Women in United States Olympic Governance

Tags: organizations, United States, United States Olympic Committee, leadership positions, Olympic Ideology Centre for Olympic Studies, Executive Directors, Presidents, Critical Reflections, involvement, Association, Olympic movement, Human Kinetics Books, governing bodies, Sport organization, leadership position, 1992-1994, USOC, national sports organizations, Pan American Games, Pan American, National organizations, Journal of Physical Education, sports governing bodies, the Olympic Games, Media Relations Division, national programs, individuals, American Amateur Racquetball Association, Athletic Association, National Sports Governing Bodies, Multi-Sport organizations, sport organizations, women, Northern Illinois University, Anita DeFrantz, sport governance, sport world, Judith A. Bischoff, John Lucas, women's sports, President position, Affiliated Sport, leadership roles, data collection, International Olympic Committee, Executive Committee
Content: Critical Reflections on Olympic Ideology
Centre for Olympic Studies
WOMEN IN UNITED STATES OLYMPIC GOVERNANCE Judith A. Bischoff and Jan Rintala Northern Illinois University The history of women's participation in the Olympics as athletes has been well documented.1 Their levels of participation in the nearly 100 years of the modern Games have gone from zero events and zero athletes in 1896 to 98 events and 3,008 athletes in the 1992 summer games in Barcelona. Even with this marked increase, however, women still make up only 28.5% of the total number of Olympians and participate in only 36% of the total events2 While involvement of women as athletes is generally the most visible way for women to participate in the Olympic movement, it is by no means the only way. Women may participate as coaches, officials, members of the national travelling delegations, and in governance positions. While the increase in involvement of female athletes has been a gradual process, John Lucas, in the Future of the Olympic Games, notes an even greater challenge regarding women in leadership: "Increasing the number of female administrators in the worldwide movement is an even more challenging task, because each nation moves at its own speed toward equal opportunities for both sexes. Somehow more, talented women must find their way into local, national, and international administrative sporting positions and exactly like men do, over time, move up the ladder."3 Near the top of the ladder would be membership on the International Olympic Committee (IOC). It was in 1973 that the IOC voted to change its rules so that a woman could be elected to that body. It was not until eight years later (198 1) that the first woman was elected.4 In 1990, Canadian Carol Anne Letheren became the 7th female IOC member in the nearly 100 year history.5 Other steps on the ladder would include governance opportunities at the national level. In his chapter on "Women in the Olympic Movement" Lucas presents the United States as one of the countries with greater leadership opportunities for women;6 and certainly, compared to many African, Asian,
middle-Eastern, and Central and South American countries, greater opportunities do seem to exist. The purpose of this study was to document the extent of women's involvement in some forms of leadership in the United States Olympic movement and to examine whether or not women's involvement in these positions has changed over time. METHODOLOGY The data have been generated in two ways. In the summer of 1990 the 69 National Governing Bodies (NGB) of the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) were surveyed to obtain data on the gender of the Executive Directors and Presidents of the organizations. The survey instrument was sent to the Executive Director of the respective NGB who was listed in the 1990 USOC Fact Book.7 A follow-up letter and survey were sent in November, 1990. Fifty-five of 69 surveys were returned and usable which yielded a 79.7% return rate. The data collected pertained to the individual and the gender of the individual who held the Executive Director and/or President positions from 1970 - 1990. The responses were tallied by organization, group, year, and gender of the Executive Director and President. In addition, the data were summarized across all 20 years and then divided into two time periods (19701979; 1980-1990) and four time periods (19701974; 1975-1979; 1980-1984; 1985-1990). These time period groupings were selected to observe any patterns or differences which may have occurred pre- or post- Title IX8 or relevant to the Amateur Sports Act.9 Data were also analyzed by the four groups of the USOC member organization.10 Follow-up data were collected from 1991-1994. Rather than the survey method, an analysis of the USOC fact books was utilized. Fact books were only able to be obtained for 1992-94, therefore the 1991 data are missing. The 1992-1994 fact books included listings for 72 organizations rather than the 69 that were surveyed in 1990.11 The discrepancies were the Multiple Sport Organizations and the Affiliated Sport Organizations which each added two sports while the Disabled in Sport dropped one.12 RESULTS For the 1970-1990 data, 55 NGB's returned the survey (see Table 1). Over the 20-year period there
