Assessing the impact and effectiveness of Project Inspire's educational materials, G Othman, K Loganathan

Tags: instruction, Malaysia, hypothesis, programed instruction, control schools, teacher, experimental schools, Development Activities, Microfiche edition, Development Adaptation, The project, primary schools, instrument, primary school curriculum, instructional package, literacy skills, instructional booklets, religious instruction, encouragement, upper primary, teaching strategies, Canada K1G 3H9 Head Office, instructional aids, instructional strategies, Learning Project, Ottawa, Parliament of Canada, The International Development Research Centre, International Development Research Centre Postal Address, the Parliament of Canada, developing countries, Evaluation Scheme, Universiti Sains Malaysia, international Board of Governors, IDRC, primary school, Queen Street, Ottawa, self-instructional programs, Learning Modules, Education Research, support research
Content: The International Development Research Centre is a public corporation created by the Parliament of Canada in 1970 to support research designed to adapt science and technology to the needs of Developing Countries. The Centre's activity is concentrated in five sectors: agriculture, food and nutrition sciences; health sciences; information sciences; social sciences; and communications. IDRC is financed solely by the Parliament of Canada; its policies, however, are set by an interNational Board of Governors. The Centre's headquarters are in Ottawa, Canada. Regional offices are located in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East.
1981 International Development Research Centre Postal Address: Box 8500, Ottawa, Canada K1G 3H9 Head Office: 60 Queen Street, Ottawa
IDRC, Ottawa CA
IDRC-185e Teaching yourself in Primary School : report of a seminar on selfinstructional programs held in Quebec, Canada, 12-15 May 1981. Ottawa, Ont., IDRC, 1981. 108 p.
/IDRC publication!, /primary education!, /self-instruction/, /educational projects!, !Canada!, /Philippines/, /Indonesia!, /Malaysia!, /Jamaica/', !Liberia! - !project evaluation!, /teaching aids!, /programmed instruction!, /modular training!, !teacher training/, !student behaviour!, /peer teaching!, !educational research!.
UDC: 373.3:37.041
ISBN: 0-88936-319-6
Microfiche edition available Ii existe egalement une edition fran–∑aise de cette publication.
IDRC-185e Teaching yourself in primary school Report of a seminar on self-instructional programs held in Quebec, Canada, 12-15 May 1981
Contents Preface 4 Foreword 5 Participants 7 Introduction Research and Development Activities in Primary Schools 9 Self-Teaching Programs: a New Technology and a New Philosophy 17 Development Adaptation of Impact's Instructional and Training Methods in Primer 23 Liberia's Improved Efficiency of Learning Project 30 Origins of Projet SAGE and its Evaluation Scheme 41 Training Assessing the Impact and Effectiveness of Project Inspire's educational materials 49 Teacher Training for SAGE, a System of Individualized Instruction 60 Evaluation An Evaluation of the Role of Students and Teachers in a Class Using SAGE 67 Multiple Outcomes and Perspectives in the Evaluation of Project Impact 72 Effectiveness of learning modules and Peer Tutors in student learning 81 The Future Dissemination and Utilization of Education Research: the Impacttype Projects 93 Research and Evaluation in the project development Process 98 References 105
Assessing the Impact and Effectiveness of Project Inspire's Educational Materials The preliminary data collected during the early phases of Project Inspire in Malaysia indicate that pupils in rural schools suffer many disadvantages. They generally come from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Their parents either are illiterate or have very little formal education. They, therefore, tend to have little home-support for schoolrelated activities. Facilities at home for the consolidation of their education are also generally minimal. They attend schools whose facilities and funds also tend to be relatively poor. Thus, instructional aids to enhance the learning of these children are normally minimal. Furthermore, they are usually traditional in their views. Learning through observation may not be encouraged, and learning through interaction with adults tends to be discouraged. Thus, verbal and reasoning skills of such children tend to be truncated. As a result, they are usually unprepared to cope with the intellectual demands of learning such subjects as science, mathematics, or even a second language. Instruction in rural schools is not clearly conceptualized. As a result, teaching strategies tend to be mechanically applied and do not focus on a balanced development of children. Thus, for instance, group instruction is usually the teaching method. Individual differences among children with respect to their learning needs, interests, and cognitive styles cannot normally be catered to. Classroom management is usually teacher-centred, the children having little opportunity to develop skills in learning independently and responsibly. Learning resources may not be appropriately managed, and children not given enough operations with concrete objects. Even opportunities for obtaining information through audiovisual aids may be few. Such deprivations, if persistently experienced by children, result in serious consequences and may stunt the natural inclination healthy children have for learning. Also the system of large-group instruction usually produces errors in learning at every stage of study. Uncorrected, these become compounded during the years the children remain in school. Only rarely do pupils fully recover from the effects of compounded errors. Clearly, not all the solutions needed for these problems can be provided by education. Yet, it is the primary goal of Project Inspire (subsequently to be referred to as the project) to determine what Ghazali Othman and K. Loganathan, Project Inspire, School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia 49
