The wreck of Leach's Petrels in the autumn of 1952

Tags: BRITISH BIRDS, petrels, North Atlantic, young birds, J. E. Flynn, A. A. Charlton, G. Littlewood, M. Jones, M. Butterworth, Maxwell Knight, A. Hazelwood, G. P. Davies, B. H. Baillie, C. J. P. Clarke, H. Richardson, B. W. Arthur, G. Lester Smith, G. Legrand, M. B. Castle, T. Hotchkiss, Miss G. Brown, Miss G. Clapham, F. Brocklebank, Sir E. Royden, B. Blezard, F. E. Carter, A. Darlington, A. Drake, E. Bates, W. Mulligan, H. G. Apthorpe, report, editorial note, Slimbridge, journal, A. Braithwaite, HUGH BOYD, unprecedented numbers, oceanic birds, Wildfowl Trust, Storm Petrels, A. Baldridge, E. Barnes, J. A. F. Bowring, D. Baker, Miss F. E. Baldwin, North American birds, J. Edgworth, G. B. G. Benson, P. Clarke, W. Atkinson, M. Arthur, Mrs. Barrington Davies, A. J Bailey, A. Benington
Content: BRITISH BIRDS NUMBER 5, V O L . X L V I I , MAY, 1954. THE "WRECK " OF LEACH'S PETRELS IN THE AUTUMN OF 1952. BY HUGH BOYD. (The Wildfowl Trust, Slimbridge, Glos.). AN editorial note in this journal (antea, vol. xlv, p . 432) drew attention to the occurrence of unprecedented numbers of Leach's Petrels (Oceanodroma leucorrhoa) in Britain during late October and early November, 1952. The event received much publicity in the daily and weekly press and in broadcasts so that, although the number of petrels may not have been unprecedented, the number recorded certainly was. This report lists and summarizes the records, derives from them a minimal estimate of the number of casualties and shows how the "wreck" may be related to the weather prevailing over the North Atlantic in October, 1952, and to what is known of the autumn distribution of the species. The occurrences of Storm Petrels (Hydrobates pelagicus) during the same period are also recorded. A preliminary account published elsewhere (Boyd, 1953) is largely superseded by this report. T h e records of Leach's Petrels in the British Isles, except Scotland, in 1952 are listed in Appendix I. The Scottish records have been published and discussed by Wynne-Edwards (1954). To save space, observers' names have not been given with each record. This omission will undoubtedly make more difficult the task of the county historian anxious to identify individual occurrences. The less scrupulous among them may accept the assurance that considerable efforts have been made to eliminate duplication, the others will find the whole correspondence deposited with the Editors of this journal. It might also prove of interest to the historian of natural history. Over 560 people have contributed to this report. The writer wishes to thank them all for their assistance and to apologise to any omitted in error from Appendix III, or cited there incorrectly. T H E NUMBERS OF PETRELS SEEN IN BRITAIN AND Western Europe. The available information on the numbers of petrels reported from various parts of Britain is summarized in Table I. The birds are classified in two ways. Those still on the wing are classed as "flying", but those picked up alive are included with the dead, since scarcely any are known to have recovered. In those localities where the petrels were very numerous counts had to be supplemented or replaced by estimates. All those estimates included here may be considered conservative. In most cases no numerical
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BRITISH BIRDS.
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TABLE
I. NUMBERS Region
OF LEACH'S PETRELS REPORTED IN Great Britain AN:
IRELAND IN AUTUMN, I O W .
Seen flying Found dead or dying Apparent order
Counts Estimates Counts Estimates
of total
(addtl.)
casualties
ENGLAND S.W. Pen- /Coast insula \ Inland
160 19
+1,200 --
855 113
+1,600 --
2,600
Channel cnannei
Thames «fCoast 1 names ^ I n l a n d
T, . ,. /Coast E. A n g h a | I n , a n d
·Wern bevern
T
,
irent
/Coast ^Inland /Coast \inland
MTMv Mersey
/Coast ^ Iniand
4<5 0 2 4 6 300 5 0 6 136 IO
-- -- -- _ -- _ + 350 -- -- +1,000 _
15 33 5 2? 2 ^ 27 ,12 1 22 262 28
-- -- _ -- _ + 300 _ -- -- + 50 --
50 4o 3o 45o 30 400
Humber -, Jyne
(Coast, \ Inland /Coast \ Inland
S(mecS. T1. n01f -/^CI on al asnt d
5 r
~
1
--
1
--
-
2 + 200 Q
Z 28 2 6 39 I4
~ -- -- - + 50
40 jo 100
-r j . 1 /Coast
Total
(inland
658) _ 47} 7 ° 5
i,2io| , . , 4o6f I ' 6 r 6
,,_ 3.75°
WALES South
/Coast \ Inland
36 + 200
1
--
394 22
+ 200 --·
700
North Total
/Coast \ Inland
13
+ 300
1
--
34 + 100
5
--
51
455
200
900
SCOTLAND Total
168
+ hundreds 374 West Coast
500
IRELAND Munster Leinster Connaught Ulster
270 64 14
+thousands 69
+tens
26
hundreds 20
+tens
49
+1,200 +few ?
1,300 40 50 70
Total
348
164
1,500
TOTAL BRITISH CASUALTIES
(enumerated) 2,609 (including estimates) 6,700
VOL. XLVII.] WRECK OF LEACH'S PETRELS.
139
estimates of casualties are available for those parts of Ireland where the birds occurred in quantity, so that the Irish total of 1500 is no more than a guess. The totals for the other three countries are more representative of the numbers seen, but of course it is not possible to estimate how many birds died unreported. The totals of flying- birds for those areas where petrels were seen in considerable numbers for several days were obtained by adding together the highest daily totals for each locality. The use of such a standardized procedure in determining the numbers of dead was impracticable, but, td avoid over-estimating the casualties, only one figure has been used for each locality where duplication of counts may have occurred. In determining the total casualties, birds seen flying inland have been treated as lost. Few can have survived. It appears that the number of Leach's Petrels dying in Britain jn 1952 was certainly not less than 2600, was probably not less than 6700 and may well have been substantially greater if, as seems likely, the numbers of casualties reported from Ireland and Scotland fail to provide a good sample of the birds lost in those countries. During the last three months of 1952 Leach's Petrels were also reported from France (Jouanin, 1952, 1953; M. Noel Mayaud in litt. to Prof. V . C . Wynne-Edwards), Belgium (Lippens, 1953), Holland (Taapken, 1953 a, b ; Tolman, 1953), Switzerland (Sutter, 1952) and Germany (Goethe, 1953). Though quite large (if inadequately specified) numbers of petrels were seen flying off the western coasts of France, the numbers of reported casualties are to be measured in tens rather than thousands, and in the Other Countries the numbers found were very small.
T H E GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CASUALTIES. The regional grouping used in Table I shows that the petrels were very widespread. They were found in every county in England except Rutland, all the Welsh counties, 24 of the 33 Scottish counties (Wynne-Edwards, loc. cit.) and 29 of the 32 in Ireland. But nearly all the records of flying birds were from western coastal districts and the g r e a t majority of the dead were found in these same areas. In England by far the largest number of casualties occurred in Bridgwater Bay (Somerset). Although it is particularly difficult to synthesize the numerous reports from this area, it appears likely that the total casualties there were of the order of 2400. The Mersey area (see Hardy, 1953, for a more detailed account, with a map) provided the second largest number of casualties, as well as reports of many birds flying offshore. The Severn estuary, the North Lancashire coast and the Isle of Man were other places where petrels were plentiful, both alive and dead. In South Wales the bulk of the casualties occurred on the Pern-
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BRITISH BIRDS.
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brokeshire coast near Marloes, the Towy estuary (Carmarthen), the Gower peninsula (Glamorgan) and the coast near Aberystwyth (Cardigan). The major accumulation in North Wales was near Portmadoc, on the south coast of Caernarvon. Wynne-Edwards (loc. cit.) has described the distribution of the Scottish records. The largest numbers were seen in the west, on the coasts of Ayrshire and Argyll, though there were only three localities where more than fifty petrels were seen. Inland there was a concentration in north Perthshire, where over seventy specimens were found (the only county elsewhere in Britain with a larger number of inland casualties was Somerset). There were few records from the east. The Irish localities where petrels were most numerous were on the west coast: Bantry Bay and Dunmanus Bay in Cork, Dingle Bay (Kerry) and Galway Bay. There were lesser numbers on the Waterford coast and in Dublin Bay, but no concentrations inland.
TIMES OF OCCURRENCE. Leach's Petrels were reported in Britain from mid-September, 1952, but Table II shows that almost all the records of both living and dead birds refer to the last two weeks of October and the first week of November. Hardy (loc. cit.), on the basis of reports from the Irish Sea area, has written of an invasion which " b e g a n early in September, reached its peak offshore late that month, while the peak inland came late October-early November, and the invasion ended in mid-December". This might serve as a description of events in the Liverpool district (although the evidence for an offshore peak in late September seems inadequate), but considering the British records as a whole it is clear that there is only one comparatively brief invasion to be investigated, the occurrences outside the period October 21st to November 8th being no more numerous than in many other years. The lack of agreement between the regional totals in Tables I and II results from differences in compilation, not errors in arithmetic. The weekly totals of flying birds in Table II were obtained by summing all the available daily totals. The numbers of dead exclude records not precisely dated and also those of bodies described as "long dead", "remains", or in similar terms. The use of a unit of time as large as a week rather obscures the differences in the times of arrival of petrels in different parts of the country. The precursors of the main influx appeared on the Waterford coast (South Ireland) on October 21st, remaining until 24th, on which day large numbers appeared in the bays of S . W . Cork, increasing on the following day and remaining until 27th, after which the dead outnumbered the living. Most of the dated records of living birds in other parts of Ireland refer to October 27th-30th.
REGION
TABLE II. NUMBERS OF LEACH'S PETRELS FOUND IN BRITAIN EACH WEEK DURING AUTUMN, 1952.
September
October
November
December
< 0
Condition 1 7-13 14-20 21-27 28-4 5 - i 1 12-18 19-25 26-I 2-8 9-15 16-22 23-29 30-6 7-13 14-20
when
r
seen
ENGLAND S.W. and / Flying --
--
2
22 2,2So a 54
<
Channel
\Dead
9 960 124 10
3
Severn
/Flying \Dead
--
1
3 750
7
1
97
26 1
-- -- (1 Jan.
Mersey
/Flying
8--
50 --
3
4
1,250
90
I
and Lakes \ D e a d
--
2
1
90 150 36
28
4
213
ft
East Thames / Flying
to Tyne
\Dead
WALES
/Flying \Dead
1
--
1--
5 2
1
16
6
I
1
64
29 2
I
--
400 350
50 600
14 11
7
1
--
--
o
--
1
--
t-1
TOTAL IN
ENGLAND
/ Flying
AND WALES ;3 1 Dead
8
1
50
--
2
1
3
12
430 4,650 157
1
I
2
60 1.810 343 6 0
39
4
3
2
3
M > ft
SCOTLAND
/ Flying \Dead
-- -- -- -- 20?
-- 300 130
3
-- -- -- ----
43
X
IRELAND
South and West4
/ Flying \Dead
---- -- -- -- --
600 1,500 300 1,000 2
1 -- -- -- ---- 2
w H SO
North and /Flying
East
\Dead
~~
20
1 Birds picked up alive are included in the total of " Dead."
5 100
10
4 35
8
1
I -- ----
Wr
CO
2 Numbers in italics include estimates and approximate counts, the omission of which would falsify the general picture. 3 Totals including estimates are rounded to nearest ten.
* The totals for South and West Ireland are almost entirely made up of arbitrary figures for terms like " swarms "
and " very m a n y . " Other Irish figures are much reduced because many of the records could not be precisely dated.
For additional explanations see text.
1--1
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BRITISH BIRDS.
