The urinary system, EN Marieb, KN Hoehn

Tags: Benjamin Cummings, Pearson Education, Inc., Pearson Education, Copyright, hydrogen ion, bicarbonate ion, Bicarbonate ions, Bicarbonate buffer system, carbonic acid, Acid-Base Balance, the Urinary System, Developmental Aspects, Urinary system, Slide, buffer system, Urinary Bladder, Renal pelvis, Functions of the Urinary System, Benjamin Cummings Functions, Jerry L. Cook Copyright, renal tubule, External urethral sphincter, Peritubular Capillaries, glomerular capsule, Proximal convoluted tubule, urethral sphincter
Content: Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb
Seventh Edition
Chapter 15 The Urinary System
Slides 15.1 ­ 15.20 Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Functions of the Urinary System Elimination of waste products Nitrogenous wastes Toxins Drugs
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.1a
Functions of the Urinary System
Regulate aspects of homeostasis water balance Electrolytes Acid-base balance in the blood blood pressure Red blood cell production Activation of vitamin D Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.1b
Organs of the Urinary system
Kidneys Ureters urinary bladder Urethra Figure 15.1a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.2
Location of the Kidneys
Against the dorsal body wall At the level of T12 to L3 The right kidney is slightly lower than the left Attached to ureters, renal blood vessels, and nerves at renal hilus Atop each kidney is an adrenal gland
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.3
Coverings of the Kidneys
Renal capsule Surrounds each kidney Adipose capsule Surrounds the kidney Provides protection to the kidney Helps keep the kidney in its correct location
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Slide 15.4
Regions of the Kidney
Renal cortex ­ outer region Renal medulla ­ inside the cortex renal pelvis ­ inner collecting tube Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 15.2b
Slide 15.5
Kidney Structures
Medullary pyramids ­ triangular regions of tissue in the medulla Renal columns ­ extensions of cortexlike material inward Calyces ­ cup-shaped structures that funnel urine towards the renal pelvis
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.6
blood flow in the Kidneys
Figure 15.2c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.7
Nephrons
The structural and functional units of the kidneys Responsible for forming urine Main structures of the nephrons Glomerulus Renal tubule
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.8
Glomerulus
A specialized capillary bed Attached to arterioles on both sides (maintains high pressure) Large afferent arteriole Narrow efferent arteriole
Figure 15.3c
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.9a
Glomerulus
Capillaries are covered with podocytes from the renal tubule
The glomerulus sits within a glomerular capsule (the first part of the renal tubule)
Figure 15.3c
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.9b
Renal Tubule Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule Proximal convoluted tubule Loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 15.3b
Slide 15.10
Types of Nephrons Cortical nephrons Located entirely in the cortex Includes most nephrons
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 15.3a Slide 15.11a
Types of Nephrons Juxtamedullary nephrons Found at the boundary of the cortex and medulla
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 15.3a Slide 15.11b
Peritubular Capillaries
Arise from efferent arteriole of the glomerulus Normal, low pressure capillaries Attached to a venule Cling close to the renal tubule Reabsorb (reclaim) some substances from collecting tubes
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.12
Urine Formation Processes
Filtration Reabsorption Secretion Figure 15.4 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.13
Filtration
Nonselective passive process Water and solutes smaller than proteins are forced through capillary walls Blood cells cannot pass out to the capillaries Filtrate is collected in the glomerular capsule and leaves via the renal tubule
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.14
Reabsorption
The peritubular capillaries reabsorb several materials Some water Glucose amino acids Ions Some reabsorption is passive, most is active Most reabsorption occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.15
Materials Not Reabsorbed Nitrogenous waste products Urea Uric acid Creatinine Excess water Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.16
Secretion ­ Reabsorption in Reverse Some materials move from the peritubular capillaries into the renal tubules Hydrogen and Potassium ions Creatinine Materials left in the renal tubule move toward the ureter
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.17
Formation of Urine
Figure 15.5 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.18
Characteristics of Urine Used for Medical Diagnosis
Colored somewhat yellow due to the pigment urochrome (from the destruction of hemoglobin) and solutes
Sterile
Slightly aromatic
Normal pH of around 6
Specific gravity of 1.001 to 1.035
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.19
Ureters
Slender tubes attaching the kidney to the bladder Continuous with the renal pelvis Enter the posterior aspect of the bladder Runs behind the peritoneum Peristalsis aids gravity in urine transport
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.20
Urinary Bladder Smooth, collapsible, muscular sac Temporarily stores urine
Figure 15.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.21a
Urinary Bladder Trigone ­ three openings Two from the ureters One to the urethrea
