A NONPROFIT CAPACITY SELF-ASSESSMENT WORKBOOK FOR RURAL COMMUNITY-BASED HOUSING ORGANIZATIONS, SA WORKBOOK

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Content: A NONPROFIT CAPACITY SELF-ASSESSMENT WORKBOOK FOR RURAL COMMUNITY-BASED HOUSING ORGANIZATIONS
A Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook for Rural Community-Based Housing Organizations Housing Assistance Council 2000
$4.00 November 2000 Housing Assistance Council 1025 Vermont Ave., N.W. Suite 606 Washington, DC 20005 202-842-8600 (voice) 202-347-3441 (fax) [email protected] (e-mail) http://www.ruralhome.org (world wide web) ISBN 1-58064-110-5 This report was prepared by Dr. Amy L. Rose of the Housing Assistance Council (HAC). The work that provided the basis for this publication was supported by funding under Cooperative Agreement H-21204 CA with the U.S. Department Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Ndeye Jackson served as Government Technical Representative. The substance and funding of that work are dedicated to the public. HAC is solely responsible for the accuracy of the statements and interpretations contained in this publication and such interpretations do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Government. HAC, founded in 1971, is a nonprofit corporation that supports the development of rural low-income housing nationwide. HAC provides technical housing services, seed money loans from a revolving loan fund, housing program and policy assistance, research and demonstration projects, and training and information services.
CONTENTS
Introduction
..................................................... 1
Preparation Steps
..................................................... 2
Worksheet 1. Capacity Improvement Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Phase I:
Assessing Strategic Planning Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Worksheet 2. Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Worksheet 3. Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Worksheet 4. Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Worksheet 5. Constituents and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Worksheet 6. Assessing Board Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Worksheet 7. Assessing Board Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Phase II: Assessing Management Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Worksheet 8. Staff Skills Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Worksheet 9. Board and Staff Relations Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Worksheet 10. Written Procedures Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Worksheet 11. Technical Assistance and Training (TA/T) Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Phase III: Assessing Financial Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Worksheet 12. Budget Process Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Worksheet 13. Budget Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Worksheet 14. Budget Analysis (Income) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Worksheet 15. Budget Analysis (Borrowing and Spending) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Worksheet 16. Financial Risk Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Worksheet 17. Inventory and Assessment of Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Worksheet 18. Inventory of Facility Repair Needs and Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Worksheet 19. Track Record Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Phase IV: Assessing Information Technology (I.T.) Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Worksheet 20. I.T. Systems Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Worksheet 21. Computer Systems Inventory (Hardware) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Worksheet 22. Computer Systems Inventory (Software) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Worksheet 23. Overall I.T. Capacity Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Conclusion
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
References
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Appendix A. Survey: Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Tool Pilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Appendix B. Technical Assistance Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Appendix C. Sample Bylaws Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
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INTRODUCTION In the past decade, foundations and other funders have been increasingly required by their boards to not only "do good works," but to "do good work well."1 Consequently, nonprofits have also been required to include assessments of their organizational capacity as a part of their grant applications. Organizational assessment, however, is often an activity that grassroots groups do not have the time or resources to do. The difficulties of assessing capacity and performance are compounded for rural low-income housing development groups that are often struggling with the daily demands of their work in an environment with little informational resources or organizational support. With this in mind, HAC has developed a workbook for assessing the housing development capacity and "track record" of rural nonprofit organizations. The workbook provides organizations with simple definitions of capacity in different contexts, and includes both quantitative and qualitative ways of measuring capacity. In order to arrive at a workbook format that would be both comprehensive and useful, HAC staff conducted a literature review of existing nonprofit capacity assessment tools and abstracted the elements that are most applicable to rural nonprofit housing developers. A preliminary assessment workbook was then designed and piloted with six rural community housing development organizations (CHDOs) as a part of a capacity training session in Richmond, Virginia from April 18 to 20, 2000. After the training, the CHDOs filled out a questionnaire regarding the workbook design (see Appendix A), after which HAC staff concluded that the workbook was most effective when administered in a workshop setting. HAC plans to design a Powerpoint workshop slide show to enable technical assistance (TA) providers to administer such a workshop. The workbook is intended for use by nonprofit staff and board members to assess their own capacity, set goals for improving their capacity, and to repeat the process on an annual basis. The workbook may also be useful for funders and nonprofit intermediaries that need a tool to assess the capacity-building needs of the nonprofits that they are funding. What follows is a workbook designed to lead rural nonprofit housing organizations through the process of capacity assessment. The workbook includes questions that elicit organization-specific information about strategic planning capacity, management capacity, financial capacity, and information technology (I.T.) capacity. Before beginning the self-assessment workbook, there are a few steps that your organization should take: 1. Meet with your core staff and Board of Directors to decide who will direct the process that your organization wants to use to go through the workbook. These are some of the questions you may want to consider. - Do you want to fill the workbook out individually and then meet as a group to compare responses after each phase? - Do you want to appoint a small task force to do the workbook and then communicate the results to your board of directors and staff? - Do you want to enlist the aid of a technical assistance provider as you go through the workbook? (See Appendix B for a list.)