can be realistically done, through instructional means to overcome some of the problems or to reduce some of the effects of deprivations and disadvantages. The particular problems that the project attempts to deal with are: The obsession, on the part of many teachers, to complete (cover) the official syllabus rather than to teach for the mastery of skills and concepts by learners. The wide variety in the quality of instruction that results from the different academic and professional backgrounds of teachers and their different concepts of what constitutes effective and efficient teaching. The undue dependence on textbooks for instruction and the consequent lack of imaginative and stimulating modes of instruction. The prevalence of large-group instruction, which generally lacks the mechanism for immediate and effective correction of errors in learning by individual pupils. The related limited use of the many available instructional strategies. The perennial neglect of pupils' differences. The genuine inability of teachers to provide individualized supervision of learning because of the administrative constraints. The traditional lack of meaningful opportunity for students to be active learners, work cooperatively, and deliberately interact with others. Hence, the overall purpose of research and development for Project Inspire has been to determine, through a quasiexperimental approach, how to improve the learning efficiency of children in selected rural primary schools. THE NATURE OF PROJECT INSPIRE Project Inspire is seeking new instructional strategies for improving the quality of the teaching-learning processes in the rural primary schools in Malaysia. It intends to deliver, at the end of the project, a new set of instructional strategies that have proved effective, together with the materials that would be needed and with recommendations as to the best mode of implementation. This project attempts to study some new strategies for a better implementation of the school curriculum that has been prescribed by the Ministry of Education. Also, the instructional modes chosen are intended to develop basic skills - cognitive as well as psychomotor - without neglecting the conceptual learning that should take place. In standards 1, 2, and 3 the instructional strategies aim at developing the reading, writing, and computational skills. At the same time, a positive attitude and independence in learning are to be cultivated. These objectives are consistent, we believe, with the recommendations in the Cabinet Committee's Report on the implementation of basic education in Malaysia. This project more specifically attempts to investigate the use of an integrated system of programed instruction suited for rural environ- 50
ment. (Hence, the acronym Inspire.) There are two phases to the project. During the first phase the instructional package for standards 1, 2, and 3 will be developed and during the second phase those for standards 4, 5, and 6. In each phase, we envisage two stages. The first stage will be the development, revision, and improvement of materials on the basis of feedback from laboratory schools. The second stage will be concerned with the testing of the improved package in a number of rural schools. PROJECT PLAN This project's system of instruction calls for the appropriate use by teachers and pupils of selected strategies and techniques of teaching and learning. Programed and integrated into an overall pattern, it is called programed instruction. Because the skills to be developed and the capabilities acquired at the lower primary level differ from those in the upper primary, Project Inspire incorporates different blueprints for programed instruction at the two levels. During the lower primary level, children are expected to develop literacy and numeracy skills - skills basic to independent learning. The bulk of teaching and management of instruction, at this level, will be carried out by teachers who will have been provided with a step-bystep program. The program is based on the premise that all or almost all rural children attending school can master the skills if appropriate conditions for learning are created in the classroom and school concerned. Creating the appropriate conditions of instruction is, thus, the focus of the project's program for the lower primary level. Teachers are to be provided with instructional booklets for every lesson they need to teach for 30 weeks in each year. The booklets are referred to as program teaching guides (PTGs). The PTGs to be provided will cover every subject in the primary school curriculum except religious instruction and Jawi and will be influenced by the internal logic and structure of the subjects Bahasa Malaysia, English language, mathematics, science, local studies, physical and Health Education, music, and arts and crafts. For the upper primary level, in contrast, children are assumed to have acquired some basic literacy skills. Furthermore, they would have reached an age (about 10 years old) when they can reasonably be expected to depend increasingly less on the teacher. Thus, in addition to teacher-mediated instruction (TMI) guided by PTGs, the system incorporates module-mediated instruction (MMI) and peer-mediated instruction (PMI). MMI and PMI promote increasing independence in the upper primary children. Modular instruction provides them with the opportunity to learn on their own by carefully following instructions in the modules provided. These modules possess the features characterizing most self-instructional materials. They include operationally stated instructional objectives, pre- and posttests, carefully worded instructions, and so forth. Peer-mediated instruction is aimed at developing skills in working cooperatively and increasing each child's skills in supervision. This is actually a programed system of managing learning. 51
