dji, tengu, demonic spirits, deities, Waka Goh, guardian deities, Tokyo, Goh, Abe no Seimei, Oto Goh, the medieval period, Shk, the Lotus Sutra, evil spirits, Buddhist literature, dangerous power, child guardian spirits, malevolent spirits, guardian spirits, Koyama Satoko, Goh Dji, University of Hawaii Press, Japanese Buddhism, esoteric Buddhism, Tsurugi no Goh, Khatsu Goh, Stanford University, guardian deity, Buddhism, Buddhist monks, Child Guardian Spirit, Iyanaga Nobumi
Child Guardian Spirits (Goh Dji) in the Medieval Japanese Imaginaire Irene H. Lin1 Christchurch, New Zealand
THE RISE OF THE CULT OF goh dji, guardian or servant spirits in the form of boys, was a particular medieval Japanese phenomenon vividly captured in both narrative accounts and visual representation
s.2 In illustrated scrolls (emaki) of this period, we often see strange-looking boys attacking malevolent spirits, acting as mediums in possession and exorcism rites, or appearing as attendants and saviors of monks or other practitioners of Buddhism. Frequently they served as attendant spirits of esoteric deities, such as Acalantha (Fud My), Sarasvat (Benzaiten), and Vairavaa (Bishamonten). More generally, these child guardian spirits were personally attached to priests and hermits who had acquired power and holiness through their practice of austerities. Rather than uncovering the origin or development of the cult of itself, this paper will examine the discourse and the symbol of goh dji.3 The discourse on goh dji extended beyond esoteric Buddhist texts to the larger Buddhist literature, such as Dainihonkoku hokekygenki, Kokonchomonj, and Konjaku monogatarish, and further on to the broader Japanese Literature
, such as Genji monogatari, Heike monogatari, and Uji shi monogatari. Moreover, goh dji became a symbol that permeated other religious traditions
beyond the Tendai and Shingon circles, unifying or organizing the magical beliefs of the medieval Japanese regarding guardian deities or servant spirits. For example, in Onmyd ("the way of yin and yang
," that is, Daoism), servant spirits such as shiki gami (ritual deities) or shiki ji (ritual princes) came to be identified with goh dji during the medieval period
. In Shugend, we also find guardian dji, or ji, attending to the needs of shugenja, or yamabushi (practitioners of Shugend), and protecting them. Similarly in folk religion, the guardian deity of the household was a child, the zashiki warashi (parlor child), who could bring fortune or misfortune to the house in which he or she resided. Before turning to such discourse, I want to briefly examine how the symbol of goh dji was created in the medieval Japanese imaginaire. It is a double symbol that drew both from the symbol of the Buddhist protective or guardian deities (goh) and also from the symbol of the child (dji)--as represented by the class of child deities in Japanese religion and as illustrated by the status of the child in medieval Japanese society at large. 153
GUARDIAN DEITIES Goh dji belonged to the larger family of guardian deities (goh zenshin). These deities were turbulent or fierce deities, who were often local deities or demonic beings such as yaka-s, rkasa-s, or nga-s, and were initially opposed to Buddhism but after their conversion became protectors of the dharma. Such deities or beings possessed the ambivalent character of aiva and Buddhist tantric deities: the more terrible and dangerous they were, the more powerful were the protection and benefits given to their worshippers. It was the dangerous power of these local deities that was harnessed to protect against and to destroy obstacles, both inner and outer. In addition to protecting the buddhadharma against its enemies and delivering punishments, they also rewarded believers and provided worldly benefits (genze riyaku), often becoming deities of happiness and prosperity (fukujin). In general, the iconography of these guardian deities depicted the characteristic quality of the group, which was fierce, grotesque, and wrathful. Goh dji often appeared as strange-looking boys, otherworldly, and even as demonic spirits, as will be discussed later. They were characterized by ambivalent sacredness, possessing both positivity and negativity; whereas they were dangerous and extremely violent in punishing transgressors of the dharma, they were very loyal and zealous in serving followers of the dharma, attending to their every need, however minute.
