbes Magazine, 18 Aug. 2011: n.p. Web. 07 Sept. 2012. . The article discusses how Boston sports owners have turned the city into a sports culture. Recent demographic studies show Boston has the highest proportion of 20- to 34-year-olds in all major US cities, and the local sports ownership has made recent adjustments to cater to this traditionally sports-loving demographic. In 2011, Boston Mayor Tom Menino reported the 163 major sport home game resulted in $300 million in fan spending. Merchant, Nomaan. "Texas School to Open $60M Football Field of Dreams." Yahoo! News, 31 Aug. 2012. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. . This article discusses the opening of a $60 million high school football stadium in Allen, TX. In 2009, 63 percent of voters supported a $119 million bond package that in part, would build the stadium. Allen District Spokesman, Tim Carroll, said it is not practical to say they will get their money back, but instead simply states the revenues of the stadium will far exceed the operating costs. The article mentions how in 1988, billionaire businessman and former presidential candidate, Ross Perot, questioned, "Do we want our kids to win on Friday night on the football field or do we want them to win all throughout their lives?" It should be noted, the bonds also funded a performing arts center and that Allen's student test scores are `largely stellar'. Montgomery, Sarah S. and Michael D. Robinson. "Take Me Out to the Opera: Are Sports and Arts Complements? Evidence from the Performing Arts Coalition Data." International Journal of Arts Management Vol. 8, No. 2. (2006): 24-37. This study seeks to investigate whether arts attendance is a substitute or complement for sports attendance. Is there a pattern of participation between arts, sports, and popular cultural events? The concepts developed in this study are important in understanding the landscape of how sports success can lead to other successes in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. The authors' conclude that there is little evidence that arts and sports compete for audience. Mosier, Jeff. "Tax Income to Pay Cowboys Stadium Debt Is Beating Projections." Dallas/Fort Worth News. n.p., 11 July 2010. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. Cowboys-Stadium-9172.ece>. This article discusses how the tax revenues created to fund the Cowboys stadium have exceeded projections through 2010. For 2010, Arlington owed $20 million in bond payments, but the taxes dedicated to that debt produced $27 million. The author cites the conservative approach taken by the city in their projections, and mention that bonds could be paid off years early - much like they were for Rangers Ballpark in Arlington. The $135 million bond package for Rangers Ballpark was paid off in 10 years rather than the projected 20 years. Mulholland, Elizabeth. "What Sports Can Do: A True Sport Report." Rep. Ottawa: n.p., 2008. Print. This document speaks to the benefits that amateur sports bring to an area. Studies from Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada were completed to determine the effect of the presence of sports in an area. Increased social capital, health, and integration of the community were all factors that resulted from the presence of amateur sports in an area. These findings provided support for our background where we discussed generally the influences sports have on an area. Noll, Roger G., and Andrew S. Zimbalist. Sports, Jobs, and Taxes: The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Stadiums. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1997. Print. This book looks at the economic impact of sports teams and stadiums. It discusses everything from the building of the stadiums to the lease agreements (as of 1997) of every team in the MLB and NBA. Each chapter contains a brief conclusion paragraph to sum up the findings. Often used throughout the book is a sarcastic slogan, `Build the stadium - create the jobs!', used to highlight the battle cry often times heard from stadium supporters even though factual reports traditionally buck that sort of thinking. Noto, Anthony. "Rangers Owner Nolan Ryan Talks About Outbidding Mark Cuban." Mergers & Acquisitions: The Dealermaker's Journal 47.6 (2012): 34-37. Business Source Complete. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. This article gave a first hand interview with Rangers Owner, Nolan Ryan, on the trials and tribulations that went into the bankruptcy auction and bidding for the team between himself and Mark Cuban, owner of the Dallas Mavericks. It gave insight into that has happened since Ryan bought the team, and he tells the things he finds to be important in running a successful franchise. This is important because it shed first hand light on the importance the Rangers place on customer service and fan experience, and what they are doing in terms of renovating the stadium. Nunn, Samuel, and Mark S. Rosentraub. "Sports Wars: Suburbs and Center Cities in Zero Sum Game." Journal of Sport & Social Issues 21.65 (1997): 65-82. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. Page 96 of 109
