Using whole-word multimedia software to support literacy acquisition: A comparison with traditional books

Tags: intervention, Child Psychology, lexical decision task, literacy acquisition, phonological awareness, word recognition, literacy skills, Clicker, reading children, acquisition, literacy instruction, reading skills, reading acquisition, Ask the children, ORT, strawberry jam, experimenter, recognition, intervention activities, development, reading skill, Claire O'Malley, reading scheme, multimedia features, Nicola J. Pitchford, computer software programs
Content: Using whole-word multimedia software to support literacy acquisition: A comparison with traditional books Arjette Karemaker, Nicola J. Pitchford & Claire O'Malley Abstract In the UK, literacy instruction is widely supported by computer software programs aimed to improve literacy skills. However relatively few systematic studies have been conducted to date to investigate whether these programs are effective in supporting literacy acquisition. Programs range in nature from those supporting the acquisition of phonic reading skills to those focussing on promoting recognition of whole-words in context. Whilst phonic skills have been shown to be critical for successful reading acquisition, less is known about how promoting orthographic, whole-word, skills relates to literacy success. This study investigated whether whole-word multimedia software (i.e. Oxford Reading Tree for Clicker) facilitates literacy acquisition. We explored whether `Clicker' accelerated early reading acquisition relative to `Big Book' traditional teaching methods. Two groups of children (N 27), aged 5­6 years, that were reading at a typical level for their age were drawn from two classes within the same school. Each group received instruction with each of two books from the Oxford Reading Tree scheme, using either `Clicker' or traditional printed texts. Instruction was delivered to each group over five one-hour sessions over the course of a week. The order of presentation of instruction was counterbalanced across groups. Performance on tests of written word recognition, oral word reading, and tests of phonological awareness, was measured pre and post each week of instruction. Results showed significant gains in oral reading skill after each method of instruction. However, only after instruction with `Clicker' were significant gains in word recognition and rhyme awareness observed, and only after instruction with `Big Book' were significant gains in graphemic awareness found. We suggest the multimedia features of highlighting words and an auditory cue, built into the Clicker software, support the acquisition of written word recognition and rhyming skills, respectively.
L ITERACY INSTRUCTION in primary schools and at home in the UK and elsewhere (e.g. Europe, USA, Australia, New Zealand) is now widely supported by computer software programs, such as on-screen story books/electronic books (e-books), aimed to improve literacy skills. However, there is substantial variation in the content of e-books that claim to support the development of literacy skills in terms of phonological awareness, word recognition, and fluency. Consequently it is difficult for educators and parents to distinguish high quality e-books that genuinely promote literacy acquisition from those that are less effective. Furthermore, the multimedia features incorporated into e-books are numerous and vary greatly across products such as digitised speech, hotspots, text Educational & Child Psychology Vol 25 No 3 © The British Psychological Society 2008
highlighting whilst reading aloud, animations, sound effects, dictionary features, and activities and games. Thus, it is difficult to know which features are effective in developing the skills needed for literacy acquisition. Content analyses of e-books (aimed at 3­8 year old children) have been conducted to investigate whether or not they are suitable for supporting children's literacy. De Jong and Bus (2003) reviewed the content of e-book CD-ROMs comprising at least one oral reading of the story, although the CD-ROMs varied in the inclusion of other additional content such as multimedia features (e.g. oral reading, dynamic visuals, highlighting while text is narrated and sounds effects) and varied in their permitted level of interactivity. They divided CD-ROMs 97
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into three subtypes: `talking books' (which comprised a minimum of multimedia and interactivity); `living books' (which involved multimedia combined with minimal interactivity), and `interactive books' (which combined multimedia features and interactivity). From their analysis, they concluded that high-quality e-books should comprise multimedia and interactive features that are designed to support all aspects of literacy development, such as word recognition and story comprehension. In another review, Korat and Shamir (2004) suggested that more effort should be put into designing high quality e-books that facilitate children's literacy development and story comprehension than in designing amusing and entertaining programs. E-books may be beneficial in promoting literacy acquisition because the activity of reading aloud a story by an accomplished reader to a young child is recognised to be crucial in promoting literacy development (Teale, 1981, cited in Miller, Blackstock and Miller, 1994). In the classroom, storybooks are often read aloud to an entire class at a pace set by the teacher. In contrast, e-books enable stories to be read aloud to individual children (or small groups of children), thus allowing the child to determine the pace of delivery that suits their own particular needs. In addition, e-books provide correct pronunciation of words, and offer feedback as often as the child requires, and some highlight the words as they are being spoken. These features of e-books may advance reading skill acquisition over traditional teaching methods, although, to date, there has been little systematic investigation into which of these features are important for supporting the development of literacy skills and the cognitive processes involved. Evidence from previous research suggests that reading acquisition involves two key processes: (1) the establishment of orthographic, whole-word recognition skills that enable familiar words to be recognised rapidly and (2) the development of phonological decoding skills that enable
unfamiliar words to be read via letter-sound correspondence rules (e.g. Castles & Nation, 2006). In addition, phonological awareness (i.e. awareness of the sound structure of a language) has been shown to be a significant predictor of successful reading acquisition (e.g. Adams, 1990; Shankweiler & Fowler, 2004). Phonological awareness refers to the ability to identify, distinguish, and manipulate the sounds of a language and the awareness that words consist of smaller units such as phonemes, onsets and rimes, and syllables. Phonological awareness develops progressively through a child's exposure to and participation in spoken language, for example playing word games, such as `I spy', and learning nursery rhymes. However, it has also been shown that reading development itself, and in particular the acquisition of letter-sound knowledge, correlates with the development of phonological awareness (e.g. Ehri, 1989; Morais, 1991; Mann & Wimmer, 2002). As such, the direction of causality between phonological awareness and literacy acquisition is debated (Castles & Coltheart, 2004). Accordingly, the use of e-books in the teaching of learning to read may promote phonological awareness skills in developing readers. The few studies investigating the effectiveness of e-books in promoting the development of orthographic, whole-word recognition and phonological decoding skills have yielded inconsistent findings. For example, Miller et al. (1994) compared the development of whole-word recognition skills in 8-year old children who were asked to read repeatedly a story (5 times) given over two and a half weeks, via CD-ROM storybooks and hard-covered printed books. They found that whole-word recognition skills increased considerably after repeated readings of the CD-ROM storybooks. Children relied less frequently on the word pronunciations of unfamiliar words given by the computer after every reading and requested a reduced amount of computer help compared to the printed books activity. Although promising, these results should be treated
