inverted commas, Present tense, Past participle, Past tense, A person, Karen Will, Future Perfect Tense Karen, reported speech, Future Continuous Tense Karen, Karen, Present Perfect Tense Karen, Durbanites Paris, singular noun, apostrophe, abstract noun, comparative and superlative, Abstract nouns, Comparison of adjectives, Collective nouns, Cinema Library Cemetery Sty Vineyard, common noun, plural verb, Crockery Cutlery Bedding Vegetables Fruit Drapery Hosiery Jewellery Haberdashery Clothing Sportswear Insects Game Reptile Livestock Rodents Furniture Poultry Citrus
Male actor bachelor boar boy bridegroom brother buck bull bull-elephant cock colt dog drake drone father friar gentleman giant grandfather grandson he-bear heir hero fox goose stag billy goat prince lord ambassador emperor
Female actress spinster sow girl bride sister doe cow cow-elephant hen АOO\ bitch duck queen bee mother nun lady giantess grandmother granddaughter she-bear heiress heroine vixen gander hind nanny goat princess lady ambassadress empress
Male hunter husband king lion male man master mayor monk/priest Negro nephew papa priest ram sir son stallion steer tom-cat uncle waiter widower wizard tiger peacock bullock cob king shepherd baron murderer
Female huntress wife queen lioness female woman mistress mayoress nun/priestess Negress niece mama nun ewe madam daughter mare heifer tabby-cat aunt waitress widow witch tigress peahen heifer penn queen shepherdess baroness murderess
Male Rajah sire deer АDQFq duke merman
Female Ranee dam doe АDQFqH duchess mermaid
Male turkey-cock sultan bestman earl god sire (horse)
Female turkey-hen sultana bridesmaid countess goddess dam (horse)
2 The young of animals
Grown-up Sheep, ram, ewe Man, woman Lion Bear Goat Cat Cow Bird Turkey Frog Donkey Eel Kangaroo Peacock Cock Salmon
Young Lamb Child, baby Cub Cub Kid Kitten Calf Nestling Poult Tadpole Foal Elver Joey Pea-chick Cockerel Grilse
Grown-up Dog, bitch Drake, duck Owl Horse, stallion Mare Fowl, cock, hen Pig Goose Eagle Buck %XWWHUБ\ Fish Swan Hen Oyster Whale
Young Puppy, pup Duckling Owlet Foal, colt Filly Chicken Piglet Gosling Eaglet Fawn Caterpillar/larva Fry Cygnet Chicken Spat Calf
Big Crown Bill Brace Corn Dear Drop Hill Kitchen Lamb Lock Man Park ** Prince River Sack Seed Speck Statue Throat Verse Lass Bird Lecture Tree
Small Cigarette Auntie Booklet Coverlet Granule Icicle Laddie /HDБHW Maiden Meteorite Particle Ringlet Rootlet Sickle Sparklet Spherule Streamlet Wagonette Islet Pannikin Hamlet Doggy Twig
**paddock - utilitarian (for use with animals) 8
The rumble of thunder/heavy vehicles
The snap of a twig The rattle of cups/crockery/chains The rustle of leaves A school bell rings The screech of brakes An aeroplane engine drones The crack of a whip The hoot of a car A motorboat chugs The chime of a clock The patter of rain/feet The clank of chains The whine/scream of a jet engine The jingle of coins The creak/slam of a door The clink/tinkle of glasses The buzz of conversation The honk of a horn The boom of breakers The chug of a tractor
The beat of a drum The pop of a cork being drawn The click of a latch Steam hisses The telephone rings The clatter of horses' hoofs A church bell tolls/peals Frying sausages sizzle The moan of the wind/the sea The tinkle of bells The crunch of boots on gravel/gears The wail of sirens The tick of a clock/chime of a clock The creak of hinges The grinding of gears The gurgle of a stream The babble of a brook The crackleRIАUH The gush of water in pipes Water lapping against the side of a boat
Sounds of animals Bees hum Dogs bark/howl/growl/snarl Kittens mew Pigs grunt Lions roar Donkeys bray Beetles drone Chickens peep
Lambs bleat Calves low (cattle low) A bull bellows Frogs croak Elephants trumpet Owls hoot Snakes hiss Sparrows chirp
Mice squeak Monkeys chatter A cock crows A hen cackles / clucks A wolf howls Bears growl Crickets chirp Ducks quack Geese gaggle, hiss Hyenas laugh Parrots talk, chatter Ravens croak
Turkeys gobble Horses neigh/whinny A cat purrs A bird twitters Apes gibber Cows low Deer bell Flies buzz Eagles and hawks scream Jackals howl Pigeons coo Seagulls and vultures scream
5 Collective nouns
a row of houses a bunch of grapes a bevy of beauties a batch of bread a hoard of treasure a collection of stamps a pack of dogs a gang of workmen a school of porpoises DБHHWRIFDUVVKLSV
DERXTXHWRIБRZHUV a team of players DVZDUPRIБLHVEHHV a staff of servants a circle of friends a roll of bank notes a chest of tea a ream of paper
a crop of vegetables a range of mountains a set of teeth (tools) a bank of clouds a pile of rubbish a battery of guns a party of men DFDWFKRIАVK
a column of smoke
a squadron of aeroplanes a troop of monkeys
a brood of chickens a sheaf of corn a colony of ants a watch of nightingales DVKRDORIEDVVАVK a muster of peacocks a clowder of cats a litter of puppies a murder of crows a crash of rhinoceroses a clutch of eggs DБRFNRIVKHHS a gaggle of geese a brood of hens a bevy of larks a bundle of sticks a pack of wolves a galaxy of stars a pack of cards DEORFNRIБDWV a group of people a litter of pups a school of dolphins a canteen of cutlery a crop of vegetables a tray of peaches DБRWLOODRIVKLSV a convoy of ships a volley of gunshots
a skein of wool a swarm of locusts a cede of badgers a covey of partridges an army of caterpillars a string of ponies a peep of chickens a balding of ducks a pod of seals/whales a dray of squirrels a cast of hawks DБLJKWRIVZDOORZV a drove/stud/of horses a rafter of turkeys a pod of dolphins a bale of wool a pride of lions a bench of judges a stack of hay a batch of cakes a class of pupils a tuft of grass a circle of friends a range of mountains a set of teeth a hive of bees a grove of orange trees a herd of cattle a drove of pigs
a rope of pearls a string of beads a parliament of owls a sloth of bears a congregation of plovers a drove of cattle a nest of rabbits a dule of doves DVFKRRORIАVK a host of sparrows a husk of hares a mustering of storks a siege of herons a hover of trout a kindle of kittens a bale of turtles a leap of leopards a descent of woodpeckers DEULJDGHRIАUHPHQ a crate of bananas a crowd of people a pocket of oranges a brace of rabbits (shot) DБLJKWRIVWDLUV a cluster of diamonds a posse of policemen a set of golf clubs
a board of directors an audience in a theatre
as black as coal (ink/ the night) as quick as lightning as busy as a bee
as brave as a lion as red as blood as cold as ice
as right as rain
as round as a ball
as fat as a pig as soft as butter as gentle as a lamb (a as strong as a lion (a horse/an ox)
as deaf as a doorpost
as dead as a doornail
as green as grass
as safe as houses
as sick as a dog
as faithful as a dog
as slow as a snail
as sour as vinegar
DVБDWDVDSDQFDNH as straight as an arrow as greedy as a pig
as good as gold as stupid as a donkey (an ox) as happy as a king/lark
as sweet as honey (sugar) as tall as a giant
as heavy as lead
as hungry as a hunter
as tame as a sheep
as old as the hills
as light as a feather
as white as snow (a sheet)
as ugly as sin
as sure as fate
as pretty as a picture as poor as a church mouse as sly as a fox
as clear as crystal (day) as tough as leather as artful as a monkey
as cheap as dirt
as innocent as a lamb
as keen as mustard
as playful as a kitten
as quiet as a mouse
as smooth as glass
as proud as a peacock as dry as dust (bone)
as bold as brass
as thick as thieves
as drunk as a lord DVKRWDVАUH as thin as a rake as loud as thunder as warm as toast as rotten as dirt as pale as death as tender as a lamb WRVZLPOLNHDАVK as slippery as an eel as black as a crow as swift as a hare as cool as a cucumber as fresh as a daisy as obstinate as a mule as hard as nails as large as life as crisp as a new bank as deep as a well/the sea
as steady as a rock as blind as a bat as fair as a lily as lively as a cricket DVАHUFHDVDWLJHU as dirty as a sow
as talkative as a parrot as sound as a bell as easy as winking as mad as a hatter as safe as a bank as sharp as a needle
as salt as a herring as plain as a pikestaff as clumsy as an elephant as wise as Solomon
as silly as a sheep/goose as dull as ditchwater as brittle as glass as hot as a furnace
as brown as a berry as crafty as a fox as easy as A B C as clean as a new pin
as bitter as gall
as silent as the grave
as patient as Job as meek as a lamb as sturdy as an oak as stiff as a poker as alike as two peas in a pod
The following are also handy to know
He eats like a horse To read someone like an open book To work like a Trojan
7RАWOLNHDJORYH 7RVZLPOLNHDАVK To tremble like a leaf
To grow like a weed
To climb like a monkey
Her cheeks are like roses News spreads like ZLOGАUH 7RGULQNOLNHDАVK
To fall like a log A boat leaks like a sieve To sing like a bird/lark
To run for dear life
To act like a lunatic To sleep like a log To cling like ivy To melt like snow To have eyes like saucers Something shines like a mirror 7RБRDWOLNHDFRUN
Degrees of comparison
There are three degrees of comparison.