The authors conduct an analysis on the reasons clubs move, the importance of sports for local and regional growth, and the impact of professional sports teams on the economy of cities in the Dallas/Fort Worth region, a location with great intra-regional competition for teams. The findings show that suburban areas in Dallas tried to lure teams away from the central city with the belief that the team will create special benefits for the suburban community. However, when looking at the numbers noninvestor cities on average had higher per capita assessed property valuations than investor cities. Also, non-investor cities averaged 35 percent in the high-skilled workforce compared to 33 percent in investor cities. This research shows that owners and players disproportionately profit from the public sector's investment in professional teams. Future research should consider if more individuals move out or to a city following the construction of a new stadium. Olivera, Mercedes. "City of Dallas, Arts District Will Measure Impact of Arts." The Dallas Morning News. 28 January 2011. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. . This article explains why the Dallas Office of Cultural Affairs and the Dallas Arts District are participating in the 2012 Arts & Economic Prosperity IV study. This article is useful in articulating that this is the first time Dallas will be participating in the study. Theories by members of the Dallas Arts District purport that the arts generate more revenue than sports arenas or other public projects. Owen, Jeffrey G. "The Intangible Benefits of Sports Teams." Public Finance and Management 6.3 (2006): 321-345. Web. 9 Sep. 2012. While this study was conducted through a survey of professional sports teams in Minnesota and Michigan, not Dallas, it adds to the discussion of the value of sports teams and facilities and the debate on whether stadiums should use public funding to be built. This study uses the contingent valuation method (CVM) in order to measure the indirect benefits of sports teams, and the authors chose this method in order to measure the value of teams as a public good the way all other public goods are evaluated. The study found that interest in the team is critical in terms of "willingnessto-pay" for sports stadiums and teams. The authors also conclude that intangible benefits needs to be considered an important factor for public support of stadiums. They also state that although residents' valuations of a teams benefit in their city may in fact cover stadium costs, this does not mean that building a publicly subsidized stadium is the correct choice, policy wise, for a city. This article is beneficial in that it shows another way of measuring people's valuation of a team's presence in a city, aside from an economic impact model, and can be used in order to see another angle relating to how Dallas, Arlington and Fort Worth residents may look at and value a team's Page 97 of 109
presence, and whether different teams in the same area may have more or less value in terms of thoughts or use of public money. Parise, David. Email Interview. 19 Nov. 2012. Athletic Superintendent/Fort Worth. Research interview focusing on amateur and recreational sports in Fort Worth. Paul, Monica. Telephone Interview. 12 Oct. 2012. VP of Sports Marketing, Dallas Convention and Visitors Bureau. Research interview focusing on campaigns to bring tourists to the area and the role sports plays. Perry, Rick. Email Interview. 5 Dec. 2012. Governor of Texas. Research interview focusing on the importance of sports to Texas culture and the Major Events Trust Fund. Pogrebin, Robin. "Dallas Museum Simmers in a Neighbor's Glare." The New York Times. 1 May 2012. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. . This article examines a problem that arose in Dallas in when a condominium was built next to a glass roofed sculpture center. The reflections of the sun from the building caused issues in the museum adverse to the viewing experience. This gives a terrific example of "what can happen when cultural institutions are cast as engines of economic development." One of the main selling points of the condo was the proximity to the museum but the condo itself is devaluing the museum. Rainisto, Seppo K. "Success Factors of Place Marketing: A Study of Place Marketing Practices in Northern Europe and the United States." Diss. Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Strategy and International Business (2003): n.p. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. . This study evaluated the most critical factors in the success of place marketing and how those factors could be utilized in place development. The main focus was on Marketing Management aspects in place marketing. More importantly, this study provided a clear definition of the term Identity as it pertains to cities. Rappaport, Jordan, and Chad Wilkerson. "What Are the Benefits of Hosting a Major League Sports Franchise? Agricultural and Business Conditions, Tenth Federal Reserve District." Economic Review- Federal Reserve Bank of Kanas City 86.1 (2001): 55-86. Page 98 of 109
