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INTERPOL ISSUE 4 AUgUST 2012 Capacity Building and Training Directorate 200, Quai Charles de Gaulle 69006 Lyon, France
Welcome to the fourth edition of INTERPOL's International Police Training Journal, brought to you by the INTERPOL group of Experts on Police Training (IgEPT). In this edition we will explore the challenges and triumphs of training and innovation from around the globe. We begin with an article from the Federal law enforcement Training center in georgia, Usa. The author lays out the difficulties of innovation in a police environment, but concludes that with proper research and evaluation, the obstacles can be minimized, and the results prosperous. Next we head north to canada, where the alberta solicitor general and Public security staff college explores why training and operations are viewed as two separate entities in the law enforcement world. They introduce us to the 70:20:10 model, and what it means for the relationship between training and on-the-job experience.
Our third piece comes from the University of applied sciences of the state Police of Brandenburg, germany. The discussion looks at how training programmes successfully contributed to large-scale reforms for the organization. It also examines methods for achieving long-term change in the patterns of adult behaviour ­ an exceptionally challenging task. Finally, we hear from the hong kong Police Force on the effectiveness of an Occupational Safety and Health induction training for new recruits. Through the use of a survey and other methods, they conclude that the training was crucial for new recruits, but is just one of many variables that contribute to a safe work environment for all.
dISCLAIMEr Please note that the views and opinions expressed in this magazine do not necessarily represent the views of INTERPOL or its employees. copyright © 2012 INTERPOL
IgEPT would like to thank all who contributed to this edition, and particularly our editors ­ dr curtis clarke (canada), Norbert Unger (germany), kurt Eyre (Uk), and connie Patrick (Usa). Look out for our fifth issue which will be published in January 2013
Table Of Contents
IN THIS ISSUE Contributions For comments and contributions, please contact the editors: Editor in Chief: Dr. Curtis Clarke [email protected] Copy to: Norbert Unger [email protected] Kurt Eyre [email protected] Connie L. Patrick [email protected]
Linking Innovators, Researchers, Policies,
and Practitioners
by Michael Hanneld Assistant Director for Training Innovation and Management
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center
Glynco, Georgia, USA
Training versus Operations When Will the Two Worlds Collide?
by Johanna Pagonis
Curriculum Designer
Alberta Solicitor General and Public Security
Staff College, Canada
Police Training Programme Supporting the Structural 14 Reorganization of the Police Force by Dr. Reinhard Mussik University of Applied Sciences of the State Police of Brandenburg, Germany
The effectiveness of occupational safety and health induction 17 training for new recruits of Hong Kong Police Force by Wong Chi Ming Hong Kong Police Force
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Linking Innovators, Researchers, Policies, and Practitioners
Michael Hanneld Assistant Director for Training Innovation and Management Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Glynco, Georgia, USA
A Presentation to the 18th INTERPOL Training
Symposium, 28 November 2011
Antalya, Turkey
Sometime or another you've all heard it. It's the call to innovation -- and it usually sounds something like, "I've got a great idea!"
The reality is that I've got a bunch of great ideas, and so do you, and so does everyone else in this room. Some of these ideas do present opportunities for innovation, and many of these ideas would improve our organizations, our people, and our lives. But unfortunately almost none of them will ever bear fruit. Incidentally, that's not necessarily a bad thing. The truth is, we all have more good ideas than we do resources ­ people, time, money, energy, and so forth ­ to implement them. As unfortunate as that may sound, we really wouldn't want it the other way around. How disheartening it would be to find ourselves in the company of people who had so few good ideas that they could all be pursued! Ideally, the competition among good ideas should help us to pick the best of the best ­ those that will yield the greatest return on our investment of effort. Regrettably, that is not always the outcome, especially in the context of innovative ideas.
Understand that true innovation is not about incrementalism or evolution; it is about sudden,
rapid, and substantial change. It can be high-gain, but also high risk. Accepting that innovation can be disruptive, risky, costly, and hazardous to careers, you have to ask yourself, "Why pursue it?" I think it ultimately comes down to a simple question: "Do you want to be a leader or a follower?" To innovate is to lead, and the cost of leading can be very real. The rewards, however, in terms of the satisfaction that comes from contributing to an organization, a community, even a society, can far exceed the costs. Today, your organization ­ especially if it is a law enforcement or police training organization ­ must be agile and adaptive, or it won't remain relevant in our dynamic, rapidly changing technological and social climate. But to be proactive -- and to be a true leader -- you must not only be agile, you must also be predictive. The ability to look around corners and see over the horizon is essential to strategically positioning your organization so that you can quickly adapt to changing conditions. Moreover, being predictive enables you to focus your creativity and to innovate with purpose. Change merely for the sake of change is rarely a productive endeavour. While all progress involves change, not all change necessarily involves progress. Even purposeful innovation, however, has at its core a journey into the unknown. Uncertainty and ambiguity are increasingly aspects of the environment in which we must operate.
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Therefore, if an organization is to lead through innovation, its culture and its decision makers must have a high degree of tolerance for uncertainty, and uncertainty inevitably entails risks, especially for innovators. The impediments to innovation have been well documented and widely discussed. search the internet, and you'll readily come up with lists of 30 or more barriers to innovating. here are a few examples of the challenges most frequently cited. The most obvious obstacle to innovation is that there's simply not enough "stuff." There always seems to be too much to do, and not enough people, time, money, and energy to do it all. The lack of a shared vision is another significant challenge. conveying to others a common vision of the end state of innovation can be difficult, but it's often the key to winning stakeholder acceptance and generating support for an innovation initiative. The absence of an organizational commitment to innovation can doom even the best of ideas, as can a failure of senior leadership to support innovation. Organizations that are overly focused on the short term will also likely produce a culture and environment hostile to innovation. a variation on this obstacle occurs when an organization's leaders expect a return on investment too quickly, causing them to abandon innovation efforts prematurely.