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In the south-west of England and on the Welsh coasts the first petrels were seen on October 23rd, but they became much more numerous on 25th and 26th (Saturday and Sunday, observers more numerous also). There were many hundreds flying in Bridgwater Bay on 26th and probably 500 in the estuary of the River Severn. The numbers in Bridgwater Bay remained high until 30th, when over 500 were still present, but by that date most of the birds reported elsewhere in the south-west and Wales were dead. A more detailed account of the events in the Bristol Channel area has been given by Boyd (loc. tit.). In Cornwall, Devon and the southern coastal counties living birds occurred from October 25th to 31st, most on 27th. October 30th and 31st were the peak dates for live birds on the shores of Liverpool Bay. Further north on the coasts of Lancashire and Cumberland most were seen on 28th and 29th. Freshly-dead birds were found inland in these northwestern counties mainly on 30th and 31st and during the first few days of November. Living birds were found in the Midlands and eastern counties between October 25th and November 9th, but mostly from October 26th to 31st. The peak date in the West Midlands was 26th. Further east and to the north it was 29th. Petrels were first seen on the west coast of Scotland on October 26th (Firth of L o m e and Loch Linnhe). Two days later they appeared on the Ayrshire coast and the first few were found inland. The main scatter across the country took place from 27th to 30th. After 31st no more were seen alive, except for a small number in Skye, Lewis and Shetland, November 4th to 7th, although the peak tor discoveries or. dead birds was not reached until the week-end of November 1st and 2nd. In the west and north of France the petrels were found from October 31st to November 2nd. In the south of France (Herault Dept.) they appeared in the first few days of November. It is thought that these birds were driven overland from the Bay of Biscay rather than originating from the Gulf of Lyons (Jouanin loc. o't,),_ although it is known that Leach's Petrels do occur in the Mediterranean. [There was a minor wreck in Italy between November 12th and 20th, 1951 (Moltoni, 1952).] Three of the Dutch records were between October 29th and November 2nd, but more petrels were found in Holland on November 7th and 8th and all the Belgian records refer to- 7th to n t h . The bird found at Basle, Switzerland, was picked up on November 8th. PREVIOUS OCCURRENCES. Leach's Petrels are seen off the western shores of Britain every autumn (much more frequently than in summer, when some are actually resident in a few of the most remote British islands). T h e numbers reported are generally small. They occur most frequently in October and November, less so in September and December, and
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rarely in the mid-winter months, their appearance usually coinciding with strong winds. The latest occurrence of more than isolated examples inland was in December, 1948, but this was a minor affair, fewer than fifty birds being reported. For an incursion comparable in scale to that of 1952 we have to go back to 1891, when petrels were found in many parts of Britain from September 26th to the middle of October (see especially Evans, 1892). Because of the differences in publicity and public interest then and now, it is not possible to determine whether the casualties in 1891 exceeded those in 1952 ; but this is not important, the point of interest being that over sixty years elapsed between the wrecks.
T H E CAUSES OF THE WRECK. The influx occurred at a time of widespread gales and after a series of westerly gales had swept the North Atlantic. Occurrences, both large- and small-scale, in earlier years have also been associated with strong winds. There is no doubt that the weather was the efficient cause of the wreck. Three questions require to be answered: 1) W a s the weather a sufficient cause, or were there other contributory factors? 2) W h y are events of this kind so infrequent? 3) W h y were the victims almost all Leach's Petrels? Before discussing the weather, it is desirable to consider other factors which might have affected the petrels. First among these is food. The distribution of the birds may be supposed to be determined very largely by the distribution of suitable food and shortage of food would lead to abnormal movements in search of it or, in the extreme, to starvation. Many people finding dead petrels noted how emaciated most of the birds were. Examination of over 100 specimens picked up at Brean Down (Somerset) by N . W . Moore (Personal communication) revealed the absence of dermal fat and of recently-ingested suitable food, and extensive wasting of the muscles. R. H. Poulding examined tissues from several of these birds by appropriate histological techniques and reports (personal communication) the virtual absence of glycogen, the main source of consumable energy. Wynne-Edwards (loc. cit.) records the mean weig-ht of 10 reasonably fresh Scottish specimens as 29.5 g m . , only 6 8 % of the mean weight (43.5 gm.) of 16 adults measured in July or August by Gross (1935). [No weights of healthy petrels in October have been published.] Weight losses of this magnitude approach, or exceed, the physiological limit beyond which recovery is impossible, due to irreversible destruction of tissues for the provision of energy. Thus it is clear that most, if not all, the birds had been without suitable food for a long period, perhaps a week or more. But our ignorance of the normal food of the species and consequently of its possible scarcity or unavailability is such that to attribute the wreck to a failure of the food supply in the normal range is to abandon explanation for speculation.
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Rankin and Duffey (1948) have drawn attention to the fact that Leach's Petrel was the only one of several species of small oceanic birds "to show actual distress and inability to combat the conditions imposed on i t " by severe storms, with wind-speeds of up to 90 knots. They describe how the birds kept very low above the water, "but every now and again, through fatigue or just bad luck, some were caught by the gale and whisked away like feathers in a hurricane at an incredible rate". Earlier Eliot (1939), in an account of the aftermath of a hurricane crossing Connecticut on September 21st, 1938, describes how Leach's Petrels in particular were widely scattered inland by it. He continues: " T o judge by the past, Wilson's Petrels are almost exempt from being blown inland, even when, as in late August 1933, they are much more numerous off Southern New England than Leach's Petrels a r e . " Thus it seems possible that Leach's Petrel is exceptionally vulnerable to the effects of winds of speeds substantially greater than its normal flight-speed, about 19 knots (Mayr, 1938). It has been suggested that the relative frequency of storm-driven birds in October and November is due to the presence in the population of many young birds only recently fledged. The period during which European-bred Leach's Petrels first go to sea has not been determined, but North American birds first leave their nestingburrows between the last few days of September and the middle of November (from data provided by Gross, 1947, and Hawksley, 1950). Thus it is likely that many of the young are at sea by October 21st. Most unfortunately, the proportion of young birds in the extensive British material is not known. Jouanin (1952) notes that 11 of 28 specimens (39%) examined by M. J. Estanove and himself were birds of the year. Leach's Petrel lays only one egg, is probably sexually mature at one year and many individuals live to 9 years or more (Gross, 1947). A rough calculation, assuming the expectancy of life of an individual on first going to sea to be seven years, leads to the inference that only 13% of the population at the end of October will consist of young birds. The proportion of young birds in the French sample is three times as many. Thus it is quite likely that young petrels are more vulnerable than older ones, although the sample is too small to establish the point. MacPherson (1892) noted that specimens found on the Cumberland coast in October and November were usually young birds, but that in the wreck of late September, 1891, all those he saw were adults (as would be expected, since few young would yet be on the wing). It seems reasonable to conclude that the presence of young birds in the population at the end of October had the effect of increasing the number of casualties. Almost all the specimens carefully examined showed extensive signs of moult, affecting the flight-feathers and tail as well as the body-plumage. The suggestion that this moult may have reduced the capacity of the petrels to withstand strong winds may be true,
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though it cannot be verified. It should perhaps be noted that in adults the moult lasts from August to March. The moult from the juvenile plumage to the first adult plumage does not occur until January--March (Mayaud, 1950). It seems unlikely that the protracted adult moult would lead to an especial strain on the total metabolism in October and since the replacement of the flightfeathers is a gradual process it again seems unlikely to reduce drastically the resistance of the birds to bad weather. Other hypotheses put forward to account for the wreck include epizootic disease, poisoning by chemicals dumped at sea and vitamin deficiences, but there is no evidence for any of these. Some oiled birds were found but these formed only a very small fraction of the total casualties.
T H E NORMAL AUTUMN DISTRIBUTION. One further problem requires consideration before discussion of the meteorological situation, namely the expected distribution of Leach's Petrels in October. Although the species nests in a few of the British islands, the Faeroes and the Westmann Islands, its main breeding grounds are on islands off southern Labrador, Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Maine, and its distribution in the North Atlantic in summer and early autumn reflects this, many more birds being seen in the west than in the east. Nearly all the records for September and early October involving any number of birds refer to the Outer Bank Region (40°--500 N., 40°--50° W.). [See Nicholson (1951) for the system of named areas in the Atlantic from which this name is taken.] In mid-October, and after, there is a southward movement, perhaps with a reduction in density. Rankin and Duffey (loc. cit.) in mid-October, 1944, found the species in greatest numbers from 35°W. to 26°W. (Midway Region), an area otherwise little frequented. They suggest that this may have been due to a five-day gale moving eastwards, causing* a displacement of 600 miles from the normal range. However, Philipson and Doncaster (1951) saw small numbers each day between October n t h and 15th, 1949, while travelling westward from 42°o'N ., i 8 ° o ' W . to 35°24'N., 5 i ° 3 i ' W . , so that there may normally be some movement eastward as well as to the south. This seems quite likely if the distribution of Leach's Petrel (and other small petrels) is as closely correlated with the area of high density of macro-plankton as Jespersen (1929) indicates and since, as Jespersen has also pointed out, the dominant winds show a clockwise rotation over the Atlantic as a whole. [Data on pelagic distribution from Bagenal (1951), Bent (1922), Bourliere (1946), Grayce (1950), Mayr (loc. cit.), Moore (1941), Nicholson (1946), Olivier (1950) and Wynne-Edwards (1935) as well as the authors mentioned above]. It is not known whether the European-breeding population also
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BRITISH BIRDS.
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frequents the Outer Bank Region in early autumn. There is some evidence that it may be largely independent. Romer (1952) summarizing observations from weather-ships in 1950, reports that at station I (59°N., I9°W.) there was a strong southward migration between August 20th and September 9th, after which date none were seen, while at station J (52°3o'N., 2o"W.) considerable numbers (up to 15 at a time) were seen from September 12th to 21st. Hardy (loc.cit.) also mentions the collection of Leach's Petrels on ships off southern Ireland in autumn as indicating an autumn passage. The movements in September are presumably of adults (although not necessarily breeding-birds). The more frequent occurrence of young birds on the coast noted by MacPherson (loc. cit.) might reflect not so much a difference in the capacity of the young to withstand storms as a difference in the areas frequented, the adults being further offshore.
NORTH ATLANTIC WEATHER IN OCTOBER, 1952. It being established that in early autumn the majority of Leach's Petrels are probably in the Outer Bank Region (40°--5o°N., 400-- 5o°W.), with the (small) European population perhaps concentrated in the area centred on 5o°N., 20'W., and that the species is vulnerable to winds exceeding 25 knots, so that in air masses moving at greater speeds individuals are carried to leeward even when endeavouring to maintain position, it is possible to state the meteorological problem quite simply: were the velocities and trajectories of the winds over the North Atlantic in October, 1952, such that birds initially concentrated in the Outer Bank Region would be carried some 1400 miles eastwards to the shores of Britain and western Europe? The answer appears to be: Yes. It has been provided by Mr. R. F . M. Hay, of the Marine Branch, Meteorological Office, Air Ministry, to whom the writer is very much indebted. From a study of the synoptic charts for October, 1952, Mr. Hay has determined the trajectories of the paths followed by the air which reached five of the locations in which the greatest numbers of dead birds were found. These trajectories are shown in Fig. 1 (reproduced by permission). Mr Hay draws particular attention to the trajectory originating in the figure at 1200 G.M.T. October 21st at 49°N., 30°W. He writes " I think it quite likely that this air originated from the Newfoundland region some 60 hours earlier around 0001 G.M.T. October 19th. The subsequent movement of this air, shown on the diagram, was along a very looped track and it seems possible that the petrels arriving in S.W. Ireland on October 25th had spent about six days on the wing, most of the time in stormy conditions. The complex trajectory of the air was due to the formation of a very deep depression on October 23rd, which at 1200 G.M.T. was centred about 100 miles
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F I G . I . W I N D MOVEMENTS OVER THE NORTH ATLANTIC IN LATE OCTOBER, 1952. (Drawn by R. F. M. HAY and reproduced by permission). The map shows the trajectories of the paths followed by the air which reached five of the localities where large numbers of Leach's Petrels (Oceanodroma leucorrhoa) were found. These paths may be traced by following each of the five paths from its end-point, against the direction of the wind as shown by the arrows, to its origin. For example, the air reaching the Severn estuary at 1200, October 26th had travelled from a point almost 4ocW. at midnight, October 24th, having earlier crossed Iceland (on 23rd) and France (on 21st). See text for notes on wind velocities. south of ocean weather station " I n d i a " . At this station (59°N., I9°W.) easterly winds of Force 8 were recorded on 22nd and 23rd, while at station J (52°3o'N., 2o°W.) winds were westerly exceeding Force 9 from 1500, 22nd to 0300, 23rd and reached Force 11 at t i m e s " . The dates of arrival of the petrels in various parts of Britain seem to agree well with those to be expected from the plotted
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BRITISH BIRDS.