While doing assigned exercises or activities, children are supervised by their peers. Hence, in a period for such an activity, children are paired randomly and for half the period one assumes the role of a tutor while the other the tutee. The tutor supervises the tutee in doing the assigned work with the help of a tutor's guide that contains answers or solutions to the exercises. The tutor also is responsible for keeping an accurate record of the tutee's learning progress for that session. Halfway through the period, whether the tutee has completed the assigned work or not, the pair exchange roles. The former tutee now becomes the tutor, and PMI continues till the end of the period. During the first phase of the project, materials only for standards 1, 2, and 3 will be developed and tested. As this phase is of immediate concern to us, in the following sections we will discuss issues pertaining to this phase. RESEARCH DESIGN: THE INSPIRE CURRICULUM PACKAGE The curriculum package can be seen in terms of two types of materials: Those for the teacher and the children that serve to guide the teaching-learning processes and Those for the teacher that inform him, or her, of the general principles and the recommended management procedures. Among the first type are the programed teaching guides, booklets to guide peer learning, self-instructional modules, and complementary aids. PTGs are to structure the teacher-mediated instruction through a flexible mode of programing of the instructional procedures consistent with the principles described earlier. The PTGs will be based on units of instruction that last 30-40 minutes. The booklets for guiding peer learning will reflect the peer interaction envisaged in the project pairs of children working together in a structured way that provides a meaningful learning experience. Although many variations within the framework of dyadic interaction will be included, a characteristic feature of all such situations will be that one student will be a poser of problems and the other a respondent. The poser of problems will be furnished a set of problems as well as a list of the most appropriate responses. The booklets will also contain instructions as to when to change roles and how to conduct oneself in a particular role. Selfinstructional modules are designed for independent learning. They will be structured in a manner consistent with the principles of learning outlined earlier. The child will be told what he or she can achieve by studying the module and how to master the content. A posttest, or something equivalent to it, will provide feedback on the degree of mastery he or she has attained and will indicate the child's readiness to start another module. Accompanying the modules will be carefully structured record sheets that will be utilized by the child to chart his or her progress. The instructional materials will require carefully designed teaching aids that structure complex information. They will include wall charts, isolated pictures or photographs, picture decks, flash cards, prerecorded 52
tapes or talking cards, semifinished materials for construction activities, wooden blocks, number lines, etc. Among the second type of materials in Project Inspire are a set of booklets informing the teacher about the basic principles of the project and effective implementation of the recommended procedures; syllabus programs; block tests; record sheets; and work sheets. The booklets will focus on the concept of mastery learning from the cognitive perspective and what it entails in terms of teacher tasks; the ways of structuring a stimulating learning environment; ways of managing effectively the resources made available; flexibility within the context of programed instruction; the art of questioning and other uses of language; what should be done to facilitate retention and recall of information on the part of the children; and the compensatory and remediation activities. These booklets will be carefully designed so that they will be within the level of comprehension of the primary schoolteachers. The syllabus programs will structure the subject areas prescribed by the Ministry of Education into topics of a size suitable for the units of instruction (30-40 minutes). The topics will be sequenced so that there is a proper order in the acquisition of skills, assimilation of concepts and general principles, and the development of recommended habits. In addition to the topics, the syllabus programs will specify the objectives of each lesson and general outlines of the teaching procedures most suitable for attaining the objectives. Additional notes will be included when deemed relevant. Each subject will have a syllabus program that will cover a year, comprising three terms of about 13 weeks each. The block tests will be administered by the teachers after completion of a sequence of instructional units that have a structural unity. They will be partly diagnostic and partly evaluative. Two kinds of block tests are envisaged - short sequence and long sequence. Record sheets will be used by the teacher to monitor each pupil's progress and will be the basis for progress reports to the parents, whereas the work sheets will contain supplementary exercises to be done by the children as reinforcement activities. They will be distributed and marked by the teachers but returned to the pupils to be filed and retained. TESTING THE PACKAGE The materials will be pilot-tested in six rural schools, three to be located in the state of Perak and three in Penang. On the basis of feedback, these materials will be revised, where necessary, once only. There will be no control schools during this pilot stage, and visits made by the officers of the project as well as other forms of interaction between project and school personnel will not be rigidly structured. The overall objective will be to obtain various forms of feedback so that the materials can be improved and can effectively contribute to the objectives of the project. After the pilot stage, the testing of the complete package will begin so that we can assess its impact and measure its effectiveness in bringing about the intended objectives. During this second stage there will only 53