some organizations have business processes, systems, and people that are simply too rigid or too bureaucratic to innovate. governance structures are undoubtedly necessary for efficiency and order, but all too often they are the bane of the innovator. If an organization is to foster innovation, those responsible for governance must have the will and imagination to adapt their old constraints to meet the needs of new conditions and circumstances. Internal politics ­ that is, entrenched interests that are vested in the status quo ­ can also frustrate innovation. The inventory of impediments to innovation goes on and on, and I've developed my own list for those who are interested. at the risk of oversimplifying, but in the interest of brevity, it appears that virtually all innovation obstacles can be grouped into just four major categories: 1. competition for scarce resources (e.g., time, money, and people) 2. Internal cultural and political challenges 3. Overly restrictive and inflexible processes, procedures, regulations, and governance 4. risk aversion and fundamental resistance to change
and yet, despite these significant hurdles, innovation can and does happen. at the Federal Law Enforcement Training center, "FLETc" for short, we are fortunate to have enjoyed some success at fielding cutting-edge innovations to improve our training delivery. Those successes have not necessarily come easily, nor have they been without cost. To achieve them, we have had to overcome many of the obstacles to which I've already alluded. In those instances in which we have succeeded, our success has largely resulted from linkages ­ building relationships between and among the innovators, researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners in order to generate support, garner resources, overcome risk aversion, and when necessary institute changes in the organization's culture. It all starts, of course, with idea generators. It is important to recognize that everyone and anyone in the organization is potentially an innovator. good ideas belong to no one's exclusive domain. In law enforcement training, the very best ideas often come from our trainers, who paradoxically can also often be the greatest impediments to change. While generalizations can be unfair and misleading, after 42 years of immersion in the law enforcement and training cultures, I can say with some authority that those of us in law enforcement training can be incredibly stubborn, obstinate, and resolute in our dedication to continuing to do things the way they have always been done. It should come as no surprise that in an inherently risky occupation, we have trained and conditioned ourselves to mitigate risks at every opportunity. One way to mitigate risk is to keep doing what has brought us success in the past, and we often fail to acknowledge that refusing to change and adapt is itself a strategy laden with risks. another generalization I would offer is that we have largely spent our careers dealing hands-
on with concrete, tangible, and tactical challenges. Many of us aren't as comfortable with the abstract, theoretical, conceptual, and strategic challenges we may face when innovating. as a consequence, innovation in our subculture is even more difficult than it is generally in other segments of society. Ultimately, innovation occurs only when ideas are implemented; until then, even the best ideas are just hopes, wishes, and good intentions. so then, once the good idea surfaces, how do you cultivate the alliances, support systems, and sponsorship to transform it into innovation? Researchers can play a critical role in that process. Our FLETc trainers, all of whom are experienced law enforcement officers, can be extraordinarily skeptical, and on occasion even cynical. It isn't uncommon to hear phrases like "show me" and "prove it." since, in our organization, these skeptical cynics are usually the practitioners who ultimately must endorse, accept, and implement an innovation, overcoming their doubts is essential. One of the best ways to accomplish that is with empirical research and small scale trial tests, pilot projects, or proof-of-concept experiments. Not only can the research and evaluation results help convince the skeptics, but the data and experience gained through these efforts can prove extremely useful for managing risk, developing cost-benefit analyses, and convincing those who must commit resources to a project of its value. at FLETc we enjoy the advantage of having both a Training Research Branch and an Evaluation and analysis Branch. Those two branches, which work very closely with one another, are both staffed with skilled professionals who can apply scientific methods to measure, evaluate, and assess proposed training technologies, instructional methodologies, techniques and procedures, and so forth. Our researchers provide a vital link between the idea originators and the practitioners. along with relying on our own researchers, FLETc has also established both formal and informal relationships with other law enforcement training
organizations, and we've not limited ourselves to our 90 federal training partners. We have extended our reach outside the United States, notably to our neighbors in Canada, INTERPOL, and several European law enforcement training organizations. We've also built relationships with numerous academic institutions, and have joined a consortium of experts in Orlando, Florida known as Team Orlando. The Team Orlando group is comprised of training research and development elements from the American military services, leading universities with advanced programmes in modeling and simulations, the entertainment industry, and major technology firms. FLETC has established a small office within Team Orlando, giving us access to an almost limitless supply of new ideas, concepts, and technologies. The ability to leverage the investments already made by the military and industry and to adapt their innovations for law enforcement training has saved countless dollars and significantly reduced our risks in fielding new capabilities for our own trainers. In addition to our collaboration with Team
Orlando, FLETC has been designated by the US Government as a federal research laboratory. This designation not only permits us to conduct original and unique human factors research, but it also authorizes us to enter into Cooperative Research and Development Agreements with non-governmental organizations, including colleges and universities and private-sector businesses. These agreements can greatly expand and augment our own research capabilities at very little cost, and they lend credibility and validity to our research findings. In the journey from idea to innovation, researchers can serve at least three important functions. First, they may themselves sow the seeds of innovation with their own ideas. Second, their research products help decision makers to rationally identify those ideas that hold the greatest promise for the organization, and to sort out for elimination or deferral those ideas that have less potential. Without this critical contribution by researchers, innovation is all too often left to chance or serendipity. The third role of researchers is to generate support from practitioners by demonstrating the utility of
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... there must be a linkage with policy makers and with those in the organization who are responsible for managing the resources needed to transform that great idea into reality and to sustain the resulting innovation...