1 Drucker, Peter. F. 1993. The Five Most Important Questions You Will Ever Ask About Your Nonprofit Organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
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The most important thing to remember is that, no matter what process you use, your entire organization needs to have a stake in the assessment in order for you to effectively implement its findings and improve your group's capacity. 2. Photocopy blank copies of the workbook for your executive director, chief financial officer (CFO), housing director, board chair, and/or other members of your self- assessment task force. Be sure to keep at least one blank copy on hand as a master copy to use again. 3. Set aside time with relevant staff members and your board chair to go through the workbook. The process should not take more than a total of three work days (one-half a day each for the preparation steps2, and phases I, II and IV, with one day dedicated to phase III). 4. Read through the list of materials needed at the beginning of each phase. If you are missing any of these materials, go through the preparation steps, step one, and then continue with the rest of the workbook. PREPARATION STEPS Step One: Obtain copies of all organizational documents and store them where they are safe and readily available. If your organization does not already have these documents, they will first need to be created and approved by your board of directors. Task A. Procure mission-critical documents (i.e., documents that your organization cannot function without). 1. If your organization has not filed or does not have available a certificate or articles of incorporation, then do the following. - Check for the availability of the proposed name of your organization by calling your Secretary of State's office. Immediately after verifying that you are not duplicating another organization's name, file the articles of incorporation. - Write your articles of incorporation in general terms. Sample articles are usually available from the Secretary of State's office. Once your board has ratified your articles, file them with the Secretary of State's office. - Obtain a certificate of incorporation from the Secretary of State's office and store it in a safe place. 2. If your organization has not drafted or does not have available organizational bylaws, then do the following. a. Write your bylaws, including the following items (See Appendix C for Sample Outline). - Membership: What is the composition of your membership? How and when do membership meetings occur? What notice is required for all meetings? What criteria or process is there for calling special meetings? What are the member voting procedures? - Board of Directors: How many board members are there? What is the board nomination and election process? How and when do board meetings occur? What is the length of board members' terms? - Fiscal Management: What month does your fiscal year start and end? What are board committee and officer fiscal responsibilities? - Amendments: How will your organization amend its bylaws? b. Ratify your bylaws, and keep a copy signed by your board of directors in a safe place.
2 If your organization does not have articles of incorporation or bylaws drafted and approved, you will need much more time to complete the preparation steps for the workbook. Your organization may want to postpone beginning the workbook until your board has drafted, revised and approved your articles of incorporation and bylaws.
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
3. If your organization has not filed for or does not have available an IRS 501(c)(3) Certification Statement, then do the following.
a. Call the IRS (1-800-829-3676) and request the following forms:
- Form SS-4: Application for Employer Identification Number (EIN)3 - Form 1023: Application for Recognition under 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code5 - Form 8718: User Fee for Exempt Organization Determination Letter Request - Publication 557: Tax-Exempt Status for Your Organization
b. Return all these forms to the Secretary of State or the IRS within 15 months of incorporation. Form 1023 requires a filing fee of approximately $500. To file these forms, your organization must be able to provide:
- a description of its tax-exempt purpose and actual programs; - a statement of who your organization is serving and why; - a statement of where your organization's funds will originate (specifying private vs. public support); and - a three-year projected budget.
Task B. Procure important organizational management documents.
1. If you are missing any of the following documents, go to your nearest Technical Assistance and Training (TA/T) provider and schedule assistance to draft them (see list in Appendix B).
Contacted TA/T Provider Date of Scheduled
(Check When Done)
TA/T (Write Date)
Employee Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "
_____________
Board Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "
_____________
Personnel Policy Notebook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "
_____________
Audited Financial Statements (contact CPA for assistance) . . . . . . . . "
_____________
Risk Management/contingency plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "
_____________
Accounting Control Procedures (contact CPA for assistance) . . . . . . . "
_____________
Computer Hardware/Software Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "
_____________
Step Two: As you go through phases I through IV of this workbook, write down the activities that your group needs to do in order to increase its capacity on the worksheet below. Write the activities down in the form of goals that are measurable (they have a number attached to them) and accountable (they have a date and a person responsible attached to them).
As you complete these activities during the year, check off the boxes next to them.
3 Processing time for an Employer Identification Number is usually 10 days.
5 Processing time for Form 1023 is usually 100 days.
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For Fiscal Year _______
WORKSHEET 1. CAPACITY IMPROVEMENT GOALS
PHASE 1: Strategic Planning Capacity Goal
Person Responsible
Date Due
Completed
PHASE 2: Management Capacity Goal
Person Responsible
Date Due Completed
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
For Fiscal Year _______
WORKSHEET 1. CAPACITY IMPROVEMENT GOALS (CONTINUED)
PHASE 3: Financial Capacity
Goal
Person Responsible
Date Due Completed
PHASE 4: Information Technology Capacity Goal
Person Responsible
Date Due Completed
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PHASE I: ASSESSING STRATEGIC PLANNING CAPACITY Strategic planning capacity is the ability of an organization: - to define its core mission; - to develop long-range goals to accomplish its mission; - to establish planning bodies to regularly revisit its mission, goals and policies; and - to institute written policies to maintain organizational continuity over time. The strategic planning process is at the core of all your organization's activities, and the mission of your organization is at the core of the planning process. Remember, your mission is the grounding for all your organization's activities. All of your organization's strategies, goals, budgeting and staffing must ultimately help to promote your organization's mission. If your mission is unfocused, so will be your organization. Figure 1. The Strategic Planning Process MISSION Strategies Goals Budget/Fundraising Programs/Activities
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Step One: Gather the following materials from your organization's files. - Articles of Incorporation - Certificate of Incorporation - Organizational By-Laws - IRS 501(c)(3) Certification of Nonprofit Status Step Two: Meet with your executive director, chief financial officer (CFO), housing director, and board chair, and (using the materials above) complete the following worksheets. WORKSHEET 2. MISSION STATEMENT Write your mission statement. As you write your statement, consider the following questions. When was our organization founded? Why was it founded? What is our vision of what our organization has to offer our community? Is our mission still relevant to the community? Who are we serving? In what geographic area? What are we trying to achieve? Is our mission do-able? Is it short enough to recite convincingly? Example: The mission of the Housing Assistance Council, incorporated in 1971, is: - To improve housing conditions - for the rural poor, with an emphasis on the poorest of the poor - in the most rural places. The mission of _______________________________________________________________, incorporated in _________, is: - To ____________________________________________________________________; - for _______________________________________________________________ - in _______________________________________________________________.