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wind trajectories of F i g . i, despite our ignorance of the extent to which the birds retained their capacity for flying effort against the wind on approach to a lee shore. The absence of early records from N . W . Scotland and Iceland may be due merely to a lack of observers, especially as it is likely that the birds would at that time (October 23rd) have still been capable of sustained flying effort. T H E RARITY OF WRECKS. The storms over the North Atlantic in October, 1952, were not of exceptional severity. Their damaging effect seems to have been due to the persistence of winds of sufficient strength to carry Leach's Petrels to leeward for so far and so long that when they arrived on the shores of western Europe the birds were either too exhausted to prevent themselves being carried inland, or died in attempting to do so. Petrels must frequently encounter severe storms, but apparently only rarely do these storms deposit the birds on a lee shore. Whether they can continue to lose way over the ocean indefinitely, in the absence of a coast causing them to expend additional energy, or whether they are sometimes subject to storm losses over the open ocean, there is at present no means of determining.
OTHER PETRELS. At the time of the influx of Leach's Petrels, a very few other oceanic birds were reported on the coast and inland. The Storm Petrel was the only species to occur in sufficient numbers to merit attention. Records of this species are given in Appendix II. It appears that not more than 100 were seen alive in the whole of the British Isles, that only about 50 were found dead and that only 11 of the occurrences were inland. No Wilson's Petrels (Oceanites oceanicus) were identified. Several Madeiran Petrels (Oceanodroma castro) were reported, but none of those critically examined proved to be of this form. In discussing why Leach's Petrel is particularly vulnerable in autumn, while the Storm Petrel occurs much less numerously and Wilson's Petrel very rarely, Wynne-Edwards (loc. cit.) has stressed differences in distribution rather than in capacity to withstand high winds. He points out that although Hydrobates pelagicus is the most numerous storm-petrel in British home waters it is nevertheless comparatively rare in our latitudes, which lie to the north of its main haunts. Wilson's Petrel is plentiful in the North Atlantic in the summer, but it starts moving south in September and few are left north of the tropics by late October. It is probably true that the facts of distribution are of most importance in determining the proportions of the various species of small petrels wrecked in Britain, but the possibility that Leach's Petrel is unusually vulnerable, derived from the observations of
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Rankin and Duffey (loc. cit.) and Eliot (loc. cit.) noted earlier, cannot be dismissed.
POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF THE WRECK. In order to discover whether the loss of at least 6,700 individuals in a fortnight might have serious consequences for the species we need to know the size of the total population. Estimates for some parts of the population are available, although these are neither very recent nor complete. Atkinson (1948) puts the size of the Hebridean population at 2,000 pairs. Gross (1935) estimated the population on the islands in the Bay of Fundy at 27,500 pairs, but notes that at that time it was decreasing rapidly and Hawksley (loc. cit.) found one of the colonies studied by Gross to contain only 1000 burrows in 1947 and 1948, compared with 3000 thirteen years earlier. However Gross (1947) still describes the species as common in the area. It is perhaps fluctuating widely in numbers, rather than decreasing. According to Peters and Burleigh (1951) there were at least 22 colonies, totalling 13,000 pairs, in Newfoundland. No estimates of the numbers nesting in Labrador, the Westmann Islands, or the Faeroes, are available, but they are not likely to be very large. The known colonies number some 40,000 pairs. Thus the population in October, including the young of the year, might be of the order of 120,000 individuals, in which case the casualties in October 1952 represented only 5--10% of the total population. If this loss was at all evenly distributed amongst the inhabitants of the various groups of colonies, it was probably not serious, but if this was not so and, for example, the majority of the victims were of European origin, the wreck might have served to wipe out some colonies or reduce them to dangerously low levels, especially those already endangered by increases in gulls and other predators, like many of the colonies in the Bay of Fundy.
SUMMARY. 1. A large-scale " w r e c k " of Leach's Petrels took place in the British Isles between October 21st and November 8th, 1952. 2. The number of casualties in Britain was probably not less than 6,700 and may have been substantially greater. 3. Petrels were found in every English county except Rutland, all the Welsh counties, 24 of the 33 in Scotland and 29 of the 32 in Ireland. But nearly all the records of flying birds were from western coastal districts and the great majority of the dead were found in these same areas. About one-third of the reported casualties were found in Bridgwater Bay, Somerset. 4. Leach's Petrels were found in France, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland and Germany at the same time, but in very small numbers.
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5. T h e last influx of comparable size w a s in September and October, 1891. 6. T h e " w r e c k " took place at a time of widespread gales and the persistence of s t r o n g winds over the N o r t h Atlantic in October 1952 was its principal cause, t h e probable distribution of the species at this season being an important contributory factor. 7. It is probable that the whole population of the species, not merely its small European component, was involved. If this was so, the effects of the " w r e c k " may not be serious. 8. A small number of Storm Petrels was also " w r e c k e d " . T h e disparity in numbers of the two species is due largely to the comparative rarity of Storm Petrels in British latitudes in October. APPENDIX I. RECORDS OF LEACH'S PETRELS IN BRITISH ISLES (EXCLUDING SCOTLAND) IN AUTUMN, 1952. This list includes all petrels reported, except those adequately identified as Storm Petrels, which are recorded in Appendix II. The occurrences are arranged under counties, in vice-county sequence.
CHANNEL ISLES. JERSEY.--1 found dead, Greve D'azette, Oct. 26th. ENGLAND AND W A L E S . SCILLIES.--1 found dead, Tresco, Oct. 25th. 1, St Anthony's, Oct. 27th. CORNWALL.--North Coast,--St Ives Bay: a few (6 at one time the most) alive, Oct. 29th; 2 alive, 31st; 1 alive, Nov. 1st. 1 dead some time, Lelant Beach, Nov. 23rd. 2 found dead, Perranporth, before Nov. 4th. Newquay: 30 alive, Oct. 31st; over 100 alive, Nov. 1st. A wing found Mawgan Forth, Dec. 26th. 1 found dead, Polzeath, Nov. 5th. 1 found dead in estuary of River Camel, Nov. 1st. Bude: at least 9 alive, Oct. 29th; 15 alive, 2 picked up alive (but dying) and 2 found dead, 30th; 4 alive, 1 found dead, 31st. South Coast.--1 found dying, Penzance, Oct. 27th. 4 found dead, Praa Sands, Oct. 29th. Marazion: 1 found dead, Oct. 28th; 3 found dead, Nov. 17th. 1 found dead, Long Rock, Oct. 27th. Porthleven district: single birds found dead, Oct. 25th, 26th and 29th and Nov. 1st. 3 found dead near Looe Bar, Nov. 8th. 1 found dead, Mullion, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead, Mawnan, Oct. 28th. 1 found dying, Falmouth, before Nov. 1st. 1 alive, Veryan, Oct. 29th. 1 flying off St. Mawes Castle, Oct. 27th. P a r : 1 found dead, Oct. 27th; 1 alive, 29th; 2 found dead before Nov. 7th. 3 alive, St. John's Lake, Nov. 3rd. 1 found dying, Torpoint, Oct. 27th. Inland--1 found dying, Kilkhampton, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead, Tamar Lake, Oct. 31st. DEVON.--North Coast.--1 found dead, Taw estuary, Oct. 25th. 50-roo (of both spp?) flying over the Taw at Bickington, Oct. 29th. A few seen alive, Fremington, Oct. 29th. 28 flying over R. Taw, Chivenor, Oct. 29th. 1 picked up alive, Barnstaple, Oct. 29th: 1 found dead, Saunton Sands, Oct. 27th. 1 alive, Ilfracombe, Oct. 29th. South Coast.--1 alive, Tamar estuary, Oct. 28th. Plymouth: 1 found dead Oct. 25th; 1 dying, 3 dead, 28th; 1 found dead, 29th. Single birds found dead, Wembury, Oct. 26th and 27th. 1 picked up alive, Bantham, Oct.