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with caution, as a very small sample size of only four children was used and so it is unclear whether or not these results would generalise to a wider sample of children. Likewise, McKenna and Watkins (1994, 1995, 1996, cited in McKenna, 1998), found exposure to e-books supported development of word-recognition skills over typical literacy instruction. They compared the wordrecognition skills of children that were exposed to e-books with children that received their usual literacy classroom activities. Children in the e-book group were able to access the pronunciation of a word in the text (e.g. hat) and would first get an analogy and then the pronunciation (e.g. `let's see, if c-a-t is cat, then h-a-t must be [pause] hat', page 48). This was to encourage independent decoding so that children would tackle the analogy instead of receiving the pronunciation of a word immediately. Results showed that the children in the e-book group that had already developed some word-recognition skills exhibited significant gains in word recognition compared to the control group. This suggests that e-books may be effective in promoting orthographic (whole-word) reading skills in children that have already started to establish a lexicon of written word representations. In contrast, Korat and Shamir (2007) reported no gains in written word recognition and phonological awareness after using e-books compared to traditional printed texts. They investigated the effectiveness of e-books compared to traditional literacy methods in which a similar version of the book was read aloud by an adult. A group of 128 children, aged 5­6 years, were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: (1) an experimental group in which children read the e-book individually three times; (2) an experimental group in which the traditional printed book was read by an adult to the children three times; and (3) a control group in which children received standard literacy instruction. The authors found improved spoken vocabulary scores in the two intervention groups compared to the Educational & Child Psychology Vol 25 No 3
control group, however no significant gains were found in whole-word recognition and phonological awareness in the intervention groups compared to controls. The authors suggested that they might not have found significant gains in written word recognition after the e-book intervention because the software did not emphasise activities with the key words in the text that were included in the word recognition test. They suggested adding activities to e-books that fostered the familiarity of printed words and that taught the pronunciation of key words included in the text. If these activities were included in e-books significant gains in written word recognition may be found. Contrary to Korat and Shamir (2007) multimedia software has been shown to benefit children's phonological awareness. Chera and Wood (2003) found that talking books based on the `Bangers and Mash' phonic reading scheme (published by Longman, 1999) supported development of phonological awareness. A group of 4-year-old children (n 15) received ten software interventions over a period of four weeks. Each intervention lasted ten minutes and was presented with a typical inter-intervention period of three days. In contrast, a control group (N 15), matched for age, gender and level of letter sound knowledge received their normal reading activities. Significant gains in phonological awareness reflecting awareness of letter sounds and word onsets (as measured by a visual letter sound task and a visual onset awareness task) were found in the intervention group relative to the control group. However, no significant gains in whole-word recognition skills were found despite an attempt to incorporate activities supporting reading by analogy. Ultimately, the goal of learning to read is to understand written text and to be able to communicate with others the nature of the text through retelling. Labbo and Kuhn (2000) conducted a Case study examining the comprehension and story-retellings of a child in which they manipulated the extent to which the interactive multimedia features 99
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of the CD-ROM talking books were congruent to the story being told. They compared two CD-ROM storybooks: Arthur's Teacher Trouble (Brown, 1994) with inconsistent (or what they termed `inconsiderate') text (where 56 per cent of media effects were incongruent to the story) and Stellaluna (Cannon, 1996), with consistent (which they termed `considerate') text (where only 16 per cent of media effects were incongruent with the story). They found that consistent talking books contributed to a good understanding and retelling of the story. Consequently, they suggested that when the purpose of a CD-ROM is to facilitate children's reading development, the interactive features should be logical and congruent with the story, so that it will support the child's understanding of the story. However, Korat and Shamir (2007) found no significant differences in the story comprehension of children after interventions using either an e-book or a traditional book. Thus, as with the development of whole-word recognition and phonological decoding skills, there is no convincing evidence that e-books facilitate the understanding of written text over and above traditional printed texts. The inconsistent pattern of results from studies investigating the effectiveness of e-books in supporting children's literacy instruction in the classroom that are summarised above make it difficult to draw firm conclusions about what advantages children gain from using multimedia software (Littleton, Wood & Chera, 2006). This may be because results are dependent on the nature of the specific multimedia e-books used in particular studies and thus do not readily generalise to other products. Seemingly, the effectiveness of a particular e-book depends on many factors, including quality, aim and purpose, the features incorporated in the book, the activities accompanying the text, and how the child uses it. Furthermore, gains in performance may depend on the length, frequency, and timing of intervention, and the nature of the comparison groups (i.e. traditional printed book inter-
vention compared to no intervention controls). As a result, it is difficult to disentangle the extent to which the results from previous studies reflect methodological differences from the effects specific to e-books or particular reading schemes. Furthermore, methodological differences across studies make comparison difficult. For example, studies vary in the chronological age and reading age of children and these groups are often not differentiated when evaluating the effectiveness of e-books. Sample sizes differ dramatically across studies [e.g. from only four children in Miller et al. (1994) to 128 children in Korat and Shamir (2007)]. When studies adopt a small sample size statistically meaningful differences may not be detected due to lack of statistical power. In addition, studies vary in methodological approach, and whilst experimental designs have more control over confounding variables, they may lack the ecological validity of those carried out in classroom settings. Also, studies differ with respect to assessment issues, such as the baseline measures conducted, whether or not standardised tests were used, and whether or not a control group was used. Finally the duration of interventions vary across studies and few investigate how lasting the intervention effects are over time. In an attempt to unravel the effects of ICT from a particular reading scheme, the present study contrasted an intervention using e-books to an intervention using traditional printed books, with materials from the same reading scheme. We examined the effectiveness of `Oxford Reading Tree (ORT) for Clicker', multimedia software designed to promote orthographic whole-word recognition skills. This series of on-screen talking books is based on the Oxford Reading Tree scheme, which is used in a large number of primary schools across the UK. ORT for Clicker is produced by Crick Software and Oxford University Press and comprises five CDs, on each of which there are six onscreen stories. Key features include an auditory cue (each word is spoken by a nar-
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rator) and the highlighting of words when spoken by the narrator. In addition, there are a wide range of reading and writing activities based on the story and its key words. The stories are graded in stages from 1 to 5 and children progress from one stage to the next. The reading scheme suggests that at the end of Year 1 (6 years of age) children should have reached stage 5 (Hunt and Page, 2003). Using a counterbalanced within-participants intervention design, two groups of Year 1 children (Group A and Group B) from the same school, with average reading levels for their age, were each given a week of intervention using ORT for Clicker and traditional ORT Big Books (big books are a large form of the regular sized book that teachers use for whole class teaching). For both interventions children performed accompanying activities incorporated in the software/reading scheme that were similar in content across interventions. The two interventions thus differed primarily in the multimedia features embedded within ORT for Clicker, in particular the visual highlighting of words as spoken by the narrator and the audio cue which provides correct pronunciation of unfamiliar words upon request by the child. The development of key processes required for reading acquisition was assessed at three times, both pre and post test for each intervention. Whole-word recognition skills were assessed using a lexical decision task. Written word naming was assessed using a single word oral reading task. Finally, phonological awareness was assessed using tests of rhyme awareness, grapheme awareness, and segmentation skill. If the visual highlighting and audio cue features incorporated in ORT for Clicker facilitate literacy acquisition, specific gains in written word recognition and naming skills may be expected by average readers following exposure to the multimedia software.