be utilization - no revision - of Inspire materials by a number of rural schools under different conditions. The independent variable will be the Inspire curriculum package along with different modes of introduction and utilization. There will be three modes of introduction: the package alone; the package with a training course for the teachers implementing it; and the package, training course, along with intensive supervision by school organizers and inspectors. The training course is conducted by the project staff and lasts 3 days, during which the basic principles of managing the Inspire instructional package are explained and discussed. The curriculum content is to be elaborated and the various proposed instructional strategies are to be demonstrated to the participants - project teachers, district organizers, and inspectors. Two kinds of people are involved in intensive supervision: the inspectors and the district school organizers. Each will make about one trip a month to visit the schools independently. Their tasks are: To ensure that the PTGs are followed. Teachers should not be allowed to omit PTGs or even omit steps within the PTGs. All instructional and learning activities must be carried out within the time schedule allotted for them. To clarify issues that are not clear to the teachers and assist them further in understanding the concepts that the project is emphasizing, such as the providing of feedback to the children and assessing the attainment of various kinds of objectives as a standard feature of teaching. To ensure that the block tests are given by the teachers and the marks are made available to the project staff. If there are any weaknesses in the attainment of the objectives, the inspectors and district supervisors should assist the teachers to come up with ways to achieve the objectives. METHODS Altogether, there will be 21 schools in the testing - 12 experimental and 9 control. Of the 12 experimental schools, 3 will receive the package alone; 6, the package with teacher training; and 3, the packagetraining-supervision combination. Of the six schools testing the package-training combination, three are those in Perak that tested the standard 1 package during the pilot phase. They will begin the pilot phase for the standard 2 package, as will three schools in Penang that are testing the package-training-supervision combination. The following year, the standard 2 materials will be tested fully in the experimental schools, and pilot-testing will begin for standard 3 materials, and so on. On the basis of some general characteristics such as geographical location, size, and socioeconomic background of students, nine other comparable schools have been selected to be the control schools. To ensure that the pupils from the control and experimental schools were at comparable cognitive levels, the project team prepared an entrybehaviour test, which was administered to all the standard 1 pupils. The instrument was modeled on a similar kind of test produced by Innotech (Regional Centre for Educational Innovation and Technology, Manila). 54
It is hoped that the curriculum package will bring about increased achievement in learning and a number of other behavioural and attitudinal changes among the teachers and the pupils. Briefly, comparisons will be based on the pupils' behaviour and achievement; the teachers' behaviour; and the classroom atmosphere. ASSESSMENT OF THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE PUPILS We formulated two substantive hypotheses about improvement in academic performance: Children attending the experimental schools will achieve higher scores in evaluations by the Ministry of Education and by the project than will those in the control schools. Children learning under the project's programed system of instruction will exhibit more (and better) skills specified in the preestablished objectives for learning effectiveness than will children in the control schools. Learning effectiveness refers to the degree to which pupils acquire, through suitable learning experiences, the skills and attitudes specified in the preestablished objectives for effectiveness and efficiency. A comparison of performance of pupils in experimental and control schools with respect to the prespecified skills and attitudes is planned as a measurement of relative effectiveness of the experimental approaches. Evaluation instruments are the government-administered diagnostic tests and assessment examination as well as Project Inspire's evaluation instruments to be administered periodically. Learning efficiency takes into account the saving of time and effort on the part of the learner. It is the ratio of the mean for a pupil's per- formance in any subject area to the time required to achieve that performance. ASSESSMENT OF PUPIL BEHAVIOUR A number of nonacademic aspects of pupil behaviour will be important markers of the success