(relating to one person only)
Comparative: (relating to two persons only)
Superlative: (relating to more than two persons)
The small naughty girl. The smaller naughtier girl. The smallest naughtiest girl.
Degrees of comparison are formed in the following ways.
2QHV\OODEOHDGMHFWLYHVDQGPRVWWZRV\OODEOHDGMHFWLYHVVLPSO\DGGWKHVXIА[HV -er and -est
short slow narrow
shorter slower narrower
shortest slowest narrowest
:RUGVZLWKWZRV\OODEOHVZLWKWKHVWUHVVRQWKHАUVWV\OODEOHDQGZRUGVZLWK more than two syllables, simply add the words more or most before the adjective.
hopeful beautiful attractive
more hopeful more beautiful more attractive
most hopeful most beautiful most attractive
3. Adjectives of two syllables ending with -ful and -re usually take more and most.
4. Adjectives with two syllables ending in -er and -y or -ly usually take -er and -est.
clever pretty silly
cleverer prettier sillier
cleverest prettiest silliest
quiet pleasant common narrow
quieter pleasanter commoner narrower
quietest pleasantest commonest narrowest
6. Irregular degrees of comparison.
good well bad little near near much many far far late late old
better better worse less nearer nearer more more farther further later latter elder
best best worst least nearest next most most farthest furthest latest last eldest
a. Lesser is an archaic form that is used in only a few phrases. To choose the lesser of two evils. 7KHOHVVHUБDPLQJR b. Nearest refers to distance, the word next refers to order. Where is the nearest town? The next town is Standerton. 14
c. Farther generally refers to distance. Further can be used in the same context but it usually has the specialised meaning of additional. I cannot run any farther. I'll give you further details tomorrow. I'll need further assistance with these forms.
d. Latter means the second of two persons or objects and is the opposite of former. He studied French and German, the latter extensively. Latest has the meaning of the most recent. The latest best-seller.
He came last.
Last night I ....
e. The words elder and eldest are only used to describe people and then only for members of the same family. They are often used attributively. My elder sister is two years older than I. Peter is my eldest brother.
The words older and oldest are used for people and objects. Susie is older than Mary. This is the oldest church in Bethal.
f. The words outer and outmost indicate the position from a central point. The satellite is in orbit in outer space. Cannibals were seen on the outmost islands of the South Seas.
The words utter and utmost are historically derived from "out", but their modern day meaning has completely changed. He looked at the teacher with utter disbelief. ,·OOGRP\XWPRVWWRАQGWKHPLVVLQJNH\V
7. Some adjectives cannot be compared at all!
Dead, perfect, unique, matchless, full, empty, square, round, circular, triangular, ZRRGHQGDLO\PRQWKO\\HDUO\PLGGOHDOOАUVWODVWQR
Degrees of comparison
Good Bad Little Many Much Old Far Thick Cold New Young High Wide Wet Tall Clever Pretty Easy Heavy Noisy Happy Naughty Thirsty Beautiful 'LIАFXOW Pleasant Careful Honest Careless Wonderful Handsome
Better Worse Less More More Older/ elder Farther/ further Thicker Colder Newer Younger Higher Wider Wetter Taller Cleverer Prettier Easier Heavier Noisier Happier Naughtier Thirstier More beautiful 0RUHGLIАFXOW Pleasanter More careful More honest More careless More wonderful More handsome
Best Worst Least Most Most Oldest/ eldest Farthest/ furthest Thickest Coldest Newest Youngest Highest Widest Wettest Tallest Cleverest Prettiest Easiest Heaviest Noisiest Happiest Naughtiest Thirstiest Most beautiful 0RVWGLIАFXOW Pleasantest Most careful Most honest Most careless Most wonderful Most handsome
a tin of jam a plate of soup a cup of tea DБDVNRIWHD a pail of milk a jug of milk a glass of milk
a basket of fruit DYDVHRIБRZHUV a bucket of water a tube of toothpaste a box of matches a drum of oil
a pocket of oranges a bottle of medicine a packet of candles a glass of lemonade a mug of coffee a bag of mealies
We call people who live in...
Japan ...................... France ..................... Belgium .................. Siam ........................ Sweden .................. Italy ........................ south africa
.......... Israel ....................... Russia ..................... Europe .................... Asia ......................... Argentina ............... Bolivia .................... Congo ..................... Finland ................... Iran ......................... Kenya ..................... Malta ...................... Monaco ..................
Japanese French Belgians Siamese Swedes Italian South African
s Israelis Russians Europeans Asians Argentinians Bolivians Congolese Finns Iranese Kenyans Maltese Monacans
Greece .................... Egypt ...................... China ...................... Norway .................. Scotland ................. Germany ................ England .................. Canada ................... Arabia .................... America ................. Afghanistan ........... Australia ................ Brazil ...................... Cyprus ................... Iceland .................... Ireland .................... Madagascar ........... Mexico .................... Marocco .................
Greeks Egyptians Chinese Norwegians Scots Germans English Canadians Arabs Americans Afghanis Australians Brazilians Cypriots Icelanders Irish Madagascans Mexicans Moroccans
Mozambique ......... Nepal ...................... Pakistan ................. Poland .................... Rwanda .................. Spain ....................... Syria ....................... Sudan ..................... Switzerland ........... Turkey .................... Zambia ................... Cape Town
............ Johannesburg ........ Hamburg ............... Eton ........................
Mozambicans Nepalese Pakistanis Poles Rwandese Spaniards Syrians Sudanese Swiss Turks Zambians Capetonians Johannesburgers Hamburgers Etonians
Namibia ................. Namibians Netherlands ........... Dutch Peru ........................ Peruvians Portugal ................. Portuguese Senegal ................... Senegalese Swaziland .............. Swazis Taiwan ................... Taiwanese Togo ....................... Togolese Vietnam ................. Vietnamese Zimbabwe ............. Zimbabweans Durban ................... Durbanites Paris ........................ Parisians London ................... Londoners Berlin ....................... Berliners
8 Nouns Names of people A person who lives next door to you is your A man who carries luggage on a station is a A man who mends shoes is a $SHUVRQZKRVHOOVБRZHUVLVD A lady who serves you in a cafe/restaurant is a A person in charge of a library is a A person who sells cloth and dress materials is a A person who writes books is an A man who serves on a ship is a A person who takes photographs is a A man who uses a plough is called a A man who serves people at a table is called a A man who uses handcuffs is called a One who cares for the sick is a One who steals is a One who works for someone in the house is a 2QHZKRHDWVKXPDQБHVKLVD One who has a shop is a One who buys things in a shop is a One who delivers milk is a One who works in a garden is a One who is sent to convert the heathen is a One who breaks into a house to steal is a One who is ill in hospital is a One who is received at another's house is a The head of a hospital is a 2QHZKRБLHVDDHURSODQHLVD One who repairs cars is a One who works with wood is a One who works with water-pipes is a 3HRSOHZKRH[WLQJXLVKАUHVLQWRZQLVWKH
neighbour porter shoemaker, cobbler БRULVW waitress librarian draper author sailor photographer farmer/ploughman waiter policeman nurse/sister thief servant/domestic helper cannibal shopkeeper customer milkman gardener missionary burglar patient guest matron/superintendent pilot mechanic carpenter plumber АUHEULJDGH 19
People who work together as a staff is a A person in a wheelchair is A person who crosses a street is a The head of a school is a A person who makes clothes is a A person who looks after prisoners in jail is a A person who directs a ship or aeroplane is a A person who watches a game of rugby is a One who goes on foot is a People who attend a church service are the A person who writes poetry is a A man who builds ships is a Names of places Where dogs are kept Where fruit trees are grown Where religious service
s are held Where convicts are kept in cells :KHUHАOPVDUHVKRZQ Where books may be borrowed Where the dead are buried In which pigs are kept Where grapes are grown In which fowls are kept Where ships are docked In which bees are kept In which a springhare lives In which horses are kept Where motor-cars are kept Where fruit and vegetables
are sold Where sick people are looked after Where money is kept Where stamps may be bought 20
personnel disabled pedestrian principal/headmaster tailor/seamstress warden navigator/pilot spectator pedestrian congregation poet shipwright Kennel Orchard Church gaol/jail/prison Cinema Library Cemetery Sty Vineyard Run Harbour Hive Burrow Stable Garage Greengrocer/Market Hospital Bank 3RVW2IАFH
Where an artist paints Where children are taught Where dishes are washed up Where sheep and cattle are sold Where things are manufactured Where stuffed animals may be seen A place where one can overnight A place to enjoy a meal Where cows are milked Where calves sleep at night Where calves are kept during the day Where fodder is kept Where only boots, shoes are sold Where butter and cheese are made Where bread and cake are made Where mealies, wheat is ground Where meat is sold Where wild animals