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
WORKSHEET 3. STRATEGIES Write strategies to accomplish your mission. Strategies are the general methods, activities, or approaches that you use to fulfill your mission. Generally, your strategies will become your main program areas. Example: The Housing Assistance Council fulfills its mission to improve housing conditions for the poorest of the rural poor in the most rural places through: - Community Development (preserving and increasing the stock of low-income rural housing and promoting community development); - Research and Information (providing information and education about rural housing need to the public and proactively analyzing the changing resource needs for housing production in rural areas); and - Technical Assistance and Training (TA/T) (assisting in the creation and expansion of housing development capacity in rural areas and increasing use of low-income rural housing and community development programs by minorities and women). Our organization fulfills its mission to __________________________________________________________________________________ through: - ______________________________________________; (Brief description) __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ - ______________________________________________; (Brief description) __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ - and ______________________________________________. (Brief description) __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 4. GOALS Write out your goals to accomplish your mission and strategies. Remember, goals are generally not effective planning tools unless they are: - measurable (they have a number attached to them) and - accountable (they have a date attached to them). Example: The Housing Assistance Council will fulfill its mission through Community Development: - by making fifteen SHOP loans by October 31, 2001; - by making ten Water/waste water loans by October 31, 2001; - and by making three Intermediary Relending Program loans by December 31, 2001. Our organization will promote its mission through (Strategy #1) _________________________________________________________________________________: - by ________________________________________________________________________; - by ________________________________________________________________________; - and by ____________________________________________________________________. Our organization will promote its mission through (Strategy #2) _________________________________________________________________________________: - by ________________________________________________________________________; - by ________________________________________________________________________; - and by ____________________________________________________________________. Our organization will promote its mission through (Strategy #3) _________________________________________________________________________________: - by _______________________________________________________________________; - by ________________________________________________________________________; - and by ____________________________________________________________________.
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
WORKSHEET 5. CONSTITUENTS AND SERVICES
Complete the table below in order to define your constituents (the people who use your services).
Age Range
Primary Constituents
Secondary Constituents
Sex
Race/Ethnicity
income level
# of Households
Location
Primary Housing Need
Complete the section below for each service offered by your organization. (Photocopy as many as needed.)
Service Provided: ________________________
Constituent(s) for Service: _______________________
How does this service promote our mission?________________________________
How does this service provide for our constituents' primary housing need?
______________________________________________________________________
How many households used this service during the past fiscal year? ___________
What is our program budget for this service this fiscal year? _____________
Did we receive any revenue for this service? If yes, how much? ______________
What skills/assets do we have to provide this service that no other group does?
______________________________________________________________________
Are there other organizations that are better able to meet our constituents' primary needs? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes "
No "
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WORKSHEET 6. ASSESSING BOARD SKILLS
Identify the people who hold the following board committee positions.
President/Board Chair:
_______________________________________________
Finance Committee Chair:
_______________________________________________
Personnel Committee Chair:
_______________________________________________
Development Committee Chair:
_______________________________________________
Strategic Planning Committee Chair: _______________________________________________
Nominations Committee Chair:
_______________________________________________
Total Number of Board Members: ________
Indicate whether the following skills are represented on your board of directors.
Accounting
We are planning training
We contract out
We have this skill for this skill on (write date) for this skill
Real estate
Property management
Public relations
Strategic planning
Fundraising planning
Fundraising execution
Proforma development
Compliance issues
Legal expertise
Political networking
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
WORKSHEET 7. ASSESSING BOARD STRUCTURES
Indicate with a check in the appropriate columns how strongly you agree or disagree with the following statements. (Strong disagreement indicates an opportunity for capacity improvement.)
Our Board of Directors ... ... is bonded and insured.
Strongly Slightly
Slightly Strongly
Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree
... has active committees that streamline its work.
... has high meeting attendance (90% attend regularly).
... engages in strategic planning on a regular basis.
... sets policy to carry out the organization's mission.
... can recite our mission statement from memory.
... evaluates the executive director on an annual basis.
... is able to easily understand financial spreadsheets.
... uses this information regularly to review the budget.
... has annual discussions with an independent auditor.
... has identified financial and operating risks to the group.
... is well-informed about outside forces impacting services.
... can anticipate future constituent needs and plan for them.
... has community connections that enhance our support.
... is able to recruit and retain effective members.
... participates in fundraising (at least half of the members).
... personally gives to the organization (all the members).
... communicates regularly and effectively with staff.
... can credibly represent our group to outsiders.
... can effectively advocate for our constituents.
... involves key staff in strategic planning.
... manages its turnover through regular elections.
... is large enough to be inclusive.
... is small enough to be manageable.
... does not unduly interfere with staff decisions.
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PHASE II: ASSESSING MANAGEMENT CAPAcity management capacity is the ability of an organization's staff: - to have or acquire the skills needed to promote the organization's mission; - to perform their written duties competently and ethically; - to work compatibly as a team to accomplish the organization's mission; and - to be compensated for their work as appropriate for their position. Step One: Gather the following materials from your organization's files. - Employee Manual - Personnel Policy Notebook Step Two: Meet with your board chair and your senior staff members, and (using the materials above) complete the following worksheets.
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
WORKSHEET 8. STAFF SKILLS INVENTORY
Write the names of the people in your organization that are in charge of the following tasks.
