A solar system to reduce the power crisis in bangladesh through electric vehicle recharging station, JE Miller, MD Allendorf, A Ambrosini

Tags: Bangladesh, proposed system, Solar System, Power Crisis, taka, recharging station, Renewable energy resources, Cost Analysis, global energy production, battery bank, sunshine duration, system capacity, electric vehicles, solar insolation, total energy, Solar Energy, Monthly Income, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, Payback Time, rechargeable battery, internal combustion engines, Electric Vehicle, Electric Vehicle Recharging Electric Vehicles, Dhaka City, Sunshine Hours, filling stations, system, Annual income, environment friendly, energy generation
Content: IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE) e-ISSN: 2278-1676,p-ISSN: 2320-3331, Volume 5, Issue 3 (Mar. - Apr. 2013), PP 40-44 www.iosrjournals.org
A solar system to reduce the Power Crisis in Bangladesh through Electric Vehicle Recharging Station Sikder Sunbeam Islam1, Md. Jashim Uddin2 1(Lecturer, Department of EEE, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh) 2(Lecturer, Department of EEE, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh)
Abstract: renewable energy resources can play an important role in a developing country like Bangladesh. In Bangladesh the electric vehicles powered by rechargeable batteries are becoming popular day by day. But it is a matter of great regret that a big amount of power is being used daily to recharge their batteries at the recharging stations. As Bangladesh faces acute power crisis this is a big challenge. This paper has proposed a PV based recharging station for electric vehicles and made a detail analysis on it. Keywords: Solar System, Recharging Station, Power system.
I. Introduction An enormous amount of energy is extracted, distributed, converted and consumed daily in the present world. The Energy Demand in the whole world is increasing day by day. Today's global energy production is high, in fact 83% [1]. At present the power demand in Bangladesh is about 6500 MW which was 6000 MW in the last year (2011) and the generation capacity is around 5000MW but peak demand is estimated to exceed 5,000 MW [2]. Moreover, our average growth demand is around 7% which indicates that if we do not add 10% every year we going to face a big electricity crisis problem in the near future [13]. Monthly global solar insolation and daily average bright sunshine hour in Dhaka city are presented in Figure 1.1 and 1.2 respectively [3]. Solar insolation kWh/m2
Solar Insolation
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 January
March
May
JuSlyeptembeNr ovember
Months
Solar insolation k W h/ m2
Figure1.1: Monthly solar insolation at Dhaka From the Fig 1.1, it is found that the average solar insolation is 4.73 for Dhaka and from Fig 1.2 , the daily average bright sunshine is 7.55 hours for Dhaka. The solar resource is abundant in Bangladesh as the tropic of cancer passes closely through the geographical centre of Bangladesh. So, the average Global Horizontal Irradiance is 625 W/m2 [4]. Irradiance = (Average Insolation)/Average daily bright sunshine hours), For our system we have to consider Solar insolation = 4.7 kWh/m2
Sunshine Hours
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 January
March
May
JulSyeptemberNovember
Months
Daily mean Max imum Minimum
Figure1.2: Daily average bright sunshine hours at Dhaka City
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A Solar System to reduce the Power Crisis in Bangladesh through Electric Vehicle Recharging Electric Vehicles also known as Easy Bikes [5] in Bangladesh are rechargeable battery based energy efficient and environment friendly popular vehicles. As it is rechargeable battery based there is needed a lot of power every day. As a result the power crisis is increased. But there is a lot of fuel recharging stations in Bangladesh where there is a great opportunity to implement solar based recharging station. For designing and cost analysis data are collected from local and international markets and the electricity production's data is calculated manually with respect to Dhaka city. II. Electric Vehicle Electric vehicles (EVs) are propelled by an electric motor (or motors) which are powered by rechargeable battery packs [6]. Electric motors have several advantages over internal combustion engines (ICEs) [6]: It is 55% more energy efficient than typical internal combustion engines (ICEs) based vehicles. It is more environment friendly than typical internal combustion engines (ICEs) based vehicles. It provides stronger acceleration and smooth operation than that of ICE based vehicles. It needs comparatively less Maintenance and it is easier.