are kept in cages Where bricks are made Where cases are heard by the magistrate Where plants are bought Where orphans live together Where old people dwell together Where birds are kept A badger's home An eagle's home
Studio School Scullery Stock-fair Factory Museum Hotel/Motel/Lodge Restaurant Cowshed Calf-pen Paddock Shed / barn Shoe-store Dairy Bakery Mill Butchery Zoo %ULFNАHOGEULFN\DUG Court Nursery Orphanage Old age home Aviary Sett Eyrie
9 One word for... Cups, plates, saucers Knives, forks, spoons, teaspoons Sheets, pillows, pillow cases, blankets Carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage Apples, oranges, lemons, mangoes Materials, lace, cotton Socks, stockings Diamonds, gold, earrings, bangles Pins, needles, cotton Jerseys, dresses, suits A tennis frock, rugby clothes Grasshoppers, ants, beetles, bees Buffaloes, lions, kudu, impala Snakes, lizard, tortoises, crocodile Horses, donkeys, cattle, sheep Rabbits, mice, hamsters Tables, chairs, beds Chicken, ducks, geese, turkeys Oranges, mandarin, pomelos Mangoes, paw-paws, pineapples, bananas %ULFNVZLQGRZIUDPHVFHPHQWURRАQJ Spades, rake, hosepipe Paper, pens, books, cards
Crockery Cutlery Bedding Vegetables Fruit Drapery Hosiery Jewellery Haberdashery Clothing Sportswear Insects Game Reptile Livestock Rodents Furniture Poultry Citrus fruit Subtropical fruit Hardware Garden equipment Stationery
Absent Accept Alive Always Arrive Asleep Back Begin Better Busy Buy Calm Careful Clean Clever Close Cold Day Dear / Expensive Deep Dull Dwarf Early Easy Far Fast Fat Find First Fresh Friend Friendly Full
Present Refuse / Decline Dead Never Depart Awake Front End Worse Idle Sell Stormy Careless Dirty Stupid Open Hot Night Cheap Shallow Bright Giant Late 'LIАFXOW Near Slow Thin Lose Last Stale Enemy Unfriendly Empty
Good Happy Hard Harmful Hate Heavy High Hit Honest Inside Joy Kind Laugh Left Like Long Loud Many Much Naughty Neat Often Old Open Pass Peace Possible Question Quick Quiet Raw Rich Right
Bad Sad Soft Harmless Love Light Low Miss Dishonest Outside Sorrow Unkind Cry Right Dislike Short Soft Few Little Good Untidy / Slovenly Seldom Young / New Shut Fail War Impossible Answer Slow Noisy / Loud Cooked Poor Wrong 23
Ripe Rise Rough Same Save Sharp Short Start Straight Strong
Green / Unripe Fall Smooth Different Spend Blunt Tall Finish Crooked Weak
Summer Sweet Thick Top Ugly Well Wet Wide Wild Win
Winter Sour Thin Bottom Pretty / Beautiful Badly Dry Narrow Tame Lose
11 idiomatic expression
s 1. His bark is worse than his bite - A person who threatens, but seldom does something. 2. To bear a grudge - Not to forgive someone for something. 3. Between you and me and the gate-post - To tell something in secrecy. 4. A bird's-eye view - An overall view, taking in a lot of scenery / facts. 5. In black and white - It must be written down. 6. To make one's blood boil - To get angry. 7. To rack your brains - To think very hard. 8. To build castles in the air - To imagine plans which seldom come true. 9. A wild goose chase - Plans which have no possibility of success. 24
10. $VWKHFURZБLHV - A straight line through the air. 11. To look daggers - To show your annoyance (cross). 12. To have an eye on - To desire something / to watch a person. 13. 7RKDYHDАQJHULQWKHSLH - To take part in something, usually in schemes. 14. To turn green with envy - To be jealous of someone / something. 15. To look down upon - To despise something / someone. 16. To hit the nail on the head - To say exactly the right thing / To show insight. 17. To turn over a new leaf - To try to live a better life, do things better. 18. In a nutshell - To say something in a few words / in brief. 19. Smell a rat - To be suspicious. 20. Know the ropes - To know things well. 21. Through thick and thin - Regardless. 22. On the tip of one's tongue7RIDLOWRАQGWKHZRUGRQHWKLQNVRQHUHPHPEHUV 23. To blow one's own trumpet - To brag / To boast. 24. To rub up the wrong way - To irritate someone / To annoy someone. 25. To have words with someone - To quarrel with someone. 26. To carry weight7RKDYHLQБXHQFH 27. To lose one's head - To panic. 28. On the warpath - To look for trouble / To look for confrontation. 29. To beat about the bush - Doesn't / Can't come to a point. 30. To hit below the belt - An unfair strike. 31. %LUGVRIDIHDWKHUБRFNWRJHWKHU - Persons of the same character and taste usually keep company. 32. Don't count your chickens before they are hatched'RQ·WEHRYHUFRQАGHQWDQG assume success before you know the outcome of a venture. 33. A stitch in time saves nine - Repair things at once, it saves time. 25
34. Where there's a will there's a way - If one is determined to succeed, one will DOZD\VАQGDZD\WRGRVR 35. Better late than never - It's better to do something late than not to do it at all. 36. It never rains but it pours - Misfortunes come in numbers. 37. A friend in need is a friend indeed$IULHQGLQGLIАFXOWWLPHVLVDUHDOIULHQG 38. You can take a horse to the water, but you can't make it drink - You can give someone opportunities, but you can't make them take advantage of them. 39. Once bitten, twice shy - A person who has been disappointed or harmed once by somebody won't trust that person again. 40. The early bird catches the worm7KHSHUVRQZKRFRPHVАUVWJHWVWKHEHVW 41. More haste, less speed - If you are in a hurry, you don't do things properly. 42. Like father, like son - A child often resembles his parent's ways in character or doings. 43. To be above-board - To be honest. 44. To bite off more than you can chew - To take on more responsibilities than you really can handle. 45. To make old bones - To become older. 46. To buy a pig in a poke - To buy something that really has no value at all. 47. To give the cold shoulder - To ignore someone. 48. To ride for a fall - Looking for trouble. 49. To keep a stiff upper lip - To remain calm and composed in the face of problems or danger. 50. That's where the shoe pinches - That's where the trouble is. 51. To sell for a song - To sell something worth a lot, for almost nothing (cheaply). 52. A chip of the old block - To have the same characteristics as one's parents. 26
12 Singular and plural Rules for forming the plural 1. The most common way of forming the plural is to add s, or es to the singular, e.g. week weeks; vine vines; brush brushes. 2. Change f or fe into ves, eg. wife wives; thief - thieves. ([FHSWLRQVDUHWKHIROORZLQJZRUGVZKHUH\RXRQO\DGGІVWRWKHАQDOІI e.g. roof roofs; chief chiefs; cuff cuffs; belief beliefs; dwarf dwarfs; grief - griefs; brief briefs; cliff cliffs; reef reefs; gulf gulfs; puff puffs; handkerchief handkerchiefs. 4. Add s only to some nouns ending in oo and o, e.g. piano pianos; radio radios, zoo - zoos, bamboo - bamboos. 5. But add es to these nouns, e.g. potato potatoes; hero heroes; hobo hoboes; mosquito mosquitoes; tomato tomatoes, cargo - cargoes, echo - echoes. 6. Add s to some nouns ending in ay, -ey, oy, e.g. joy joys; key keys; play plays. &KDQJHWKHІ\LQWRІLHVLQWKHVHБ\ІБLHVMHOO\ІMHOOLHVFRXQWU\FRXQWULHV 8. Irregular plurals, some changing the vowel, e.g. mouse mice; ox oxen; goose geese; child children; tooth - teeth, louse - lice. 9. Few nouns have the same form for singular and plural, e.g. buck buck; sheep sheep; quail quail; salmon salmon; deer deer; gross gross; АVKІАVKVZLQHІVZLQHFDWWOHSLQFHUVWURXVHUVMHDQV 10. Some nouns have no singular form, e.g. scissors, pliers, trousers, pants, spectacles, news, measles and mumps. 11. Some nouns have no plural form, e.g. gold, furniture, fruit, luggage, game (wild animals) , stock (sheep, cattle), information, advice, knowledge, ignorance, nonsense, education, progress, wealth, poverty, luck, childhood, music, poetry, biology, photography, economics, safety, violence, laughter, anger. 12. These can take a -s or change to -ves: hoof - hoofs - hooves; scarf - scarfs scarves; wharf - wharfs - wharves. 27
Singular army ass atlas avocado baby bamboo banjo bench berry body box boy branch bridge brooch brush buck buffalo bunch bush bus calf canary cargo chief child church class commando cook country
Plural armies asses atlases avocados babies bamboos banjos benches berries bodies boxes boys branches bridges brooches brushes buck buffaloes bunches bushes buses calves canaries cargoes chiefs children churches classes commandos cooks countries
Singular dairy daisy dentist dish donkey dwarf dairy daisy dentist dish donkey dress dwarf echo enemy ewe family АVK Б\ foot fruit guess game gas glass goose hair half handful handle heathen
Plural dairies daisies dentists dishes donkeys dwarfs dairies daisies dentists dishes donkeys dresses dwarfs echoes enemies ewes families АVK БLHV feet fruit guesses game gases glasses geese hair halves handfuls handles heathen
Singular hero hoof horse house knife lady leaf life loaf louse man mango Mary monkey mosquito moth mouse mule ox page party peach photo piano piece pony potato princess proof puff puppy
Plural heroes hoofs/hooves horses houses knives ladies leaves lives loaves lice men mangoes Mary's monkeys mosquitoes moths mice mules oxen pages parties peaches photos pianos pieces ponies potatoes princesses proofs puffs puppies
Singular radio roof rope scarf self sheaf sheep shelf sky solo soprano story table tax thief tie tomato tooth toy two volcano watch weed wife wish wolf woman wool zoo
Plural radios roofs ropes scarfs/scarves selves sheaves sheep shelves skies solos sopranos stories tables taxes thieves ties tomatoes teeth toys two's volcanoes watches weed wives wishes wolves women wool zoos
adj. AA a.m. a/c ad. A.D. Adj. ad lib. Aids ans. ATM Ave. B.C. Co. C.O.D. D.I.Y. Dr. e.g. etc. i.e. G.B. g kg M.P. P.A.Y.E. p.m. P.O. Rd S.A. St Std S.A.P.S. T.V.