Task Executive/Core Management Personnel/Human Resources Day-to-day Financial Functions/Recordkeeping Housing Development/Program Activities Clerical/Secretarial Total Staff (Number of People):
Full-Time Employee
Part-Time Employee Board Member Volunteer
Indicate whether the following are skills represented on your staff.
Accounting/Bookkeeping Personnel Management Nonprofit Management Budgeting Grantwriting/Event Planning Program Evaluation Information Technology Communications/Publications
We have this skill
We are planning training We contract out for this skill on (write date) for this skill
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WORKSHEET 9. BOARD AND STAFF RELATIONS ASSESSMENT
Check in the appropriate column how strongly you agree with the following statements regarding
your organization's staff. (Strong disagreement indicates an opportunity for capacity
improvement.)
Strongly Slightly
Slightly Strongly
Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree
Our staff turnover is gradual and manageable.
Our salary and compensation package attracts quality staff.
Our salary and compensation package retains quality staff.
Our staff have clear, updated job descriptions.
We have enough paid staff to operate our housing programs.
We have an executive director with lengthy experience.
We have a financial manager with lengthy experience.
We have a development director with lengthy experience.
Our staff cooperates to implement our strategic plan.
Our staff can recite our mission from memory.
All staff have relevant training/certification in their areas.
Staff are always paid regularly and on time.
Our organization has access to quality technical assistance.
Our organization has funding for technical assistance.
Our staff has prior experience in all our service areas.
Our staff is capable of negotiating contractual agreements.
Our staff can manage a project development team.
Our staff is honest with funders about our limitations.
We can pay outside consultants to provide needed expertise.
Our staff develop and carry out annual plans.
Our staff regularly documents all volunteer hours worked.
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
WORKSHEET 10. WRITTEN PROCEDURES INVENTORY
Check the column that best describes your organization's written procedures.
Our organization ...
plans to
have by
needs help
has ... (write date) ... to draft ...
... a relevant written strategic plan for the next three to five years.
... written organizational operating policies and procedures.
... a written personnel plan with staff job descriptions.
... an employee manual and formal orientation for new staff members.
... written and enforced travel policies.
... written and enforced procurement policies.
... a written property inventory (including all property, plant and equipment).
... a written housing needs assessment for our constituent community.
... documented financial controls to prevent mismanagement.
... a written transition plan for the executive director's position.
... written board election procedures and regular elections.
... written contingency plans to deal with financial and operating risks.
... a board manual and formal orientation for new board members.
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WORKSHEET 11. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND TRAINING NEEDS
Indicate what the state of your organization has been in the last three years regarding the activities below. (Check all that apply.)
Activity
Will Receive Have Received
Activity Does
TA/T
TA/T
Do Not
Not Apply Need TA/T (Write Date) (Write Date) Need TA/T
Accounting/Bookkeeping
Fundraising
Nonprofit Management
Financial Management
Computer Systems
Program Evaluation
Budgeting
Personnel Management
Construction
Compliance Issues
Property Management
Grantwriting
Site Acquisition/Control
Feasibility Analysis
Loan Packaging
Homebuyer Counseling
Strategic Planning
Contract Negotiations
Proj. Team Management
Time Management
Leadership Training
Conflict Resolution
Working with Volunteers
Other ________________
Other ________________
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
PHASE III: ASSESSING FINANCIAL CAPACITY Financial capacity is the ability of an organization: - to manage its income and expenses according to a planned budget; - to assess its vulnerability to financial risk and plan accordingly; and - to plan for long-term financial health by strategic fundraising. Step One: Gather the following materials from your organization's files. - Audited Financial Statements from the past two fiscal years - Annual Reports from the past two fiscal years - Organizational risk-management and contingency plans Step Two: Meet with your board chair and your senior staff members, and (using the materials above) complete the following worksheets.
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WORKSHEET 12. BUDGET PROCESS ASSESSMENT
Indicate with a check in the appropriate column how strongly you agree with the following statements. (Strong disagreement indicates an opportunity for capacity improvement.)
Our organization ...
Strongly Agree
has an operating budget of at least $15,000/ FTE6 employee.
Slightly Agree
Neutral
Slightly Strongly Disagree Disagree
enforces both an operating budget and a project budget.
works a fundraising plan to cover operating expenses.
is aware of relevant public and private financing sources.
is able to complete public and private financing applications.
is able to leverage financial and/or material resources.
is able to attract and maintain diverse operational funds.
is able to provide human services where appropriate.
makes optimum use of Local Resources (volunteers, etc.) makes optimum use of local partnerships. is prepared for any changes in federal or state funding.
has a plan for developing an endowment. has considered ways to obtain program-related income. can meet both business and grant programs criteria. has prepared for any necessary facilities improvements. has an adequate replacement reserve for facilities needs. has an adequate cash reserve for cash flow difficulties. adheres to an annual budget preparation calendar.
6 Full-Time Equivalent 20
Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
WORKSHEET 13. BUDGET CALENDAR
Write the dates that your organization plans to do (or has done) the following activities during this fiscal year (i.e., your organization's budget calendar).
Budget Activity
Date
Set annual operating and program goals.
___________
Collect data on last year's income and expenses.
____________
Write out projected resources needed to attain operating and program goals (staff, supplies, etc.)
____________
Write spending projections for this fiscal year, based on projected resources needed and other factors affecting operating or program costs.
___________
Draft income goals and potential/confirmed sources (i.e., your strategic fundraising plan).
___________
Review and revise program budget with key staff.
___________
Submit entire budget to board for approval.
___________
Begin implementing strategic fundraising plan.
___________
Review budget and adjust for changes in funding or unplanned expenditures.