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24th; 2 found dead, 25th. 1 found dead Thurlestone, Oct. 26th; 1, 28th; 1, Nov. 1st; 1, 3rd. 2 found dead, Paignton, end Oct. 4 found dead or dying, Torbay, Oct. 26th to Nov. 1st. 1 found dead, Torquay, Nov. 9th. 1 found dead, Seaton, Oct. 28th. Inland.--1 found dead near Holsworthy, Oct. 30th; another, Nov. 2nd. i found dead, Tavistock, Oct. 27th. 1 found dead near Yelverton, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead, Ivybridge, Oct. 25th. 1 found dead, Blackpool, near Newton Abbot, Nov. 5th. 1 found dying, Wilmington, Honiton, Oct. 28th. SOMERSET.--Coast.--Steart Point and the west side of the River Parrett: 3 seen flying, Oct. 25th; about 200 flying, 27th; 50 flying and 1 picked up alive, 29th; 35 alive and 36 found dead, Nov. 2nd; 2 (very long dead) Jan. 5th, 1953. Shore from mouth of River Brue north to Brean Down: some seen on the shore at Brean, Oct. 23rd; 16 flying off mouth of River Brue, 25th; 120 alive and many dead off Brean (82 collected on 500 yds. of shore), 25th; several alive and 5 found dead, Burnham, 26th; 3 flying and 47 dead in one mile at Brean, 26th; several more dead at Burnham, 27th; 31 found dead on half-mile of coast at Berrow, 28th; 600-800 (estimated) flying off Parrett estuary, 28th; over 250 flying along half-mile of coast south of Burnham lighthouse, 28th; over 70 dead or exhausted near jetty at Burnham and 50 dead in area one mile north of jetty, as well as c. 250 carried in on tide in afternoon, 28th; about 20 alive and 1 dead at Brean Down, 29th; n o found dead near Burnham (some living birds also), 29th; 28 found dead at jetty and 54 dead in half-mile south of lighthouse on 30th, with about 500 still alive in the Parrett estuary; 27 found dead and about 30 alive at Burnham on 31st; at least 20 alive near jetty, Burnham, 7 found dead near Burnham, 26 found dead and 4 alive between Burnham and Brean, all on 31st; 37 found dead, about 10 alive, same area, 31st; 2 dead and about 6 alive between Berrow and Brean, Nov. 1st; 4 flying near Burnham jetty, Nov. 1st; 11 alive and 18 dead near Burnham, Nov. 2nd; 1 flying in the Brue estuary, Nov. 3rd. In addition, during the period Oct. 25th-Nov. 13th, over 50 were found dead in fields near Brean and 15 were picked up on Berrow Golf Course. On Nov. gth, 81 were found dead on the shore between Brean Down and Berrow Church. Uphill: at least 6 alive, Oct. 29th; 4 alive, 30th. 2 picked up alive Weston-super-Mare, Oct. 30th and on 31st, all dying later, n found dead on 2 | miles of beach at Uphill and Weston, Nov. 4th. 1 picked up alive, Sand Bay, Oct. 28th. 1 seen, Clevedon, Oct. 30th. Inland.--1 found dead, Lype Common (at 1300 ft.), Nov. 2nd. 2 found dead, Dulverton, before Nov. 5th. 1 found dead, East Lyng, near Taunton, before Nov. 5th. 1 found dead, Ashbrittle, Oct. 21st. 1 picked up alive in Taunton, Oct. 28th; 1, 29th; 1, near Taunton, 30th (all died later). Highbridge: 1 flying, Oct. 29th; 6 flying, 29th; 1 dead, 30th; 1 dead, 31st; 1 dead, Nov. 3rd. 1 found dead Blackford, Wedmore, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead one mile N.W. of Martock, Oct. 28th. 1 alive near Biddisham, Oct. 29th. 1 picked up alive, Street, Oct. 31st; 1 found dead, Nov. 2nd. 1 found dead, Westhay, Glastonbury, Nov. 1st. Wells and district: 1 found dead, Oct. 27th; 1 dying, 29th; 1 found dead, Nov. 7th; 2 found dead, before Nov. 8th. 1 picked up alive, Croscombe, Oct. 29th; 3 found alive 30th. 1 found dead near Wookey Hole Cave, Nov. 1st. 1 killed by cat, Bleadon, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead, Worle, Oct. 30th. Cheddar Reservoir: 2 alive, Oct. 25th; 2 or 3 alive, 27th; up to 6 alive, 29th; one alive. Nov. 2nd; between 50 and 60 found dead from Oct. 27th to Nov. 3rd. 6 found dead near Cheddar Reservoir, before Nov. 2nd. 1 found dead near Congresbury, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead near Banwell, before Nov. 3rd. Wings found on Blackdown, Dec. 27th. 2 found dead, Blagdon reservoir, early Nov. 1 found dead, Sandford, Nov. 1st. 1 found dead, Stanton Drew, Oct. 27th. 1 found dead near Ston Easton, before Nov. n t h . 1 found long dead, Saltford, Jan. 12th, 1953. 2 found dead, Temple Cloud, Oct. 28th. 1 found dead, Bath, Oct. 27th; 1 29th. 1 picked up alive, Limpley Stoke, Oct. 31st. 1 alive, Barrow Gurney reservoir, Oct. 28th. WILTSHIRE.--1 found dying, Downton, Oct. 28th. 1 found dead, West
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Kington, Oct. 30th. 3 found dead in lake Longleat Park, Nov. 10th. 1 found dead, Pewsey, Oct. 31st. 1 (dead some time), Marlborough, Nov. 5th. 1 found dead, Trowbridge, Nov. 3rd. 1 picked up alive, Swindon, before Nov. 5th. 1 picked up alive, Salisbury, Oct. 31st. 2 found dead near West Tytherley, before Nov. 14th. 1, long dead, Clarendon, Jan. 14th, 1953. DORSET.--Coast.--1 flying off Abbotsbury, Oct. 13th. West Bay, Bridport: 1 dead, 1 dying, Oct. 27th; 5 flying, 1 dead, Oct. 29th; 1 alive, 1 dead, Oct. 30th; 2 dead, on or about Nov. 4th. Some flying west along Chesil Beach, Oct. 27th; 1 (dead some days), Nov. 3rd. 1 found dead, Charmouth, Nov. 9th. 1 found dead Wyke, before Nov. 7th. About 20 (both spp?), flying in Portland Harbour, Oct. 27th; 1 alive, 31st. 2 alive, Overcombe, Oct. 27th. 7 (both spp?), flying in Poole Harbour, Oct. 31st. Inland.--1 picked up alive near Maiden Newton, Oct. 27th. Sherborne district: 1 found dead, Oct. 29th; 1 dead, Nov. 3rd; 2 dead, 7th. 1 found dead near Dorchester, 27th. 1 picked up alive near Cranborne, Oct. 28th. 1 found dead, Bincombe, before Nov. 6th. Isle of Wight.--Freshwater Bay: 6 alive (2 dying later), Oct. 27th; 4 alive, 28th; 2 alive, 29th. HAMPSHIRE.--Coast.--1 alive near Portsmouth Cathedral, Oct. 13th. at least 4 at sea \ mile south of Bournemouth, Oct. 26th. 1 flying, 1 mile offshore, Fareham, Oct. 25th; another, inshore, 31st. 1 found dying, Barton-on-Sea, Oct. 26th. 1 found dying, Lee-on-SoIent, Oct. 26th. 1 living with hens for some days, Christchurch, early Nov. Inland.--2 found dead, Laverstoke, Whitchurch, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Andover, Nov. 3rd. 1 found dead near Winchester, Nov. 3rd. 1 found dying, Walkford, New Milton, Oct. 27th. 1 found dead, Stoke Charity, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Hambledon, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead near Droxford, Nov. 1st or 2nd. 1 found dead, Cove, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Sutton Scotney, Oct. 31st. SUSSEX.--1 flying in Chichester Harbour, Oct. 26th. 1 picked up alive, Whyke, Chichester, Oct. 26th. 1 found dead, Broadbridge Heath, Horsham, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Cowfold, Nov. 2nd. KENT.--1 found dead, Tunbridge Wells, Oct. 28th. 1 (prob. this sp.) flying, Cliffe, Oct. 12th. 1 flying, near Cliffe, Nov. 2nd. 1 found dead, Sheppey, Nov. 8th. 1 picked up alive (dying later), Whitstable, Nov. 17th; 1 found dead, Sandwich Bay, Nov. 30th. SURREY.--1 found dead, near Haslemere, Nov. 1st. 1 found alive, Cranleigh, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, between Ham and Richmond, Nov. 2nd. 1 found dead, Kingston Hill, Nov. 14th. ESSEX.--1 found dead, Waltham Abbey, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, King George V reservoir, Nov. 2nd. 1 found dead, Upminster, Romford, Nov. 2nd. 1 found dead, Barling, Southend-on-Sea, Nov. 4th. 1 alive, Abberton reservoir, Nov. 7th. 1 found dead, St. Osyth, Oct. 31st. HERTFORDSHIRE.--1 picked up by cat, Hemel Hempstead, Oct. 30th. 1 picked up alive near Royston, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Bishop's Stortford, Nov. 1 st. MIDDLESEX.--1 found dead, Regent's Park, London, Oct. 28th. 1 found dead, Queen Mary reservoir, Littleton, Nov. 2nd. 1 alive, Brent reservoir, Nov. 3rd. 1 alive, No. 1 reservoir, Staines, Nov. 3rd. BERKSHIRE.--1 found dead, Abingdon, Oct. 27th; another found alive, Nov. 6th. 1 found long dead, Cholsey, Wallingford, Nov. 15th. 1 found dead, Denchworth, Nov. 1st. 1 flying over Wash Common, Nov. 21st. 1 found dead, Beenham, Reading, Nov. 4th. OXFORDSHIRE.--1 picked up alive, Banbury, Nov. 2nd. 1 found dead, Witney, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead, Brize Norton, between Oct. 27th and Nov. 8th. In
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Oxford: i picked up alive, Oct. 28th; 1 found dead, Nov. 4th; another found dead, between Oct. 27th and Nov. 8th. 1 found dead, Mapledurham, Oct. 30th. BUCKINGHAMSHIRE.--1 found dead, Great Brickhill, Bletchley, Oct. 26th. 1 found dead Penn, Nov. 7th. SUFFOLK.--1 picked up alive, Reydon, Oct. 17th. 1 alive, Mendham, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Oulton Broad, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Burgate, Nov. 2nd. 1, dead some days, Long Melford, Nov. 7th. 1 found dead, Shadingfield, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead, Walberswick, " a day or two before" Oct. 31st; 1 seen flying there, Oct. 31st and Nov. 1st; 1 picked up alive (and killed), before Nov. 4th. NORFOLK.--1 (possibly 2) seen off Cley, Oct. 14th. 1 picked up alive, Fakenham, Oct. 28th; another found dead, 29th. 2 seen at night in headlights of car at Surlingham, Oct. 29th. CAMBRIDGESHIRE.--1 picked up alive, Papworth Everard, Oct. 31st. 1 alive, Shepreth, Nov. 1st. 1 found dead, Cambridge Sewage Farm, Oct. 31st. Single birds found dead in Cambridge, Nov. 1st, 2nd and 3rd. BEDFORDSHIRE.--1 picked up alive, Turvey, Oct.. 29th. 1 found dead, Bromham, Oct. 30th. 1 found, Thurleigh, Nov. 1st. 1 found dead on railway between Ridgmont and Woburn Sands, Nov. 1st. 1 found dead, Leighton Buzzard, Oct. 31st. HUNTINGDONSHIRE.--1 picked up alive, Great Staughton, Oct. 30th. NORTHAMPTONSHIRE.--1 picked up alive, Carley, Oct. 25th. 1 flying over Ravensthorpe reservoir, Oct. 26th. 1 found dead, Brackley, Oct. 28th. 1 found dead near Loughborough, Nov. 2nd. 1 caught by dog, but flew off, Colebrook, Nov. 4th. GLOUCESTERSHIRE.