Adjective Alcoholics Anonymous / Automobile Association Before noon (Latin - ante meridiem) Account Advertisement Anno Domini (in the year of our Lord) Adjutant Ad libitum (at pleasure) $FTXLUHGLPPXQHGHАFLHQF\V\QGURPH Answer Automatic teller machine Avenue Before Christ Company Cash on delivery Do-it-yourself Doctor For example And others; and the rest (Latin - et cetera) That is (Latin - id est) Great Britain
Gram Kilogram Member of Parliament; Military Police Pay as you earn After noon (Latin - post meridiem) 3RVW2IАFH Road South Africa; Salvation Army Street; saint Standard South African Police Service Television
U.S.A. V.A.T. V.I.P. yr., yrs U.K.United States of America
Value Added Tax Very important person Year, years United Kingdom
14 Words that are easily confused Borrow and lend (When you borrow, you receive; when you lend, you give) e.g. I am not going to lend you my pen. (lend to) I want to borrow a book from you. (borrow from someone) Can and may (can means to be able) e.g. Teacher, may I please leave the room? I can Open the door
. Teach and learn (The teacher teaches the children, but they learn) e.g. What are you going to teach us today? I shall have to learn harder this year. Lie and lay /LHWROLHБDWRQDEHGOLHOD\ODLQ Lie - to tell a lie (lie - lied - lied) Lay - lay the table (laid - laid) Lay - chickens lay eggs (laid - laid) Much and many (Many = countable) e.g. many children; much time; much money; many books; much sugar Few and little (Few = countable) e.g. a few children; a little time 31
a few people; a little happiness Between and among (Between is used for 2 only) e.g. Mother divided the sweets between my brother and me. We divided all the fruit among us. Their and there Their: The boys are enjoying their game. There: There are seven girls in the team. In, into and to 1. The car ran into a telephone pole. 2. I live in Kroonstad. :HUDQWRWKH3RVW2IАFHWRSRVWWKHOHWWHUV Quite and quiet 1. Keep quiet please! 2. He is quite well again after his illness. Live and stay (Live is permanent; stay is temporary) e.g. I live in Krugersdorp. I am staying in Durban for the holidays. Rise and raise (Rise means to move upwards; raise means to lift up something) e.g. The smoke rises in the air. John raised his head. Fewer and less (Fewer is less in number; less is less in quantity) e.g. We have fewer cattle than they. He had less money than I. Older and elder (Elder applies to relations only and is always used before the noun.) e.g. Mary is older than Agnes. My elder sister is in grade eight. Passed and past (Passed is always a verb; past is not a verb) e.g. The holidays passed quickly. 32
We walked past the church. Farther and further )DUWKHUPHDQVPRUHGLVWDQWIXUWKHUPHDQVDGGLWLRQDORUUHIHUVWRАJXUDWLYH distance) e.g. John ran much farther than I did. I need further information.
Note: The apostrophe is used for indicating possession (see 1 and 2 below) and for contraction ( see 3 below).
1. We usually add a S and put the apostrophe before the S e.g. Mary's shoes the baby's arm the cow's tail the cupboard's shelf.
2. When the noun is plural and ends in S, we put the apostrophe after the S e.g. the cows' tails the babies' clothes the cupboards' shelves
3. An apostrophe is used to take place of letters that have been left out - contraction.
e.g. do not - don't
does not - doesn't
did not - didn't
you are - you're
he is - he's
we have - we've
where is - where's
will not - won't
I am - I'm
should not - shouldn't
Note: The apostrophe s (`s) is not used to form the plural in English except in the alphabet and numerals e.g. A's, P's, Q's and two's, three's, ten's
16 parts of speech
A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing or quality.
e.g. dentist, teacher - person
park, Durban - place
rainbow, pencil - thing (common noun) honesty, curiosity - quality (abstract noun) Four main classes · Common nouns - names given to ordinary, everyday people, places and things, e.g. woman, doctor, king, town · Proper nouns - names of particular people, places and things. Most begin with capital letters, e.g. Albert, John, Durban, Cape Town · Collective nouns - names of groups of people, places and things of the same kind · Abstract nouns - names of qualities, feelings and actions which we cannot actually see, hear, taste, touch or smell, e.g. kindness, sorrow, joy
17 Adjectives · Add colour and interest to sentences by describing, or giving more information about nouns. · One can form adjectives from nouns, e.g. athlete - athletic; drama - dramatic; RIАFHRIАFLDO
Comparison of adjectives
· There are three degrees of comparison
a. positive degree: refers to one thing b. comparative degree: compares two things c. superlative degree: describes the best or the most
· Most adjectives of one or two syllables form the comparative and superlative degrees by adding -er and -est
· Other adjectives have to change to form the comparative and superlative degrees
· Some adjectives cannot be compared
dead, perfect, alive, married
· Longer adjectives form their comparative and superlative degrees with the help of more and most
The position of adjectives
Adjectives may be used in one of two ways, attributively and predicatively.
Predicatively Here the adjective is placed some way away from the noun. It directly follows the verb. Predicative adjectives are normally adjectives of quality. Adjectives are also used predicatively after the verbs - be, become, seem, appear, feel, get, grow, keep, look, make, smell, sound, taste, turn
The lily is beautiful. Tom became rich. Peter felt cold. He looked calm.
The dog is barking. Susan seems happy. He grew impatient.
Some adjectives change their meaning when they are moved from attributive to predicative
A small farmer. The farmer is small.
(He has a small farm) (He is a small man physically)
The adjectives chief, main, principal, sheer, utter are used before the noun
His chief concern was the safety of the children. The main reason was ..... The principal point of his argument was .... It was sheer madness to .... He spoke utter rubbish.