____________
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WORKSHEET 14. BUDGET ANALYSIS (INCOME)
Using your audited financial statements from the past two fiscal years (FY), complete the following budget worksheet.
Income Less Expenses Surplus/ Shortfall
First FY (two year ago) $
Second FY (last year) $
-$
-$
=$
=$
Assets Less Liabilities
First FY
Second FY
(two years ago) (last year)
$
$
-$
-$
Net Assets
=$
=$
For the most recently completed fiscal year, list the dollar amount and percentage of total budget that came from the following income sources.
Government grants/contracts $
Foundation/corporate grants $
Individual donations
$
Fundraisers/events
$
Fee-for-service income
$
interest income
$
United Way
$
Matching grants
$
Donated facilities/materials $
Government loans
$
private sector loans
$
Other (no more than 10%)
$
Total
$
Operating Budget
%$ %$ %$ %$ %$ %$ %$ %$ %$ %$ %$ %$ 100% $
Program Budget
% % % % % % % % % % % % 100%
Write the percentage of your total income that was confirmed as you entered this fiscal year. Was
this a typical year?
Confirmed (written confirmation)
__________%
Expected (verbal confirmation)
__________%
Unsure (not yet identified)
__________%
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
WORKSHEET 15. BUDGET ANALYSIS (BORROWING AND SPENDING) If your organization received any loans, list the percentage of the loan money that came from the following institutions, and indicate the reason for the loan.
Loan Source
Percentage of Loan Income
Reason for Loan (check all that apply)
Facilities Purchase
New Program
Housing Development
Emergency
Other
Bank/commercial lending institution
%
Friend, board or staff member
%
Foundation or foundation-sponsored loan
%
Government agency (name) ______________
%
National/intermediary organization
%
Endowment or special internal fund
%
Other (name) __________________________
%
Total loan income
100%
Write the percentage of your budget that was spent in the following areas during the past fiscal
year.
I. Supportive Services (Operating Budget)
__________%
A. Fundraising
__________%
B. Management/Administration
__________%
C. Plant/Equipment
__________%
D. Cash Reserve
__________%
E. Maintenance/Replacement Reserve __________%
II. Program Services (Program Budget)
__________%
Total
100%
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WORKSHEET 16. FINANCIAL RISK ANALYSIS
If your organization had a year-end deficit in the past two years, how was it handled? (Check all that apply.)
Used prior year's reserve (Recommended) . . . . . . " Did not pay bills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Did not pay payroll taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Borrowed money . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Raised funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Approached board for special contribution . . . . . "
Cut expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Laid off staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Carried deficit into next year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " No action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " No deficit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Other ______________________________ . . . . "
If your organization had a surplus in the past two years, how was it used? (Check all that apply.)
Kept in account for cash flow reserve . . . . . . . . . " Put into savings for specified purpose . . . . . . . . . " Put into savings to develop a reserve . . . . . . . . . "
Spent it on necessary item(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . " No surplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Other_________________________ . . . . . . . . . "
How large is your organization's general operating cash reserve fund for meeting projected cash shortfalls? (Check one.)
Four + months' operating budget (Recommended)
"
Two to three months' operating budget . . . . . . .
"
One month's operating budget or less . . . . . . . . .
"
No cash reserve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
"
If your organization experiences cash flow problems (related to the timing of incoming vs. outgoing cash), to what are they attributed? (Check all that apply.)
Delays in government payments . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Delays in foundation payments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Prior deficit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Unanticipated emergency expenses . . . . . . . . . . " Normal business cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "
Fundraising fell short of goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Poor timing of fundraising campaign . . . . . . . " Spent grant money that did not come in . . . . . " No cash flow problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Other________________________ . . . . . . . . . . "
How does your organization respond to cash shortages? (Check all that apply.)
Use cash reserves (Recommended) . . . . . . . . . . . " Increase fundraising activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Cut non-essential expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Approach board for loan/contribution . . . . . . . . " Request a loan from a bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Try to speed collection of awarded grants . . . . . "
Approach foundation for emergency funds . . . " Transfer money from other funds . . . . . . . . . . " Cut program services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Hold salaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Delay payment of bills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Other ____________________________ . . . . . . "
Check the three most significant ongoing problems your organization has faced in the last fiscal year.
Shortage of income to meet expenses . . . . . . . . . " Shrinking public money to support programs . . . " Inability to access foundation contributions . . . . "
Other nonprofits competing for resources . . . . " Not enough support from fundraising . . . . . . . " Other ____________________________________"
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
WORKSHEET 17. INVENTORY AND ASSESSMENT OF FACILITIES7
Write the approximate balance sheet value of your organization's property and equipment.
$________
Write the estimated total square footage of the buildings/space you:
Own . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________ sq. feet
Lease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________ sq. feet
Use free of charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________ sq. feet
Check in the appropriate column how strongly you agree with the following statements. (Strong disagreement indicates an opportunity for capacity improvement.)
Our organization's facilities are in excellent condition. Our buildings comply with all health, fire and safety codes. Our buildings are ADA8 compliant. Our organization has fulfilled all its licensing requirements. Our organization is fully accredited for all its activities. Our computer systems are adequate to meet our needs.
Strongly Slightly
Slightly Strongly
Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree
7 Facilities are defined as property and equipment that are a permanent part of the organization (including rental projects that the group owns), not housing or buildings intended for sale or transferral to constituents or other organizations.
8 The Americans with Disabilities Act
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WORKSHEET 18. INVENTORY OF FACILITY REPAIR NEEDS AND COSTS
Complete the following chart regarding facilities improvements during the last fiscal year (FY), and improvements planned for the next fiscal year.