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were a total of 680 Executive Directors of whom 607 (89.3%) were male and 73 (10.7%) were female. President positions were occupied by 912 individuals: 821 (90%) males and 91 (10%) females. Of the possible 1592 leadership positions in the NGB sport organizations, 1428 (89.7%) were held by males while 164 (10.3%) were held by females (see Table 2). In analyzing the data by the two time periods, the total number of males and females in each of the leadership positions increased from 1970-1979 to 1980-1990. Over these two time periods, organizations were adding Executive Directors and/or Presidents. However, for females there was also an increase in the percentage in both the executive director and president positions. Additionally, if the organization had only one person in charge, that individual was usually a President, with an Executive Director added later. A pattern also existed in which the Presidents changed every four to five years, while the Executive Directors were more likely to be in office six years or more. In some organizations the same Executive Director was in place for the entire life of the organization. The analysis of the data over time indicates some differences among the groups. In looking at one of the groups, Disabled In Sport, over the 20 years, Table 3 shows changes in the number of Executive Directors and Presidents. By 1984, the number of leadership positions in the Disabled In Sport organization had doubled since 1970, however the number of females in the president position remained the same. Although the number remained constant this represents almost a 40% decrease in the president's position of the Disabled In Sport organization. In the other three groups, the pattern is much the same. However, in Olympic/Pan Am organizations there was an appreciable increase by the end of 1984 with females in the Executive Director position; by 1990 the number of females in that position had more than doubled (see Table 4). In the Olympic/Pan Am organizations it is evident that when sport organizations added Executive Directors or Presidents, females were included (see Tables 4 and 5). Another important factor in the leadership positions is the number of different individuals who had the opportunity to hold either an Executive Director or President position. Over the 20-year period, there were 610 different individuals who were either an Executive Director or a President; 554 (90.8%) were male and 56 (9.2%) were female (see Tables 6 and
7). The greatest number of different individuals held the position of President, which is the leadership position with the most turnover and therefore the most opportunity for an experience at a leadership position. The data compiled from 1992-1994 indicate a higher percentage for females in both the Executive Director and President positions as compared to the 1970-1990 data (see Table 8). However, these data did not rely on a return of a survey, but were tabulated utilizing the USOC fact books. This meant that all 72 organizations were included compared to the 55 surveys which were returned from the 1990 data collection. Also during 1992-1994, four more organizations were added and one was dropped compared to the 1990 data. In analyzing the 1992-1994 data by Executive Director/President Positions by gender, time period and organization, it is apparent that not much change has occurred in the leadership positions for the Olympic/ Pan Am sports or in the President's positions for the Disabled in Sport; in fact there has been a decrease for females in those positions. Increases for females are apparent in the Affiliated Sport organizations-and in the President position of the Multi-Sport organizations (see Table 9). Of the 39 leadership positions available in the Disabled In Sport organizations, only 5 were held by females from 1992-94 (see Table 10). From 199294 there were 129 different individuals in both the Executive Director and President positions, 108 (83.7%) were males and (16.3%) were females (see Table 11). The percentage of females in the leadership position of Executive Director and President has almost doubled since 1990 with again the largest number being in the position of President. DISCUSSION Beginning in 1980 the four groups of organizations generally showed an increase in the percentage of females in both their Executive Director and President positions. The two exceptions were the Executive Director and President positions of the Disabled in Sport organization; although they kept the same number of females in both positions, there was actually a decrease of 13% in the President's position. While females certainly have made inroads into the two leadership positions since 1980, it appears to be sporadic with some groups.