ICT support for literacy instruction
Method Design A within-participants design was used in which two groups of typically-developing children, rated by their teachers as being of average reading ability, were each given two interventions (traditional printed ORT Big Book and ORT for Clicker). Each intervention was implemented over a five-day week, for one hour every day. To control for order and practice effects, an AB-BA counterbalanced design was used across the two groups of children that were drawn from two different classes within the same school. The study was conducted over five weeks in which children were assessed on key measures of literacy skill in the week before and after each week of intervention. Table 1 summarises the study design: during intervention I Group A received the ORT for Clicker intervention whilst Group B was given the Big Book intervention; during intervention II Group A received the Big Book intervention whilst Group B was given the ORT for Clicker intervention.
Participants Twenty-seven children, ranging in age between 66 and 77 months (M 71.56 months; SD 2.86), were selected from two different classes within the same school. All of the children were at the educational level Year-1, key-stage 1. Participants were
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5
Pre Test Assessments (baseline) Intervention I: `Strawberry Jam' Group A: `ORT for Clicker' Group B: `Big Book' Post Test Assessments Intervention I/ Pre Test Assessments Intervention II Intervention II: `Kipper the Clown' Group A: `Big Book' Group B: `ORT for Clicker' Post Test Assessments Intervention II
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Table 1: Summary of the study design 101
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recruited from a large Catholic primary school near a metropolitan city centre in the East Midlands region of England. The school is located in a low socio-economic status area, however the proportion of pupils that receive free school meals is in line with the national average (Ofsted Inspection Report, 2006). Informed parental consent was obtained in line with the British Psychological Society guidelines. Although the teachers identified 38 children as `typically-developing' readers, parental consent was given for only 27 children to participate in the study. Consequently, Group A (n 15) consisted of 6 boys and 9 girls, ranging in age from 66 to 75 months (M 70.67 months; SD 2.61) and Group B (n 12) consisted of 5 boys and 7 girls, ranging in age from 69 to 77 months (M 72.67 months; SD 2.87). Intervention materials During each of the intervention weeks a story from the Oxford Reading Tree scheme was given to each group of children and the method of implementation was varied across groups. This meant that as one group received the traditional printed book version the other group received the ORT for Clicker on-screen talking book version and vice versa. Two different stories from the Oxford Reading Scheme were chosen, one for each week of intervention, that are suitable for Year-1 children. For each story a Big Book printed version is available that is an enlarged version of the traditional sized printed book. The Big Book supports and enables working and reading as a wholeclass activity and was used by the class teachers in the whole class activities conducted during the Big Book intervention. An ORT for Clicker version is also available for each story that is produced by Crick Software (2006). These are on-screen narrated versions of the story (i.e. a talking book). In the ORT for Clicker version each word in the story is highlighted in red, whilst spoken aloud by the narrator. Both versions (i.e. printed book and talking book) are
identical in text and are 16 pages long. Each story in the ORT for Clicker version is supported by six activities named `words', `word practice', `sentences', `comprehension', `writing' and `make a book' (i.e. retelling the story either through the written or spoken modality). Teaching notes, which provide prompts, suggestions, and activities, supported the traditional version. In the present study, the ORT for Clicker version activities and the traditional version activities were similar (see Appendix A and B). The following stories were used in this study over the two intervention weeks. Intervention I: `Strawberry Jam' (Hunt & Brychta, 2003). This story is about Dad who wants to make jam. The story gives practice in the following words: about, an, had, help, his, home, make, over, put, ran, some, time, too, took, want(ed), were, your. Intervention II: `Kipper the Clown' (Hunt & Brychta, 2003). This story is about a group of children who put on a circus. It practises the following words: after, be, did, good, had, his, laugh, made, man, pull(ed), put, want(ed), what. Apparatus The Clicker intervention consisted of a whole class session led by the teacher using ORT for Clicker (Version 5.2) on a SMART Interactive whiteboard. This was followed by Clicker activities, which each of the average readers performed individually on a laptop computer (Toshiba M300) with attached mouse and headphones. The Big Book intervention consisted of a whole class activity in which the teacher read the Big Book to the class. For the children in the intervention group this was followed by individual activities using pen, paper and regular sized ORT books. Two of the pre and post test assessments were computerised tasks and were given on a laptop computer (Toshiba M300) under the control of Eprime Version 1.1. The other three assessments were given orally and the experimenter recorded the responses on a standardised form.
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Assessments A series of assessments, designed to measure development of key aspects of literacy skill, was given to each child on three occasions, both pre and post test for each of the two interventions (see table 1). Written word recognition. A lexical decision task (LDT) was used to assess written word recognition skills. Stimuli were displayed on a PC laptop screen controlled by E-Prime software. The task required the child to indicate, by way of pressing one of two keys on the keyboards (i.e. the C and M keys), whether or not a centrally presented letter string was a word that was familiar to them. If the letter string was familiar to the child they were instructed to press the C key, which was covered with a green sticker. If the letter string was not familiar to the child they were asked to press the M key, which was covered with a red sticker. Children were given task instructions that were displayed on the laptop screen and were read aloud by the experimenter. The task was administered according the following instructions: `Spot the words you know! I am going to show you some words on the computer screen. If you see a word that you know, you press the green button. If it is a word that you don't know, you have to press the red button. I will ask you if you are ready and then you have to push the button. So the green button for a word that you know and the red button for a word that you don't know. Are you ready? ' A practice task was then given, containing 10 letter strings (five words and five nonwords), so as to familiarise the child with the task. This was repeated until the experimenter was sure that the child understood the task, after which the first trial was presented. For each trial a fixation display () was presented centrally on the screen for 500 ms. A lowercase letter string was then presented centrally and remained on the screen until the child had responded by pressing either the red or green key. Feedback was given for each trial by way of a happy face presented on the screen when the child responded correctly (i.e. green key press when the letter string Educational & Child Psychology Vol 25 No 3