Web. 8 Sept. 2012. This article goes beyond just the financial impact of a professional franchise for a city and explores the quality of life benefits for hosting a professional team. The term quality of life is defined in this article as capturing the satisfaction, or happiness, residents derive from shared metro area attributes. Professional sports teams benefit the fans in their region through their ability to follow the team by either attending games, watching on television, listening to the radio, or reading the local papers. Sports teams also allow members of a region to develop a sense of community and camaraderie. After talking to individuals of regions who have lost a professional franchise, Rappaport and Wilkerson found that most have increased their willingness to pay to attract a team back. One particular example is in 1987 the St. Louis Cardinals left the city because they refused to allocate $120 million toward the construction of a new football stadium and less than three years later, St. Louis voters approved $280 million in public funds for a new football stadium, even before they had a team to play in it. Future research could include surveying individuals in cities with one major franchise and comparing them to cities with multiple franchises and if that affects their overall quality of life. Rishe, Patrick. "Al Davis, NBA, TCU, Super Bowl Site Selection: Business Briefs of the Week (Oct 10-17)." Forbes. Forbes Magazine. 10 Oct. 2011. Web. 30 Sep. 2012. This article covers a number of different issues, with two specifically pertaining to the case study currently underway. Although this article is a news update and not of much worth in terms of data or scholarly research, the author's opinions bring to light a number of topics to think about as well as some insight into one author's insights. The author discusses a number of sports business news items and topics that were discussed or occurred around the week of Oct. 11-17 in 2011. While the first half of the article is not pertinent to this case study on Dallas metro area and sports, he does mention two topics of relevance. The author discusses possible implications of Texas Christian University, located in Fort Worth, moving to the dominant and powerful Big 12 Conference. The more important aspect of this article, however, is the author's opinions and comments on the Super Bowl in Dallas. He mentions the weather's possible impact on visitor spending due to transportation issues, which is something that should be looked into further with regard to the impact the Super Bowl had on the area. The comparison between Dallas and Glendale's attractive features for hosting a Super Bowl helps with looking at city comparisons and a start to listing factors important for getting a big event like the Super Bowl ­ large metro area, accommodate fans, airport, numerous cities, great venue. Rishe, Pat. Telephone Interview. 15 Sept. 2012. Associate Professor at Webster University. Has done economic impact studies in Dallas and was a good source for leads on interviews of local professionals. Page 99 of 109
Rosentraub, Mark S. Major League Losers: The Real Cost of Sports and Who's Paying for It. New York, NY: Basic, 1999. Print. Major League Losers precedes Rosentraub's "Major League Winners" by approximately ten years. Rosentraub uses case studies of cities such as Dallas to make the argument that although the American public pays for sports facilities with their tax dollars, cities actually gain very little. The book was written to inform government officials and taxpayers with knowledge on how a region can and should negotiate with sports franchises. The chapter on the Dallas Metroplex evaluates whether it achieved the benefits of being a "major league city" in terms of tangible factors such as population growth, fiscal benefits, and attraction of high-skill employment. It also lists lessons learned from the Metroplex that can be applied to other cities investing in sports or entertainment facilities. Rosentraub's chapter on the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex was incredibly helpful to the findings section of our study. He provides an accurate perspective with his expertise in sports urban development and is very honest about the fact that cities rarely benefit economically from the presence of a team. This book provided background for our interview with Mark Rosentraub and we drew many of our interview questions from the issues he presented in the text. In the interview, Rosentraub provided us with an update on current state of Dallas since this book was published. Rosentraub, Mark S. Major League Winners: Using Sports and Cultural Centers as Tools for Economic Development. Boca Raton: CRC, 2010. Print. "Major League Winners" is written by Mark Rosentraub, one of the leading authorities in the area of sports economic development. This book features chapters on cities with parallels to Dallas (Indianapolis, Columbus and Los Angeles), where he details the history of their attempts at using sport to revitalize their city and provides a detailed analysis of the ways in which they were successful and unsuccessful. He provides a solid background on topics such as why cities should even care about sports, entertainment, and culture as well as the critical role of civic leaders in ensuring tax dollars are turned form subsidies into investments. Rosentraub concludes with a series of recommendations that are based on lessons learned from cities that have used sport as an economic tool for revitalization. These lessons can act as a guide to determine whether Dallas has made the proper decisions when creating and utilizing its sports and cultural centers. Given his extensive background in this area and his knowledge on the city of Dallas, Mr. Rosentraub will be a valuable resource throughout our project. Rosentraub, M. S., and S. R. Nunn. "Suburban City Investment in Professional Sports: Estimating the Fiscal Returns of the Dallas Cowboys and Texas Rangers to Investor Communities." American Behavioral Scientist 21.3 (1978): 393-414. Print. Page 100 of 109