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Critical Reflections on Olympic Ideology In the 1992-1994 data, the female Presidents of the Disabled in Sport went from five to zero, and both the Executive Director and President positions of the Olympic/Pan Am decreased for women in number and percentage. The concept of homologous reproduction, the process in which the dominant group reproduces itself based on social and/or physical characteristics, has been used to explain the increasing level of men coaching women's sports, since the majority of athletic directors in decision making positions are males. l3 This could certainly be a factor in the male-dominated gender ratio of the International Olympic Committee, as well as in the United States Olympic Committee Board of Directors and the Executive Committee. It may, also, be an explanatory factor in those national governing bodies that have been historically male dominated. The concept of homologous reproduction helps to explain the difficulty of breaking the cycle; which means people in decision-making positions must be made aware of the tendency to hire and appoint individuals possessing similar demographic characteristics of the dominant group. While Title IX has had some impact on the increased sport participation of girls and women in High School and college as well as in the Olympics, there apparently has not been the same impact on leadership roles in the athletic realm, including the Olympics. There may still be a perception that participation in certain sports and in the governance structure is a more appropriate realm for males. Yet if Lucas is correct, and the United States is one of the countries with the greatest level of Olympic involvement for women, this certainly speaks to an even greater disparity and challenge for women's involvement in most of the other countries in the Olympic movement. IMPLICATIONS Description of an existing condition (e.g., women's involvement in leadership positions in the Olympic governance structure) and explanations suggesting some of the contributing factors to that condition are important--but they're not enough. It is at least as important to present implications of the existing conditions, and if those existing conditions are undesirable, it is also incumbent upon the observer to suggest possible ways of changing the situation.
Centre for Olympic Studies This study was undertaken with the assumption that women's involvement in sport governance is an important issue. Based upon the findings that women are underrepresented in the president and executive directors positions of the member organizations of the USOC, it is also assumed that this underrepresentation has implications. Some of the implications of women's underrepresentation in Olympic governance could be similar to the concerns expressed in the United States regarding the decreasing percentage of women in coaching and intercollegiate athletic administration positions. One of these concerns is not just a perceived lack of opportunity for women who currently desire to serve in leadership positions, but it also may decrease the willingness of future generations of women to pursue sport leadership. The visibility of female role models may be an important factor in changing the involvement of women in sport leadership positions. Hasbrook states, that it is important for young people "to observe a significant number of women, not just an isolated few, in positions of power and status within the sporting world if society is to ever view sport, participation in sport and sporting careers as unrelated to one's gender."14 Patricia Vertinsky is among those who concur with this idea. According to Vertinsky, "More female role models would provide encouragement for girls in sport, and this means the role models in all domains--in the family and school, high-level coaching, Olympic committees, government officials concerned with sport, athletics, and so on."15 On a more subtle level, when women's opportunities to serve in leadership roles do not keep pace with their opportunities as athletes or sport participants, the traditional gendered power differentials in society are reinforced. It is the same phenomenon as the "glass ceiling" in other professions. Women may gain access at the entry level, but the message is conveyed that men should be in control. Sage observes the following: "In spite of enormous changes since the mid-1970s the world of sport still promotes and preserves traditional Gender Differences, and patriarchal ideology is still firmly entrenched in American institutions and Social Practices. More females playing sports does not signify that a revolution has been won for women, not so long as the organization of sport promotes and sustains the dominance of men in social relations."16
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Not only do women suffer, directly or indirectly, from their lower levels of involvement in sport, but sport itself may suffer--or at least sport may not be as beneficial to the majority as it could be. Anita DeFrantz is one of the few women to have attained significant leadership roles at the national and international Olympic levels. In speaking about the need to replenish leaders in sport, DeFrantz stated that "inclusion of women in this process is not just a matter of fairness or equal opportunity. The vitality of sport depends upon diversity of talent. While girls and women suffer the most from the exclusion of women from the ranks of the bodies that govern sport, all of sport is weaker for not having available to it the resources of all who care about sport."17 What might women bring to sport that could perhaps strengthen sport? At a very obvious level, simply expanding the pool of abilities and levels of expertise could strengthen any organization--even if the kinds of expertise and perspectives were similar. But there is reason to speculate that increasing the involvement of women in sport may actually bring unique perspectives to the sport world. As Mariah Burton Nelson notes, women who are involved in sport are more likely to have become introspective about their sport involvement because their participation has not been automatic. She asserts that even though women are presently being offered some of the benefits of the previously male sport system, women still retain an outsider's perspective.18 The sports movement, including the Olympic movement in the United States, is not strictly a movement for the select few. As can be evidenced through the wide variety of governing bodies that comprise the United States Olympic Committee, a diversity of opportunity could be provided. The trend throughout sport seems to be towards an increasing diversity of involvement. Sport may need a variety of viewpoints in order to provide more hospitable programs and environments during this inclusion process. A greater variety of experiences and perspectives--some of which may be provided through greater involvement of women--may also aid in working through some of the social and ethical issues facing sport.