Figure 15.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.21b
Urinary Bladder Wall
Three layers of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle) Mucosa made of transitional epithelium Walls are thick and folded in an empty bladder Bladder can expand significantly without increasing internal pressure
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.22
Urethra
Thin-walled tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body by peristalsis Release of urine is controlled by two sphincters Internal urethral sphincter (involuntary) External urethral sphincter (voluntary)
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.23
Urethra gender differences
Length Females ­ 3­4 cm (1 inch) Males ­ 20 cm (8 inches) Location Females ­ along wall of the vagina Males ­ through the prostate and penis
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.24a
Urethra Gender Differences Function Females ­ only carries urine Males ­ carries urine and is a passageway for sperm cells
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.24b
Micturition (Voiding)
Both sphincter muscles must open to allow voiding
The internal urethral sphincter is relaxed after stretching of the bladder
Activation is from an impulse sent to the Spinal Cord and then back via the pelvic splanchnic nerves
The external urethral sphincter must be voluntarily relaxed
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.25
Maintaining Water Balance
Normal amount of water in the human body
Young Adult females ­ 50% Young adult males ­ 60% Babies ­ 75% Old age ­ 45% Water is necessary for many body functions and levels must be maintained
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.26
Distribution of Body Fluid Intracellular fluid (inside cells) Extracellular fluid (outside cells) Interstitial fluid Blood plasma Figure 15.7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.27
The Link Between Water and Salt
Changes in electrolyte balance causes water to move from one compartment to another Alters blood volume and blood pressure Can impair the activity of cells
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.28
Maintaining Water Balance
Water intake must equal water output
Sources for water intake
ingested foods and fluids Water produced from metabolic processes Sources for water output
Vaporization out of the lungs Lost in perspiration Leaves the body in the feces Urine production
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.29
Maintaining Water Balance
Dilute urine is produced if water intake is excessive Less urine (concentrated) is produced if large amounts of water are lost Proper concentrations of various electrolytes must be present
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.30
Regulation of Water and Electrolyte Reabsorption
Regulation is primarily by hormones
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) prevents excessive water loss in urine
Aldosterone regulates sodium ion content of extracellular fluid
Triggered by the rennin-angiotensin mechanism
Cells in the kidneys and hypothalamus are active monitors
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.31
Maintaining Water and Electrolyte Balance
Figure 15.9 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.32
Maintaining Acid-Base Balance in Blood
Blood pH must remain between 7.35 and 7.45 to maintain homeostasis Alkalosis ­ pH above 7.45 Acidosis ­ pH below 7.35 Most ions originate as byproducts of cellular metabolism
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.33a
Maintaining Acid-Base Balance in Blood Most acid-base balance is maintained by the kidneys Other acid-base controlling systems Blood buffers Respiration
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.33b
Blood Buffers
Molecules react to prevent dramatic changes in hydrogen ion (H+) concentrations Bind to H+ when pH drops Release H+ when pH rises Three major chemical buffer systems Bicarbonate buffer system Phosphate buffer system Protein buffer system
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.34
The Bicarbonate Buffer System
Mixture of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Bicarbonate ions (HCO3­) react with strong acids to change them to weak acids
Carbonic acid dissociates in the presence of a strong base to form a weak base and water
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.35
respiratory system Controls of Acid-Base Balance
carbon dioxide in the blood is converted to bicarbonate ion and transported in the plasma
Increases in hydrogen ion concentration produces more carbonic acid
Excess hydrogen ion can be blown off with the release of carbon dioxide from the lungs
Respiratory rate can rise and fall depending on changing blood pH
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.36
Renal Mechanisms of Acid-Base Balance Excrete bicarbonate ions if needed Conserve or generate new bicarbonate ions if needed Urine pH varies from 4.5 to 8.0
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.37
Developmental Aspects of the Urinary System Functional kidneys are developed by the third month Urinary system of a newborn Bladder is small Urine cannot be concentrated
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.38a
Developmental Aspects of the Urinary System Control of the voluntary urethral sphincter does not start until age 18 months Urinary infections are the only common problems before old age
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.38b
Aging and the Urinary System
There is a progressive decline in urinary function The bladder shrinks with aging Urinary retention is common in males
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 15.39

EN Marieb, KN Hoehn

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