Facilities Improvements New paint or landscaping
Cost: Last FY $
Roof, windows or boiler/furnace repair $
HVAC, plumbing, electrical, or drywall $
Ordinance/code compliance
$
Licensing/accreditation compliance
$
Major renovation
$
New construction/property
$
Computer systems upgrade
$
Other
$
No facilities improvements
$
Total
$
Est'd Cost: Next FY $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $
Indicate what were/will be the source of the funds for the above improvements and in what amounts.
Maintenance/replacement reserve Endowment Program related investments Operating budget Loan/line of credit Special fundraising Other: _________________________
Amount: Last FY $ $ $ $ $ $ $
Est'd Amount: Next FY $ $ $ $ $ $ $
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
WORKSHEET 19. TRACK RECORD ASSESSMENT Write how many units of affordable housing your organization has built or completely rehabilitated. (Note whether the units are rental or owner-occupied.)
3 bedroom 2 bedroom 1 bedroom Efficiency
Units in Planning Stage
Rental
Owner
Units Under Construction
Rental
Owner
Units Completed/Occupied
Rental
Owner
Write the number of households (HHs) that your organization has assisted in the following housing-related activities. Number HHs Individual homebuyer counseling (pre-purchase/credit repair) . . . . . . . . __________ Homebuyer pre-purchase education classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________ Individual homebuyer counseling (post-purchase/payment) . . . . . . . . . . __________
Post-purchase home maintenance classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________
Other _________________________________________________ . . . . . . . . __________
Other _________________________________________________ . . . . . . . . __________
List the names of other nonprofit, government, or business entities that your organization is currently partnering with on housing-related activities from which your group can obtain letters of support.
Group name
Have letter of support?
1) _________________________________________________ Yes "
No "
2) _________________________________________________ Yes "
No "
3) _________________________________________________ Yes "
No "
4) _________________________________________________ Yes "
No "
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PHASE IV: ASSESSING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) CAPACITY IT capacity is the ability of an organization: - to organize, process and store information in a way that is easily accessible; - to communicate efficiently within the organization and with the outside world; - to base financial decisions on adequate information; and - to monitor financial risk and intervene where necessary. Step One: Gather the following materials from your organization's files. - Accounting Control Procedures - Computer Hardware and Software Inventory Step Two: Meet with your board chair and your senior staff members, and (using the materials above) complete the following worksheets.
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
WORKSHEET 20. IT SYSTEMS OUTLINE
Examine the role of information technology in your office by answering the following questions.
1. Do you have computers and software? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Yes
" No
2. Do you have access to the Internet at work? . . . . . . . . . . " Yes
" No
3. If "Yes," how are you connected to the Internet? (Check one.)
LAN/network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Phone modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Don't know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "
4. Does your organization have a Web page? . . . . . . . . . . . . " Yes
" No
5. How many computers do you have within your organization? _________
6. How many staff people are employed in your organization? __________
7. What role do computers play in your office? (Check all that apply.)
E-mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Word processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Database management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Accounting procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Training for clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Training for staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Other ______________________________________ . . . . . . . . "
8. Indicate whether your organization uses any software packages for recording any of the following information. (Check all that apply.)
Initial homeowner assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Counseling log checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Affordability assessment evaluation sheet (Pre-qualification sheet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Generating Truth-in-Lending documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Mortgage loan applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "
9. List the number of paid computer support personnel that you have in your organization.
Full time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________ Part time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________ Outside consultant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________
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WORKSHEET 21. COMPUTER SYSTEMS INVENTORY (HARDWARE) Indicate the characteristics of the three best computers available at your office (i.e., those that are used the most often.) (Check all that apply.)
Operating System: Windows 3.1 Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows NT IBM DOS Mac OS Don't Know RAM size: 8 Megabytes 16 Megabytes 32 Megabytes 64 Megabytes 128 Megabytes Don't Know Processor Speed: 133 Megahertz 233 Megahertz 366 Megahertz 486 Megahertz Pentium I Pentium II Pentium III Don't Know
Computer 1
Computer 2
Computer 3
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
WORKSHEET 22. COMPUTER SYSTEMS INVENTORY (SOFTWARE) Indicate the availability of the following software programs to your organization by checking the appropriate columns.
Software Web Browser: Netscape Explorer Other: (Name) Word Processing: WordPerfect MS Word Other: (Name) Spreadsheet/Accounting: Lotus 1-2-3 Excel Access Peachtree Accounting Quicken Accounting Other: (Name) Loan Software: Fannie Mae's Desktop Originator Fannie Mae's Desktop Underwriter Fannie Mae's Desktop Counselor Other: (Name)
At Work, We Use This Software ...
Frequently Occasionally
Never
Don't Know
Use at home
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WORKSHEET 23. OVERALL IT CAPACITY ASSESSMENT
Indicate with a check in the appropriate column how strongly you agree with the following statements. (Strong disagreement indicates an opportunity for capacity improvement.)
Our information systems ... are compatible with our major funders and partners.
Strongly Slightly
Slightly Strongly
Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree
store and retrieve information efficiently.
enable us to make informed financial decisions quickly.
enable us to make consistent financial decisions over time.
include an accounting system that is adequate for our needs.
enable us to develop our own spreadsheets and databases.
enable us to develop invoice/purchase order systems.
enable us to keep organized records.
enable us to lower our response/turnaround time.
minimize lag time between our Development projects.
enable us to managed several projects in different phases.
have licenses for all software loaded onto our computers.
enable us to communicate effectively with our constituents.
Indicate your organization's status regarding Technical Assistance and Training (TA/T) for the
following activities.