of the project. These pertain to independence and self-management in learning, systematic thinking in problem solving, creativity, consideration for others, cooperation, selfconfidence, and interest in learning. The specific hypotheses pertaining to pupil behaviour are: As a result of the project activities, there will be a strengthening of independence in general behaviour of the children in classrooms of experimental schools. The children in experimental schools will demonstrate greater creativity than do those in control schools. Children in experimental schools will have greater motivation to learn than will children in control schools. Children in experimental schools will have greater motivation to achieve than will their counterparts in control schools. Independence in learning is an attitude emphasized in the project. It is hoped that an instrument such as the Beller Child Dependency and Independence Scales or something similar will enable the effective testing of the hypothesis on independence. This instrument, to be scored 55
by the teacher, provides two measures: the dependent and independent or autonomous behaviour. Dependency is measured through a scoring of the frequency and persistence with which a child seeks help, recognition, physical contact, and proximity to adults. The scale for independence measures the child's initiative, satisfaction in work, independence in performing routine tasks, success in overcoming obstacles, and ability to complete activities. The capacity for creative thinking is encouraged extensively in the project. The three instruments chosen to gauge objectively the project's impact on this dimension of cognitive functioning are a creativity attitude survey, the Southern California Tests of Divergent Production, and the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. This first instrument assesses a child's creativity by requiring him or her to respond to 32 statements covering five dimensions normally associated with creativity - confidence in own ideas; appreciation of fantasy; theoretical and aesthetic orientation; openness to impulse expression; and desire for novelty. The second instrument provides a battery of tests of divergent thinking and presents various tasks requiring creative and original problem solving. The third is a more comprehensive measure of creativity in children, and it will be used periodically as it allows the determination of changes in children's creativity. Good motivation toward learning and achievement is another attitude that is desired by the project. The Junior Index of Motivation assesses the child's motivation toward school. In this instrument, school-related motivation is assumed to represent an internalized state of being that manifests itself through particular behaviour. Such an assumption is consistent with the cognitive learning principles that are presupposed by the project. Achievement motivation will be assessed by the instrument Animal Crackers. This instrument is based on the premise that a young child's success in school depends on both intellectual ability and motivation to learn. Animal Crackers focuses on five aspects of achievement-oriented behaviour that are not attributable to intellectual ability. MEASUREMENTS RELATED TO TEACHER BEHAVIOUR There will be three different sources of information on teacher behaviour and attitude: The teachers themselves; The pupils taught by the teachers; and Observers - either project personnel or others. It is basic for the success of the project that the teachers behave during the instructional process, as well as outside, in accordance with the principles laid down by the project. Their teaching styles, attitudes toward the pupils, ideology of classroom control, and assumed roles will be the focus of attention in the collection of data pertaining to teacher behaviour. The general hypothesis, which will be tested during the second phase of the project, will be that instructional behaviour of teachers in the experimental schools will be different from that of teachers in the 56
control schools so that the former will conform with the prescriptions of the project. Instruction refers to what the teacher does in the process of learning as well as to what the teacher does in the process of manage- ment of learning. Different means change. In particular, it is the change from the conventional practices of teachers and pupils during instruction to that expected and specified by the project's programed system of instruction. Operationally, it is the qualitative (descriptive) comparison of the teaching-learning-management behaviour of teachers and pupils before and after receiving the curriculum package or its combination with training or supervision and training. The general hypothesis generates a number of specific hypotheses for which there exist suitable instruments for the collection of data and analysis. We can distinguish two sets of more specific hypotheses - one set related to instructional performance and another to the attitudinal or ideological aspects: The instructional performance of teachers in experimental schools will be distinguished from that of teachers in control schools by their awareness of clearly formulated objectives for each instruction; the pacing of reinforcement or knowledge of results; the choice of strategies for attaining the intended learning objective; the sequenced presentation of information; the information presented (transformed to facilitate retention and transfer); the encouragement of achievement and self-management of learning; and the classroom climate encouraging self-expression by pupils. The teachers in the experimental schools will be more effective in their attitudes toward students and in their interpersonal relations than