was a word; red key press when the letter string was a nonword) and a disappointed face when the child made an erroneous response (i.e. green key press to a nonword; red key press to a word). The feedback lasted until the experimenter pressed the P button that triggered a new trial. The experimenter only initiated a new trial when she was sure that the child was focused. In total, 90 experimental trials were given to each child over three blocks of 30 trials. Each block consisted of 10 practice trials (the same practice trials were used in each of the three blocks of trials) followed by one block of 30 experimental trials in which 15 letter strings were real words and 15 were nonwords. This was to prevent boredom with the task and to ensure that each child finished all of the experimental trials. Each block took about seven minutes to complete. Children were given a break in between blocks of trials, of up to one day. Stimuli were presented in a randomised order within and across blocks and across participants. Responses were recorded by the computer. Stimuli were lowercase letter strings presented in 28-point black Comic Sans font against a white background. The stimulus set consisted of 90 letter strings, of which 45 were real words and 45 were nonwords. The 45 real words were drawn from a bank of words that the children were learning over the first three years of schooling. Five words were taught during Reception and should thus have been familiar to the children. These words were included so as to try to prevent floor effects. A further 25 words were taken from the two stories from the Oxford Reading Tree scheme that were used in the interventions. These were the high frequency words targeted by the scheme (see above). An additional 10 words were included that were being taught to the children over Year-1 (the year of schooling in which the study took place). A further five words were included that are taught during Year-2 and should thus have been unfamiliar to the children. These words were included so as to control against ceiling effects. The 103
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full list of words included in the lexical decision task is given in Appendix C. The 45 nonwords were generated from the 45 words by changing some of the letters in the real words. All nonwords were pronounceable and were matched to the real words in length and familiar letter sequences. A list of the nonword stimuli is given in Appendix C. Written word naming. A single word oral reading task (SWORT) was developed to assess naming of written words. The task required the child to read aloud each of the 45 word stimuli used in the lexical decision task. The stimuli were presented individually on a PC laptop screen. Task instructions were displayed on the laptop screen and were also read aloud by the experimenter. The task was administered according the following instructions: `I am going to show you some words on the computer screen. Let's see how many you can read. Read them out loud to me'. For each trial a fixation display () was presented centrally on the screen for 500 ms. A lowercase word was then presented centrally and remained on the screen until the child had read the word aloud. The experimenter responded by pressing either the Y or N key, depending whether the child's response was correct (Y) or incorrect (N). Stimuli were presented in lowercase 28-point, black, Comic Sans font, against a white background. Stimuli were presented individually in a randomised order across participants. Phonological awareness. Three subtests of the Phonological Awareness Test (PAT) (Robertson and Salter, 1997) were administered to each child according the standard instructions given in the test manual. The three subtests were rhyming, segmentation, and graphemes. Rhyming consisted of two tasks: discrimination (i.e. the child's ability to identify whether or not two words rhyme, e.g. `do hop & mop rhyme?'); and production (i.e. the child's ability to generate a word that rhymes with a spoken word, e.g. `what rhymes with cat?'). This subtest consisted of 20 items in total. Segmentation consisted of three
tasks: sentences (in which the child was required to clap to each word in a sentence spoken by the experimenter); syllables (in which the child was required to clap to each syllable in a word spoken by the experimenter); phonemes (in which the child was required to say each sound of a word spoken by the experimenter). This subtest consisted of 30 items in total. Graphemes assessed knowledge of letters and letter combinations and their corresponding sounds. In this task the child is shown a written letter (grapheme) and is required to say the corresponding sound (phoneme). The test consists of consonants (e.g. b, c, k); long and short vowels (e.g. a, e, i, o, u); consonants blends (e.g. bl, gr, sc, str); consonants digraphs (e.g. sh, th, ch); R-controlled vowels (e.g. ar, er); vowel digraphs (e.g. ee, oe); and diphthongs (e.g. ou, oy). There was a total of 58 items in this subtest. Procedure Each intervention was implemented with each group over the duration of five consecutive days (i.e. one full school week). The class teacher of each group delivered each intervention for one hour each day during the literacy hour. Every literacy hour consisted of a 15 minutes `shared work' activity (delivered to the whole class), a 15 minutes `word/sentence level work' activity (delivered to the whole class), a `20 minutes focus' activity (which involved individual work with the intervention activities), and a 10 minutes plenary session (delivered to the whole class). The `shared work' (whole class) activity involved the teacher exploring and reading the story with the whole class. During the Big Book intervention this involved reading the Big Book story in front of the class and encouraging the children to look at the words and pictures and to read it aloud with the teacher (see Appendix A). The ORT for Clicker intervention involved the teacher reading the story on the interactive white board whilst encouraging the children to look at the pictures and highlighted words
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and the children to read the words aloud whilst spoken aloud by the narrator (see Appendix B). The `word/sentence level work' (whole class) activity focused on a particular part of reading (e.g. grammar and punctuation, vocabulary, or spelling). During each intervention this involved activities such as spotting mistakes in sentences, making a word bank (i.e. a list of the high frequency words used in the story), creating new sentences with the target words, and completing sentences on the board (Big Book) or on the interactive white board (Clicker). The `focus activity' involved activities at the word-level, sentence level and comprehension. During the Big Book intervention children used traditional books, pencil and paper to complete these activities on an individual basis. During the ORT for Clicker intervention children worked individually through a CD-ROM activity, created by Crick Software and Oxford Reading Tree, using PC laptops. For each intervention these activities involved identifying spelling patterns, reading and matching words, becoming familiar with word order, writing simple sentences, answering questions based on the story content, and recognising and reading high frequency words either in the printed book (Big Book) or through listening and finding them on the PC screen (Clicker). In the `plenary session' (whole class), the teacher went over what was taught during the literacy activity. A more detailed overview of the activities undertaken by the children during the two interventions is given in Appendices A and B. Pre and post test assessments were administered on an individual basis, in a quiet area free from distraction, over several short sessions, each lasting about 15 minutes. The first author administered most of the assessments, with the help of two other experimenters, in the weeks prior to and after Intervention I, and after Intervention II. The lexical decision task was given first, followed by the three tasks of phonological awareness (i.e. the subtests of the PAT), and finally the single word oral reading task. The