Figure 2.1 An electric vehicle in Dhaka City [5] III. Design Of Pv System 3.1 Location Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh. Dhaka's Geographical coordinates are 23° 43' 23" North, 90° 24' 31" East [7]. 3.2 Module Accommodation on Roof Area The PV modules are accommodated on the roof of fuel filing stations. Generally the roof is plain as a result there is no problem to set up but for maximum efficiency the PV modules are tilted with an angle which depends on the location of the installation. The PV module is accommodated on roof area of the fuel filling station like Fig 3.1.
Figure 3.1: A general fuel filling station For this system let us consider the length of the roof is around 80 feet and the breadth is around 40 feet. The layout is given in figure 3.2. The number of components is calculated with the help of this consideration.
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A Solar System to reduce the Power Crisis in Bangladesh through Electric Vehicle Recharging 80 feet
40 Feet
Figure 3.2: The considered layout
3.3 system design As a solar based system the system can be designed with some PV modules, Charge Controller boxes, control circuit etc in the system and the representation of block diagram is given in Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.3: Total block diagram for the System
3.4 Cost Analysis 3.4.1. solar energy Our estimated system capacity is 8 KW/ day and our daily average bright sunshine is 7.55 hours for Dhaka. So, total energy per day is (8x7.55) = 60.4 KWh/day. Considering overall efficiency 55% total input power = 8/0.55 = 14.55 KW. If we choose 230W solar panel each, the number of solar panels will be= (14.55x1000)/230 =63.24 63.
3.4.2. Battery Bank Calculation Suppose, the voltage rating of the battery for the battery bank = 12 Volt. Capacity of each battery =120 Amp­hour. So, energy stored in each battery = 120x12= 1440=1.44 KWh Maximum KWh needed/day (in December ) = 71.2 KWh ; see Figure-5.1 The rest energy per day is needed to be stored = (71.2-60.4) KWh= 10.8 KWh. So, number of battery needed = 10.8/1.44 =7.5 8 batteries. The different essential components with respective quantity and costs are given in Table 4.1.
Component
Table 4.1: Cost components of our proposed system.
Description Qty
Cost in Taka#
PV module Inverter Charge controller Wiring Battery
Sharp NU-U235F1 [8] 3000VA inverter [10] Local market
63 (Calculated) 7(Calculated) 1
Approximate
12Volt
8
Control circuit, installation, maintenance and others Total
Approximate
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63*46,000 =28,98,000 28,000*7= 1,96,000 1,000 5,000 10,000*8 =80,000 20,000 32, 00, 000
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A Solar System to reduce the Power Crisis in Bangladesh through Electric Vehicle Recharging #80 taka=1 US dollar (appx) IV. Daily And Monthly Electricity Generation In our proposed system the estimated capacity is around 8 KW. So to find out the daily energy generation we have to multiply this number to monthly average sunshine duration and the maximum 71.2 KWh/day is found in December. Again for finding the monthly energy generation we have to multiply daily energy generation to number of days of each month respectively. The calculated data is shown in fig 5.1.
KWh
10000
1000 100 10
Sunshine duration (hr)[3] Daily energy generation (kWh) Monthly energy generation (kWh)
1 JanuFaerbyruarMy arch April May June JuAlSyuegputsetmbOecrtNoobeverDmebceemr ber Months
Figure 5.1: Daily and monthly average electricity generation in kWh
V. Monthly Income From the above fig 5.1 we can find the monthly energy generation. From monthly energy generation we can calculate the monthly income and the summation of monthly income is referred to annual income which helps us to find payback time of our proposed system. In figure the monthly incomes are shown which is calculated in different consideration and the considerations are per kilowatt hour equal to 6, 8 and 10 respectively.