RECOMMENDATIONS Changing the status quo is rarely an uncomplicated task. Things can be done, however, to increase women's involvement in sport leadership, including the Olympic movement. While this paper and the following suggestions pertain to Olympic and sport governance in the United States, most--if not all--of these strategies could be relevant elsewhere. It is also important to recognize that while women themselves can do some things to prepare for the opportunities to assume leadership roles, a lack of women's current involvement in these positions is not the fault of women. Women are not to blame. The structures and practices themselves have to be impacted. The following suggestions address both the current structures/practices and the future preparation of women to assume leadership positions. ! Gender-sensitive people need to apply constant pressure to those in decision-making positions regarding the appointment of women to positions within the governing bodies. ! People need to consider the power of mass media outlets to bring the lack of women in leadership positions to the attention of the general public. ! There should be ongoing dialogue centered on women's involvement in Olympic governance at state, national, and International Conferences as well as through professional and popular publications.19 ! In sport management and administration programs, students (male and female) need to be exposed to the Olympic movement as a possible career option. ! Women should be encouraged to apply for internships in the National Governing Bodies and other affiliated organizations. ! The United States Olympic Committee (USOC) itself should make gender-inclusion a priority by encouraging greater involvement of women in the various governing bodies. The USOC should financially reward those organizations which demonstrate a commitment to gender-inclusion in their hiring and programmatic practices. Many colleges and universities presently do this, especially regarding minority hiring and retention programs.
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! Women need to be sure they are educated about the National Governing Bodies and the United States Olympic Committee. This knowledge should entail not only how these groups function, but also how to be effective in entering and impacting these environments. ! By practice or by policy, governing bodies should alternate the president position by gender. For example, in the American Alliance for Health, physical education, Recreation, and Dance in every other election, only women are candidates for the position of president; on alternate years, all of the candidates are male. ! In many occupational realms, including sport, the hiring of people for positions, such as athletic directors or perhaps executive directors, may be done selectively. The announcement of position availability may not be widely disseminated with enough advanced notice to provide for all qualified and interested candidates to fairly compete for the position. People within the organizational structures who are sensitive to equality of opportunity based upon gender need to monitor these procedures to assure that a variety of qualified people have the opportunity to apply. They also need to make an effort to contact women's networks in a manner similar to the way the message gets conveyed in the existing networks. Change is slow, but it is inevitable. An examination of the involvement of women as leaders in USOC member organizations during the last 24 years shows just how slow that change can be. But regardless of the pace, that change is also certain. Continual monitoring of women's leadership is important. It currently serves as both a reminder of the need for greater inclusion, and it helps us to see that some changes are being made. There is a difficult balance to be maintained between frustration over the slowness of change and an unrealistic optimism that things will change regardless of our efforts. That change will not occur if people who are concerned with the issues either give up from a perception of futility or sit back and assume others will work to bring about the anticipated change. If people who consider the equitable participation of women in Olympic governance an important con-
cern work to actualize women's involvement, the struggle in the future may be against complacency because women will be full and equal participants in Olympic governance. Endnotes: 1. The following is a brief listing of some of the articles and book chapters which have documented the history of women's participation as athletes in the Olympics: Ellen W. Gerber, Jan Felshin, Pearl Berlin, and Waneen Wyrick, The American Woman in Sport, Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1974, pp. 136-166; Mary A. Boutilier and Lucinda SanGiovanni, The Sporting Woman, Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Publisher, Inc., 1983, pp. 219-235. Most books detailing the history of the Olympic Games include discussion of women's involvement. Periodicals such as the Journal of Sport History and the Olympic Review also include articles about female athletes in the Olympic Games. 2. Jay J. Coakley, Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies, (5th edition), St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby-Year Book, Inc., 1994, pp. 215-216. 3. John A. Lucas, Future of the Olympic Games Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Books, 1992, p. 134. 