--Bristol: 1 found dead, Oct. 29th; 3 found dead and 1 alive, 30th; 5 found dead 31st. 3 alive and 2 dead, Severn Beach, Oct. 28th. Aust: 2-300 alive, Oct. 26th; at least 3 alive, 1 dead, 27th; 1 found dead, Nov. 3rd. Remains of 2, Oldbury-on-Severn, Nov 9th. 1 found dead, Doynton, Oct. 26th. 1 flying, Stoke Gifford, Oct. 30th. 1 picked up alive, Alveston, Oct. 30th. 1 shot, Damery, Oct. 31st. "Great numbers" alive, 8 picked up dead or dying, Sharpness, Oct. 26th. 1 found dead, Dursley, Nov. 2nd. 1 found dead, Saul, Oct. 27th;: another, Nov. 2nd. 10 found dead, Frampton-on-Severn, Oct. 26th and after. Records of living birds seen over River Severn at Slimbridge: 1, Oct. 13th; 3, Oct. 25th; at least 260, Oct. 27th; 7, Oct. 28th; about 30, Oct. 29th; 31, Oct. 30th; 3, Oct. 31st; 6, Nov. 1st; 4, Nov. 2nd; 2, Nov. 3rd; 1, Nov. 5th. 1 picked up alive, Moreton Valence, Oct. 26th. 1 found dead, Staunton, Oct. 26th. Gloucester: 1 picked up alive, Oct. 26th; 1 found dead, same day; 1 picked up alive, 29th; 1 found dead, 29th; 1 found dead, 31st. 7 or 8 found dead, Cheltenham, Oct. 26th to 28th. Single birds found dead, Prestbury, Colesborne, Harp Hill, Whaddon and Swindon Villase and 2, Coombe Hill, Oct. 26th to 28th. 1 found dead, Bishop's Cleeve, Oct. 26th. 1 found dead, Cleeve Hill, about Nov. 5th. 1 found dead, Cirencester, before Nov. 1st. 1 alive, Tewkesbury, Oct. 26th. 1 picked up alive, Cannop, Cinderford, Nov. 2nd. 1 found dead, Lydney, Oct. 26th. 1 dead, Dymock, about Oct. 29th. MONMOUTHSHIRE.--1 found dead, Newport, Oct. 29th. Remains of 1 found, Peterstone Pill, Nov. 3rd. HEREFORDSHIRE.--1 found dead, Bromesherrow Heath, Oct. 27th. Remains found near Brampton Bryan, before Nov. n t h . 1 found dead, Pontrilas, Oct. 29th and a second before Nov. 7th. Single birds found dead at Stretton Grandison and Moreton-on-Lugg, about Oct. 29th. 1, Percombe, Oct. 29th. WORCESTERSHIRE.--1 picked up alive, Barbourne, Oct. 25th. 1 found dead, Worcester, Nov. 8th; also 2 others, dates unknown. 1 found dead, Wickhamford,Nov. 1st. 1 found dead near Comberton, about Nov. 1st. 1 found dead, Aston Somerville, before Nov. 8th. Single birds found dead, Blackwell,
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Kempsey, Redditch and Bewdley, dates unknown, i found dead, Upper Arley, Oct. 26th. 1 found dead, Bromsgrove, Oct. 27th. WARWICKSHIRE.--Single birds found dead: Selly Oak, Oct. 29th; Witton, Nov. 5th; Exhall, Nov. 6th; Hall Green, Oct. 29th; Bownbrook, Oct. 26th; South Yardley, date unknown; Northfield, date unknown; Olton, Oct. 29th; and near Nuneaton, before Oct. 28th. Single birds picked up alive: Long Marston, Oct. 26th; Greaves Stockton, Oct. 26th or 27th; Wishaw, Oct. 31st and Nov. 1st; H a m p t o n Lucy, O c t . 29th. 1 flying over Bartley Green reservoir, Oct. 26th. One flying over Stanford reservoir, Oct. 30th. Stratfordon-Avon: 1 picked up alive Oct. 31st or Nov. 1st; other single birds found dead Oct. 26th or 27th, Oct. 30th, Oct. 31st, and date unknown. 1 found dead, Wythall, Nov. 7th. S T A F F O R D S H I R E . -- 1 picked u p alive, Gailey Pools, O c t . 26th. 1 in flight, 2 dead, Bellfields reservoir, Oct. 31st; 1 found dead, Nov. 1st. 1 found dead, Cradley H e a t h , O c t . 26th. 1 in flight, C a n n o c k , O c t . 29th. 1 found dead, Burton-on-Trent, Oct. 30th; another picked up alive, 31st. 1 picked up alive, Stafford, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead, Weston-under-Lizard, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Cheddleton, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead, Leek, Nov. 3rd. 1 found dead, Newborough, Nov. 2nd. 7 found dead Orgreave, near Alrewas, Nov. 5th. 1 picked up alive, Trentham, Nov. 9th. 1 found dead, Pershall, Nov. 1st. SHROPSHIRE.--1 found dead, Aston-on-Clun, before Nov. 5th. 2 found dead, Altingham P a r k , end of Oct. 1 found dead, Shifnal, Oct. 29th; another, near Shifnal, Nov. 4th. 1 found dead, Wentnor, Nov. 1st. 1 found dead, Chirbury, a b o u t Nov. 3rd. 1, dead some time, L u d l o w , Nov. 12th. 1 found dead (? about a week), about Jan. 15th, 1953. GLAMORGAN.--Coast.--2 alive, 1 dead, Alltwen, Pontardulais, Oct. 26th. Whiteford Point, Llanmadoc: 4 found dead, Nov. 16th; 3 dead, Nov. 22nd; and 1 Dec. 7th. 3 found dead, Oxwich, Oct. 27th. 9 found dead, Swansea Bay, before Nov. 10th. About 40 found dead on 2J miles of shore, Swansea, Oct. 27th; and " m a n y " , Victoria Park, Swansea, same day. 1 alive, Port T a l b o t , O c t . 25th. 40 found dead, Kenfig S a n d s , O c t . 31st and Nov. 1st. 10 found dead, Sker, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Rest Bay, Porthcawl, Nov. 2nd. Several flying over a n d 1 dead, P o r t h c a w l Golf C o u r s e , O c t . 29th; 1, dead for some time, Nov. 4th. 2 found dead, Nottage, Oct. 31st. 2 found dead, Merthyr Mawr, Ogmore, Oct. 26th. 1 found dead, Barry, before Nov. 4th. Inland--1 picked up alive, P o r t h , R h o n d d a , O c t . 25th. 1, long dead, N e a t h , Nov. 18th. 1, long dead, Penllergaer, Dec. 19th. 1 alive Bridgend, Oct. 23rd; another and 1 dead, Oct. 27th. 1 found dead, Ewenny, Oct. 27th. 1 found dead, Cwrt Colman, Oct. 29th. 1 found dead, Llanishen reservoirs, Oct. 25th; another 27th. 1 found dead, R. Taff near Cardiff, Oct. 26th. BRECKNOCK.--3 found dead, Ystradgynlais, Oct. 29th to Nov. 5th. 1 found dead, Cwmtaff, Oct. 25th. R A D N O R . -- 1 found dead, N e w b r i d g e - o n - W y e , end of O c t . 1 found dead, Cabalva F a r m , 4 miles north of H a y , Oct. 26th. C A R M A R T H E N . -- C o a s t . -- 3 or 4 in flight, P e n d i n e Beach, O c t . 26th. 1 alive, Guist Point, Oct. 25th; 6 alive, 26th; 27 found dead, Nov. 1st. 1 found dead, n e a r Pendine, O c t . 29th. 2 in flight, L l a n s t e p h e n , O c t . 27th; 16 dead, 29th; 8 dead, 30th. 49 found dead, Pembrey, Oct. 31st. 52 found dead, Ferryside, Nov. 1st. 100-120 found dead, T o w y Estuary, Oct. 28th; 24 found dead on 100 yds. of beach, O c t . 30th and 31st. 4 found dead, Bynea, O c t . 27th; 8 alive, Oct. 28th. Inland.--1 flying over C a r m a r t h e n , O c t . 28th. 1 found dead, Cwmffrwd, Oct. 28th. 1 found dead, Llanybyther, Oct. 26th. PEMBROKE.--3 found dead, Marloes, before Nov. 2nd; several others in same area before Nov. 4th. Many dead, Newgale, before Nov. 4th; 88 dead, 5 alive, in J mile of Newgale Beach, Oct. 27th. 2 found dead, Dale, before Nov. 2nd.
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CARDIGAN.--i found dead, Cardigan, Oct. 28th. Aberystwyth: about 200 flying offshore, Oct. 25th; 100-200 alive, 11 dead or dying, Oct. 31st and others found dead by three more observers. . 1 alive, several dead, Bronheulyn, Borth, Oct. 29th. 1 found dead, Borth, before Nov. 2nd. Some found dead in Dovey estuary, before Nov. 2nd. MONTGOMERY.--1 found dead, Aberhafesp, Oct., date unknown. MERIONETH.--6 alive and numerous dead, Glaslyn estuary, near Penrhyndeudraeth, Oct. 25th. 1 found dead, Rhyd y Cemaes, Oct. 29th. 1 found dead, Llanfair, Nov. 1st; another, Nov. 5th. Some found dead, Aberdovey, before Nov. 2nd. 1 found dead, Bala Lake, Nov. 3rd. CAERNARVON.--Single birds alive at Bangor, Oct. 25th, 27th and 29th. 1 found long dead, Point Maen-Dulyn, Nov. 16th. 1 found dead, Abererch, before Nov. 8th. Coast between Criccieth, Portmadoc and Penrhyndeudraeth (Merioneth): hundreds seen alive, Oct. 25th; about 100 alive, 27th; 1 dead, 25th; very large number dead, 26th; 2 found dead between Oct. 27th and Nov. 5th. DENBIGH.--1 found dead, Llanrwst, Oct. 29th. 1 found dead, Bangor-on-Dee, Nov. 3rd. FLINT.--1 found dead, Point of Air, Nov. 1st. ANGLESEY.--7 found dead, Rhosneigr, Nov. 10th. 2 alive, Llyn Penrhyn, Oct. 28th. 2 found dead, Newborough Dunes, Nov. 5th; 1 long dead Nov. 19th. At least 5 alive, Valley, Oct. 31st; 3 found dead, Nov. 5th; 3 more, Nov. 10th. 1 found dead, Bodorgan, about Nov. 10th. 1 picked up alive, Cefrie estuary, Nov. 10th. 2 found dead, Trearddur Bay, Nov. 1st and before Nov. 10th. 1 found dead, Dulas Bay, Oct. 25th. 2 found dead at mouth of River Alan, Oct. 26th. 2 found dead near Llandwyn Island, Nov. 1st. 2 single birds seen flying, Menai Straits, Oct. 26th. LINCOLNSHIRE.--1 picked up alive between Scunthorpe and Appleby, Sept. 19th, was kept and fed for two days then allowed to fly away. 1 shot on Brigg side of Scunthorpe, about end of Sept. 1 found dead, Brocklesby, Nov. 2nd; another, Nov. 10th or n t h . 1 found dead, south of Grantham, before Nov. 5th. 1 long dead, Telney Marsh, Nov. 16th. LEICESTERSHIRE.---i found alive, near Measham, Oct. 27th. RUTLAND.--No records. NOTTINGHAMSHIRE.--1 alive, Netherfield, Oct. 31st. 4 found dead, KirkLangley, Oct. 26th to 30th. 1 picked up alive, Caudwell Dam, Mansfield, Oct. 29th. 5 flying, West Bridgford, Oct. 29th. 1 found dead, East Leake, Nov. 5th. 1 found dead, Nuthall, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Bulcote, Oct. 30th. DERBYSHIRE.--1 found dead between Clowne and Spinkhill, Oct. 28th. 1 seen alive, Mercaston, Oct. 30th, found dead, 31st. 1 picked up alive, Hasland, Oct. 28th. 1 found dead, Allestree, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead, Swadlincote, Oct. 31st. 1 picked up alive, Newton, Oct. 31st. Single birds found dead at Marston Montgomery and Cubley, dates unknown. CHESHIRE.--Coast.--(For offshore records in Liverpool Bay and Mersey Estuary see under LANCASHIRE). Estuary of River Dee: 1 flying, Sept. 21st; 1 alive, 9 dead, West Kirby, Nov. 1st; 8 alive, 1 dead, same area, Nov. 3rd, and 1 alive, Nov. 4th; 17 found dead, Burton, Nov. 9th; 20 found dead between Denhall and Burton Point, 2 between Gayton and Denhall, about Nov. 16th; 6 found dead, Parkgate, Nov. 2nd, and 1, Nov. 3rd. Hilbre Island: 8 alive and dead, Sept. 27th; 1 long dead, Oct. 4th; 3 alive, Oct. 5th; at least 4 alive, Oct. 12th; 10 flying west and 13 dead, Nov. 1st; 8 alive, Nov. 3rd; 1 alive, Nov. 4th; 7 dead, Nov. 8th. Hoylake: 1 found dead, Oct. 24th; at least 8 alive, 1 dead, Nov. 1st; at least 15 alive, Nov. 3rd; 1 alive, Nov. 5th; 3 dead, Nov. 9th; 2 dead, Nov. 30th; 1 picked up alive, Dec. 1st; 1 dead, Dec. 12th. Moreton: heavy passage west (30-40 passing in half an hour), Sept. 27th; at least 17 alive, 1 dead, Nov. 1st. 1 found dead, Leasowe, Dec. 14th. Wallasey: 1 alive, Oct. 27th; 1 dead, Oct. 30th; 1 picked up alive, 2 flying, 2 dead, Oct.