an innovation, while also securing backing from the policy makers and managers who control the resources that are essential for innovation. At every step, however, we remind ourselves that it is the practitioners who must ultimately make innovation a success, and experience has taught us that early engagement with our trainers in our research and development activities is crucial to getting their buyin. The linkage between the idea originator and practitioner is indispensable, and as I have suggested it can be greatly facilitated by research and evaluation. But there must also be a linkage with policy makers and with those in the organization who are responsible for managing the resources needed to transform that great idea into reality and to sustain the resulting innovation. Technologybased innovations will inevitably require support from those who oversee the organization's Information Technology systems. For the innovator, concerns about system security, data integrity, privacy protection requirements, access by users with disabilities, and so forth can be both distracting and frustrating. While these challenges should not be allowed to derail an innovation effort, the innovator would do well to recognize and accept that they will ultimately need to be confronted and resolved. Successful resolution will require the cooperation and support of information technology staff ­ in FLETC's case, the Chief Information Officer's Directorate. Because of this, our Training Innovation Division
maintains a close working relationship with the CIO's staff. That partnership has resulted in an arrangement whereby our innovators are permitted to conduct limited proof-of-concept trials using isolated systems even though they may not necessarily meet all the IT operational requirements. This understanding gives us the latitude to evaluate the potential of technological innovations without jeopardizing the security of our enterprise IT systems. For technology innovations that prove out, the CIO's personnel then work with us to bring the new technology into compliance with the countless IT system regulations and requirements. This approach balances the need for leeway during research and development with the need to ensure that operational systems are not compromised. The inevitable tension between those pursuing innovation and those responsible for governance and regulatory compliance is mitigated by early coordination and by years of collaboration and openness that has helped establish trusting relationships. You may not have noticed that I mentioned in passing FLETC's Training Innovation Division, or TID. This division gives FLETC a unique group of dedicated professionals whose primary duty is to harvest great ideas, whether their own or from other sources. They then research and evaluate those ideas to ascertain their possible application to our training mission, and they serve as advocates for the best ideas, shepherding them through the innovation process. The blend of backgrounds
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...The significance of aligning instructor development with training innovation is easy to miss...
and skills in TID is fundamental to their success. While they have professional researchers, project managers, instructional system design specialists, and technicians among their ranks, the TID staff also includes former law enforcement officers and experienced trainers. The inclusion of law enforcement trainers in TID is indispensable to engaging our training practitioners in the innovation process. The diversity of TID's staff enables the unit to effectively serve as a bridge between our trainer/ practitioners and our information technology professionals. Earlier I alluded to FLETC's Training Research Branch and our Evaluation and Analysis Branch and the important role they play in winning support for innovation from both practitioners and those who manage the resources that are essential for implementing and sustaining innovations. Those two branches are, in fact, subordinate elements of the Training Innovation Division. They are complemented by another branch, our Training Methodologies Branch, which is responsible for training our new instructors and for the career long development of FLETC's trainers. The significance of aligning instructor development with training innovation is easy to miss. The best ideas, technologies, and methodologies are all for naught unless they are embraced by training practitioners, and TID's ability to incorporate innovations into our instructor development processes is a powerful technique for driving change. Giving our novice trainers a new set
of tools for their instructional toolkits is relatively easy; they don't know what was in the old toolkit, and they aren't attached to the traditional ways of doing business. As a result, they aren't resistant to accepting the innovative tools inasmuch as they're not being asked to give up their comfortable old tools. Ultimately, the adoption of innovations by new trainers has an impact on the experienced instructor cadre, as well. As our veteran instructors observe firsthand their younger counterparts successfully employing recent innovations, those seasoned trainers find it hard not to get on board and embrace the innovation themselves. Finally, I should mention my own role in innovation efforts. As FLETC's Assistant Director for Training Innovation and Management, I am essentially the organization's innovation evangelist. As an Assistant Director, I am a member of FLETC's Executive Team and a peer of other Assistant Directors whose support is critical to successful innovation. For example, the Chief Information Officer, Chief Financial Officer, and Chief Counsel are my counterparts, as are the Assistant Directors who oversee the delivery of FLETC's training and the management of FLETC's curriculums. The result is that I have ready access to others whose support is essential to the innovation process, and I also have frequent opportunities to persuade, influence, and occasionally plead with FLETC's Deputy Director and Director. There is another side to this same coin. As a member of the Executive Team, I'm in an
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ideal position to transmit and explain the Director's strategic intent to those whose job it is to promote innovation. Consequently, I am frequently able to steer FLETC's innovation energy in a direction that is consistent with the Director's long-range goals and objectives. Although I'm all too aware that many of my colleagues view me as the guy who writes checks they have to cash, the importance of executive sponsorship of innovation projects is hard to overstate. Obviously ideas and innovation come from all elements of our organization, but a powerful message of encouragement is sent to would-be innovators when a Senior Executive is expressly given responsibility for promoting, nurturing, and fostering a culture of innovation. Having opened on a somewhat pessimistic note, enumerating and discussing the endless list of obstacles to innovation, let me close with a bit of optimism. Innovation isn't easy, but it also isn't impossible. At the risk of seeming presumptuous, I can offer a few specific items of advice to those who would innovate in a law enforcement training environment. Borrowing from Dr. Stephen R. Covey, these might be called the 7 habits of highly effective innovators: Habit 1: Patience and persistence are essential. Keep repeating the mantra, "Gentle pressure, relentlessly applied." Habit 2: While innovators must practice patience, they should not expect it from others,
many of whom will be looking for instant results, immediate positive outcomes, and a rapid return on investment. Habit 3: Be resilient; would-be innovators will lose more often than they will win. Get over it, and get on with it. Habit 4:Collaborate ­ early and often and with everybody. No matter how good the idea, it will not lead to innovation without the support of others. Most especially, involve practitioners in the innovation effort as soon as possible. Habit 5: Constantly endeavour to define and clarify your vision. What does the successful endstate look like? If others can't share in the vision, they can't get on board. Don't expect them to simply make a leap of faith; if you do, you're in for a disappointment. Habit 6: Foster an organizational culture with a tolerance for uncertainty, a willingness to accept reasonable risks, and an acceptance of occasional failure. Innovation is not predictable. Habit 7: Lastly, always keep in mind that innovation is not the goal; innovation is the means, not the end. Innovation is worthwhile only to the extent that its outcome has value to the individual practitioner, the organization, the community, or society as a whole. Change will be disruptive, risky, and messy, and purposeless change is not progress. So focus your innovation efforts with purpose, and go forth and change the world!