4. Mary H. Leigh, "The Enigma of Avery Brundage and Women Athletes," Arena Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1980, pp. 11-21. 5. Lucas, Future of the Olympic Games, p. 134. 6. Ibid., p. 139-140. 7. The 1990 USOC Fact Book, Colorado Springs: United States Olympic Committee public information/Media Relations Division, 1990, pp. 51-73. 8. "Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 is the principle federal law which prohibits sex discrimination in education. It provides: '[n]o person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance...' There are, however, certain exceptions to Title IX's coverage. For example, it does not apply to admissions practices in elementary or secondary schools or private undergraduate institutions, to social fraternities or sororities, or to voluntary youth service organizations such as the YMCA, YWCA, Boy Scouts, or Girl Scouts. In
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addition, a covered institution, actually controlled by a religious organization may seek an exemption from a particular requirement of the law insofar as application of Title IX in that respect would not be consistent with a specific tenant of such religious organization." Title IX: A Practical Guide To Achieving Sex Equity In Education; Washington, D.C.: National Coalition for women and girls in Education, November, 1988, p. 1. 9. Amateur Sports Act 1978 (Federal Law 95-606) - The Act was designed to promote and coordinate amateur athletic activities in the United States, to recognize certain rights for U.S. athletes, to provide for the resolution of disputes involving national sports organizations and/or athletes, as well as to designate the United States Olympic Committee as the central coordinating agency for all sports on the programs for the Olympic and Pan American Games. Jeffrey O. Seagrave and Donald Chu, The Olympic Games in Transition, Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Books, 1988, p. 144. 10. Olympic/Pan Am Organizations - Organizations which are recognized by the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) as the National Sports Governing Bodies for the sports on the programs for the Olympic and Pan American Games. Affiliate - National organizations from which directly or indirectly come substantial numbers of members of the U.S. Olympic or Pan American teams in two or more sports and provided these organizations either hold national programs or championships, or through the constituent or related units which foster regular and nation-wide programs at a level of proficiency appropriate for the selection of athletes to represent the U.S. in international competition. Multi-Sport - Those national sports organizations not eligible for the Olympic/Pan Am group, functioning as national sports governing bodies in amateur sports which are not on the programs for the Olympic or Pan American games, but may be widely practiced in other countries and therefore be eligible for inclusion in future programs of the Olympic or Pan American Games: Tae Kwon Do Division of the AAU; American Amateur Racquetball Association (AARA). Disabled In Sport - For major National Sports Organizations conducting national programs or regular national athletic competition in two or more sports on the programs of the Olympic and Pan
American Games. United States Olympic Committee, "The Olympic Games," 1982, pp. 11-12. 11. The 1992 Fact Book United States Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs: United States Olympic Committee Public Information/Media Relations Division of the United States Olympic Committee, 1992, pp. 64-88. The 1993 Fact Book United States Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs: USOC Public Information/Media Relations Division of the United States Olympic Committee, 1993, pp. 66-91. The 1994 Fact Book United States Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs: USOC Public Information and Media Relations Division of the United States Olympic Committee, 1994, pp. 78-88. 12. In the 1992-1994 data Multiple Sport Organization had added two groups: National Congress of State Games and U.S. National Senior Sport Organization. Affiliated Sport Organizations had added two groups: Trampoline and Tumbling and Triathlon. Disabled in Sport had dropped one group: United States Amputee Athletic Association. 13. Jane Marie Stangl and Mary Jo Kane, "Structural Variables that Offer Explanatory Power for the Underrepresentation of Women Coaches Since Title IX: The Case of Homologous Reproduction," Sociology of Sport Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1991, pp. 47-60. 14. Cynthia A. Hasbrook, "Female Coaches--Why the Declining Numbers and Percentages?" Journal of Physical Education. Recreation. and Dance, Vol. 59, No. 6, August 1988, p. 59. 15. Lucas, Future of the Olympic Games, p. 135. 16. George H. Sage, Power and Ideology in American sport, Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Books, 1990, p. 54. 17. Anita L. DeFrantz, "Women and Leadership in Sport," Journal of Physical Education. Recreation. and Dance, Vol. 59, No. 3, March 1988, p. 48. 18. Mariah Burton Nelson, Are We Winning Yet? How Women Are Charming Sports and Sports Are Changing Women, New York: Random House, 1991, p. 8. 19. William F. Stier, Jr., "Women in the Olympic Movement: Advancing Women's Roles Through Education," Journal of Physical Education. Recreation. and Dance, Vol. 62, No. 9, November/December, 1991, p. 65.