Most adjectives can be used both attributively and predicatively:
a. The following adjectives can be used only predicatively: DVOHHSDIUDLGDZDNHDORQHDZDUHDOLYHDБRDWDVKDPHGFRQWHQWH[HPSWDQG unable b. The following adjectives can only be used attributively former, latter, inner, outer c. Adjectives are used predicatively when used in a phrase that expresses measurement The Crocodile River is two hundred kilometres long. A building is ten storeys high. d. Adjectives are used predicatively when more than one are used with the noun The mongrel was thin and mangy. The judge was both witty and wise. e. Adjectives are used predicatively when they are followed by a prepositional phrase We shared the sweets evenly amongst the four of us. I ran quickly across the road. Adjectives may be used in three different ways a. One word: The young farmer. The empty house. b. A phrase: The farmer with the beard is my brother. c. A clause: The farmer, who is standing over there, is my brother. Remember a phrase is a description of something that does not contain a verb; a clause on the other hand always has a verb. Adjectives can be formed in many ways a. They can be formed by nouns: A stone wall bordered the house. A leather belt is better. A crime reporter. b. They can be formed from verbs by making use of the participle (third column): There were a lot of broken windows. (break) The tired baby fell asleep. (tire) F $GMHFWLYHVFDQEHIRUPHGIURPQRXQVDVZHOODVYHUEVE\DGGLQJVXIА[HV 36
-y -ly -ful -less -en -ous -able -ible -some -ic -ed -like -al -ual -an -ian -ical -ish -eous -ive -ing
storm - stormy; cloud - cloudy; health - healthy friend - friendly; father - fatherly harm - harmful; hope - hopeful; hurt - hurtful harm - harmless; hope - hopeless; use - useless gold - golden; wood -wooden danger - dangerous; fame - famous; fury - furious comfort - comfortable; honour - honourable terror - terrible; horror - horrible trouble - troublesome; quarrel - quarrelsome atom - atomic; Iceland - Icelandic talent - talented; hate - hated; tire - tired child - childlike; god - godlike brute - brutal; accident - accidental fact - factual, habit - habitual republic - republican; America - American Shakespeare - Shakespearian prophet - prophetically; economic - economical child - childish; Jew - Jewish instant - instantaneous; plenty - plenteous rest - restive; correct - corrective; talk - talkative love - loving; hate - hating; tire - tiring
d. The formation of the negatives of adjectives: these are formed by adding either SUHА[HVRUVXIА[HV
unhappy, unavailable, unfortunate
inaccurate, incapable, inescapable
impossible, immature, improbable
irregular, irresponsible, irresolute
illegal, illegitimate, illegible
disobey, dishonest, disrespectful
hopeless, homeless, useless
Difference between possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns Possessive adjectives are always followed by a noun, e.g. This is my book Possessive pronouns are used instead of the noun, e.g. The book is mine 37
18 Verbs Verbs have two main functions in sentences * They express actions * They express a state of BEING or existence - I am afraid; It is a ball They are doing, being and having words e.g. The dog barked. It was raining. They were having their breakfast. (A verb can be one word or it can be more than one word.) regular verbs
: The past tense and past participle of REGULAR VERBS are formed by adding -ed, eg. wash - washed; laugh - laughed Irregular verbs: Change in the past tense and past participle, eg. go - went gone; eat - ate - eaten ,QАQLWLYHIRUPRIWKHYHUE Doing/to do Singing/to sing
The tense of the verb tells us when the action it expresses takes place.
Three main tenses A. Present tense I study the stars with my telescope (action takes place regularly) I go to school B. Past tense I studied the stars with my telescope (action is now completed) C. Future tense I shall study the stars with my telescope tonight (action has not yet taken place) Each of these tenses has a simple, continuous and perfect form:
Simple I ride
Continuous I am riding
Perfect I have ridden
I rode I shall ride
I was riding I shall be riding
I had ridden I shall have ridden
Auxiliary verbs Help a verb to form a new tense. Some commonly used auxiliary verbs are: be, is, am, are, was, were, will, shall, would, should, could, has, had, can, may, might and must. Participles · Verbs can consist of more than one word, e.g. am reporting, will have visited · Reporting AND visited are parts of the verb called PARTICIPLES · Participles are used with auxiliary verbs to form new tenses Present participles $UHWKDWSDUWRIWKHYHUEZKLFKHQGVLQLQJHJLVБDVKLQJZHUHUHSRUWLQJ Past participles Are used with auxiliary verbs such as have, has, had, was and were to form new tenses, e.g. have sighted; were seen; have been seen · Most past participles end in -ed, -d, -en or -n, but others have irregular endings.
Adverbs add to the meaning of verbs. They tell how, when, where or why the action
e.g. Anne spoke softly (how)
slowly; warmly; quickly
Soon it will be summer again (when)
already; always; often
She went into the shop, while I waited outside (where) there; outside; distantly
(Adverbs often end with -ly)
· They indicate when things happen or actions take place when - Adverb of Time
· They indicate where things happen or actions take place where - Adverb of Place · They indicate how things happen or actions take place how - Adverb of Manner · Adverbs can be formed from adjectives E.g. clever - cleverly; lazy - lazily
Pronouns allow us to refer to persons/things without naming them over and over. e.g. Peter is twelve years old. - He is twelve years old. Mr. Jones is calling Roger. - Mr. Jones is calling him. It is Sam's book. - It is his book.
A pronoun takes the place of a noun
3PUrRoQnRoXuQnVs KhDaYvHe Da QnXuPmEbHeUr RoIf functions in a sentence
· personal pronouns
may replace a noun, which is the subject of a sentence I, you, he, she, it, we AND may replace a noun which is the object of a sentence e.g. me, you, him, her, it, us, them
· Possessive pronouns show belonging, and include words like my, mine, yours, his, your, their, theirs, ours, its.
There are two ways of saying that something belongs to someone.
e.g. This is my new calculator.
The new calculator is mine.
These are your magazines.
These magazines are yours.
This is Adam's bicycle.
This bicycle is Adam's.
· 5HБH[LYHSURQRXQV are words formed with -self, e.g. myself, himself, ourselves, themselves
e.g. I can look after myself. He can look after himself. They can look after themselves.
You can look after yourself. We can look after ourselves.
· Interrogative pronouns is pronouns which ask questions e.g. Who is coming to dinner? What is the matter with Mary?
· Prepositions introduce phrases
· They can establish time relationships e.g. We have not seen him since April
· They can establish relationships in place
Common errors in the use of prepositions
· We shared the sweets between the four of us
We shared the sweets amongst the four of us
· It feels like it's going to be hot
It feels as if it's going to be hot
· Will you come with?
Will you come with me?
List of prepositions
ON IN AT BY OF OFF TO WITH FOR FROM INTO ACROSS AFTER OVER
Supper is on the table. I read it in the newspaper. I arrive at four o'clock. :HVDWE\WKHАUH She is afraid of spiders. The cup fell off the shelf. The soldiers stood to attention. Do you take sugar with your tea? He is famous for his inventions. It is a present from Brian. The thieves broke into the shop. We swam across the river. Victor was named after his father. The bicycle cost over R2 000
The prefect is on duty. We are leaving in the morning. The stone was thrown at the window. We travelled by train. He died of a heart attack. He cleaned the chalk off the board. I reported the theft to the police. I play with my friend. Will you stay for supper? The verse comes from the Bible. We changed into dry clothes. My cousin lives across the street. Father went out after supper. I jump over a stone.
22 Conjunctions Rules for joining sentences by using conjunctions After, when, before, as soon as You may start a sentence with any of the above conjunctions in order to join two sentences. A conjunction sometimes causes a tense change E.g. They called the police. They waited for two hours. After they had called the police, they waited for two hours. :KHQWKHVHQWHQFHLVLQWKHSDVWWHQVHGHFLGHZKLFKDFWLRQLVАUVW7KHАUVWDFWLRQLV ZULWWHQLQWKHSDVWSHUIHFWWHQVHDQGWKHVHFRQGDFWLRQLQWKHSDVWLQGHАQLWHWHQVH E.g. She feels ill. She swallows a diamond. She feels ill because she has swallowed a diamond. :KHQWKHVHQWHQFHLVLQWKHSUHVHQWWHQVHGHFLGHZKLFKDFWLRQLVАUVW7KHАUVWDFWLRQ LVZULWWHQLQWKHSUHVHQWSHUIHFWWHQVHDQGWKHVHFRQGDFWLRQLQWKHSUHVHQWLQGHАQLWH tense. E.g. She hides the diamond. The thief takes it. Unless she hides the diamond, the thief will take it. Using since: If the sentence has only one verb, that verb must be in the perfect tense:
E.g. Since Peter's eye operation he has seen much better.
If the sentence contains two verbs, the verb following directly after since is in the LQGHАQLWHWHQVH7KHUHPDLQLQJYHUELVZULWWHQLQWKHSHUIHFWWHQVH
Since last year Peter's sight has improved a lot.
Since it rained, the grass has become very green
Conjunctions like but, because, although, and - join the sentences without changing the tense. Conjunctions
AS (because) AS (when) OR OR (else) THAN UNLESS AS SOON AS UNTIL AND (so) SO THAT BUT ALTHOUGH AFTER BEFORE WHEN WHERE IF WHETHER THAT HOW MANY
As you will not help me, I shall mend the puncture myself. You must keep an eye on the ball as you play. Shall I phone you or will you phone me? You must hurry or (else) you will be late. Anne knows more about books than I do. You will not play in the best team unless you practise hard. I'll let you know as soon as the mail arrives. He kept on trying until he managed to do it. The lift is not working (and) so you will have to use the stairs. Hold your arm so that I can bandage it. Jenny sings well, but Pam sings better. They won the match although it rained. After the bell had gone, we went home. You ought not to buy a bike before you have tried it out. Take care when you turn a corner. He didn't tell me where to look for the key. If you don't feel well, stay in bed. He wants to know whether they play rugby or not. I'm sure that starting early is a good habit. Can you tell me how many books there are?