typical interval between each assessment was one day. Results Group data were tested for homogeneity of variance. Significant skewness was revealed in the scores for the literacy tests indicating substantial departures from normality and thus non-parametric analyses were used. Mann-Whitney tests were used to investigate between-group differences at the first assessment period (i.e. baseline) to see if the two groups differed in performance on each measure of literacy development prior to the interventions. Within-subjects analyses were then conducted across the three assessment periods for each group, for each of the measures of literacy skill, using Friedman tests. When significant in order to establish where significant changes in performance occurred, pairwise comparisons were conducted using Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests. Results of these analyses are summarised in Table 2 where all tests are reported at a twotailed level of probability. Effect sizes were also calculated for each group following the Clicker and Big Book interventions, using Cohen's d (Cohen, 1988), so as to assess the magnitude of the intervention effects. These are reported in Tables 3 and 4 along with mean performance for each group. Written word recognition For the lexical decision task correct identification of words and nonwords (total correct out of 90) for each child was calculated then mean performance for each group was determined (see Table 3). To investigate if the two groups differed in pre-intervention ability a Mann-Whitney U test was conducted on mean performance at Time 1 (baseline). descriptive statistics showed that Group A children (median 60) performed better at baseline than Group B children (median 54). However, this difference was not significant (U 57, z 1.14, p .253). For each group a Friedman Test was conducted to explore differences in performance across the three assessment periods during which
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Task
LDT
Group A
Group B
SWORT
Group A
Group B
Rhyme
Group A
Group B
Segmentation Group A
Group B
Graphemes
Group A
Group B
Time 1 vs 2 vs 3 Friedman test 2 6.9 p .05 2 5.09 ns* 2 15.45 p .001 2 19.24 p .001 2 13.03 p .001 2 6.74 p .05 2 1.19 ns 2 .61 ns 2 6.19 p .05 2 4.33 ns
Time 1 vs 2 Time 2 vs 3 Time 3 vs 1
Wilcoxon signed ranks test
z 2.23
z 1.72
z 2.4
p .05
ns
p .05
z .51
z 1.74
z 1.96
ns
ns
p .05
z 1.38
z 2.94
z 2.88
ns
p .01
p .01
z 1.49
z 3.06
z 3.06
ns
p .05
p .05
z 2.39
z 1.1
z 2.81
p .05
ns
p .05
z 1.9
z 1.51
z 2.26
ns*
ns
p .05
z .14
z .92
z .45
ns
ns
ns
z .55
z .47
z .1
ns
ns
ns
z 1.54
z 2.39
z 2.33
ns
p .05
p .05
z 1.94
z .69
z 2.54
ns*
ns
p .05
Table 2: Summary of within-subject analyses conducted to assess the effects of each intervention across the three assessment periods. Significant results are given at two-tailed level of probability; *Refers to results that are significant at one-tailed level of probability
Task LDT Max. 90 SWORT Max. 45
Group A Group B Group A Group B
Time 1 Mean (sd) 59.30 (12.2) (66%) 56.33 (8.9) (51%) 25.20 (12.4) (56%) 19.33 (13.2) (43%)
Time 2 Mean (sd) 65.70 (13.1) (73%) 57.42 (9.3) (64%) 26.70 (13.8) (59%) 22.08 (13.4) (49%)
Time 3 Mean (sd) 68 (12.9) (76%) 60.92 (9.8) (68%) 31 (13.1) (69%) 28 (13.2) (62%)
Clicker Effect size .51
Big Book Effect size .18
.37
.12
.11
.32
.21
.45
Table 3: Mean raw scores correct (standard deviations) and effect size for each group, for the lexical decision task (LDT) and single word oral reading test (SWORT). Mean percentage correct given in parenthesis below
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Task
Rhyme Max. 20
Group A Group B
Segmentation Group A Max. 30 Group B
Graphemes Max. 58
Group A Group B
Time 1 Mean (sd) 15.58 (4.6) 78% 17.33 (3.7) 87% 19.50 (3.9) 65% 18.92 (4.1) 63% 35 (8.11) 60% 34 (10.3) 59%
Time 2 Mean (sd) 17.83 (3.1) 89% 18.25 (2.6) 91% 19.17 (4.1) 64% 19.08 (4.2) 64% 36.08 (7.6) 62% 36.92 (10.7) F64%
Time 3 Mean (sd) 18.42 (3.2) 92% 18.75 (2.6) 94% 20.25 (4.5) 68% 19.17 (4.2) 64% 38 (7.8) 66% 37.92 (10.5) 65%
Clicker Effect size .58 .19 .08 .04 .14 .09
Big Book Effect size .19 .24 .25 .02 .25 .28
Table 4: Mean raw scores correct (standard deviations) and effect size for each group, for the subtests rhyme, segmentation and graphemes from the PAT. Mean percentage correct given in parenthesis below
the two interventions were given. Results (given in Table 2) revealed a significant difference only for Group A. Paired comparisons using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test showed significant gains only during the Clicker intervention. In contrast, for Group B the Friedman Test was not significant, however, it is clear from table 3 that Group B children showed greater improvements following the Clicker intervention (mean gain 3.5 words) than after the Big Book intervention (mean gain 1.1 words) consistent with the pattern of results shown by Group A. Table 3 reports effect sizes for each group following each intervention. Medium effect sizes were found for the Clicker intervention whereas small effect sizes were found for the Big Book intervention. At the end of the study both groups showed significant gains in performance after each group had received both interventions. Written word naming For the single word oral reading task correct reading aloud of words (total correct out of 45) for each child was calculated, then mean performance for each group was Educational & Child Psychology Vol 25 No 3
determined (see Table 2). Descriptive statistics showed that Group A children (median 31) performed better at baseline than Group B children (median 22), however, this difference just failed to reach significance (U 47, z 1.93, p .053). Within-subject comparisons (see Table 2) revealed a significant difference across assessment periods for Group A and paired comparisons showed significant gains only after the Big Book intervention (see Tables 2 and 3). A significant difference in performance across the three assessment periods was also found for Group B and paired comparisons showed a significant improvement during the Clicker intervention. Table 3 shows that small effect sizes were found for the Clicker intervention whereas small to medium effect sizes were found for the Big Book intervention. Furthermore, by the end of the study both groups showed significant gains in performance. Phonological awareness For the rhyming subtest of the PAT, correct discrimination and production of rhyming words (total correct out of 20) for each child was calculated, then mean performance for 107
Arjette Karemaker, Nicola J. Pitchford & Claire O'Malley
each group was determined (see Table 4). Descriptive statistics showed that Group A children (median 17) performed marginally poorer at baseline than Group B children (median 19), although this difference was not significant (U 59, z 1.301, p .212). Friedman Tests (reported in Table 2) showed a significant difference for both groups, however paired comparisons only significance for Group A after the Clicker intervention. Effect sizes for each group (given in Table 4) revealed small to medium effect sizes after the Clicker intervention, whereas small effect sizes were found for the Big Book intervention. Again, by the end of the study both groups had made significant gains in performance (see Tables 2 and 4). For the segmentation subtest of the PAT, correct segmentation of sentences, syllables and phonemes (total correct out of 30) for each child was calculated, and mean performance for each group was determined (see Table 4). Although Group A children (median 21) performed better at baseline than Group B children (median 18.5) this difference was not significant (U 69.5, z .749, p .454). Friedman Tests showed no significant difference across assessment periods for both groups (see Table 2). Table 4 shows effects sizes were small for both the Clicker and Big Book interventions. For the graphemes subtest of the PAT, correct knowledge of letters, letter combinations, and their corresponding sounds (total correct out of 58) for each child was calculated. Mean performance for each group is reported in Table 4. At baseline Group A children (median 37.5) performed at a similar level to Group B children (median 37) (U 73.5, z .543, p .587). Withinsubject comparisons across the three assessment periods (reported in Table 2) showed a significant difference for Group A only, and paired comparisons showed significant gains were made only following the Big Book intervention. Although not significant, it is clear from Table 4 that Group B children also showed greater gains following the Big Book