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TABLE 1
UNITED STATES OLYMPIC COMMITTEE NATIONAL GOVERNING BODIES BY GROUP
Olympic/Pan Am (31/40)*
Multi Sport (9/14)
Disabled in Sport (8/8)
Affiliated Sport (7/7)
Archery
Soccer
Amateur Athletic Union
American Athletic
curling
Athletics Congress
Softball
American Alliance for
Association for the
Karate
Badminton
Speedskating
Health, Physical
Deaf
Orienteering
Baseball
Swimming
Education, Recreation
Dwarf Athletic
Sports Acobatics
Basketball
Synchronized Swimming
and Dance
Association
Squash Raquets
Biathlon Bobsled
Table Tennis Taekwondo
Boys Clubs of America Catholic Youth
US Cerebral Palsy Athletic Association
Underwater Swimming Water Skiing
Bowling
Team Handball
Organization
National Handicapped
Boxing
Tennis
Jewish community
Sports & Recreation
Canoe/Kayak Cycling
Volleyball Water Polo
Centers Association National Association of
Association National Wheelchair
Diving
Weight Lifting
Intercollegiate Athletics
Athletic Association
Equestrian Fencing
Wrestling Yachting
(NAIA) National Collegiate
Special Olympics International
90
Field Hockey
Athletic Association
US Amputee Athletic
Figure Skating Gymnastics
(NCAA) National Exploring
Association US Association for Blind
(Artistic/Rhythmic)
Division, BSA
Athletes
Ice Hockey
National Federation of
Judo
State High School
Luge
Associations
Modern Pentathlon Racquetball
(NFSHSA) National Junior College
Roller Skating
Athletic Association
Rowing Shooting
(NJCAA) National League of
skiing
Police Athletic Leagues
US Armed Forces Sports
YMCA of the USA YWCA of the USA
*Indicates number returned/total. Reference: The 1990 USOC Fact Book
TABLE 2
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR/PRESIDENT POSITIONS BY GENDER* 1970-1990
POSITION AND GENDER EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
1970-74
1970-79 1975-79
1980-84
1980-90 1985-90
TOTALS
Male
92 (94.8%)
121 (96.0%)
213 (95.5%)
163 (90.1%)
231 (83.7%)
394 (86.2%)
607 (89.3%)
Female
5 (5.2%)
5 (4.0%)
10 (45%)
18 (9.9%)
45 (16.3%)
63 (13.8%)
73 (10.7%)
91
Totals
97
126
223
181
276
457
680
(21.0+)
(29.0+)
(41.0+)
(50.0+)
PRESIDENT
Male Female Totals
155 (90.1%) 17 (9.9%) 172 (35+)
185 (92.0%) 16 (8.0%) 201 (44+)
*Represents total number of individuals +Number of different organizations (N=55)
340 (91.2%) 33 '8.8%) 373
210 (90.5%) 22 (9.5) 232 (48+)
271 (88.3%) 36 (11.7%) 307 (52+)
481 (89.2%) 58 (10.8%) 539
821 (90.0%) 91 (10.0%) 912
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TABLE 3 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR/PRESIDENT POSITIONS BY GENDER, TIME PERIOD (1970-1990), AND ORGANIZATIONS* 1970-1974
Position
Olympic/Pan Am
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
Male
52 (100%)
Female
0
PRESIDENT
Male
93 (93%)
Female
7 (7%)
Multi Sport 30 (85.7%) 5 (14.3%) 35 (875) 5 (12.5%
Disabled in Sport 5 (100%) 0 5 (50%) 5 (50%)
Affiliated Sport 5 (100%) 0 22 (100%) 0
Position
Olympic/Pan Am
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
Male
71 (100%)
Female
0
PRESIDENT
Male
110 (94.8%)
Female
6 (5.2%)
1975-1979 Multi Sport
Disabled in Sport
Affiliated Sport
33 (86.8%) 5 (13.2%)
5 (100%) 0
12 (100%) 0
38 (88.4% 5 (11.6%)
9 (64.3%) 5 (35.7%)
28 (100%) 0
Position
Olympic/Pan Am
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
Male
99 (89.2%)
Female
12 (10.8%)
PRESIDENT
Male
126 (93.3%)
Female
9 (6.7%)
1980-1984 Multi Sport
Disabled in Sport
37 (88.1%) 5 (11.9%)
8 (100%) 0
40 (88.9%) 5 (11.1%)
17 (77.3%) 5 (22.7%)
Affiliated Sport 19 (95%) 1 (5%) 27 (90%) 3 (10%)
Position
Olympic/Pan Am
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
Male
132 (81.9%)