Suburban City Investment in Professional Sports is a study published in 1978, which is indeed outdated, yet provided some background for Rosentraub's studies on similar topics he has written in the time since 1978. The purpose of the paper was to estimate the degree to which suburban cities that invested in sports facilities were able to benefit from the economic activity of the professional sports team and the facility itself. The cities analyzed were Irving and Arlington, Texas. Rosentraub and Nunn went into great detail about the supposed economic and intangible benefits that an area gains with the presence of a sports team and cited studies that analyzed the reality of these situations. The results of this study, similar to the previous studies, showed that the suburban cities of Irving and Arlington were not able to capture any economic benefits from their investments in professional sports. The two cities did not do as well as cities they were compared to, although Irving tended to fare better than Arlington. Although Arlington and Irving were burdened with the costs of the facilities, they were unable to contain the consumption patterns of the fans, so the economic benefits transferred to into the surrounding areas. The major disadvantage of this study is that it is outdated and the examples of sports facilities and projects that are being completed are no longer as relevant as they were when the study was published. The rationale behind their ideas still holds true. The significance of their study is similar to ours, allowing us to incorporate some of their ideas. The background they provided on the two cities of Arlington and Irvington was also helpful to our understanding of the topic. Rosentraub, Mark, Michael Cantor, Brian Mills, and Jason Winfree. "Tax Sources for Stadium Financing: Fiscal Outcomes for Arlington, Texas." Working paper. N.p.: n.p., 2012. Print. This is a working paper completed by sport management, sports urban development, and tourism experts at the University of Michigan and University of Florida. It addresses the strategy that Arlington, Texas had for funding the construction of the ballpark in Arlington and the new Cowboy Stadium. Arlington exported a substantial amount of the tax increment FROM that was use to finance the construction of the Rangers ballpark and the new Cowboy Stadium. Additionally, they raised their tax collections by approximately $1.3million per month. This study found that the amount of economic activity that was generated in and around the facilities does not likely the exportation of taxes or the increase in tax collections because there were large losses in taxable spending within the city limits. The study also showed that the tax increase allowed for a decrease in monthly taxable sales receipts by about $18.9 million. The spending was either displaced to non-taxed investments such as real estate, or to other retail centers in the area. While interviewing Mark Rosentraub, he referenced this paper many times and then shared it with us via email after the interview. This paper provided credible data to support the idea that the metroplex does not benefit economically from the presence of Page 101 of 109
sporting events. Although this may not support our case that Dallas is a successful host of sporting events, it is necessary to have fair and honest information so that we could structure our argument truthfully. Rosentraub, Mark. Telephone Interview. 27 Oct. 2012. Sports Urban Development Expert. Author of Major League Losers which specifically spoke on sports economics in Arlington. Research interview focused on Dallas/Fort Worth and stadium economics in general. Sales, Hubert E. "Affecting Philanthropic Propensity: A Case Study of Dallas." Social Venture Partners. Diss. University of Texas, 2012. Ann Arbor (2012): n.p. Print. Affecting Philanthropic Propensity is a dissertation written by a student at the University of Texas at Austin. It discusses the increased pattern of philanthropy in the Dallas area over the last twenty years. Sales also detail the characteristics of people that are linked with charitable giving. These characteristics, such as high income and high levels of education, were found to be prominent in the population of the Metroplex. This paper assisted in our philanthropic ethos section. It provided background for the factors that led to the tradition of philanthropy in the area and how philanthropic ethos is a factor unique to Dallas. Santo, Charles. "The Economic Impact of Sports Stadiums: Recasting the Analysis in Context." Journal of Urban Affairs 27.2 (2005): 177-91. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. Santo's research looks at new stadium construction for teams in the NFL or MLB between 1984 and 2001 and their effect on a city. His findings suggest that stadium construction or new team location are positively correlated to regional income for eight of the nineteen metropolitan areas used. Particularly, a new baseball stadium was found to have a significant positive impact on regional income share. Since baseball facilities host more than ten times as many home games as football stadium, they are likely to generative more economic activity. However, The Ballpark in Arlington, Texas built in 1994, showed a negative impact on regional income share, which may be explained by its suburban location. Future research can expand on current stadium construction, since today's stadiums have different character and greater amenities. Sauer, Skip. "Dallas TV Reporter Examines the Numbers on Economic Impact." The Sports Economist (2010): n.p. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. . The article discusses the findings of Dallas TV Reporter, Byron Harris. Harris found the 2010 NBA All-Star Game actually brought in zero additional spending to the Dallas area Page 102 of 109