intervention than after the Clicker intervention, consistent with the pattern of results shown by Group A. Small effect sizes were found for both interventions. As with the other measures significant gains in performance were found at the end of the study. Summary of results Significant gains in performance were found across the study, from baseline (time 1) to the final assessment (time 3), for each measure of literacy skill investigated, except for segmentation ability (as measured using a subtest of the PAT). Thus, after receiving both interventions children's written word recognition, written word naming and phonological awareness skills had significantly improved. These gains could arise from children's reading development that typically occurs over time under literacy instruction with the Oxford Reading Tree scheme or could imply familiarity with the test items used that benefited from practice effects because of repeated administration. Importantly, significant gains were found for each type of intervention on certain measures that cannot be attributed to practice effects because of the counterbalanced design. Specifically, the ORT for Clicker intervention led to significant gains in written word recognition and rhyme awareness, whereas the Big Book intervention produced significant gains in graphemic awareness. Discussion This intervention study explored whether the multimedia features of ORT for Clicker facilitated children's literacy acquisition to a greater extent than the regular printed books used in the Oxford Reading Tree scheme. As the stories used across the two interventions were counterbalanced and the accompanying activities were highly similar this enabled us to test directly the key multimedia features (i.e. the auditory and highlighting cues) incorporated in the e-book version of the scheme, that are not present in the regular printed texts. Thus, any differences in performance gains after each intervention could
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thus be attributed to the presence or absence of these features. Results showed that the Clicker intervention led to significant gains in written word recognition, supporting our prediction that exposure to the multimedia features built into the ORT for Clicker software would facilitate the processing of whole-words. This is consistent with previous studies that have found gains in word recognition after using e-books (Miller et al., 1994; McKenna & Watkins, 1994, 1995, 1996, cited in McKenna, 1998). However, significant improvements in word recognition have not been found by some studies that have investigated the effectiveness of e-books (Chera & Wood, 2003; Korat & Shamir, 2007). Methodological differences across studies may account for these contradictory findings. For example, we used a lexical decision task to investigate orthographic processes utilised in written word recognition. This task is typically used by researchers to investigate orthographic processing (see Andrews, 2006) and requires the participant to decide whether a letter string is a word that they know or not. Performance of this task involves matching a letter string to a lexical entry represented in the orthographic lexicon. If the letter string is a familiar word it will automatically match the corresponding lexical representation. However, if the letter string is unfamiliar, there will be no lexical entry and the participant will decide the item is a nonword. In contrast, Korat and Shamir (2007) used a test of single word reading in which the children were required to read-aloud nine words that appeared frequently in the e-book they investigated. Likewise, Chera and Wood (2003) used the British Ability Scales test of single word reading (Elliot, 1983). However, reading aloud single words is not a pure test of written word recognition skills as words with consistent letter-sound mappings (i.e. regular words) can be read successfully using sublexical, phonological, decoding skills. Thus, studies that have used tests of oral reading to infer word recognition skills should be treated with caution. Educational & Child Psychology Vol 25 No 3
This is also illustrated in our own data. Although we found significant gains in performance on the lexical decision task following the Clicker intervention, significant gains on the single word oral reading task were not found, even though both tasks used the same word stimuli. Observations made by the experimenter (first author) of the strategies used by the children when performing this test revealed that children appeared to use a combination of both decoding skills and whole-word recognition skills when attempting to read aloud the 45 words. This highlights the need for studies investigating the development of written word recognition skills to adopt pure measures of orthographic processing, such as a lexical decision task. The significant gains in written word recognition found in our study following the Clicker intervention shows that the ORT for Clicker software promoted children's ability to recognise and discriminate words from nonwords closely matched for orthographic structure. It is likely that the multimedia feature incorporated in Clicker of highlighting words as they are spoken aloud by the narrator might have supported improvements in written word recognition skill, by drawing attention to the visual form of words. We also investigated the effects of the two interventions on the development of phonological awareness skills. Even though the two interventions compared in this study both used a whole-word reading approach to literacy instruction it has been hypothesised that development of reading skills, in particular letter-sound knowledge, correlates with improvement in phonological awareness skills (e.g. Ehri, 1989; Morais, 1991; Mann & Wimmer, 2002). We were able to test this prediction by comparing children's performance on the three tasks of phonological awareness (rhyme awareness, segmentation skill, and graphemic awareness) used in our study from the standardised Phonological Awareness Test. Results revealed significant gains in performance on the rhyming subtest of the PAT, but only for Group A children. This does appear to reflect a genuine Clicker 109
Arjette Karemaker, Nicola J. Pitchford & Claire O'Malley
effect, however, as rhyme awareness was only practiced in the intervention activities during the first intervention week (in which the story `Strawberry Jam' was given, see Appendices A and B). This confound was unavoidable when using the Oxford Reading Tree scheme, as the associated activities for `Strawberry Jam' included practicing rhyming, whereas this activity was not given with the other story (`Kipper the Clown') used in our study. Interestingly, when Group B were given `Strawberry Jam' through the Big Book intervention and the associated paper and pencil rhyming activity, they also showed gains in rhyme awareness that approached significance. This suggests that the rhyme activity associated with the `Strawberry Jam' story of the Oxford Reading Tree scheme facilitated children's rhyme awareness and that the ORT for Clicker software boosted rhyme awareness significantly, perhaps because of the auditory cue given by the software throughout the activity. Significant gains in graphemic awareness were also found but interestingly after the Big Book intervention, which may have arisen from the teacher explicitly emphasising (via pointing) component graphemes of unfamiliar words and blended them into the corresponding spoken words when reading the story aloud to the class. The experimenter observed the teachers engaging in this practice only during the Big Book intervention. To conclude, our study shows that visual and auditory cues can be effective in facilitating the development of different literacy processes. The multimedia features included in the ORT for Clicker software seemed to be beneficial in supporting written word recognition skills and rhyme awareness respectively. Likewise, the practice adopted by teachers of pointing to individual graphemes and