Table 6.1: monthly and yearly income of our proposed system
Month
Monthly Income in Taka Income in Taka ( 1 Income in Taka ( 1
energy
( 1 kWh= 6
kWh= 8 taka)
kWh= 10 taka)
generation
taka)
(kWh)
January
2,157.6
12,945.6
17,260.8
21,576
February
2,038.4
12,230.4
16307.2
20,384
March
2,182.4
13,094.4
17459.2
21,824
April
2,136
12,816
17088
21,360
May
2,033.6
12,201.6
16268.8
20,336
June
1,176
7,056
9408
11,760
July
1,264.8
7,588.8
10118.4
12,648
August
1,438.4
8630.4
11507.2
14,384
September
1,488
8,928
11904
14,880
October
1,824
10,944
14592
18,240
November
2,132.8
12,796.8
17062.4
21,328
December
2,136
12,816
17088
21,360
Total ( Yearly Incomes)
132,048
176,064
220,080
VI. Payback Time Analysis The payback time means that the number of years required for the improvement to pay for itself and for cost benefit analysis of our proposed system it is needed. Simple payback time= (Cost of the system)/ (Annual savings), years Considering 1kWh= 6 taka: Cost of the system = 32, 00, 000 taka Annual income = 132,048 taka Payback time (year) = (Cost of the system / Annual income) = 32, 00, 000/ 132,048= 24.23 year Considering 1kWh= 8 taka: Cost of the system = 32, 00, 000 taka
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A Solar System to reduce the Power Crisis in Bangladesh through Electric Vehicle Recharging Annual income = 176,064 taka Payback time (year) = (Cost of the system / Annual income) = 32, 00, 000/ 176,064 = 18.18 year Considering 1kWh= 10 taka: Cost of the system = 32, 00, 000 taka Annual income = 220080 taka Payback time (year) = (Cost of the system / Annual income) = 32, 00, 000/ 220,080 = 14.54 year VII. Opportunities, Benefits And Challenges 7.1 Opportunities and Benefits: The opportunities and benefits are given below: 1. The existing fuel stations can be used. No other site is needed to be selected. 2. The payback time is estimated and lesser than other system. 3. No extra labour cost and maintenance cost is needed. 4. Extra power can be used for the recharging station itself 5. This system becomes one of the factors to increase the income of the owners of fuel filling stations. 6. Proper utilization of solar energy. 7. Dependence on fossil fuels such as Diesel, Petrol and Gas etc is decreased. 8. It is a pollution free process. 7.2 Challenges and Limitations: The challenges and limitations are given below: 1. Initial cost is high for the owner of the fuel filling stations. 2. The design must be perfect. 3. Lack of knowledge about proper maintenance of Solar based technologies. 4. During night and insufficient solar radiation the system is not work properly. 5. For fully recharging the battery pack can take 4 to 8 hours. Even a "quick charge" to 80% capacity can take 30 min [6]. VIII. Conclusion Although the Electric vehicle has some limitations, its environment friendly nature has made it popular to all over the world. So, it is clear that our proposed system could be an effective one due to its necessity in the power crisis context. Though our proposed system is designed for Dhaka city and costs are calculated with respect to Dhaka city, this system is implemented anywhere in Bangladesh. And it is also said that this proposed system is economically and geographically feasible to Bangladesh. References [1] International Energy Agency: Share of total primary energy supply in 2003. Technical Report, 2003. [2] Press release of The World Bank on October 30, 2008 [3] REEI Available: http://www.reein.org/solar/resource/index.htm. [4] Final report of Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA), Renewable Energy Research Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh, February 2007 [5] Available: http://biz.bdnews24.com/details.php?id=194924&cid=4 [6] US Department of Energy Available: http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/evtech.shtml [7] Available at: http://www.maplandia.com/bangladesh/dhaka-div/dhaka-zila/dhaka/ dated: [8] Sharp NU-U235F1 datasheet; Sharp Electronics Corporation, CA. Available at: www.mrsolar.com/pdf/sharp/Sharp235U1F.pdf [9] Midnite Solar MNPV3 datasheet,; Midnight Solar, USA. Available at: www.midnitesolar.com/pdfs/frontBack03.pdf [10] Solarpac company Ltd. Data has been collected from local markets [11] Bangladesh Road Transport Authority's news. Available: www.brta.gov.bd/ [12] Solar energy ­ Fundamentals and Application, By J. Gand and J. Prokash. Khanna Publications.p-134. [13] HAQUE N.M. Ziaul; Electricity problem of Bangladesh; Wheel Buisness Magazine, Vol. 2 , Issue 1, January-March 2012.
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JE Miller, MD Allendorf, A Ambrosini

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Title: A Solar System to reduce the Power Crisis in Bangladesh through Electric Vehicle Recharging Station
Author: JE Miller, MD Allendorf, A Ambrosini
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