after it was predicted to bring in an estimated $152 million. Harris gathered tax receipts from five North Texas cities and found was only slight increases or decreases to each city. The biggest expected boon was supposed to be from hotels, but state tax receipts showed hotel revenue for Dallas was actually down $800,000 from the previous year. Tax receipts also showed people in Dallas spent $1.2 million less on alcohol in the February of the All-Star Game when compared to the previous year. Schmandt, Henry. "The Quality of Urban Life". Urban Affairs Annual Reviews 1.3 (1969): n.p. This dated report from the annual review of Urban Affairs highlights the changing urban societies and industries of the mid 20th century. During this time cities started shifting industries based on changes in resources supply and as a result urban environments were forced to adapt as well. Schuder, Jennifer. Telephone Interview. 4 Dec. 2012. VP of Marketing, The Dallas Opera. Research interview focusing on the relationship between the arts and culture with Dallas/Fort Worth community. Also discussed the opera's coordinated efforts with Cowboys Stadium. Seaman, Bruce A. "Cultural and Sports Economics: Conceptual Twins?" Journal of Cultural Economics Vol. 27 (2003): 81-126. This study examines what the art world can learn from sports economics principles. Comparisons are made to how the economic successes of sports can be mimicked in the arts to maximize profits. This study draws some relevant parallels between sports and the arts which are applicable to our project. The impact of both sports and the arts on community is examined. Siegfried, John and Andrew Zimbalist. "The Economics of Sports Facilities and Their Communities" The Journal of Economic Perspectives Vol. 14, No. 3 (2000): 95-114. Siegfried and Zimbalist helped explain the boom in stadium and arena construction with public support, by looking at stadiums built from 1920-1998. They also conduct an analysis of the effect of stadiums and arenas on the economy, and find that there is usually an insignificant effect. Siegfried and Zimbalist use the substitution effect as one possible explanation for why sports do not add to the spending and economic activity in an urban area. The substitution effect says that most individuals and families have an inflexible leisure budget; therefore, the money that one spends on a sporting event would be money that one would spend somewhere else in the local economy like at a restaurant or movies, if the sports team was not present. So sports teams may rearrange spending but they do not increase it. One opportunity for further research Page 103 of 109
would be to see if tourists visit cities for the sports franchises and if that adds to the local economy. Smith, Michael. "Athletic Budgets Continue to Climb." Sports Business Journal (2011): n.p. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. "Athletic Budgets continue to Climb" discusses the increase in spending across university athletic departments despite the efforts to cut costs and lower spending. The article noted that the University of Texas is leading the trend by holding the nation's largest athletic department annual budget. The increased budget is partly as a result of its new television network, the Longhorn Network. The article provided us with data and charts that were helpful in supplying background about the importance of college athletics in the region, and the area's willingness to support amateur sports. Smith, Morgan. "Texas' $60 Million High School Football Stadium в" Public Education | The Texas Tribune." The Texas Tribune. 27 May 2010. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. . This 2010 article discuss the background and justification of building a $60 million high school football stadium. This article discuss that Collin Country has the highest median income of any county in Texas, and that despite its support of football, its academic standing remains one of the best in the state. Spiegelman, Willard. "Lone Star Stadium of Art." The Wall Street Journal, 14 Apr. 2010. Web. 12 Oct. 2012. This article is an in-depth look at the unique collection of site-specific art Jerry Jones had commissioned specifically for Cowboys Stadium. This article was important as it was yet another example of the innovative thinking and unique things that are done at Cowboys Stadium, that have made it a destination in and of itself, and which has in turn benefitted the community of Arlington. Stein, Rob. Telephone Interview. 27 Nov. 2012. Deputy Director, Dallas Museum of Art. Research interview focusing on the relationship between the arts and culture with Dallas/Fort Worth community. Also discussed the museum's coordinated efforts with Cowboys Stadium. Stepneski, Mark. "The Stars & the growth of hockey in Texas." 19 May 2011. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. Page 104 of 109