blending their sounds into spoken words when using Big Book appeared to support development of graphemic awareness. Seemingly, drawing attention to particular aspects of words or subword units, such as rimes or graphemes, whilst engaging in literacy tasks (such as listening to books being read aloud or participating in word games) serves to promote particular aspects of literacy skill, irrespective of the medium in which it is delivered. These effects were apparent in our study even after just one week (5 hours) of instruction using each intervention. ICT has the potential to exploit the use of cues to a greater extent than do traditional teaching methods, as different multimedia features can be built into software and used interactively by children, enabling them to progress through programs at their own pace. Thus, carefully designed e-books, such as ORT for Clicker, seem to be an effective means of supporting a child's individual literacy learning. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Ann Crick of Crick Software for her ideas and suggestions. We also thank the staff and students of St. Teresa's Catholic Primary School for participating in the study and Maria Ktori and Sue Kempston for their help with data collection. This research was supported by an ESRC Case PhD studentship awarded to Dr. Nicola Pitchford and Professor Claire O'Malley (grant number PTA-033-200400064). Address for correspondence Arjette Karemaker, School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK. Tel: 44 (0) 115 8468188; Fax: 44 (0) 115 9515324 E-mail: [email protected]
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References Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking & learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Andrews, S. (2006). From inkmarks to ideas: Current issues in lexical processing. Hove: Psychology Press. Brown, M. (1994). Arthur's teacher trouble. Novato, CA: Random House Broderbund. Cannon, J. (1996). Stellaluna. Novato, CA: Random House Broderbund. Castles, A. & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77­111. Castles, A. & Nation, K. (2006). How does orthographic learning happen? In S. Andrews (Ed.) From inkmarks to ideas: Challenges and controversies about word recognition and reading. Psychology Press. Chera, P. & Wood, W. (2003). Animated multimedia `talking books' can promote phonological awareness in children beginning to read. learning and instruction, 13, 33­52. Crick Software (2006). Oxford Reading Tree for Clicker. Northampton: Crick Software Ltd. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd edn.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrencce Erlbaum. De Jong, M.T. & Bus A.G. (2003). How well suited are electronic books to supporting literacy? Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 3, 147­164. Ehri, L.C. (1989). The development of spelling knowledge and its role in reading acquisition and reading disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 356­365. Hunt, R. & Brychta, A. (2003). Kipper the clown. Oxford University Press. Hunt, R. & Brychta, A. (2003). Strawberry jam. Oxford University Press. Hunt, R. & Page, T. (2003). Teacher's handbook; Stages 1­9. Oxford University Press. Korat, O. & Shamir, A. (2004). Do Hebrew electronic books differ from Dutch electronic books? A replication of a Dutch content analysis. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 257­268. Korat, O. & Shamir, A. (2007). Electronic books versus adult readers: effects on children's emergent literacy as a function of social class. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 248­259. Labbo, L.D. & Kuhn, M.R. (2000). Weaving chains of affect and cognition: A young child's understanding of CD-ROM talking books. Journal of Literacy Research, 32, 187­210. Littleton, K., Wood, C. & Chera, P. (2006). Interactions with talking books: phonological awareness affects boys' use of talking books. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 22, 382­390. Mann, V.A. & Wimmer, H. (2002). Phoneme awareness and pathways to literacy: A comparison of
ICT support for literacy instruction German and American children. Reading and writing, 15, 653­682. Matthew, K.I. (1996). The impact of CD-ROM Story books on children's reading comprehension and reading attitude. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 5, 379­394. McKenna, M.C. (1998). Electronic texts and the transformation of beginning reading. In D. Reinking, M.C. McKenna, L.D. Labbo & R.D. Kieffer (Eds.) (1998). Handbook of literacy and technology: Transformation in a post-typographic world (pp. 45­59). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. McKenna, M. & Watkins, J. (1994, December). Computer-mediated books for beginning readers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Reading Conference, San Diego, CA. McKenna, M.C. & Watkins, J.H. (1995, November). Effects of computer-mediated books on the development of beginning readers. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Reading Conference, New Orleans. McKenna, M. & Watkins, J. (1996, December). The effects of computer-mediated trade books on sight word acquisition and the development of phonics ability. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Reading Conference, Charleston, SC. Miller, L., Blackstock, J. & Miller, R. (1994). An exploratory study into the use of CD-ROM storybooks. Computer and Education, 22, 187­204. Morais, J. (1991). Phonological awareness: A bridge between language and literacy. In D. Sawyer & B. Fox (Eds.) Phonological awareness in reading: The evolution of current perspectives (pp. 31­71). New York: Springer-Verlag. Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted). (2006). Inspection report, May 2006. Retrieved June 6, 2006, from http://www.ofsted.gov.uk. Robertson, C. & Salter, W. (1997). The phonological awareness test. East Moline, IL LinguaSystems. Shankweiler, D. & Fowler, A.E. (2004). Questions people ask about the role of phonological processes in learning to read. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 483­515. Teale, W. (1981). Parents reading to their children: What we know and what we need to know. Language Arts 58, 902­912. In Miller, L., Blackstock, J. & Miller, R. (1994). An exploratory study into the use of CD-ROM storybooks. Computer and Education, 22, 187­204. Torgesen, J.K. (1986). Computers and cognition in reading: A focus on decoding fluency. Exceptional Children, 53(2), 157­162. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia (1996), 5(3/4), 379­394.
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Appendix A: Big book intervention teacher tables for average reading children
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Monday
Shared work Before Reading: · Look at the cover. Ask the children to predict what they think the book is about. · Read the title and talk about whether the book is going to give facts about strawberry jam or tell a story. During Reading: · Begin to read `Strawberry Jam'. Ask the children to read the story with you. Praise and encourage them while they read, and prompt as necessary. · Point out capital letters, full stops, and speech marks (wave, point to nose, etc.). Stop reading on page 9 when the car is locked. What happens next?
Teacher Class
Word/sentence work
Focus group
· Write the word `had' on the board. Ask the children to think of other words ending in the sounds `-ad', e.g. Dad, bad, sad. · Which of these 3 options rhyme with Dad? ­ sad sat sack ­ bat bad bag ­ glad glum grab ­ mat map mad
· Ask the children to think of words that begin with the same sound `ha-' but with different final sounds, e.g., hat, ham, has. · Write the words in two lists. The words that begin with the same sound `ha-' and the words that end with the same sound `-ad' (already on the board). · Write sentences about Dad using the rhyming words to describe them.
Plenary · Look at the word `Dad' again (page 1) and ask the children to remember the words that rhyme with it (like in the word/sentence work). They can make up a word if they want to but it has to rhyme. · Look at the word `put' (page 7) and think of words that rhyme with it.
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Tuesday Wednesday
Before Reading: · What happened in the story yesterday? · Encourage the children to tell the story through what is happening in the pictures. During Reading: · Continue reading book. · Ask the children to read the story with you. · Praise and encourage them while they read, and prompt as necessary. · Point out capital letters, full stops, and speech marks (wave, point to nose, etc.). Reading: · Encourage the children to tell the story through what is happening in the pictures. · Ask the children to read the story with you.
· Write on the board the following words: bat, bag, bad, map, mad, mat, sad, sat, sack, grab, glad, glum. · Find the words that rhyme with Dad. · Why do those words rhyme and not the other words? · Make a word-bank of unfamiliar vocabulary read so far (strawberry, pick-your-own). · Discuss meaning and say each word aloud. What sounds can you hear at the beginning and end of the words?