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IMPEDIMENTS TO INNOVATION Competition for scarce resources (e.g., time, money, and people): Not enough "stuff": material or personnel resources such as money, time, and people (i.e., too much to do and not enough time and people to do it) Failure to commit time and people who are expressly dedicated to the development of new ideas and opportunities Under-funding of new ideas because of preference for sustaining current efforts Bad timing ­ the organization simply isn't ready yet for the innovation or has too many other activities already underway Internal cultural and political challenges:
Fear that criticizing current practices and commitments is a high-risk activity Reluctance to kill initiatives that are not succeeding, but have been funded and staffed Lack of skillful brainstorm facilitation No creative thinking training Inadequate "Innovation coaching" "Innovation" relegated to R&D Overly restrictive and inflexible processes, procedures, regulations, and governance:
Lack of a shared vision Absence of an organizational commitment to innovation Failure of senior leadership to support or "own" innovation No dedicated innovation advocate Focus on the short term Leaders expect a return on investment too quickly Management incentives are not structured to reward innovation No reward or recognition programmes Rewarding crisis management rather than crisis prevention Innovation not part of the performance review process Constantly shifting priorities Internal process focus rather than external customer focus Inadequate understanding of customers Unwillingness to acknowledge and learn from past "failures" Internal politics; that is, entrenched interests are vested in the status quo
Business processes, systems, and people are too rigid or bureaucratic to innovate Excessive hierarchy - over-management and review of new ideas Micromanagement Over-reliance on analytical thinking ("analysis paralysis") Absence of a systematic, user-friendly idea management processes Risk aversion and fundamental resistance to change: Belief that innovation is inherently risky, and a concomitant failure to recognize that not innovating also carries risks Reluctance to change in the absence of a motivating crisis Focus on past successes rather than future challenges (that is, the illusion of security in continuing to do what brought success in the past) Concern that innovation is disruptive, unpredictable, and may bring unintended negative consequences
INTERPOL International Police Training JOURNAL
Linking Innovators, Researchers, Policies, and Practitioners
Training versus Operations
When Will the Two Worlds
Johanna Pagonis
Introduction How did training and operations become separate? Was it always like that? Is this a phenomenon unique to law enforcement, or does it occur in most professions? Does it really matter? The truth is separating the two worlds can have a negative impact regardless of the profession. It can be argued that policing requires a very unique skill set over other organizations. In law enforcement if you are not able to transfer to the "real" world what you learned in the "artificial" world, you expose yourself and the organization to serious consequences. So, then why the separation? I don't know how many times I've worked with highly skilled subject matter experts to develop a comprehensive training programme, only to find out the trainees were struggling to apply it in the field. What happened? Was it the trainees' inability to "get it"; was it the instructor, or maybe it was the course designer - I shudder to even think it. Research shows that 75%-85% of performance issues that occur on the job are due to the work environment and not due to training or individual performance issues (ASTD 2004). The field is not supporting what is occurring in training (Kuhnlein, 2012). What does that mean? In simple terms it means, if we are going to effectively train our members to become competent and confident in their abilities, we need to discover how we are going to bring the two worlds together. If the universe was created in seven days, then we should be able to create a world where training and operations can coexist, and enhance one another hopefully with no divine intervention required. This article will examine how organizations can transition from a traditional focus of learning
Curriculum Designer Alberta Solicitor General and Public Security Staff College, Canada (e.g. classroom/online learning) towards a blended approach that includes formal, informal and experiential opportunities. The 70:20:10 Model The 70:20:10 model is all a buzz in the Learning and Development (L&D) world. The 70:20:10 model is a learning concept developed by Lombardo and Eichinger for the Center for Creative Leadership (1996). The model proposes that 10 percent of our knowledge and skills is learned through formal learning - classroom/online, 20 percent from informal learning opportunities with mentors and coaches, and a big whopping 70 percent from on-the-jobexperiences. If 70 percent of how we learn to do our job comes from actually doing it, are we to dismantle our training departments, hand our officers cuffs and guns and say - "you can figure this out on the job". Hmm, perhaps not. We need to ask ourselves how we can use the 70:20:10 model to make sure our 10 percent links to the 70 percent. Unfortunately, I have seen many organizations have knee jerk reactions to the latest trends. What we need to do is slow down and examine the situation. How do we make sure what we learn in a classroom or virtually links to the field and our organization's principles? Impact Mapping Impact mapping is a quick and powerful way to link training objectives to performance and business goals. It can enhance learner intentionality, develop
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performance supports and document the bottom line value of an organization's training (Brinkerhoff et al, 2001). Improvement in business goals can result from many factors; the key is mapping it out to make the most of the 70:20:10. Take everything you know about curriculum design and flip it on its head. Start with the end in mind! Think about some of your organizational results and how it will align with the training. Lack of alignment has been identified as the number one reason training fails to deliver results (Bailey et al, 2011). Next think about how the transfer of skills and knowledge from the course will be applied in the field.
percent of the answer will come from formal courses (face-to-face/virtual), 70 percent from doing the job and the "20 percent ­ conversations and informal learning with subject matter experts, coaches and peers ­ act as the glue in the whole learning process" (Hoyle, 2012, p.15). With an impact map, the L&D professional can now have a clear line of sight from their learning objectives to the organizational goals/ results. Once the transfer of skills and knowledge has been identified, structured on-the-job supports can be created to reinforce key learning outcomes.