This article outlines the significant growth in hockey participation in Texas since the Dallas Stars arrived in 1993. It mentions the overall impact of the NHL on the Southern US states, growing the sport exponentially--and specifically discusses the impact of the Stars on Dallas, noting that hockey in Texas has grown by 1,000%. Swindell, David, and Mark S. Rosentraub. "Who Benefits from the Presence of Professional Sports Teams? The Implications for Public Funding of Stadiums and Arenas." Public Administration Review 58.1 (1998): 11-20. Web. 7 Sept. 2012. This article discusses the recent growth of public financing through broad-based taxes and special taxes of stadiums and arenas. Through the discussion, it analyzes both the economic benefits and intangible benefits. The researchers believe that the groups of people that benefit from the investments by the public sector should bear the greatest costs of the stadium/arenas. Swindell and Rosentraub conducted a survey to 1,500 respondents in the Indianapolis area measuring the intangible benefits of a sports team and who receives them. The results found that professional sports teams ranked second and third in generating the most pride, behind museums. Also, 74.9 percent of the respondents said that the loss of the Indianapolis Colts would hurt the reputation of the city. Future research could be done on other cities to see if professional sport franchises have the same impact as they did in Indianapolis. Also, it was found that sports teams and facilities produce limited economic benefits. The authors suggested a new model for paying for stadiums in which the district, businesses, fans, players, and other employees who benefit from the teams carry the cost. Sports teams would rely on higher taxes on food and beverage consumption, souvenir purchases, and advertising. Swindell, David. Telephone Interview. 16 Nov. 2012. Dallas Area Rapid Transit Expert. Research interview focusing on transportation in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. "Take the Train to the Game." Web. 3 December 2012. This article describes the New York Mets campaign in conjunction with the Long Island Rail Road for discounts when taking the train to Citi Field. "Texas Fine Arts Association." Texas State Historical Association. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. This article gives a brief history of the Texas Fine Arts Association since its inception in Page 105 of 109
1011. The article explains significant milestones in the Texas art scene that have led to its current and anticipated future success. "Totals for November 2, 2004 Stadium Election." ArlingtonTexas.Gov. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. . A PDF of the November 2, 2004 ELECTION RESULTS of the Cowboys Stadium Complex. The PDF shows the final results show 62,901 voted FOR the measure while 50,914 voted AGAINST the measure. A grand total of 113,815 voted on the measure. Tu, Charles C. "How Does a New Sports Stadium Affect Housing Values? The Case of FedEx Field." Land Economic 81.3 (2005): 379-395. Web. 10. Sept. 2012. In this analysis, Tu investigates how new stadium development can have a positive impact on housing values in surrounding areas, by examining the aftermath of construction on FedEx Field in Maryland. While many have questioned the value of sports development, criticizing new stadium projects as falling short of expectations for economic development, Tu finds evidence of positive growth through the rising value of housing in the direct vicinity of the new stadium built in Maryland. By using a hedonicpricing analysis (commonly used in urban economics research), this analysis helps to dispel fears that sports venues negatively affect property values, and provides an argument for how sports development and stadium construction can effectively spur economic growth in surrounding communities. The United States Census Bureau. "Dallas, Texas: State and County Quick Facts". Web. 6 Dec 2012. . The US Census Bureau compiles statistics on geographic and economic data and publishes reports for individual states, counties, cities, and metropolitan areas. The most accurate and thorough resource for population data chronologically charted growth and change in Dallas - Fort Worth. This information was essential in understanding the population growth in the Metroplex as well as the changing demographics and racial make-up of the region. Van Landingham, Vanessa. "Dallas Cowboys' Jones And Aikman To Open Dunkin' Donuts Units." Nation's Restaurant News 46.8 (2012): 15. Hospitality & Tourism Complete. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. Cowboys owner Jerry Jones and former star quarterback Troy Aikman have announced plans to open 50 Dunkin' Donuts restaurants in the Dallas/Ft. Worth area, splitting ownership of the establishments. Currently there are only 19 of the franchises' restaurants in North Texas and the new establishments will be part of Dunkin' Donuts Inc.'s national expansion plan. The article fails to mention any health/obesity concerns Page 106 of 109