Interjections Interjections show surprise. An interjection is used with an exclamation mark, e.g. Wow! She is pretty. AND Ah, how wise! Articles Articles are words like a, an and the
23 Word building
Noun beauty softness length haste cleanliness brightness sweetness thirst joy width height loss fat truth beggar death strength happiness largeness simplicity luck movement liar/lie ease riches danger usage poison blood breadth darkness distance
Verb beautify soften lengthen hasten cleanse brighten sweeten thirst enjoy widen heighten lose fatten beg die strengthen enlarge simplify move lie ease enrich endanger use poison bleed broaden darken outdistance
Adjective beautiful soft long hasty clean bright sweet thirsty joyful wide high lost fat true beggarly dead strong happy large simple lucky movable lying easy rich dangerous useful poisonous bloody broad dark distant
Adverb beautifully softly lengthily hastily cleanly brightly sweetly thirstily joyfully widely highly loosely fatty truly beggarly deathly strongly happily largely simply luckily movable lying easily richly dangerously usefully poisonously bloodily broadly darkly distantly
Noun fright friendship warmth food freedom fatness life laughter madness prison pleasure redness washing weakness
Verb frighten befriend warm feed free fatten live laugh madden imprison please redden wash weaken
Adjective frightened friendly warm foodless free fattish lively laughable mad imprisoned pleasant reddish washable weak
Adverb frightened friendly warmly foodless freely fattish lively laughably madly imprisoned pleasantly redly washable weakly
24 Verb list
Present tense Am, is, are Beat(s) Become(s) Begin(s) Bend(s) Bite(s) Bleed(s)
Past tense Was, were Beat Became Began Bent Bit Bled
Have/has/had + Past participle Been Beaten Become Begun Bent Bitten Bled 45
Present tense Break(s) Bring(s) Build(s) Burn(s) Burst(s) Buy(s) Catch/catches Choose(s) Come(s) Cling(s) Cost(s) Creep(s) Cut(s) Dig(s) Do/does Draw(s) Dream(s) Drink(s) Drive(s) Eat(s) Fall(s) Feed(s) Feel(s) Fight(s) Find(s) )O\БLHV Forget(s) Freeze(s) Get(s) Give(s) Go/goes Grow(s) 46
Past tense Broke Brought Built Burnt Burst Bought Caught Chose Came Clung Cost Crept Cut Dug Did Drew Dreamt Drank Drove Ate Fell Fed Felt Fought Found Flew Forgot Froze Got Gave Went Grew
Have/has/had + Past participle Broken Brought Built Burnt Burst Bought Caught Chosen Come Clung Cost Crept Cut Dug Done Drawn Dreamt (dreamed) Drunk Driven Eaten Fallen Fed Felt Fought Found Flown Forgotten Frozen Got Given Gone Grown
Present tense Hang(s) Hear(s) Hide(s) Hit(s) Hold(s) Hurt(s) Keep(s) Kneel(s) Know(s) Lay(s) Lie(s) Lie(s) Lead(s) Leave(s) Light(s) Lose(s) Make(s) Mean(s) Meet(s) Mow(s) Pay(s) Put(s) Read(s) Ride(s) Ring(s) Rise(s) Run(s) Say(s) See(s) Sell(s) Send(s) Shake(s) Shine(s)
Past tense Hung(hanged) Heard Hid Hit Held Hurt Kept Knelt Knew Laid Lay Lied Led Left Lit (lighted) Lost Made Meant Met Mowed Paid Put Read Rode Rang Rose Ran Said Saw Sold Sent Shook Shone
Have/has/had + Past participle Hung (hanged) Heard Hidden Hit Held Hurt Kept Knelt Known Laid Lain Lied Led Left Lit (lighted) Lost Made Meant Met Mown Paid Put Read Ridden Rung Risen Run Said Seen Sold Sent Shaken Shone 47
Present tense Show(s) Shut(s) Sing(s) Sit(s) Sleep(s) Smell(s) Sow(s) Speak(s) Spell(s) Spend(s) Spread(s) Stand(s) Steal(s) Sting(s) Swear(s) Sweep(s) Swim(s) Take(s) Teach/teaches Tear(s) Tell(s) Think(s) Throw(s) Wear(s) Win(s) Write(s) Blow (s)
Past tense Showed Shut Sang Sat Slept Smelt (smelled) Sowed Spoke Spelt (spelled) Spent Spread Stood Stole Stung Swore Swept Swam Took Taught Tore Told Thought Threw Wore Won Wrote Blew
Past participle have / has / had + Shown Shut Sung Sat Slept Smelt (smelled) Sown Spoken Spelt (spelled) Spent Spread Stood Stolen Stung Sworn Swept Swum Taken Taught Torn Told Thought Thrown Worn Won Written Blown
25 Concord of the verb
Rules of concord
1. A singular subject takes a singular verb; Plural subjects take plural verbs
The boy is here
He has a dog
I am reading a book
The boys are here
They have dogs We are reading books
2. And If two or more singular subjects are joined by AND, the verb is plural.
The boy and girl are here.
The cat and dog are crossing the bridge.
Exceptions of the rule
2.1 When two singular nouns, connected by the word and, form a single idea or impression, then the verb is singular.
Bread and butter is nourishing. Fish and chips Bacon and eggs Brandy and coke
2.2 When the words "the" or "a" are found only once in the sentence the subject is singular and so the verb must be singular.
A black and white cow is in the stable, BUT The black and the white cow are in the stable. A wife and mother has a lot of work to do. BUT A wife and a mother have a lot of work to do.
3. Both ... and ... When two or more singular subjects are joined by the words "both ... and" then the verb is plural.
Both the cow and her calf are in the stable.
4. Or, either or, neither nor Singular subjects that are joined by the words or, either or and neither nor, take a singular verb.
Anne or Susan is in the class.
The horse or the cow is in the road.
However: According to the Rule of Proximity when one subject is singular and the other plural the verb will agree with the subject nearest to it. (Subject on the right.)
Either the cow or the very small calves are in the stable. BUT 49
Either the calves or the cow is in the stable. Neither Peter nor his cousins are here. BUT Neither the teachers nor the principal is here.
5. Not only ... but also ... The rule of Proximity also applies to the words not only ... but also ...
Not only the cat but also the dog is in the kennel. Not only the cat but also the kittens are in the basket. Not only the kittens but also the cat is in the basket.
6. With, together with, as well as The verb must agree with the subject that is found before the prepositions with,
Together with and as well as, be it singular or plural. (to the left)
The cat, with the dog, is sitting on the porch. BUT The cats, with the dog, are sitting on the porch. The kittens, together with the cat, are here. BUT The cat, together with the kittens, is here. The donkey, as well as horses, is in the camp. BUT The horses, as well as the donkey, are in the camp.
7. Each, every, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, no one, nothing, none, anybody, anyone, anything ... These pronouns all take a singular verb.
Every child is here. No one knows... Anybody is allowed...
Nobody is left out. Each is to receive an apple Everything is ready...
8. Subjects which are plural in form, but singular in meaning, are ruled by a singular verb The news is good. Mathematics is easy. Measles is a contagious disease. Politics is a dirty game.
9. Nouns with a singular meaning (tools, clothing, etc., which consist of objects
that are formed by two parts) are ruled by a plural verb
10. A pair of ... is ruled by the singular verb A pair of shoes is on display. A pair of scissors is on the table.
11. Collective nouns 50 If all the people or animals or the things in the group do the same thing at the
same time in the same place, the name of the group is followed by a singular verb. (Collective Nouns)
The crew has come to work. The herd is grazing.
A swarm of bees is outside. A family is visiting here.
12. Quantity This tells you how much of things there is, or else that a thing is uncountable: Much, a little, little, less. These all take a singular verb.
Sugar is Much work is done.
There is so little to say. Less is better.
Money is spent.
13. Number This tells you how many of a thing there are. Countable things: Many, a few, few. These are all ruled by a plural verb.
Guests are expected. Many sweets are eaten.
Few of my friends are here. Very few children like violence.
14. The nouns people, police, public, cattle and clergy are always ruled by a plural verb The police are here The public are the best judges. The cattle are in the kraal. The clergy are in a meeting.
15. A number of This is always followed by a plural verb
A number of children were caught smoking. A number of books are gone.
16. The number of This is followed by a singular verb. The number of pupils has increased. The number of accidents on this road is still far too high. 17. One of This plus a plural noun takes a plural verb. She is one of those girls who are always late. He is one of those children that don't know how to behave.
18. The only one This is ruled by a singular verb 51
He is the only one in the class who has passed. She is the only one of the girls who has a car.