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31st; 1 alive, Nov. 2nd; 1 alive, Nov. 4th; about 50 (including some Storm Petrels) alive, offshore, Nov. 6th; 1 dead, Nov. 9th; 1 dead, Dec. 14th. Birkenhead district: 1 alive, Upton, Oct. 28th. surviving to 30th; 2 alive, Oct. 30th; others alive, Oct. 30th; several alive, and 2 picked up alive, Woodside, Oct. 31st; 1 alive, Woodside, Nov. 3rd; single birds found dead, Oxton and Bidston Hill, early November; 1 long dead, Noctorum, Nov. 28th. Frodsham: 1 alive, Sept. 26th and 1, Oct. 26th; single birds also seen flying, Oct. 26th, by two other observers; 1 alive, Oct. 30th; 1 found dead, Oct. 31st; 7 found dead, Nov. 2nd; 1 found dead, Nov. 3rd; 1 picked up alive, Nov. 8th. Inland.--8 flying, Frankby, Sept. 13th. 1 picked up alive Northwich, and 1 flying over Marbury Mere, Oct. 30th. Single birds found dead: Anderton, Nov. 7th; Weaverham, Nov. 1st; Middlewich, Nov. 5th; and Knutsford, Nov. 7th. 1 found long dead, Wilmslow, Nov. 14th. 1 picked up alive, Sale, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead, Acton Bridge, about Nov. 5th. 1 found dead near Sandbach, Nov. 2nd. 1 caught by cat, Nantwich, about Nov. 3rd. 1 found long dead, Rostherne, Jan. 1st, 1953. LANCASHIRE.--Coast.--Morecambe Bay area: 2 found dead ,1 picked up alive between Bolton-le-Sands and Carnforth, last week October; 1 found dead, Leek, Carnforth, Nov. 3rd; 12 found dead in i j miles, Bolton-le-Sands, Nov. 2nd; 3 found dead, Hest Bank, Nov. 23rd; remains of 1 found there, Jan. 29th, 1953; 1 found dead, Morecambe, Oct. 29th; 17 seen flying in half an hour, Nov. 1st; 1 found dead, Nov. gth. 1 found dead, Heysham, Oct. 31st; another Nov. 9th. 4 found dead, R. Lune, near Overton, Nov. 16th. 4 found dead, R. Lune, near Lancaster, Nov. 8th. Blackpool: 1 found dead, Oct. 31st; 1 found dead, Nov. 1st. St. Annes: 3 flying, Oct. 30th; 12 found dead, Nov. 1st to 5th. Fairhaven: 3 found dead, Nov. 1st; 6 or 7 seen flying, Nov. 1st; 10 found dead, Nov. 3rd. Lytham: 4 found dead, Nov. 1st; 1 dead, Nov. 8th. 1 found dead, Freckleton Marsh, Nov. 15th. 17 found dead, south shore of Ribble estuary, Nov. 1st to 5th. 1 flying, Hesketh Bank, Oct. 31st; 1 found dead, Nov. 1st. 12, all dead some time, Southport, Nov. 9th. 10 found dead, Ainsdale, first week of November; 1 alive, end November. 1 found dead, Freshfield, Nov. 9th. Formby Point: 9 found dead on 2 miles of tide-line, Oct. 31st; 1 dead, Nov. 1st; 17 dead, Nov. 2nd; 2 further south, same date; 1 dead, Nov. 16th. 30 flying in mouth of Mersey, Seacombe to Liverpool, Oct. 30th; 6 flying same area, Oct. 31st. Dozens, possibly hundreds, flying between Mersey Bar and Liverpool docks, Oct. 31st. i, off Mersey Lighthouse, Nov. 4th. 1 flying over Mersey, Nov. 7th. 5 found dead, Crosby-Hightown, Nov. 4th. 1 found dead, Crosby, Nov. 10th. 1 found dead, Blundellsands, Nov. 2nd. Liverpool: 1 alive, West Canada Dock, Sept. 25th; 1 found dead, Huskisson Dock, Sept. 26th; 1 alive, Aigburth, early Oct; 1 found dead, Newsham Park, Oct. 31st; 1 found dead, Fazakerley, Nov. 3rd; 1 flying off Speke shore, and 1 alive, Aintree, Nov. 8th. "Observations from vessels between Formby Pt. and the Point of Air found there was an average of 30 birds per square mile feeding on the wing, a minimum of 1,000 birds concentrated more in some parts than others", Oct. 30th (Hardy, 1953). Furness: 1 found dead, Walney Island, date unknown; 1 found dead, Birkrigg, near Ulverston, Oct. 27th; 1 found dead, Kirkby-in-Furness, Oct. 28th; 1 flying, Rusland, Nov. 3rd; 4 found dead near Holker, Nov. 8th; 4 found dead within 100 yds, probably many more, Nov. 8th. Inland.--1 alive, St. Michaels-on-Wyre, Oct. 29th. 1 found dead, Forton, Garstang, first week Nov. 1 found dead by River Wyre, Dolphinholme, Nov. 3rd. 1 alive, Barnacre Reservoir, Blensdale Fells, Nov. 12th. 1 found dead, Whymond Houses, Clitheroe, Nov. 3rd. 1 picked up alive, River Ribble, near Preston, last week Oct. 1 found dead, Bolton, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Little Hulton, Bolton, Nov. 1st. 1 shot, Leigh Flash, Oct. 31st; and 1 found dead, one mile east, same date. 1 alive, Boothstown, Leigh, Nov. 1st. 1 found dead, Littleborough, Nov. 12th. 1 found dead, Astley Flash, Nov. 23rd. 1 found dead, Knowsley Park, Oct. 31st; another, Nov. 15th. 1 found dead, Blackstone Edge, Nov. 18th. 1 found dead, Worsley, Nov. 3rd. 1 found dead, Irlam, Oct. 31st.
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YORKSHIRE.--Coast.--i found long dead, Bridlington, Oct. 23rd. Spurn Point: 1 alive, Oct. 13th; 2 (probably 3) flying, Oct. 29th; 1 flying, Oct. 30th; 1 alive, Nov. 1st and 2nd. 1 alive Stone Creek, River Humber, Nov. 1st. 1 picked up alive, Hull, Oct. 29th. Inland.--1 picked up alive, Yarm, Oct. 26th; and 1 found dead, Nov. 6th. 1 found dead, Arrathorpe, before Nov. 15th. 2 found dead, Bedale, Nov. 6th or 7th. 1 found dead, Ingleton, Nov. 7th. 1 dead some time, Sedbergh, Nov. 6th. 1 found dead, 15 miles north of Helmsley, Nov. 3rd. 1 found dead, Pickering, late Oct. 1 picked up alive, Hebden Bridge, Oct. 28th. 1 flying, Eccup reservoir, Oct. 12th. 1 found dead, Bolton Abbey, Nov. 2nd; another, Nov. 3rd. 1 picked up alive, Ripley, Oct. 29th. 1 found dead, Skipton, Oct. 29th. 1 found dead, Wetherby, Oct. 30th; another, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Harrogate, Oct. 27th; another Oct. 29th. 2 found dead, Tunstall, Catterick, date unknown. 1 found dead, Bainton, date unknown. 1 found dead, Low Laithes, Wakefield, Oct. 25th. 1 picked up alive, Wentworth, Oct. 30th. 1 picked up alive, Huddersfield, Oct. 26th; another found dead, Nov. 2nd. 1 found dead, Brighouse, near Bradford, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead, Washburn Valley, late October. Co. DURHAM.---i found dead, Polam Hall, Darlington, Oct. 30th or 31st. NORTHUMBERLAND.--Coast.-- 1 flying, off Monks' House, Seahouses, Oct. 23rd. 1 found dead, Holy Island, Oct. 28th. 1 found dead, Berwick-on-Tweed, Oct. 29th. Inland.--Single birds found dead: Ford, no date; Slainsfield Moor, Etal, Oct. 30th; Wark, before Nov.ist; Chollerton, Oct. 30th; Hexham, before Nov. 19th. WESTMORLAND.--I found dead, Troutbeck Bridge, Windermere, Oct. 31st; another Nov. 1st. 1 picked up alive near Hilton, Oct. 28th. 1 found dead, Hoff, Nov. 5th. 1 picked up alive near Arnside, Oct. 28th; another dead, Nov. 2nd. 1 flying over River Kent, Nov. 4th; 1 found dead on shore, early Nov. 1 found dead some days, Killington, Nov. 6th; another early Nov. 1 found dead, Lily Mere, about Nov. 3rd. 1 picked up alive, Ormside, Dec. 17th. CUMBERLAND.--Coast.--1 found dead, Allonby, Nov. 3rd; 7 dead, Nov. 8th. 1 found dead, Maryport, Oct. 30th; another, Oct. 31st. 2 dead, north of Maryport, Nov. 8th. 1 picked up alive, St. Bees Head, Oct. 28th; 5 found dead, Nov. 9th; and another dead, Nov. 23rd. Inland.--1 alive and 1 dead, one mile north of Longtown, Oct. 30th; another dead near Longtown, Oct. 30th. 1 found dead, Bolton Fell, Oct. 29th. 1 found dead, Carlisle, Oct. 30th; another, Nov. 3rd. 1 long dead, Great Salkeld, Nov. 27th. 1 found dead, Hensingham, Oct. 31st. ISLE OF MAN.--"Hundreds", "about 150" alive Peel Bay, Oct. 31st. 3, Peel, Nov. 1st. 3 found dead, Ramsey, and 1, Port St. Mary, sent to Manx Museum, early Nov. 30-40, Calf of Man, beginning of Nov. "Half a dozen picked up exhausted", Ramsey, before Nov. 7th. IRELAND. Records with no details other than county are of specimens received at Dublin Museum. Co. Kerry.--1 found dead, Barrow, Tralee, about Oct. 26th. 3, Causeway, Oct. 26th. 1, Woodville, Kilgarvan, Oct. 27th. 1, Ventry, Oct. 30th. Large numbers seen Kenmare Bay, end of Oct.; many died, but no details of numbers. Co. CORK.--Bantry Bay: first seen alive in large numbers by fishermen, Oct. 24th, and began being blown inland that day (a "flock" of 50 a t Snave); continued being blown inland until 29th; total casualties of order 500-1000. Large numbers flying over Dunmanus Bay, Oct. 25th and 26th; some picked
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up but no information on total casualties. Roaringwater Bay: 2-300 alive, Oct. 28th (none seen earlier); small numbers found dead, Oct. 28th-Nov. 24th. Dead birds found; 1, Rathcormac, Oct. 27th; 2, Buttevant, Oct. 28th; 3, near Mallow, on or about Oct. 28th; 1, Fort William, Doneraile, Oct. 24th; another, Doneraile, end of Oct; 1, Inniscarra, end of Oct.; 1, Co. Cork, end of Oct. (no exact date or locality). 3 petrels also reported from Dingle Bay, but no details available. Co. WATERFORD.--Many seen alive, Dungarvan, Oct. 2ist-24th, eight the largest group, no estimate of total numbers. 1 found dead, Waterford, Oct. 28th or 29th. 1 found dead, Woodstown, Oct. 28th or 29th. Several seen flying over River Suir near Waterford, Oct. 28th and 29th. 1 found, Comeragh Mountains, 2J miles south of Clonmel, mid-Nov. Co. TIPPERARY.--1 found dead, Nenagh, Oct. 24th. 1 found dead, Clonmel, Oct. 27th. 1 shot, 3 others seen, Cashel, Oct. 28th; others found dead later. 1 found dead, Cahir, end of Oct. or early Nov. No data: 2. Co. LIMERICK.--1, Croom, Oct. 29th. 1, Limerick City, end of Oct. 1 shot, another released alive, Newport, about Nov. n t h . Small numbers seen alive, mouth of River Deel, Askeaton, for several days before Oct. 29th; some (probably less than 10) alive on that date, Co. CLARE.--1, Ennis, Oct. 25th. 1 near Miltown Malbay, Oct. 29th. 1, O'Brien's Bridge (6 miles N.W. of Limerick City), Nov. 1st. "Numbers" flying over Kilkee Bay on two days at end of Oct. Unsubstantiated press reports of many in north of county, end of Oct. No data: 2. Co. KILKENNY.--2, Callan, no date. No data: 1. Co. WEXFORD,--t, Ballymitty, Oct. 31st. 1, Enniscorthy; 2, Duncannon; 1, Arthurstown, all end of Oct. 1, locality uncertain, probably near Wexford town, Nov. 3rd. 1, dead some time, Kilmore Quay, Nov. 13th. "Numbers" flying over Inish Marsh, near Kilmore Quay, end of Oct. Co. CARLOW.--No records. Co. LEIX.---1, Necarstown, Nov. 3rd. i, no locality, end Oct, Several Rathdowney, no date. Co. GALWAY.--Birds seen passing along shore just west of Galway City all day, Oct. 26th; on 29th none was seen alive or dead. "Whirling masses" seen in Oranmore Bay, end Oct. No estimate of numbers available for either of these localities. 1 dead, Kilhewin, Oct. 25th. 1, Glenamaddy; 1 shot, Lough Corrib, near Galway, both Oct. 27th. 1 near Aughterard, Oct. 28th. 1 near Lough Corrib; 1, Newtown; 1, Galway City; several near Ballinahinch, all end Oct. 1 Garbally, near Ballinasloe, no date. Several "petrels" found dead Spiddal, near Galway, no date. Co. OFFALY.--1 shot, 1 killed by a hawk, near Clonmacnoise, Oct, 24th; 3 or 4 more similar-looking birds seen just afterwards. 1, Mount Bolus, Tullamore, Oct. 25th. Co. KILDARE.--1 near Naas, Oct. 29th. 1, Athy, about Oct. 29th. Co. WICKLOW.--No records. Co. DUBLIN.---Near Dun Laoghaire harbour: at least 20 flying S.E. or E., Sept. 28th; 1 flying, Oct. 29th; 2 flying, Oct. 31st; 1 flying, Nov. 4th. 25 seen alive elsewhere in Dublin Bay, Oct. 29th. 4 seen Rogerstown estuary, Oct. 25th, and 1, 27th; 1, Swords estuary, about same time, t found dead, Luttrelstown, Clonselta, Oct. 28th. 1 dead, Blackrock, Dublin, Nov. 6th. 1, Sutton, end Oct. No data: 2. Co. Meath.--1, no locality, end Oct. Co. WESTMEATH.--5 flying over R. Shannon at Athlone, end Oct. 2 found dead, end Oct., no localities. Co. LONGFORD.--1, Doony Hall, near Ballymahon, no date.