Participant Job Role Investigator
Capability The skills and knowledge the trainees will gain from the training are...
Transfer Transfer of S&K to the job will result in...
Organizational Results If transfer is achieved, the results to the org. will be...
The specific learning outcomes the trainee must acquire. (e.g. demonstrate the ability to write a search warrant)
The ways the trainee How will the org. benefit from can use the learning the transfer of learning? (e.g. to produce key results decreased liability and increased needed to achieve confidence the community has in day to day business. the organization) (e.g. write a search warrant that meets the legal standard and is defendable in court)
From your analysis in the first two steps, develop the learning outcomes and capability your trainees will gain from the training. The 70:20:10 model is not an organic process by which skills are naturally developed just by doing the job. Remember the cuffs and guns example? It's about planning and managing the learning process whereby work behaviours are separated into manageable sections and documented to illustrate the impact it will have on the organization (Hoyle, 2012, Jacobs et al, 1992). The questions one must ask are; what about this training is important? How can the learning be used to help the trainee and the organization improve? Ten
Structured On-the-Job Training ­ The 90% When thinking about how to make the most of the 70:20 we can utilize one of two frameworks - unstructured on-the-job training (U-OJT) or structured on-the-job training (S-OJT). Unstructured-OJT has received criticism for being haphazard, causing disruptions in the workplace and is an added burden on the mentor's tasks (Jacobs, 1990). Dedicated mentors can become over utilized and burn out. Just ask any effective field training officer. Structured-OJT on the flip side, clearly states the knowledge and skills required of the trainee before hand. It taps into the learning objectives from the classroom/online environment
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and develops them in the field using job guides, rubrics, or other performance supports to expand all aspects of the training programme. StructuredOJT employs a predictable systems approach to ensure that trainee capability is being transferred to the field and linked to organizational results. Jacobs, Jones and Neil (1992) conducted a case study to forecast the financial benefits of U-OJT versus S-OJT. The results were remarkable. The results showed that S-OJT provided approximately twice the financial benefit and five times the efficiency compared to U-OJT. Wow, with results like those why do organizations still use U-OJT? There are some obstacles. First of all, you need to ensure you have a high level of commitment from the mentor, which requires a high level of commitment from their boss. A good example of this are mentors who coach new employees, but are not allowed to reduce their work load for the period of time they are coaching. The new employee now becomes a burden for the well intentioned mentor. Another consideration is the criteria used to select the mentor. Does the mentor have the prerequisite knowledge and skill set to effectively train, coach and role-model appropriate behaviours? It's not uncommon for police services who are dealing with high turnover rates to utilize members with one year of experience - barely out of their probationary period - as field training officers (FTO). Structured-OJT requires a high level of commitment from the organization in terms of "financial and human resources to allow mentors time from their regular job duties to help prepare, deliver and evaluate training" (Jacobs, 1990, p.13). Structured-OJT has many benefits, such as employee development, retention, effectiveness and efficiency in operations. Yet, S-OJT is not always the most appropriate training approach for all circumstances. The use of structured-OJT must be assessed as a possible option after an analysis has been conducted to ensure it links to learning objectives and organizational goals.
Conclusion Using structured-OJT and the 70:20:10 model doesn't come without its hurdles. Does that mean we leave the start line and put away our spiked shoes? It's important to ask why we are developing our members through training. If you answer - to develop employee competency, confidence and involvement - then you should be able to justify the time and cost. When employees become involved in their development they contribute to the improvement of the organization (Jacobs, 1990). Once we realize the importance of developing training from a holistic perspective, we will be able to maximize our training results. References Annual Report of the Industry. (2003). Alexandria, VA: American society for Training and development. Bailey, A., & Gillis, L. (2011). High impact Evaluation: A new evaluation model: Forward-looking, predictive and proactive. Canadian Learning Journal, Fall, 13-17. Brinkerhoff, R. O., & Apking, A. M. (2001). High impact learning: Strategies for leveraging business results from training. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing. Hoyle, R. (2012). A new bled. Training Journal, January 2012, 13-15. Jacobs, R.L. (1990). Structured on-the-job training: Training and development research report. Graduate program in training and development, Ohio: Ohio State University Jacobs, R.L., Jones, M.J., Neil, S. (1992). A case study in forecasting the financial benefits of unstructured and structured on-the-job training. Human resource development Quarterly, 3(2), Summer, 133-139. Kuhnlein, S. (2012). Transfer evaluation: A concept intended to optimise practical training within the federal criminal police office. International Police Training Journal, 3, 3-6. 70/20/10 Model. (2012, May 2). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/70/20/10_Model
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Police Training Programme Supporting the Structural Reorganization of the Police Force 1 Dr. Reinhard Mussik
Introduction Over the past two decades the police force of the state of Brandenburg has confronted the need for broad structural changes. The first wave of reform came into force on July 1st 2002 with subsequent shifts unfolding under the banner "Police 2020" beginning in February 2010 (Land Brandenburg, 2005 and 2011). In each stage, the stimulus for reform had been guided by financial pressures and dwindling resources. An underlying objective of each reform phase was one of balancing effective public security with that of increased fiscal responsibility. This meant that the work of the police force had to be designed and delivered in an increasingly efficient manner. Using the example of the "integrated further education" (Integrierte Fortbildung) of the police of the state of Brandenburg this study examines how a substantive measure of reorganization could be supported by the implementation of a behaviour oriented training programme. The "integrated further education" was the most important form of police training in the police force of the state of Brandenburg from 1991 to 2009. After 2009, it was restructured and re-branded as "Operational Training" (Einsatztraining). This training was and is compulsory for all police officers and therefore, offered a mechanism by which to support a fundamental reform process.