19. A fraction followed by a plural noun takes a plural verb Two-thirds of the children are here. +DOIRIWKHELVFXLWVDUHАQLVKHG
20. A fraction followed by a singular noun takes a singular verb Two-thirds of the class is studying. Half of the cake is eaten.
21. Numerals ,IDSOXUDOVHHPVWRIRUPWKHLGHDRIDА[HGVXPRUPDVVWKHQWKHYHUELVVLQJXODU
Fifty cents is too much for this sweet. Five from seven leaves two. Two hundred kilometres is a long way to walk.
22. Many a person This is also followed by a singular verb. Many a person has found to his cost that prevention is better than cure.
· Words such as EVERYTHING, ANYBODY, ANYTHING, EACH, EVERY, EITHER, NEITHER, NOBODY, EVERYBODY, EVERYONE, SOMEONE take a SINGULAR VERB
E.g. Everyone has take part in the competition. Nobody wants to take part in the competition.
· Either ... or/Neither ... nor - The NOUN closer to the VERB determines whether it will be a SINGULAR or a PLURAL verb
E.g. Neither Sue nor the boys want to go. Neither the girls, nor Peter wants to go.
· As well as/together with/like/including/with - Look at the FIRST NOUN
Hugh, as well as his parents, is a smoker.
The pupils, including their teacher, have started a music group.
· Collective nouns
Trousers, spectacles are ...... A pair of spectacles is ....... The class is excited (as one group) The class are all excited (different individuals in one class)
· He, she, it .... SINGULAR form of the verb · They, we, you ..... PLURAL form of the verb 52
26 Tenses Present, past and future simple tenses We use the simple tenses when · something is always true, e.g. My father is a dentist · something is done regularly or when something is a habit, e.g. I visit my aunt every week
Form of the simple tenses
I listen You listen He/She/It listens We listen You listen They listen
I listened You listened He/She listened We listened You listened They listened
I shall/will listen You will listen He/She will listen We shall/will listen You will listen They will listen
Possible time words The tense is formed by using
Usually, never, every day/week/ month, regularly, often, once a week/month/ year Present tense verb (The concord of the verb is important)
Yesterday last night/week/ year/ month Paste tense verb
Tomorrow, In the future, Next week/ month/ year :LOOLQАQLWLYH
Present, past and future perfect tenses
Form of the perfect tenses
Up to now she has read seven books about sport stars. 6KHKDVMXVWАQLVKHG her work.
She improved after he had reprimanded her. After she had seen a movie, she ate supper.
Future By this time tomorrow, we will KDYHАQLVKHGWKH work.
When to use this tense
For completed actions in the present
When you want to go back to an earlier time when you are already talking about the past
To talk about events that will have been completed by a certain time in the future.
Possible time words
After/when/as soon as/up to now/just/ already/since/for/ by/ now/ before
After/when/as soon, previous/just/ already/ not yet/ ever/never, before/ always
By sunset/by 09:00/ by then/at this time tomorrow/ when the bell rings
The tense is formed by using
has/have + past participle
had + past participle
shall/will + have + past participle
Present, past and future continuous tenses We use the continuous tense to · express actions that are/were actually happening or · progressing at a certain time, even actions that will take place in the future
Form of the continuous tenses
Present I am reading You are reading He/She is reading We are reading You are reading They are reading
I was reading You were reading He/She was reading We were reading You were reading They were reading
I shall/will be reading You will be reading He/She will be reading We shall/will be reading You will be reading They will be reading
At this moment;
time words Again While/When
At that moment When/While Five years ago at a VSHFLАFWLPH
At a certain time/ Tomorrow at two
The tense is formed by using
Am/is/are + verb + -ing
Was/were + verb + -ing
Will/shall be + verb + -ing
Present, past and future perfect continuous tenses
Form of the perfect continuouse tenses
He has been walking for hours. They have been walking for hours now.
He had been walking for hours that morning
Future By this time tomorrow he will have been walking for hours. By this time tomorrow we shall have been walking for hours.
When to use this tense
For actions that started some time ago and are still continuing at the moment.
For actions that started some time earlier and were still continuing at a time in the past.
For actions that will start some time in the future and will still be continuing at a certain time in the future.
Possible time words
all morning/all day, for hours/ now/ already
all day/all morning/ since early that morning/for hours/ already
by this time next week/by eight o'clock tomorrow
The tense is formed by using
has/have + been + verb + -ing
had + been + verb + -ing
shall/will + have + been + verb + -ing
Questions and tags When you ask a question, you can XuVsHe WtKhHe YvHeUrEb LiQn WtKhHe VsHeQnWtHeQnFcHe WtRo DaVsNk WtKhHe TqXuHeVsWtLiRoQn XuVsHe ґ"KhHeOlSpµ" ZwRoUrGdVs (DaXu[xLiOlLiDaUr\y YvHeUrEbVs) OlLiNkHe 'D2O, 'D2O(E6S, :W,I/L/L, 'D,I'D + 7T+H(E 9V(E5R%B VsWtDaUrWt ZwLiWtKh ,I6S, $A5R(E, :W$A6S, :W(E5R(E XuVsHe Da TqXuHeVsWtLiRoQn ZwRoUrGd, OlLiNkHe :W+H2O"?, :W+H$A7T"?, :W+H(E5R(E"?, +H2O:W"?, :W+H(E1N"? PmDaNkHe Da VsWtDaWtHePmHeQnWt DaQnGd XuVsHe Da WtDaJg VsRo WtKhDaWt WtKhHe ZwKhRoOlHe VsHeQnWtHeQnFcHe DaSpSpHeDaUrVs OlLiNkHe Da TqXuHesVtWiLoRnQ Examples Who were with you? Does your father know that you did so well? Will you be able to go with me? Are you joking? Using tags We always eat take-aways on Saturdays, don't we? We don't always eat take-aways on Saturdays, do we? Remember The tense is the same in the statement and in the tag. If the statement is positive, the tag is negative. If the statement is negative, the tag is positive.
27 active and passive
voice If a sentence is in the active voice, the subject is doing the action, e.g. the dog chases the cat. If a sentence is in the passive voice, the object is doing the action, e.g. The cat is chased by the dog. Rules for changing active into passive voice · Underline the verb of the sentence · Decide which tense it is. · Find the objectRIWKHVHQWHQFHАQGWKHREMHFWE\XVLQJWKHVXEMHFWDQGWKHYHUE and ask the question, what? e.g. The dog chases what? Answer: The cat) · Start the sentence with the object
Active and passive voice
Karen sings a song. A song is sung by Karen. Formed by adding is/are + past participle of verb
Karen sang a song. A song was sung by Karen. Formed by adding was/were + past participle of verb
Karen will sing a song. A song will be sung by Karen Will + be + past participle
Present Continuous Tense
Past Continuous Tense Future Continuous Tense
Karen is singing a song. A song is being sung by Karen. Formed by am/is/are + being + past participle present perfect
Karen was singing a song. A song was being sung by Karen. Formed by was/were + being + past participle Past Perfect Tense
Karen will be singing a song. A song will being sung by Karen. Formed by shall/will + being + past participle Future Perfect Tense
Karen has sung a song. A song has been sung by Karen. Formed by has/have + been + past participle
Karen had sung a song. A song had been sung by Karen. Formed by has/have + been + past participle
Karen will have sung a song. A song will have been sung by Karen. Formed by will + have + been + past participle
28 Direct and indirect speechreported speech
When something is written into reported (indirect) speech, there are certain changes that take place. · No inverted commas ("...") are used in reported speech · If the introductory verb is in the PRESENT TENSE, (eg. He says/asks/tells) then only the PRONOUNS in the sentence need to be changed (i.e. I/you becomes he/ she; We/you becomes they) E.g. Peter: "I feel wonderful today." becomes Peter says that he feels wonderful today · If the introductory verb is in the PAST TENSE (eg. He said/asked/stated) then the following changes must also be made: a. The verb (action or doing-word) has to move one step back in the past:
is ..................................................................................................................................was are .............................................................................................................................were look ........................................................................................................................looked must .......................................................................................................................had to will .........................................................................................................................would was/were .........................................................................................................had been liked ..................................................................................................................had liked
b. Words that indicate time and place also move, one step "further" away:
Today ........................................that day Yesterday....................the previous day Tomorrow ..................the following day
now .......................................then here .......................................there this/these......................that/those
Examples Richard: "I went to the movies yesterday." Richard said that he had gone to the movies the previous day.
c. The inverted commas fall away
d. Start with: He said that/He asks if
More examples Direct speech "I am wet." "You are wet." "The plane is already over the sea." "I don't really mean this." "Alex was in trouble."
Indirect speech He/she says that he/she is wet. He/she said that he/she was wet. He says that I am wet. / He says you are wet. He said that I was wet. / He said you were wet. He said that we were wet. He says the plane is already over the sea. He said the plane was already over the sea. She says she doesn't really mean this. She said she didn't really mean that. He says Alex was in trouble. He said Alex had been in trouble.