· Children take turns to roll a dice. They have to find (and read aloud) a word in the story with that number of letters, and then they have to come up with a rhyming word. When everyone has had a turn at rolling the dice, ask the children to find the longest word. · Put the word cards on the table: about, an, had, help, his, home, make, over, put, ran, some, time, too, took, want(ed), were, your. Read aloud the words and let them pick the matching words while taking turns. Ask the children to make sentences using the words.
· Re-cap rhyming of words. What do rhyming words have in common? · Re-cap meaning of words. How can we use it in a sentence?
ICT support for literacy instruction
(Continued)
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Thursday Friday
· Read the story with the children. Go back to page 4, ask the children: what sort of place is called `pick-yourown'? · What difference do the hyphens make when you read this word? · Ask the children to point out any other word they know with hyphens in them. · Look at the pictures of the story and ask the children to tell the story.
· Write the following sentences on the board. Ask the children to spot the mistake and correct it. ­ Dad wanted make to jam ­ He strawberries picked some. ­ They picked strawberries all. ­ Chip the strawberries to the car took. ­ The children had an cream ice ­ It was time to home go. · Talk about what happened at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the story.
· Ask the children to rearrange the sentences on the word cards (work individually) to make correct sentences. Write them down on the small white boards (sentences are also on the big white board) · Discuss each other's sentences whether they are right and what and why it should be changed. · Look at the printed book and ask the children to make up other questions about the story (individuals or pairs).
· Re-cap and discuss the word order of the sentences that the children have written on the small white boards. · Sequence the pictures into beginning, middle & end. · Answer the questions that are made in the focus groups.
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Appendix B: Clicker intervention teacher tables for average reading children
Monday Tuesday
Shared work Before Reading: · Look at the cover. Ask the children to predict what they think the book is about. · Read the title and talk about whether the book is going to give facts about strawberry jam or tell a story. During Reading: · Begin to read `Strawberry Jam'. Ask the children to read the story with you. Praise and encourage them while they read, and prompt as necessary. · Point out capital letters, full stops, and speech marks (wave, point to nose, etc.). Stop reading on page 9 when the car is locked. What happens next? Before Reading: · What happened in the story yesterday? · Encourage the children to tell the story through
Teacher Class
Word/sentence work
Focus group
· Write the word `had' on the board. Ask the children to think of other words ending in the sounds `-ad', e.g. Dad, bad, sad. · Which of these 3 options rhyme with Dad? ­ sad sat sack ­ bat bad bag ­ glad glum grab ­ mat map mad · Show and explain the children the activity `WORDS' on the ICT board (Grid activity 1 & 2)
· Start the activity `WORDS' on the computer. (Words 1 & 2) · Encourages children to identify rhyming words and relate them to spelling patterns (focus on words containing the rime `ad'). · Match words to the pictures, click on empty cell to open a pop-up grid and choose the word that rhymes with `Dad'. · Write sentences about Dad using the rhyming words to describe them.
· Write on the board the following words: bat, bag, bad, map, mad, mat, sad, sat, sack, grab, glad, glum.
· Start the activity `WORDS' on the computer. (Words 3 & 4). · Encourages children to identify rhyming words and relate them to spelling patterns.
Plenary · Look at the word `Dad' again (page 1) and ask the children to remember the words that rhyme with it (like in the word/sentence work). They can make up a word if they want to but it has to rhyme. · Look at the word `put' (page 7) and think of words that rhyme with it. · Re-cap rhyming of words. What do rhyming words have in common?
(Continued)
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Wednesday Thursday
what is happening in the pictures. During Reading: · Continue reading book. · Ask the children to read the story with you. · Praise and encourage them while they read, and prompt as necessary. · Point out capital letters, full stops, and speech marks (wave, point to nose, etc). Reading: · Encourage the children to tell the story through what is happening in the pictures. · Ask the children to read the story with you. · Read the story with the children. Go back to page 4, ask the children: what sort of place is called `pick-yourown'?
· Find the words that rhyme with Dad. Why do those words rhyme and not the other words? · Show and explain the children the activity `WORDS' on the ICT board (Grid activity 3 & 4) · Make word-bank of unfamiliar vocabulary read so far (e.g. strawberry, pick-yourown). · Discuss meaning and say each word aloud. What sounds can you hear at the beginning/end? · Show and explain the children the activity `WORD PRACTICE' on the ICT board. · Write the following sentences on the board. Ask the children to spot the mistake and correct it. ­ Dad wanted make to jam.
· Start the activity `WORD PRACTICE' on the computer. · Encourages children to recognise and read on sight a range of high frequency words that appear in the story. · Click on the speaker button to hear the target word. Listen to the word and find it on the screen. If the child is correct, the word button will change colour.
· Re-cap meaning of words. How can we use it in a sentence?
· Start the activity `SENTENCE LEVEL' on the computer. · The activity encourages children to recognise that words are ordered from left
· Re-cap and discuss the word order of the sentences that the children have written on the computers.
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Friday
· What difference do the hyphens make when you read this word? · Ask the children to point out any other word they know with hyphens in them.
­ He strawberries picked some. ­ They picked strawberries all. ­ Chip the strawberries to the car took. ­ The children had an cream ice ­ It was time to home go. · Show and explain to the children the activity `SENTENCE LEVEL' on the ICT board.
to right and need to be read that way to make sense. · The start screen introduces the sentences. Click on each picture to open a pop-up grid, which shows the sentences.
· Look at the pictures of the story and ask the children to tell the story.
· Talk about what happened at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the story. · Show and explain the children the activity `COMPREHENSION' on the ICT board.
· Start the activity `COMPREHENSION' on the computer. · This activity encourages children to show an understanding of main points of the story, by answering simple questions. (Click on the picture to hear the question.)
· Sequence the pictures into beginning, middle and end. · Answer the questions that are made in the focus groups.
ICT support for literacy instruction
Arjette Karemaker, Nicola J. Pitchford & Claire O'Malley Appendix C: Word stimuli used in the lexical decision task and the single word oral reading task and matched nonwords stimuli in the lexical decision task
Reception words
Words and they big see said
Nonwords ind thim cag teeg faip
Oxford Reading Tree intervention words
Words Nonwords
about abond
an
en
had
dal
help
welk
home wame
make mage
over
ovel
put
pid
ran
rop
time
bime
too
noo
took
hoos
want nand
wanted wented
your
yurt
after
dawoe
be
ob
did
tul
good harc
laugh healt
made yade
man
mun
pull
grel
pulled heapel
what whut
Year-1 words
Words bed his more then were once night some came down
Nonwords det hin moso wesb lere kon yatoe shom hame drot
Year-2 words
Words yellow eight where wednesday these
Nonwords yelter teigh whust wednesdau thamp
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