Will Receive Have Received
Activity
Activity Does
TA/T
TA/T
Do Not
Not Apply Need TA/T (Write Date) (Write Date) Need TA/T
Basic computer literacy
Accounting software
Internet navigation
Database maintenance
Database programming
HTML programming
Job cost reporting
Break-even analysis
Cash flow management
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
CONCLUSION The process of capacity self-assessment should not be a one-time event. The purpose of this workbook is to encourage rural nonprofit housing organizations to begin a regular annual process of self-examination, goal-setting, and implementation. The self-assessment process is similar to an annual doctor's check-up. While check-ups may seem inconvenient or uncomfortable, they are critical for maintaining personal health. When check-ups are neglected over a period of many years, physical illnesses can develop and go untreated with disastrous results, which would have otherwise been entirely preventable. Self-assessment can also be an opportunity for organizational and interpersonal renewal. The process gives each group that completes it an opportunity to revisit its mission and its higher purpose within its community and the world at large. It also gives individual participants an opportunity to step back from their daily work and reflect on how their activities have impacted the lives of those around them. After finishing the self-assessment workbook, meet again with your core staff and board of directors. Review the self-assessment process. Was it manageable for your organization? Are there ways that the process can be changed to make it more efficient and effective? Next, review the capacity improvement goals that you have written in Worksheet 1 and the time line for their implementation. Are the goals and time line realistic? Are the people responsible for implementing them able to do so? If the answer is "yes," then set dates to regularly check progress on capacity goal implementation and set aside the time for repeating the self-assessment process the following year.
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REFERENCES Alaska Housing Finance Corporation (AHFC). 1995. Alaska Affordable Housing Development Workbook. Anchorage, AK: AHFC. Building Communities Together. 2000. "Center Toolbox: Forming a 501(c)(3)." Vol. 2, Issue 2: (5). Drucker, Peter F. 1993. The Five Most Important Questions You Will Ever Ask About Your Nonprofit Organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Glickman, Norman J. and Lisa J. Servon. 1999. "More Than Bricks and Sticks: Five Components of Community Development Corporation Capacity." Housing Facts and Findings. Vol. 1, No. 3: (10-11). Harris, Maria E. 2000. "Public/Nonprofit Partnerships: Does the Nonprofit Organization Have the Capacity to be Effective and Accountable?" Paper presented at the Western Social Sciences Association annual meeting, San Diego, CA. April 26-30, 2000. Harrison, Michael I. 1994. Diagnosing Organizations: Methods, Models, and Processes. Second ed. Applied Social Research Methods Series, Vol. 8. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Housing Assistance Council (HAC). 2000. "Top Ten List of Factors Determining Project Viability, or `Why a project must be more than just a good idea in a needy community.'" Washington, DC: [Author]. _____. 1998. "Developing a Fundraising Strategy." Washington, DC: [Author]. National Community Capital Association. 1999. "The Successful CDFI Series: Self-Diagnostic Tool and Scoring System." For CDFI Board Members. Washington, DC: [Author] Newman, Isadore and Keith McNeil. 1998. Conducting Survey Research in the Social Sciences. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Rapp, Galen and Gerald Ely. 1996. How to Start a Cooperative. Cooperative Information Report No. 7. Washington, D.C.: USDA, Rural Business-Cooperative Service. The Roberts Enterprise Development Fund. 1999. "Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Nonprofit Enterprise." San Francisco, CA: [Author]. Smith, G. Stevenson. 1999. "Training Needs of Affordable Housing Nonprofits: How to Develop `Better Total Management'?" Research Paper 9906. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University.
The Stevens Group. 1998. Illinois Nonprofits: Building Capacity for the Next Century. A Joint
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
Study by the Illinois Facilities Fund and Donors Forum of Chicago (Final Report). St. Paul, MN: The Stevens Group. Trust Fund News. 1999. "Increasing CDC Development Capacity." CDC Sustainability Series, Part Three. Vol. 8, No. 1: (1-11).
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APPENDIX A SURVEY: NONPROFIT CAPACITY SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOL PILOT After finishing the Tool, please take a moment to fill out the following survey. I will be contacting you by phone no later than Friday, April 14 to go over the questions with you and get your feedback on the Self-Assessment Tool. 1) Was it difficult for your staff and Board members to set aside the time necessary to complete the Tool?
2) Was it difficult to assemble the materials necessary to complete the Tool?
3) Was the Tool too long?
___________
How long did it take you to complete the following sections of the tool?:
- Introduction and preparation
___________
- Phase I
___________
- Phase II
___________
- Phase III
___________
- Phase IV
___________
- Phase V
___________
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
4) Was the Tool relevant to your experiences and needs as a rural nonprofit? Were there any sections that were irrelevant?
5) How useful was the Tool for you? Is the information useful for future grant and loan applications? What information in particular would be the most useful to have on hand?
6) Were the questions clear and easy to understand? Were there any sections that were too difficult or unclear? How would you change them?
7) Was the Tool comprehensive enough? Were there any questions left out that should have been included?
8) Would you use the Tool annually for long-term strategic planning and outcome tracking?