University of Applied Sciences of the State Police of Brandenburg Germany Changing established patterns of behaviour of adults has proven to be very difficult in practice. This study outlines how training programmes assisted in the behavioural changes aligned with the large scale organizational reform processes and objectives. Furthermore, it explores the specific methods which could be employed in order to achieve long-term change in the patterns of adult behaviour. This study also examined how a specific training programme supported the alignment of desired organizational development with an officer's daily duties. Methodology The basic Research Methods utilized in this study were the use of secondary data analysis (statistical material) and a focused literature review (inclusive of a range of sociological, neurophysiological, psychological, organizational change and pedagogical studies). A further layer of analysis was directed upon extensive empirical material drawn from operational exposure and internal access supported by the author's affiliation with training
1 This Article is a summary of the PhD-thesis: "Possibilities and Limits of the Integrated Further Education of the Police of the Land Brandenburg Supporting the Structural Reorganization of the Police Force" (Mussik, 2006)
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staff at the University of Applied Sciences of the State Police of Brandenburg. Findings It has been argued that the "police organization" can be understood in terms of two cultural parameters, one being a "mission statement culture" and the second a "cop culture" driven by circumstances/experiences (Behr, 2000). These distinct cultures set the foundation wherein police training must not only bridge the differences but also influence behavioural change. The official "mission statement culture" propagates an ideal of police work, which is compatible with our legal framework, and which can meet all demands of a community based police service. Yet, this culture does not provide feasible patterns of action for handling all operational situations. Feasible patterns of action are drawn from and are only provided by the "cop culture." These patterns are developed in decades of police praxis, and can be changed only through practical experiences. Given these differences and tension between the "cop culture" and the "mission statement culture", police training requires a linkage or cross-cultural alignment between the differing objectives and perspectives. In this context, practical, operational training can connect the "mission statement culture" and the "cop culture". Training affords a possibility to cross the borders between these two cultures and to help alleviate the opposition to organizational changes and requirements of a "mission statement culture". Here, police training must prepare the officers for not only unexpected situations arising from daily routines but also enable the officer to place their actions within the context of the police mission, legal framework and approved practices. In this structure training must prepare the officers for situations:
With which the officers are unfamiliar and for which they don't have any patterns of action. Which are solvable within the existing routines but which could suddenly develop into unfamiliar and dangerous situations. Which are relatively common but for which the officers are not sufficiently trained. ... "police organization" can be understood in terms of two cultural parameters, one being a "mission statement culture" and the second a "cop culture" driven by circumstances/ experiences... Given the diversity of these situations and others, it becomes essential to place officers in training situations wherein they have an opportunity to test their patterns of action and recognize that a "normal" everyday situation could suddenly change into a deadly threat. Only personal experience in training, as close to reality as possible, can prepare an officer for unpredictable situations. It also reinforces the reality that policing requires a balance of both cultures and that training is the best mechanism to shift these behavioural and operational differences.
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Conclusion Police training which aims to help officers to be more secure in their daily duty while accomplishing other aims of a police reform ­ like higher effectiveness of work and to be more in touch with the needs of citizens ­ must address the differing aspects of police work articulated within the two cultures. Training must diminish this discrepancy. Police training must help to prepare the officers for unpredictable situations, as well as integrate the "learning from mistakes" drawn from both cultures of the police. Finally, police training must create the balance between the standards and reform objectives of the "mission statement culture" and experience of police praxis drawn from the daily reality of the "cop culture". Training philosophy, practices, development and delivery should not be a battlefield of the two cultures, as neither culture could emerge a winner from this conflict. The challenge for an organization is one of striking the best balance whereby reform objectives and effective officer readiness are equally achieved. In the context of this study the Operational Training model that was implemented by the state of Brandenburg has shown how this balance can be achieved and how by doing so it supports the broad reform objectives required of the police service. The challenge remains one of balance and the manner in which programming, content and delivery encompass aspects of both cultures.
Behr, Rafael (2000). Cop Culture, Der Alltag des Gewaltmonopols: Mдnnlichkeit, Handlungsmuster und Kultur in der Polizei. Opladen: Leske + Budrich.
Land Brandenburg (2011). 01.04.2011 - Polizeireform: Aufbaustдbe legen Bericht vor. http://www.internetwache.
Land Brandenburg (2005). Dokumentation zur
Polizeireform bietet detaillierte Einblicke und Perspektiven
der Neuorganisation.
Mussik, Reinhard (2003). Lernpsychologische Besonderheiten beim Training von polizeilichen Standardsituationen und Schlussfolgerungen fьr die Seminargestaltung. In: Polizei & Psychologie, edited by Clemens Lorei, pp. 485-514. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag fьr Polizeiwissenschaft.
Mussik, Reinhard (2006). Mцglichkeiten und Grenzen der Integrierten Fortbildung der Polizei des Landes Brandenburg bei der Umsetzung der Ziele der PolizeistrukturreforM. Humboldt-Universitдt.
h t t p : //e d o c . h u - b e r l i n . d e /d o c v i e w s /a b s t r a c t . php?lang=ger&id=26814
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The effectiveness of occupational safety and health induction training for new recruits of Hong Kong Police Force 1 Wong Chi Ming
Police ForcE Hong Kong
Introduction To determine the effectiveness of Occupational Safety and Health induction training for new recruits of the Hong Kong Police Force, a questionnaire survey was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010. The subjects of the survey were new recruits who attended Occupational Safety and Health induction training at the Hong Kong Police College. A total of 89 participants were surveyed between December 2009 and January 2010. A second objective of the research was to find out the relationship between the background of new recruits and their degree of awareness of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH). In order to prove the effectiveness of OSH training for the new recruits, several comparisons were conducted. The comparisons were among the different backgrounds of new recruits, their envisaged degree of awareness about OSH, their actual degree of awareness about OSH and the differences before and after training. The participants were mainly young adults (67.4% male; 32.6% female), 55% of them had higher level education up to diploma or above, 45% of participants had F.5 to F.7 academic background.