SYMBOL OF THE CHILD In medieval Japan, it was said that until the age of seven, one did not fully belong to the world of humans. It was not until boys reached fifteen and girls thirteen years of age that they became adults, after going through Rites of Passage
. Thus up to that time they did not yet belong to the human world, but rather were believed to be close to the gods and the demons. In fact, the original meaning
the Chinese character d (Ch. tong) of dji was "slave," which was tattooed on the forehead of one who was not a complete person or one who had not been initiated. The character signified those who did not belong to the human order, in other words those who were in the world, but not of it. Therefore such an existence made them effective intermediaries and messengers between the visible and the invisible worlds.4 Since they had no social status
and were not attached to land, children were given freedom of movement. Their mobility and fluidity are attributed, first, to their lack of any social or religious ties, or what Amino Yoshihiko referred to as muen (estrangement, lack of ties to secular society), and second, to a sense of "immediacy" since they could be present at a moment's
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notice.5 Since children were not of the world or of society, they were placed or displaced into the margins or boundaries of the Buddhist and social world. This capacity for traversing borders as boundary beings led to a number of protective threshold deities manifesting in the form of children in Japanese religion. For example, the protective deities of the house or the boundary that manifested in the form of a child included the zashiki warashi (the child of the parlor, who is about five or six years old), the kamadogami (hearth god, who is said to be an ugly child from the Dragon Palace), and dsojin (god of crossroads, who takes the form of a child at times).6 However, the freedom and mobility of children were balanced or offset by their dependency. Accordingly, child gods were often lesser gods under the control of a master god, or servants or followers of older gods, or attendants to eminent monks.7 Tanaka Takako is of the opinion that the origin of goh, referring to child kami, belonged in a system of gods based on family relations, that is, kenzokujin (family/dependent deities).8 Furthermore, Tanaka states that these child kami served their parents, performed odd jobs, and were the intermediaries between gods and human beings
.9 Goh dji, as protectors of the dharma, belonged to the extended family of buddhas, kami, monks, practitioners of Buddhist rites, and servants of Buddhist halls, and were on call for all kinds of service. It was owing to their status as children that they could be summoned by "parent deities," monks, and practitioners in general. Their position was in sharp contrast to other guardians of the dharma, such as the arhats (disciples of the Buddha kyamuni who attained awakening).10 These arhats also served as guides or protectors of practitioners of Buddhism, but they appeared at will, and were not to be summoned like servants, as in the case of the goh dji. Thus, the form that this particular class of guardian spirits adopted, that of children, or more specifically that of boys, illustrated their dependent, servile, and marginal status in the Buddhist family. Such views of children reflected the attitude toward children in medieval Japanese society at large. Servant spirits taking the form of children were something to which people could easily relate. Their immediacy, accessibility, and willingness to serve made them ideal servants. During the medieval period, the symbol of the child, or divine child, was particularly important. Many buddhas and bodhisattvas manifested in child form during this time, when belief in the final age of the dharma (mapp) was popular. Buddhas and bodhisattvas were supposed to manifest in the form most appropriate to save sentient beings. For example, Kannon (Avalokitevara) and Monju (Maсjur) both appeared as children or youths and in such form became very popular among outcasts, women, prostitutes, and homosexuals. This phenomenon was also in line with the Buddhist notion of upya, or skillful means (hben), which allowed the use of any means necessary or appropriate to help sentient beings obtain en-
lightenment. Kami (native deities) also appeared in child form, especially those that became protective deities in the Buddhist pantheon, such as the thunder deity, illustrating the relationship between buddhas and kami as that of parent and child.11 Under the combinatory paradigm of honji suijaku (original forms of deities and their local traces), kami came to be seen as the local traces (suijaku) of the original forms (honji), that is, the Buddhist divinities.12 Furthermore, during this period the emperor (tenn) was often a child, and he represented a very powerful symbol to rally under, even though in reality his powers were marginal.13 Thus, the symbol of the child came to represent both sacredness and marginality at the same time. The ambiguity of the symbol dissolved the duality and polarization of purity and pollution, sacred and profane, this-worldliness and other-worldliness, obedience and transgression, freedom and dependency, and peacefulness and turbulence. These distinctions were not absolute for the child, but rather represented a continuum of potentialities to be activated or possibilities to be manipulated by external principals, as in the case of goh dji. The ambiguous potentials of these children were put to use by their principals, namely the master deities upon whom they depended, and the religious specialists who they served.