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Co. ROSCOMMON.--i, Athleague, Oct. 26th or 27th. 1, Ballintubben, near Castlerea, Oct. 27th. 1, Hodson's Bay, Lough Ree, no date. Co. MAYO.--1 freshly dead, Partry, Lough Carra, Oct. 25th. 2 freshly dead, Cloonee, Lough Carra, Oct. 28th. 1, Ballyvary, end Oct. 1, long dead, East shore Lough Carra, Dec. 3rd. Co. SLIGO.-^-I, Tanrego, Ballysodane Bay, end Oct. 1 found dead, Beltra, Nov. 3rd. 1, locality uncertain, end Oct. Co. LEITRIM.--1, Drumsa, near Carrick-on-Shannon, Nov. 8th. Co. CAVAN.--1, Cornafean, Oct. 29th. 1 found dead, Cootehill, Nov. 6th. Co. LOUTH.--1, Ardee, Oct. 30th. Co. MONAGHAN.--No records. Co. FERMANAGH.--Lough Erne: 1 found dead, Oct. 28th; 1 shot, 30th; others seen alive in last few days of Oct. and first few days of Nov. 2 alive, 1 dead 4 miles from Belleek, Oct. 30th. Single birds Pettigo, Boa Island (L. Erne), Waterfoot and 2 Colebrooke, end Oct. Co. DONEGAL.--Many dead, Tory Island, Oct. 27th; another freshly dead, Nov. 2nd. "Dozens" alive, 1 dead, mouth of Gweebarra estuary, Oct. 30th. 1, Bunbeg, Nov. 5th. 1 near Annagry, Nov. 19th. 1, Dunkineely; 1, Ballindrait, no dates. Co. TYRONE.--No dates, but probably end of Oct.: 3, Caledon; 2, Strabane; 1, Baronscourt; 1, Dungannon; 1, Newtown Stewart. Co. ARMAGH.--2, Lurgan; 1, Armagh; 1, Markethill; 1 Portadown, no dates. Co. DOWN.--1 found dead, Holywood, Nov. 2nd; another Nov. 26th. 2, Killyleagh; and single birds, Downpatrick, Kirkcubbin, Quoile River, St. John's Point Lighthouse, no dates. Co. ANTRIM.--1 picked up alive, Kilroot, Carrickfergus, Oct. 25th. 1 found dead, S.W. end Belfast Lough; 1, Lough Beg; 5, Antrim; 1, Cullybackey; no dates, almost certainly end Oct. 12 seen flying over shore, 1 found dead, Rathlin Island, probably end Oct. Co. LONDONDERRY.--1 found dead, Oct. 25th; 2, Oct. 29th, Coleraine.
APPENDIX II. RECORDS OF STORM PETRELS IN BRITISH ISLES (EXCLUDING SCOTLAND) IN AUTUMN, 1952. This list includes only those specimens verified by competent observers as belonging to this species or else described by the finders in sufficient detail to establish their identity. Inadequately described birds have been treated as Leach's Petrels. Their numbers are few. ENGLAND AND W A L E S . CORNWALL.--"Dozens" flying over St. Ives Bay, Oct. 29th; and in decreasing numbers until Nov. 1st; none found dead. 2 flying off Newquay, Oct. 31st. 1 picked up exhausted, Fowey, Oct. 27th. DEVON.--2 flying off Lundy, Oct. 30th. 1 flying off Fremington, Oct. 30th (others in a total of 50-100 petrels reported on Oct. 29th, but numbers uncertain). Cheyne Beach, Ilfracombe: 2 flying offshore, Oct. 29th; 1, 30th; 2, 31st. 1 swimming in Dartmouth harbour, Oct. 25th. 1 flew into porthole of H.M.S. "Triumph" in Torbay, Oct. 25th or 26th, was kept for five days then released again. 1 found dying, Lustleigh, late Oct.
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SOMERSET.--3 flying off Warren Point, Minehead, Oct. 29th. 1 alive, Burnham-on-Sea, Oct. 29th; another alive, Nov. 1st; dead birds found, Oct. 31st, Nov. 1st (2), and early Nov. 2 found dead, Brean, Oct. 26th. DORSET.--1 picked up alive (died later), Ferndown, Oct. 30th. HAMPSHIRE.--1 picked up exhausted, Bournemouth, about Oct. 26th, released again following day. SUSSEX.--3 feeding off Langney Point, Nov. 1st; 1, same place, Nov. 8th. 1 flying over River Adur at Shoreham, Nov. 3rd. KENT.--1 alive, Cliffe, Nov. 3rd. GLOUCESTERSHIRE.--2 flying over River Severn, Slimbridge, Oct. 26th. SHROPSHIRE.--1 found dead, Altingham Park, end Oct. GLAMORGAN.--1 found dead, Porthcawl, Nov. 2nd. CARMARTHEN.--Single birds found dead, Llanstephan and Pendine, Oct. 29th; Ferryside, Nov. 1st. 3 found dead, Pembrey, Oct. 31st. CAERNARVON.--1 found dead, Llanfairfechan, Nov. 8th. ANGLESEY.'--1 found dead, Rhosneigr, about Nov. 10th. LINCOLNSHIRE.--1 was landed by a trawler at Grimsby, Oct. 26th, the point where it joined the ship being unrecorded; another alighted on a trawler 35 miles N.E. of R. Humber on night of Oct. 25th, but flew off again the following day. NOTTINGHAMSHIRE.--1 found dead, Staythorpe, near Newark, Oct. 31st. 1 found dead, Stragglethorpe, Nov. 1st. CHESHIRE.--1, probably this species, Dee Estuary, Sept. 21st. Single birds found dead: Hoylake, Nov. 1st; Heswall, Nov. 2nd; Leasowe, Nov. 8th. "Some" found dead, Burton, Nov. 8th. 1 alive, Woodside, Birkenhead, Nov. 1st. " S o m e " seen alive off Wallasey, Nov. 6th. LANCASHIRE.--6 alive, Ribble estuary, Nov. 1st. 1 dead, Formby Point, Nov. 2nd. 1 dead, Rossall, about Nov. 3rd. 4 dead, St. Anne's, Nov. 8th. 1, dead some time, Southport, Nov. 9th. 1 dead, Tarbock, no date. YORKSHIRE.--1, dead some time, Bolton Abbey, Nov. n t h . CUMBERLAND.--1 flying off Burgh Marsh Point, Nov. 1st. IRELAND. CO. WATERFORD.--1 found injured, east of Dungarvan, night of Oct. 22nd. Co. WEXFORD.--Remains of 1 found near Kilmore Quay, Nov. 13th. Co. GALWAY.--2 seen alive in Galway docks, others in Galway and Oranmore Bays, late Oct. Co. DUBLIN.--1 flying off Dun Laoghaire, Oct. 29th.
APPENDIX III. LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS.
The writer is very grateful to everyone mentioned here for their help in the compilation of this report. Prudence, and parsimony, require that none be selected for especial mention, but it is safe, as well as proper, to convey particular thanks to Mr. D. Eccleston for preparing the typescript.
A. P. Airey, E. Allin, S. Allison, B. Allsop, D. H. Ambrose, K.. Angles,
H. G. Apthorpe, M. Arthur, B. W. Arthur, G. D. Ash, Lord Ashtown,
Mrs K. Atkins, W. Atkinson.
,,,,,,,,.
A. J Bailey, B. H. Baillie, D. Baker, A. Baldridge, Miss F. E. Baldwin,
Mrs. E. Barnes. J. A. G. Barnes, J. H. Barrett, Mrs. Barrington Davies,
H. H. Barry, L. o. Batchelor, A. D. Bateman, E. Bates, B. G. Bayolifle.
D. M. Behrend, N. F. Bell, A. Benington, Mrs. G. M. Bennett, G. B. G. Benson,
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P. A. Betts, P. F. Bird, A. H. Bishop, W. M. Blair, the late Rev. F. L. Blathwayt, B. Blezard, W. Blore, Mrs. B. S>. Bluudell, C. H. Boutflower, J. A. F. Bowring, A. W. Boyd, F. Brady, A. Braithwaite, Miss D. Brewer, Miss V. Brice, K. Broad, F. Brocklebank, A. Brook, Miss G. Brown, G. J. Brown, W. B. Brown, W. R. Brown, P. W. P. Browne, B. K. Bryson, E. R. Budgell, Mrs. K. M. Bull, H. Burke, N. A. Burrows, P , A. Burtt, Mrs. R. Butler, Miss M. Butterworth, Miss E. Byrde, J. Caldwell, Dr. B. Campbell, W. D. Campbell, C. Carey, Mrs. N. Carey, L. A. Carpenter, Miss E. Carter, Mrs. F. E. Carter, M. J. Carter, M. B. Castle, P. J. Chadwiek, A. A. Charlton, E, H. Chater, R. Chislett, Miss G. Clapham, A. W. Clark, C. J. P. Clarke, P. Clarke, O. E. Clayton, G, Clementson, P. Clifford, E. H. Clogg, A. V. Collins, G. R. Collins, W. Collins, Mrs. W. B. Colthurst, W. M. Condry, H. B. Cook, Rev. Canon H. E. Cooke, J. C. Cooke, Mrs. M. E. Coomber, F. Cooper, Miss M. Cooper, Miss E. I. Cordiner, D. Cormack, R. Cormaek, R. &. Cossham, G. A. Cottrell, F. Cottrill, B. W. H. Ooulson, H. A. Course, W". S. Cowin, S. A. Cox, A. W. Coysh, J. K. B. Crawford, N. C. B. Creek, H. Cross, J. Cross, H. G. Crouth, J. Cudworth, Miss D. B. Culles, A. S. Cutcliffe. A. Darlington, J. Darnell, F. V. David, Major H. E. David, Miss A. Davies, B. H. Davies, G. P. Davies, H. R. Davies, P. Davies, Mrs. T. A. W. Davies, W. Davies, H. H. Davis, Mrs. M. E. Davis, O. L. Davis, P. Davis, H. Dawson, F. Dean, C. D. Deane, G. Dent, W. H. Dilby, Maj. Hon. H. Douglas-Home, J. Y. Donaldson, A. Drake, R. E. O. Dunbar, D. L. Dunkin, Mrs. L. B. Dunlop, H. Dunniclifl, Lady Durand, A. J. Durrant, P. H. R. Dutton, Miss B. L. Dymond, 8. J. K. Eames, D. R. Edgecombe, Lt.-Col. Edwardes, J. Edgworth, Mrs. H. Elliott, E. A. Ellis, T. Ellis, N. F. Ellison, J. Emott, Dr. E. A. R. Ennion, T. Ennis, A. Evans, A. L. Evans. Mrs. C. Fanning, F. J. Faragher, D. Farren, I. J. Ferguson-Lees, Rev. E. H. Field, F. Fincher, C. E. Fisher, James Fisher, R. S. R. Fitter, W. Fitter, Major D. W. Fleming, J. E. Flynn, B. Fricker, C. H. Fry. P. Gale, P. G. Garlick, R. M. Garnett, A. Gee, D. V. George, F. A. R. George, B. N. Gerrard, I. K. Gibson, J. W. Gibson, R. Giles, El. H. Gillham, Miss M. Gladding, M. C. Glasman, Mrs. F. D. Goodden, E. G. M. Goodwin, R. Gordon, Miss C. Graham, Miss D. Greenhow, F. C. Gribble, V. Griffith. F. V. Haighton, H. ,S. H. Hall, J. H. Halliday, Mrs. J. Hambert, R. G. Hamilton, W. Hamilton, D. M. Hamp, V. G. Handley, H. Hanson, W. R. Hanson, D. D. Harber, E. Hardy, D. F. Harle, B. H. Harley, N. Harris, E. Harrison, J. Harrison, J. Harrod, R. Hartas, N. Harwood, Brig.-Gen. J. McD.Haskard, G. Hasler, S. R. Hatch, Mrs. D. Hatherall, Miss M. Hawkes, L. W. Hayward, A. Hazelwood, G. A. Hebditch, Mrs. L. Hedley, Miss M. Henderson, R. Henderson, N. M. Hepworth, H. Herridge, Rev. Canon G, A. K. Hervey, 9. Hess, Dr. R. A. Hinde, T. Hirst, A. J. F. Holley, E. G. Holt, T. Holt, R. C. Homes, D. A. Hope, Mrs. G. K. L. Hopkinson, Mrs. G. Horler, W. B. Hornby, T. Hotchkiss, Brig. G. Howson, Brig. A. C. Hughes, J. Hughes, Lt.