that are associated with the restaurant chain, nor the contrast to other Cowboys team initiatives for healthier living. Corporate ties to Cowboys stadium and whether the restaurants will placed on premise will be decided at a future date. Wilkinson, Brett. Telephone Interview. 26 Sept. 2012. Dallas Mayors Office. Scoping interview for background on project and inquiries into what politicians to speak with. Willig, Joy. Telephone Interview. 14 Sept. 2012. New Orleans Housing Authority. Research interview discussing how cities and sports teams work together to improve quality of life. Willis, Dave. "Getting Active in Amateur Sports: Despite the Economy, This Is Still a HighEnergy Market." Rough Notes (2012): 54-58. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. . The main theme in Getting Active in Amateur Sports is the growth in interest of amateur sports within the United States. The factors cited as key drivers in the interest of amateur sports participation are the media focus on childhood obesity and the importance of exercise, along with the physical and social benefits gained from sports participation. Although American families have been reducing spending during the down economy, participation in youth and adult amateur athletics appears to grow and some of the contributors to this article declare it recession-proof. Figures and charts depicting participation numbers and trends over the years would allow for a more in-depth analysis. A more detailed examination of participation by gender and age group would also make this study more comprehensive. Winfree, Jason, and Mark S. Rosentraub. Sports Finance and Management: Real Estate, Entertainment, and the Remaking of the Business. Boca Raton: CRC, 2012. Print. "Sports Finance and Management" focuses on the financial and economic elements of the sports industry. It highlights the redefinition of sports business, which the authors note is necessary given the fact that teams and facilities are have become major parts of the real estate development, entertainment, and the media over the past two decades. The case studies of the San Diego Padres, JMI Realty, and the Ballpark Districts and the STAPLES Center, LA LIVE, and Downtown Los Angeles, will be reviewed to help support and understand the study on Dallas. This book will serve as a supplement to the information provided in one of Rosentraub's other titles: "Major League Winners." Worley, Brandon. "Dallas Stars Once Again Making Focus On Youth Hockey A Priority." SB Nation, 8 May 2012. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. Page 107 of 109
. This article provided a solid background of the status of hockey in the Dallas area. In the initial research, we were investigating the impact the Stars had on youth hockey, which was provided by this article. Tom Gagliardi, new owner of Dallas Stars and CEO Jim Lites, created plans to recommit the team to growing youth hockey in Dallas and surrounding areas after a few years of letting the relationship unravel as the Tom Hicks era collapsed. Lites created a strong relationship between the youth in the area and the Stars through the creation of local hockey leagues, building the Dr Pepper Starcenters around the area, and getting players involved in camps and appearing and local tournaments. Texas is starting to see the result of the focus on youth hockey that was present under Hicks in the form of legitimate NHL prospects. The information presented in this article helps us see the positive impact the Dallas area teams have on developing youth interest in sport participation and the implication it has for the future of Dallas sports. Wysong, Scott & Philip C. Rothschild "`Build It Here!' An Examination of Pride Versus Economic Motivations of Citizens Voting for Public Stadium Financing." Journal of Venue and Event Management 1.2 (2009): n.p. Web. 7 Sep. 2012. This research design reviews why community members would like or dislike a stadium/team in their local area. A wide variety of motivations and interests are addressed such as tax increases, land acquisition and location, traffic and infrastructure changes and civic pride and community development. Surveys were distributed locally to inquire asking residents about their personal motivations towards taxation, stadium contribution to economy, and a yes/no vote on publicly financing Cowboys stadium. The question "are you a Cowboys fan?" was also asked to identify those who personally connect with the team. The research discovered that pride and fan-identity lead to stronger beliefs in the teams contribution to the community. Overall the research gathers important information on the motivations of a select community, but fails to address other variables that can be applied to other cities or stadiums. Zimbalist, Andrew. "The Economics of Stadiums, Teams, and Cities." Public Studies Review 15.1 (1991): 17-29. Ebscohost. Web. 12 Oct. 2012. Zimbalist discusses how cities compete procure and retain teams because there is a limited number of franchises but there is high demand for the teams. The author also discusses how new stadiums provide teams with new sources of revenues. There are more revenue opportunities with luxury suites, club boxes, concessions, catering, advertising, etc. However, Zimbalist found that cities do not benefit from these additional revenue sources, teams and players do. Future research can look at what factors go into the decisions of political figures debating new stadiums. Zotos, Connee. Personal Interview. 1 Oct. 2012. Page 108 of 109
NYU Professor. Scoping interview for perspective on topic as well as inquiries into other people to speak with. Also an expert on college athletics. Page 109 of 109

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