will the teachers in control schools. The teachers in the experimental schools will be more humanistic and less authoritarian than will be teachers in control schools. The teachers in the experimental schools will be more inclined to encourage independence in learning than will the teachers in control schools. The teachers in experimental schools will see themselves more as advisers, rnotivators, and resource personnel than as information givers and authoritarians. The first hypothesis will be assessed by the Project Inspire Mode of Video Tape Analysis of Teaching Performance. Teaching performance in a variety of activities will be videotaped. In the analysis of the videotape, we will be making the basic assumption that any behaviour is an execution of a plan (or a program), and, hence, an instruction of a teacher is also an execution of a program. So the essential feature of the analysis will be the reconstruction of the underlying program of a teacher during instruction based on the overt and nonverbal behaviour of the teacher. It is this program that will be subjected to further analysis so that a profile of the instructional style can be constructed. This profile of teaching styles will be compared with the norm conceived by the project. Where the profile is consistent (80%) with the norm, the teaching style will be said to be that proposed by the project. Another instrument to assess the first hypothesis will be developed; it will be modeled on the Corner-Eisenberg Observation System. First, 57
observers clarify teacher behaviour episodes to communication, management, and encouragement. Second, they record the degree to which teacher activities promote development of an adequate self- concept, emotional stability, and a sense of security; intellectual growth; personal responsibility for private or community property; cultural habit training; consideration for others; achievement; development of physical abilities and skills; creativity; and obedience and self-control. Third, observers make overall judgments of teacher performance, ranking the teacher on 6-point scales for warmth versus coldness; permissiveness versus restrictiveness; encouragement of an active versus a passive attitude; and variety versus nonvariety. To validate the second hypothesis, we needed an instrument that would measure attitude indicative of a teacher's effectiveness in interpersonal relations with pupils. An instrument modeled on the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory is deemed suitable. The criteria used in this instrument - the ability to win the affection of pupils; fondness for and understanding of children; ability to maintain a desirable form of discipline - will enable the effective testing of the hypothesis. The instrument to be developed to test the third hypothesis will be modeled on the Pupil Control Ideology Form. This instrument assesses whether a teacher has an authoritarian custodial or a more humanistic ideology toward classroom or school organization. The instrument to be developed for data collection and analysis of the fourth hypothesis will be based on Attitude Toward the Freedom of Children Scale. This instrument measures teachers' opinions about the degree of freedom, independence, and self-management that children should be allowed. The project assumes that the teachers are at present not sufficiently liberal and that, as a result of the principles laid down by the project, they will become more liberal toward their pupils. The project emphasizes the redefinition of the role of teachers for the efficient implementation of the integrated system of programed instruction. The fifth hypothesis is related to this issue and will be assessed by the teacher practices Questionnaire. This instrument defines the teacher's role expectations using the categories: adviser and information giver, counselor, disciplinarian, motivator, and referer. In view of the changed roles recommended by the project, these measurements are deemed very important. It is hoped that as a result of the project the roles of motivator and referer will be given greater weight. MEASUREMENTS RELATED TO THE CLASSROOM ATMOSPHERE One of the manifestations at the level of group behaviour of the successful implementation of the project will be the general atmosphere of the classroom and group dynamics. We have formulated two hypotheses regarding this aspect of the impact of the project: In group characteristics such as autonomy, control intimacy, permeability, potency, etc. the experimental group will be better than the control group. The climate in the experimental classrooms will be more conducive to learning than the one in the control school. 58
The instrument chosen for testing the first hypothesis is the Group Dimensions Descriptive Questionnaire. This instrument will enable the characterization of groups on autonomy, control, flexibility, hedonic tone, homogeneity, intimacy, participation, permeability, polarization, potency, stability, stratification, and viscidity. The instrument to be developed for testing the second hypothesis will be modeled on Your School Days. This instrument measures classroom climate from the pupils' point of view. The four factors that will be available for evaluation are enjoyment, positive reinforcement; unhappiness, misbehaviour; cognitive emphasis; and variety, individualization. On all these factors, the experimental classes should be significantly better than the control classes. These evaluations are viewed as essential for a project that aims to improve education for rural children in Malaysia. Their academic performance and satisfaction as well as their motivation and creativity are the keys to a better life. 59

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