-jCol. N. M. Hughes-Hallett, D. B. Hunt, A. Hutson, A. Hutton, E. Huyton. G. C. S. Ingram, R. J. Ingram, G. D. Ireland. E. C. Jelbert, J. H. Jelley, A. A. JoneB, Rev. E. H. Jones, Miss M. Jones, M. Jones, P. H. Jones, W. Jones, W. M. Jones, C. Jouanin, H. S. Joyce, D. W. Jury. A. A. Kean, Miss M. Keller, J. Kemp, E.. Kendall, Rev. P. G. Kennedy, Mrs. J. E, Kerr, Mrs. M. J. Kimber, B. King, G. Kirk, W. A. H. B. Kirkman, E. J. A. Knight, Miss J. L. Knight, Maj. Maxwell Knight. T. K. Laidlaw, R. S. Lamming, J. Lang, G. Langdon, W. J. Langley, W. J. Lavelle, D. Lea, E. V. Lea, Miss M. E. Lea, Mrs. M. Leake, K. Le Cocq, Miss Leehie Watson, I. G. Leech, Mrs. H. Lees-Milne, Mrs. G. Legrand, Mrs. M. M. iLeith, M. Leney, C. A. Lewis, E. B. Lewis, I. L'Hernwood, E. Liddle, H. Lingwood, L. Lippens, G. Littlewood, A. G. Lloyd, D. J. Lloyd, Mrs. E. V. Lloyd, R. M. Lockley, C. Loud, G. A. Lovenbury, R. J. Loveys, D. J. Low, G. E. Lowe, P. C. Lowry, W. G. Luton, R. F. Luke, H. L. Lysaght. W.MoCormick, I. C. McDonald, J. D. MacDonald, H. Mackenzie, Miss V. J. Macnair, Miss MacLachlainn, D. M. MacLachlan, Dr. F. N. H. Maidment, W. Malcolm, Mrs. G. E. Maling, F. R. Mann, G. E. Manser, K.. N. Marriage, R, V. A. Marshall. J. fi. Marshall, W. K. Marshall, F. ,B. Martin, A. Mason, C. Matheson, Miss P. Meade, T. Milburn, A. V. Millard, Miss D. Miller, B. Milliken, Mrs. M. Mills, G. D. K. Mitchell, W. T. Moggeridge, L. Mongry, N. W. Moore, C. C. Morris, H. Morris, W. J. Morris, 8. V. Mott, Rev. G. Moule, Mrs. E. T. Muller, W. Mulligan. G. Neill, J. A. Nelder, C. Nelson, TV. Nelson, Miss B. Nevinson, Dr. L. Nicholls, I. 0. T. Nisbet, M. J. Nixon, B. Noble, Miss D. Nolan, Maj. W. S. Nolan, 0. A. Norris, F. Norris. Mrs. E. M. Olivey, J. H. Osborn, Dr. J. C. Osburne, D. J. O'iSullivan, Mrs. D. Padfleld, Miss E. M. Palmer, K. R. Palmer, Mrs. M. E. Parke, G. W. Parker, H. Parr, E. R. Parrinder, G. Parry, Miss E. Parry-Evans, J. L. F. Parslow, A. G. Parsons, W. G. Pasker, D. Paylet, W. H. Payn, T. A. Peirson, D. H. Perrott, G. R. W. Phillips, T. H. Phillips. G. G. Pierce, O. G. Pike, C. M. B. Pitman, W. Pitts, H. Piatt, Miss I. T. Pollard, M. J. Porter, E. H. T. Postle, E. B. Potts, R. H. Poulding, Miss R. Powell, L. A. Pownall, W. Pratt, E. E. Preece, D. A. Preston, S. Priestly, G. Pritchard, J. L. Proverbs, H. J. Pugsley, A. E. Pullan.
162
BRITISH BIRDS.
[VOL. XLVII.
P. L. Rabbetts, W. T. C. Rankin, D. Ranwell, A. W. Rawclifle, G. W. Rayner, P. Redman, 0. M. Reed, Miss N. M. Reed, M. Richards, T. E. Richards, H. Richardson, R. A. Richardson, F. Ridgway, Rev. Preb. A. F. Ritchie, Miss J. L. Rhodes, H. Roberts, Miss M. Roberts, G. F. Rodway, C. J. H. Rogers, M. Rogers, F. B. Rohu, Dr. K. B. Rooke, W. L. Roseveare, Mrs. Roslyn Williams, I. R. Rowntree, M. H. Rowntree, Sir E. Royden, Col. G. V. Russell, J. W. Russell, G. Rutter, Maj. R. F. Ruttledge. O. C. Salaman, Miss I. Salt, D. G. Sansbury, H. Sargent, H. B. Sargent, J. P. Savidge, A. E. Sawford, M. Scott, J. R. Sharpies, J. Sheppard, H. Shorrock, R. B. Shuttlewood, B. G. W. Sidney, Eric Simms, H. D. Simmons, 0. G. Sims, T. Skelton, N. Slack, T. V. Sloper, A. Smart, G. Lester Smith, A. Smith, D. Smith, D. W. Smith, F. R. Smith, T. J. Smith, V. C. Smith, V. G. Smith, E. H. Somerville, H. N. Southern, D. IS. Sparke, R. Spencer, G. M. Spooner, Mrs. L. A. Spratley, W. A. Stack, M. Standish, J. Stafford, Miss E.. Stanford, F. Stanley, Mrs. H. V. Stanley, Mrs. J. Stanley, C. J. Stevens, Comm. D. R. Stewart, R. Stokoe, A. R. Stone, Mrs. Strugnell, P. Stuart-Hill, M. J. Stubbs, Dr. C. Suffern, A. R. Sumeriield, M. K. Swales. D. W. Taylor, E. Taylor, G. Taylor, Mrs. I. Taylor, J. N. Taylor, the late W. R. Taylor, W. G. Teagle, C. F. Tebbutt, G. W. Temperley, A. S. Thom, E. T. Thomas, J. F. H. Thomas, A. J. B. Thompson, T. H. Thompson, M. S. Thorp, H. E. Tiller, Dr. N. Tinbergen, Rev. 0. F. Tomlinson, J. Tooby, A. Townsend, H. Trail, R. B. Treleaven, G. Trevelyan, J. Tucker, 0. F. Tunniclifte, Mrs. M. Turl, L. L. Turner, H. R. Tutt, T. J. Twort, P. D. Verschoyle. D. G. Waddilove, H. J. Wain, Maj.-Gen. C. B. Wainwright, C. W. Walker, E. J. Warner, F. H. Waters, E. P. Watkins, R. H. Webster, O. H. Wells, 8. J. Wells, T. P. Wells, H. West, Dr. P. R. Westall, J. Westoll, N. J. Westwood, P. E. S. Whalley, L. R. White, Miss R. A. Whiteside, W. Whitmarsh, G. Willcox, J. J. Wilkinson, 0. D. Williams, F. Williams, M. J. Wilton, J. N. R. Wolfenden, R. E. Wood, L. D. Woodruff, H. Woolcoat, M. J. Wotton, B. Wrightson, Prof. V. C. Wynne-Edwards, J. Yealland, Mrs. E. Yeo, Miss B. Young, D. Young, G. H. E. Yoane, K. G. Young.
REFERENCES. ATKINSON, R. (1948). "Leach's Petrel." The New Naturalist, 1: 110-114. BAGENAL, T. B. (1951). "Birds of the North Atlantic and Newfoundland Banks in July and August, 1950." Brit. Birds, xliv: 187-195. BENT, A. C. (1922). "Life Histories of North American Petrels and Pelicans and their Allies." Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., No. 121: 1-343. BOURLIERE, F. (1946). "Notes Biologiques sur les Oiseaux de l'Atlantique Nord." L'Oiseau, xvi: 42-60. BOYD, H. (1953). "Leach's Petrels in Britain in the autumn of 1952." Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc, xxviii, pt. IV 1952: 343-350. ELIOT, S. A. (1939). "Hurricane Aftermath: Connecticut Valley Records." Auk, 56: 177-178. EVANS, W. (1892). "Unusual numbers of the Fork-tailed Petrel (Cymochorea leucorrhoa) on the Scottish coasts." Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., i: 74-76 . GOETHE, F. (1953). "Ornithologische Mitteilungen." Die Vogelwelt, 5 : 56. GRAYCE, R. L. (1950). "Bird Transects on the North Atlantic." Wilson Bull., 62: 32-35. GROSS, A. O. (1953). " T h e Life History Cycle of Leach's Petrel (Oceanodroma I. leucorrhoa) on the Outer Sea Islands of the Bay of Fundy." Auk, 52: 382-399. (1947). "Recoveries of Banded Leach's Petrels." Bird Banding, 18: 117-126. HARDY, E. (1953). "Ornithology of the Liverpool and North-West area, 195253." Merseyside Nat. Assoc. Bird Report, 1952-53: 2-30. HAWKSLEY, J. (1950). "Notes on Leach's Petrel." Bird Banding, 2 1 : 60. JESPERSEN, P. (1929). " O n the Frequency of Birds over the High Atlantic Ocean." Proc. 6th Int. Orn. Congress: 163-172. JOUANIN, C. (1952). "Une Invasion de Petrels cul-blanc." L'Oiseau, xxii: 322-325. (I93S)- "Note complementaire sur les Oceanodroma leucorrhoa (Vieillot) e^choues en France en automne 1952." L'Oiseau, xxiii: LIPPENS, L. (1953). "Une Invasion de Petrels cul-blancs (Oceanodroma leucorrhoa leucorrhoa Vieill.) en Belgique." Le Gerfaut, 43: 85-87.
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163
MACPHERSON, H . A. (1892). A Vertebrate Fauna of Lakeland. Edinburgh. MAYAUD, N. (1950). "Nouvelles precisions sur la mue des procellariens, p a r t 2 . " Alauda, 17-18: 222-233. MAYR, E . (1938). " B i r d s on an Atlantic c r o s s i n g . " Proc. Linn. Soc. New York, 4 9 : 54-58. MOLTONI, E. (1952). "Sugli Uccelli della tempeste codaforcuta, Oceanodroma leucorrhoa leucorrhoa (Vieillot), presi in Italia net 1 9 5 1 . " Riv. Ital. di Orn., 22 : 1-3. M O O R E , H . B . (1941). " D i s t r i b u t i o n of oceanic birds in the North Atlantic, 1937-1941." Proc. Linn. Soc. New York, 5 2 : 53-62. NICHOLSON, E. M. (1946). "Some further notes from the North Atlantic." Brit. Birds, x x x i x : 265-274. · ( ' 9 5 1 ) - " B i r d s of the N o r t h A t l a n t i c . " Proc. 10th Int. Orn. Congress: 600-603. OLIVIER, G. (1950). "Notes sur quelques oiseaux rencontres au cours de traversees de l ' A t l a n t i q u e - n o r d . " L'Oiseau, x x : 137-147. P E T E R S , H . S. AND B U R L E I G H , T . D . (1951). The Birds of Newfoundland. PHILIPSON, W . R. AND DONCASTER, C. C. (1951). " B i r d s seen in the North A t l a n t i c . " Brit. Birds, xliv: 11-13. RANKIN, M. N . AND DUFFEY, E. A. G. (1948). " A study of the bird life of t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c . " Brit. Birds, Special Suppl. to x l i : 1-42. ROMER, M. L. R. (1952). " B i r d Observations on Ocean Weather Ships in 1950." Marine Observer, J a n . 1952: 27-32. SUTTER, E. (1952). " D e r Gabelschwanzige Schwalbensturmvogel als Irrgast in der N o r d w e s t s c h w e i z . " Orn. Beob., 4 9 : 182-185. TAAPKEN, J. (1953). " V a l e S t o r m v o g e l s . " De Wandelaar in Weer en Wind, 21: 98, 146. TOLMAN, R . (1953). " V a a l S t o r m v o g e l t j e . " De Wandelaar in Weer en Wind, 21: 51. WYNNE-EDWARDS, V. C. (1935). " O n the Habits and Distribution of Birds on the N o r t h A t l a n t i c . " Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 4 0 : 233-346. (1954). " L e a c h ' s Petrels stranded in Scotland in October-November, 1952." Scot. Nat. 6 5 : 167-189.

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