About 35% of participants had 1-3 years working experience and 19% of participants had no working experience. Survey results revealed that over 95% of the new recruits recognized the effectiveness and usefulness of the OSH induction training. To measure the effectiveness of the training programme, the surveys included a list of multiple-choice questions related to the OSH training programme's curriculum. The participants had to complete the same multiplechoice questions in the pre-test and post-test. The results also indicated that 86.4% of participants scored high marks after the training. Moreover, safety training for the new recruits not only improved their knowledge about OSH in their working field but also general awareness regarding safe and healthy working practices. The primary aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of OSH induction training for new recruits of Hong Kong Police Force. It also aims to understand OSH induction training for new recruits of Hong Kong Police Force as an essential accompaniment to prevent risks as well as helping new recruits integrate as quickly as possible into new environments and perform efficiently and effectively in their work.
1 This paper is a summary of a detailed analysis of OSH training undertaken by Wong Chi Ming.
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The effectiveness of occupational safety
The Importance of OSH Induction Training Induction Training is absolutely vital for new starters. Good induction training ensures new starters are retained, and settled in quickly and happily to a productive role. Induction training is more than skills training. Proper induction training is increasingly a legal requirement. Employers have a formal duty to provide new employees with all relevant information and training, particularly relating to health and safety. "New employees also need to understand the organisation's mission, goals, values and philosophy; personnel practices, health and safety rules, and of course the job they are required to do, with clear methods, timescales and expectations."(Alan Chapman, 2009) The above suggestions have already been applied to Hong Kong as reflected in the legislation. "Every employer must, so far as reasonably practicable, ensure the safety and health at work of all his employees. His duties include: make arrangements for ensuring safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use, handling, storage or transport of plant or substances; provide information, instruction, training and supervision as may be necessary to ensure the safety and health at work; maintain workplace including the means of access to and egress from the workplace in a condition that is safe and without risks to health; and provide and maintain workplace and working environment that are safe and without risks to health."(Cap 509 sec.6, Laws of Hong Kong) More specifically, formal induction courses should be tailor-made according to each unique working nature and environment. "Formal induction courses can provide for recruits to be assembled in groups so that a number of people can be given consistent and comprehensive information at the same time, which may not be forthcoming if reliance
is placed solely on supervisors. Also, a formal course is an opportunity to deliver messages about the organization, its products and services, its mission and values. But formal induction courses cannot replace informal induction arrangements at the workplace, where the most important need ­ settling people well ­ can best be satisfied". (Armstrong, 2007) Besides, "An effective induction training helps a new employee feel assured and comfortable in the new environment, which is critical for early uptake in the new role. A new entrant should culturally fit in an organisation and interaction at this stage shapes an individual's disposition and outlook for work and motivation levels." (Express Pharma, 2006) All these can facilitate new employees in adapting to a new working environment more effectively. Last but not least, as stated by the Labour Department (2009) "An employer should ensure that all new employees are given: induction training of appropriate duration in order to familiarise them with the company, the work environment, their respective duties, their legal rights and obligations and the policies and procedures of the company; adequate training to supplement previous education, training and experience for the job; and training in safety training should be tailored to the specific audiences and the specific needs of the organization. Training and the methods of delivery should evolve/ change ...
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and health at work." Therefore, employers also have their responsibilities to provide comprehensive OSH induction training to new comers. DISCUSSION The OSH induction training was satisfactory among new recruits in terms of acquisition of basic knowledge. However, the extent of attitude and safety awareness of new recruits still needs to be enhanced. From the results of the questionnaire and quiz, it is noticed that the participants scored well in the questions of general safety knowledge. The scope of basic questions included the recognition of general duties of employers, provision of personal protective equipment by employers, definition of working at height, etc. The effects on new recruits' attitude and safety awareness were revealed in the questions set on practicing good housekeeping, and recognition and acknowledgement of shared responsibilities in preventing industrial accidents among employers, employees and government. Secondly, the post-test results were encouraging, in that not only did they indicate the rising level of safety knowledge among the new recruits, they also reflected the enhanced safety awareness resulting from the OSH induction training. The performance of the new recruits in the posttest entirely demonstrated their basic competence. Thus, the result was not simply an indication of the results of the new recruits in the research, it was the carry-over effect resulting from the OSH induction training that is beneficial across the Hong Kong Police Force. Safety attitudes and awareness among new recruits have highlighted the requirement of continual improvement on both safety promotion and training efforts. Thirdly, it is found that the degree of knowledge towards OSH mainly depends on two crucial factors, namely work experience and educational background. The more work experience, the higher the degree of knowledge towards OSH. This is because workers may have attended similar OSH training provided by their previous employers. On
the other hand, the same circumstance occurs in regards to educational background. Those interviewees with higher educational background possibly have higher awareness of potential danger in daily work and may take more suitable precautions to avoid injuries and measures to handle accidents. They build up this ability through making their own determination by applying the knowledge learned in school, especially in the lessons of physics and chemistry. Therefore, they have a certain amount of OSH knowledge even if they have not attended any OSH training. However, different people can gain different amounts of OSH knowledge and awareness of potential dangers even though they attended the same training. This is because everyone has different levels of understanding in the training. This variation is most probably in relation to the type of their current job, as most people will pay more attention where it benefits them most. Additionally, though OSH knowledge is built up through memory, the respective knowledge will gradually fade with time. This point has importance for both initial and regular OSH training, especially with respect to prior employment information obtained from recruits. Moreover, the promising feedback from the OSH induction training has had a strong impact on improving safety awareness among new recruits. Future direction for continual improvement should be focused not only on OSH induction training, but also on emphasizing other continual on-the-job training. Promotional activities are as important as safety training in creating safety awareness. These activities continue to enhance and promote occupational safety and health standards in Hong Kong Police Force. Finally, to be more effective, safety training should be tailored to the specific audiences and the specific needs of the organization. Training and the methods of delivery should evolve/change. Safety personnel can get into a routine, especially where safety training is conducted merely because it is a mandated topic. Additionally, safety training loses its effectiveness when it is being used to solve potential
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...Specific safety and health training should be tailored so as to strengthen their awareness of safety and health with respect to their changing environment and operational tasks...