Female PRESIDENT
29 (18.1%)
Male
149 (89.2%)
Female
18 (10.8%)
*Total number of individuals
1985-1990 Multi Sport
Disabled in Sport
Affiliated Sport
48 (88.9%) 6 (11.1%)
21 (84%) 4 (16%)
30 (83.3%) 6 (16.7%)
45 (83.3%) 9 (16.7%)
40 (88.9%) 5 (11.1%)
37 (90.2%) 4 (9.8%)
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TABLE 4 NATIONAL GOVERNING BODIES FEMALES IN EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR POSITIONS BY ORGANIZATION 1970-1990
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TABLE 5
FEMALES IN PRESIDENT POSITIONS NATIONAL GOVERNING BODIES BY ORGANIZATION 1970-1990
1970-1974 1975-1979 1980-1984 1985-1990 94
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TABLE 6
DIFFERENT INDIVIDUALS BY POSITION, BY GENDER, BY ORGANIZATION 1970-1979
Executive Director President
Male Female Male Female
Oly Pan Am 13 0 38 3
1970-74 Multi- Dis in Aff Sport Sport Sport
9
3
1
1
0
0
23
3
17
2
1
0
Oly Pan Am 20 0 45 4
1975-79 Multi- Dis in
Sport Sport
10
1
2
0
26
4
2
1
Aff Sport 4 0 19 0
TOTALS Exec Dir Pres
Male Female Male Female
1970-74 26 1 81 6
1975-79 35 2 94 7
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TABLE 7
DIFFERENT INDIVIDUALS BY POSITION, BY GENDER, BY ORGANIZATION 1980-1990
Executive Director President
Male Female Male Female
Oly Pan Am 30 4 41 4
1980-84
MultiSport 13
Dis in Sport 3
2
0
28
6
1
2
Aff Sport 5 1 17 1
Oly Pan Am 40 7 53 6
1985-90
MultiSport 14
Dis in Sport 8
1
3
31
12
4
2
Aff Sport 9 1 18 1
TOTALS
1980-84
1985-90
20 years
Exec Dir
Male
51
71
Female
7
12
Pres
Male
82
114
Female
8
13
Exec Dir: 183 males 22 females Pres: 371 males 34 females
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TABLE 8
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR/PRESIDENT POSITIONS BY GENDER* 1992-1994
Position and Gender EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Male Female Totals PRESIDENT Male Female Totals *Represents total number of individuals +Number of different organizations (N=72)
1992-1994 163 (82.7%) (17.3%) 197+ 181 (86.6%) 28 (13.4%) 209+
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TABLE 9 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR/PRESIDENT POSITIONS BY GENDER, TIME PERIOD (1992-1994). AND ORGANIZATION
Position EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
Olympic/Pan Am
Male Female PRESIDENT Male Female
9 7 (84.3%) 1 8 (15.7%) 1 0 6 (89.8%) 1 2 (10.2%)
Multi Sport 3 5 (88%) 5 (12%) 33 (75%) 11 (25%)
Disabled in Sport Affiliated Sport
11 (68.8%) 5 (31.2%) 2 0 (100%) 0
20 (77%) 6 (23%) 2 2 (81.5%) 5 (18.5%)
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TABLE 10 NATIONAL GOVERNING BODIES FEMALES IN EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR/PRESIDENT POSITIONS BY ORGANIZATION 1992-1994
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TABLE 11
DIFFERENT INDIVIDUALS BY POSITION, BY GENDER, BY ORGANIZATION 1992-1994
Executive Director President
Male Female Male Female
Olympic/ Pan Am 32 6 40 6
1992-194
Multi Sport
Disabled in Sport
8
4
0
0
11
0
7
0
Aff Sport 6 0 7 2
Totals 50 6 58 15
3 years Executive Director/ President
108 males 21 females
100
Critical Reflections on Olympic Ideology Notes:
Centre for Olympic Studies
101

File: women-in-united-states-olympic-governance.pdf
Title: Centre for Olympic Studies, Critical Reflections on Olympic Ideology: Second International Symposium for Olympic Research, October 1994
Author: Judith A. Bischoff and Jan Rintala
Subject: Critical Reflections on Olympic Ideology
Keywords: October p. 84-101
Published: Thu Apr 20 14:50:05 2000
Pages: 18
File size: 0.15 Mb


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