29 figures of speech
Description The repetition of consonants in a line or verse
Example The big brown beast.
Assonance Simile Metaphor
The repetition of vowel sound
s in a line or verse
The fat cat sat there.
A comparison of two things in which the word like, so, or as is used
"My love is like a red red rose that's newly sprung in June."
$QLPDJHLVLGHQWLАHGZLWKDQRWKHU because of a kind of similarity to the writer. Two images are directly compared, without using the word like, so, or as.
"It is the east and Juliet is the sun." - Shakespeare
Onomatopoeia Sounds are imitated for effect
The tip tap of rain on the roof.
An object or animal is attributed human characteristics
The sun smiled at us and the wind whispered sweet sounds in our ears.
The actual meaning of the words is different than that which is stated
When your friend hasn't done his part of your mutual assignment, you say: "Great, this is just what I need to keep me busy during the weekend!"
$IRUPRIZLW,WVLJQLАHVDUHPDUN that is the opposite to what it appears to mean.
"You did a great job," she said to him after examining the paint that was peeling off her car.
Homonyms - are words which are spelt the same but have different meanings, e.g. He came second in the race. Every second there is a car accident. Homophones - are words which sound alike but are spelt differently, e.g. threw through Jargon - is the name we give to special words, terms and expressions used by a profession, trade or exclusive group. People who do not operate in these specialised АHOGVZLOORIWHQАQGLWGLIАFXOWWRXQGHUVWDQGWKHWHUPLQRORJ\ Neologisms - when new things are discovered or invented, we need to make up new words to name them. These new words are called neologisms. AcronymsDUHIRUPHGE\WDNLQJWKHАUVWOHWWHUVRIDQXPEHURIZRUGVDQGFUHDWLQJ a new and shorter word with them. Letters are not followed by full stops, eg: Famsa - Family and Marriage Society of South Africa
Writing · Story - introduction, development, conclusion (surprising or unusual) · Mini-stories - all the ingredients of a longer story - introduction, development, conclusion, but it is told in exactly АIW\ZRUGV · Paragraphing · Functional writing - it is - instructions, directions and explanations · Essayswriting poems
· Free verse - no rhyming words are necessary and the length of the lines can be varied to emphasize ideas or create a mood. · Syllable poems - is a form of writing in which each line has to consist of a certain
number of syllables, e.g. * Haiku - this form of verse comes from Japan and is used to compose delicate, rather sensitive word pictures about subjects taken from nature (could be ZULWWHQRQDQ\VXEMHFW$KDLNXFRQVLVWVRIWKUHHOLQHV7KHАUVWOLQHKDVАYH V\OODEOHVWKHVHFRQGVHYHQDQGWKHWKLUGАYHPDNLQJDWRWDORIVHYHQWHHQLQ all. With a shriek of rage, Twisting in pent-up fury; Comes the tornado Note: in a syllable poem, it is the number of syllables to the line which is important, not the number of words. · Word cinquains * A cinquainLVDSRHPFRQVLVWLQJRIАYHOLQHV * A word cinquain is written to the following pattern: Line 1: names the subject in one word /LQHGHАQHVRUGHVFULEHVWKHVXEMHFWLQWZRZRUGV Line 3: expresses action in three words Line 4: expresses a personal opinion, or attitude, in four words /LQHJLYHVDV\QRQ\PIRUWKHVXEMHFWRUVXPVXSWKHАUVW four lines, in one word · Rhyming poems - Rhyming poems usually have a certain rhythm or tune. This is called metre. · Parodies - are amusing imitations of someone else's work, like trying to imitate the rhyming pattern and metre of a well-known poem. · Nonsense poems - Limericks are amusing verses which all have the same rhyming pattern and rhythm. 60
30 Punctuation Punctuation marks make the written text
easier to read and understand. Without punctuation, writing would not make sense. Capital letters 1. Sentences always start with capital letters. e.g. We bought popcorn because we liked it. 2. Proper nouns need capital letters. e.g. We visited Mexico. 7LWOHVRIERRNVАOPVRUSOD\VDUHZULWWHQLQFDSLWDOOHWWHUV e.g. THE GENTLE DOLPHIN. ,IKRZHYHUWKHWLWOHLVXQGHUOLQHGRULQLQYHUWHGFRPPDVRQO\WKHАUVWOHWWHURI WKHАUVWZRUGDQGDQ\SURSHUQRXQVZLOOEHLQFDSLWDOOHWWHUV e.g. "The gentle dolphin" or My friend Flicka Full stops 1. A full stop indicates the end of a sentence. e.g. Remember to lock the door. 2. Full stops are found after certain abbreviations. e.g. Prof. abbr. e.g. Commas 1. We use commas to separate words or phrases in a list: e.g. We bought books, pens, pencils and erasers for the new school year. 2. Commas indicate where one phrase or clause ends and another begins: e.g. Piet van der
Merwe won his tennis match, to the delight of the spectators. 3. Additional information may be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas: e.g. Mr Jenkins, the Principal, addressed the pupils and parents. 4. We place commas before and after words such as however and nevertheless: e.g. She was, however, late for the appointment and this caused her to miss the interview. 5. Introductory words or phrases are separated from the rest of the sentence with a comma: e.g. Once again, I was ignored by the panel of judges. 61
* Avoid using a comma between two main clauses. Rather use a full stop, semi-colon or a conjunction.
* e.g. A census was taken, the government needed statistics. X
A census was taken. The government needed statistics. 9
1. The semi-colon is a long pause that balances two equally important, related or parallel ideas HJ6KHZHQWE\WUDLQVKHZRXOGUDWKHUKDYHБRZQ
2. It also indicates opposite ideas (antithesis) e.g. In summer she swims; in winter she skates.
3. It joins two main clauses where there is no conjunction e.g. She worked hard for the examinations; she had nothing to fear.
4. A semi-colon may often be replaced by a full stop or by the conjunctions and, but, so, for and although e.g. She worked hard for the examinations so she had nothing to fear.
Colons (: )
1. The colon indicates that a list, an explanation or an idea is following e.g. I need to buy the following items: lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers and carrots.
2. It introduces a quotation e.g. J.F. Kennedy's famous words are: "Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country."
3. In script writing (dialogue), a colon follows the speaker e.g. Mrs. Brown: Are you going to the meeting? &DWK\,I,АQGDIULHQGquestion mark
1. Question marks occur at the end of a question. e.g. Who took up the collection?
2. Rhetorical questions end in question marks. e.g. Why do we need an education?
1. Exclamation marks follow exclamations or interjections (interruptions).
I am scared!
2. They are used to accentuate and strengthen the tone of a statement. e.g. The lieutenant yelled, `Attention!'
3. They are used after sentences, phrases or words containing emotions such as anger, fear, happiness, anxiety, shock and misery. HJґ,·PSHWULАHGµZKLVSHUHGWKHIULJKWHQHGFKLOG
Note: Both the question mark and the exclamation mark contain a full stop, so you do not need another full stop at the end of the sentence when either of these is used.
Quotation marks (inverted commas) (` ') or (" ")
1. Quotation marks are used to indicate direct speech. e.g. Mr Thompson said, "There will be no homework over weekends."
2. Quotation marks are used to quote (repeat) someone else's words. e.g. Martin Luther King
said, "I have a dream!"
3. Quotation marks are used to `excuse' oneself for using slang or foreign words. e.g. Our new station wagon is used for `schlepping' the soccer team around.
4. Quotation marks indicate metaphoric usage. e.g. I am the `baby' of the family.
* All punctuation must fall within the inverted commas.
$K\SKHQOLQNVSUHА[HVWRZRUGVRUOLQNVWZRZRUGVLQRUGHUWRIRUPFRPSRXQG words. e.g. anti-dandruff shampoo, pre-school, well-deserved, life-threatening
2. It helps to differentiate meanings. e.g. She had to re-make the garment. The remake of this dress is a success.
4. Words that cannot be completed on one line are linked to the next line with a hyphen
* The hyphen may only be used at the end of a syllable.
Dash * The dash line is slightly longer than the hyphen line.(--) 1. A dash serves a similar purpose to a comma, colon or a semi-colon. It separates parts of a sentence and forces us to pause. e.g. We had to make an exit -- time was running out. 2. In order to give additional information, the dash can be used in the same way as commas or brackets. e.g. next week we are going to Port Elizabeth -- the Windy City. 3. It separates a comment or afterthought from the rest of the sentence. e.g. I checked and there was no-one there -- or so I thought! 4. It creates a dramatic pause, leading to a climax or anti-climax. e.g. I ran to the window; I looked out and saw -- the cat! Ellipsis (... ) 1. The three ellipsis dots indicate that a sentence is incomplete or that something has been omitted. e.g. He walked to the edge of the cliff and ... (To be continued ...) 2. We can usually guess the meaning from the context of the sentence. e.g. You had better tidy your room or else ... 64