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APPENDIX B. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROVIDERS9 Asian Americans for Equality 111 Division Street, New York, NY 10002 Center for Community Change 1000 Wisconsin Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20007 Center for Technical Assistance and Training (CTAT) 7500 Germantown Avenue, Suite 100, Philadelphia, PA 19119 Coastal Enterprises, Inc. 36 Water St. P.O. Box 268, Wiscasset, ME 04578 Colorado Coalition for the Homeless 2100 Broadway, Denver, CO 80205 Community Research and Development 1300 Baxter St., Suite 269, Charlotte, NC 28204 Congress of National Black Churches, Inc. 1225 Eye Street, NW, Suite 750, Washington, DC 20005 Development Training Institute, Inc. 2510 St. Paul Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 Douglass-Cherokee Economic Authority, Inc. 534 E. First North Street, P.O. Box 1218, Morristown, TN 37814 Enterprise Foundation 10227 Wincopin Circle, Suite 500, Columbia, MD 21044 Florida Housing Coalition, Inc. 1367 East Lafayette St. Suite C, Tallahassee, FL 32301 Grassroots Leadership Development Program, Inc., 1875 North Ridge Rd., East Suite A, Lorain, OH 44055 Iowa Housing Corporation 100 Court Avenue, Suite 209, Des Moines, IA 50309
9 "FY 1999 Funding Awards for the Community Development Technical Assistance Programs." Federal Register: May 8, 2000 (Volume 65, Number 89) Notices, Page 26625-26627.
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
Local Initiatives Support Corporation 733 Third Avenue, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10017 Low Income Housing Development Corporation, d/b/a The Affordable Housing Group 1300 Baxter St., Suite 269, Charlotte, NC 28204 Maryland Center for Community Development, Inc. 1118 Light Street, Baltimore, MD 21230 McClure Group 2960 Piney Wood Drive, East Point, GA 30344 Metropolitan Boston Housing Partnership 569 Columbus Ave., Boston, MA 02118 Michigan Housing Trust Fund 5829 Executive Drive, Lansing, MI 48911 Minnesota Housing Partnership 122 W. Franklin Ave., Suite 230, Minneapolis, MN 55404 Mississippi Home Corporation P.O. Box 23369, Jackson, MS 39225 National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education 8701 Georgia Avenue, Suite 200, Silver Spring, MD 20910 National Congress for Community economic development 1030 15th Street, NW, Suite 325, Washington, DC 20005 North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center, Inc. 4021 Carya Drive, Raleigh, NC 27610 Northwest Regional Facilitators 525 E. Mission Avenue, Spokane, WA 99202 NYS Rural Housing Coalition, Inc. 879 Madison Avenue 2nd Floor, AlbaNY, NY 12208 Ohio Capital Corporation for Housing 88 East Broad St., Suite 1800, Columbus, OH 43215
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Rural Community Assistance Corporation 3120 Freebroad Drive, Suite 201, West Sacramento, CA 95691 Southern California Mutual Housing Association 4229 South Central Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90011 State of Alaska P.O. Box 101020, Anchorage, AK 99510 State of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84111 Statewide Housing Action Coalition 202 South State Street, Suite 1414, Chicago, IL 60604 Structured Employment Economic Development, Corporation (Seedco), 915 Broadway, Suite 1703, New York, NY 10010 Training & Development Associates, Inc. 1680 South Main Street, Suite 201, Laurinburg, NC 28352 Virginia Poverty Law Center 201 W. Broad St., Suite 302, Richmond, VA 23220 Washington Community Development Loan Fund 1305 Fourth Ave., Suite 906, Seattle, WA 98101 West Virginia Housing Development Fund 841 Virginia Street, East, Charleston, WV 25301
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
APPENDIX C: SAMPLE BYLAWS OUTLINE10
Article I ­ Membership Section 1. Qualifications. Section 2. Suspension or Termination.
Article II ­ Meetings of Members
Section 1. Annual Meetings
Section 2. Special Meetings.
Section 3. Notice of Meetings.
Section 4. Voting.
Section 5. Quorum.
Section 6. Order of Business:
a. Determination of quorum.
b. Proof of due notice of meeting.
c. Reading and disposition of minutes.
d. Annual reports of officers and committees.
e. Unfinished business.
f.
New business.
g. Election of directors.
h. Adjournment.
Article III ­ Directors and Officers Section 1. Number and Qualifications of Directors. Section 2. Election of Directors. Section 3. Election of Officers. Section 4. Vacancies. Section 5. Board Meetings. Section 6. Special Meetings. Section 7. Notice of Board Meetings. Section 8. Compensation. Section 9. Quorum.
Article IV ­ Duties of Directors Section 1. General Powers.
10 Adapted from How to Start a Cooperative, Cooperative Information Report 7, United States Department of Agriculture, Rural Business-Cooperative Service, Galen Rapp and Gerald Ely, Revised September 1996.
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Section 2. Employment of Manager. Section 3. Bonds and Insurance. Section 4. Accounting System and Audit. Article V ­ Duties of Officers and Manager Section 1. Duties of President. Section 2. Duties of Vice President. Section 3. Duties of Secretary. Section 4. Duties of Treasurer. Section 5. Duties of Manager. Article VI ­ Executive Committee and Other Committees Section 1. Powers and Duties. Section 2. Other Committees. Article VII ­ Fiscal Year Article VIII ­ Miscellaneous Provisions Section 1. Waiver of Notice Section 2. Bylaws Printed. Section 3. Seal. Article IX ­ Amendments We, the undersigned, being all of the incorporators and members of the _______________ nonprofit corporation, do hereby assent to the foregoing bylaws and do adopt the same as the bylaws of said corporation; and in witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names, this ________ day of ______ , 20___.
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Nonprofit Capacity Self-Assessment Workbook
In the past decade, foundation and other funders have been increasingly required by their boards to not only "do good works," but to "do good work well." Consequently, nonprofits have also been required to include assessments of their organizational capacity as a part of their grant applications. Organizational assessment, however, is often an activity that grassroots groups do not have the time or the resources to do. This workbook is intended for use by nonprofit staff and board members to assess their own capacity, set goals for improving capacity, and to repeat the process on an annual basis. The workbook may also be useful for funders and nonprofit intermediaries that need a tool to assess the capacity-building needs of the nonprofits they are funding. ISBN 1-58064-110-5

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