problems that are not rooted in an educational context. For example, suppose an organization is experiencing accidents caused by the improper physical arrangement of the workspace. Instead of reengineering the workplace, the employees receive training and are expected to prevent the accidents even though they are working in a physical environment that is not conducive to safety. CONCLUSION After carrying out this research, there is little doubt that Occupational Safety and Health induction training is crucial for new recruits of the Hong Kong Police Force. After attending the Occupational Safety and Health training, the new recruits were able to obtain general safety knowledge about their daily work. However, there is the possibility for them to be attached to different departments and thus perform different tasks/functions/responsibilities. Therefore, specific safety and health training should be tailored so as to strengthen their awareness of safety and health with respect to their changing environment and operational tasks. Providing Occupational Safety and Health induction training is helpful in improving occupational safety and health. There are many other elements essential to contributing to a safe and healthy working environment, e.g. supervision, monitoring, evaluation, oversight, etc. Thus,
responsible employers must address all aspects; training is but one mechanism we can readily rely upon. REFERENCES Alan Chapman. (2009). Induction Training Checklist. [Online]. Available from: inductiontrainingchecklist.htm [Accessed 27th December 2009]. Armstrong, M. (2007). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. London: Kogan Page Limited. Charter Management Institute (CMI), (2009). Management Checklist - Organising the Induction of New Recruits [Online]. Hong Kong. CMI. Available from: http:// w w w. t i m e s o n l i n e . co . u k /m u l t i m e d i a /a r c h i ve /0 0218 / Management_Checklis_218638a.pdf [Accessed 25th December 2009]. Christopher, A. (2003). Safety Metrics: Tools and Techniques for Measuring Safety Performance. India: Government Institutes. Civil Service Bureau (2005). Information and News LCQ: Effective Safety management system Put in Place to Ensure Staff Safety at Work. Hong Kong SAR Government, Hong Kong: Government Printer. Department of Justice (1998). Chapter 509 Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance. [Online] Available from : htm[Accessed 27th December 2009]. Express Pharma, (2006). Importance of induction programme. [Online]. India. Express Pharma. Available
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from: pharmalife01.shtml. [Accessed 25th December 2009]. European Agency For Safety and Health at Work. (2008). Good Practice in Preventing Risks to Young New Recruits. Belgium. Health and Safety Executive, (2001). Health and Safety Training [Online]. UK. Health and Safety Executive. Available from: [Accessed 11th January 2010]. Labour Department(2003) . Guide to Good People Management Practices. Occupational Safety and Health Branch, Labour Department. Labour Department (2002). Code of Practice on Safety Management. Occupational Safety and Health Branch, Labour Department. Labour Department (2004). A Guide to the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (Section 6A & 6B) -
Know Your General. Occupational Safety and Health Branch, Labour Department. Labour Department (2003). A Brief Guide to the Occupational Safety and Health Regulation. Occupational Safety and Health Branch, Labour Department. Labour Department (2003). The Knowledge of OSH for the New Youth Recruits. Occupational Safety and Health Branch, Labour Department. Labour Department (2004). A Guide on Employer's Safety Policy. Occupational Safety and Health Branch, Labour Department. Occupational Safety and Health Council, (2009). Safety culture: Safety Quiz. [Online]. Hong Kong. Available from: University of Manchester, (2006). Staff Training and Development Unit Guidance on Health and Safety Training. [Online]. London. Available from: http://www.campus. m a n ch e s te r. a c .u k / h e a lth a n dsa fe t y/Co Ps & G u i d a n ce / health_&_safety_training-g.pdf [Accessed 27th December 2009]. World Wide QHSE Specialist, (2009). Current Training Events. [Online]. Available from: page_training_events.html [Accessed 27th December 2009].
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BIOgraphies Michael Hanneld As the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center's (FLETC's) Assistant Director for Training Innovation and Management, Mr Hanneld oversees two offices comprised of six divisions. Before being appointed to his current position in March 2004, Mr Hanneld served two years as FLETC's Assistant Director for Administration. In prior positions he has also been Assistant Director for Training, Chief Financial Officer, Deputy Associate Director for Planning and Resources, Assistant Director for Training Support, Assistant to the FLETC Director, Chief of the FLETC's Legal Division, first Chief of the FLETC Management Institute, Assistant Chief of the Enforcement Techniques Division, Program Specialist for the Center's basic police training program, and a Legal Division instructor.
JOHANNA PAGONIS Ms Pagonis has been an instructional designer and facilitator for the past 13 years working in non-profit, private and public sectors. She currently works as a Curriculum Designer for the Alberta Justice and Solicitor General Ministry. She is always striving for the continual improvement of business practices through innovative training solutions. As an instructional designer Ms Pagonis develops a comprehensive training framework that meets business and stakeholder needs. She assesses performance needs and designs competency-based curricula reflective of adult learning principles that include the creation of performance outcomes and formative and summative assessment measures.
DR REINHARD MUSSIK Dr Reinhard Mussik serves as an instructor for police trainers at the University of Applied Sciences of the State Police of Brandenburg, Germany. His role at the University is to develop and manage basic and advanced training programmes for police trainers. Dr Mussik began his career in law enforcement as a patrol officer and worked some years as police trainer. He studied Educational Science, Learning Psychology and Sociology and he holds a Diploma in pedagogy from the University of Leipzig and a PhD in Educational Science from Humboldt University of Berlin. The focus of his research is the effectiveness of training programmes.
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