GOH DJI AS ATTENDANTS In the Keiranshysh (A Collection of Leaves Gathered on Stormy Streams), a collection of doctrinal essays and oral transmissions dated to 1348, the chapter on Goh no koto (Matters Regarding Goh) contains several accounts of how dharma protectors took the form of goh dji in serving eminent monks and saints.14 One of them relates the origin of Otogoh ("youngest protector of the dharma"), the youngest son of an Indian king, who came to Japan and became a goh. The Seburiyama engi gives: Now in India, southern India, there was a king named Tokuzen Dai who had fourteen sons. Seven days after birth, the fifteenth was lost. The king asked Ngrjuna to use his heavenly eye to locate his beloved lost son, who was subsequently found at Seburiyama in Kysh, Japan. Overjoyed, the king, leading the fourteen princes along with Ngrjuna, went to Seburiyama. The king became Sarasvat (Benzaiten), one of the Sixteen Benevolent Deities (zenshin) and Sixteen Great Bodhisattvas. The fifteen princes are his acolytes (dji). The youngest prince is the Sensha Dji and is also known as Otogoh. He is also one of Fud's goh dji, Seitaka Dji.... Among the five hundred eighty thousand dji
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of Saish-o ky, the fifteenth dji, Sensha Dji, is the foremost and is also known as Kisho Myz Dji.15
This goh dji was known by different names according to the deities or saints he served. Otogoh, by virtue of his power, was able to protect saints even when he was not physically present, as illustrated by the following story.
When Monk S crossed the bridge at Katsugawa, his rosary fell into the river and was swept away by the current. He threw his single-pronged vajra into the water, and ordered it to take the rosary back. The vajra caught up with it, and even though it was against the current, the vajra drove the rosary in front, just like a snake pursuing a frog. When they came close to the bridge, the vajra hung the rosary on itself, and presented it to the monk. It was an unparalleled wonderous deed. This was also the doing of Otogoh.16
Thus Otogoh could activate his protective power even from afar, by influencing the vajra to go after the rosary and also floating the rosary against the current towards the bridge. However, it was not clear whether his spirit possessed the vajra, which then was empowered and saved the rosary. Otogoh was said to have served monks such as Shk Shnin of Shoshazan and Tani no Ajari Kkei. In their role as attendants to monks, goh dji also provided more mundane services such as bringing flowers, fruits, and water; lighting incense; and even drawing baths. For example, the monk Butsuren, a reciter of the Lotus Sutra, liked to take a hot bath three times a day. Two beautiful boys appeared and offered to serve him, gathering firewood and heating the water for his baths, bringing him fruits as well. These boys were thought of as goh dji, whom Butsuren recognized as belonging to two of the converted demons in the Lotus Sutra; they vanished forty-nine days after the death of the monk.17 Aside from menial duties related to the daily needs and comfort of monks, goh dji also removed obstacles to their practice. For instance, in the Kokonchomonj, two goh dji saved the priest Yuiremb from the interference of a tengu (goblin).18 The priest was kept from his copying of the Lotus Sutra through the tengu's constant hindrance, and was finally carried off into the mountains by the tengu. A goh doji saved the priest and then reduced the tengu to the size of a rat to prevent further trouble. Goh dji also monitored the practice of priests, keeping them from excessive austerities. In the Heike monogatari, Priest Mongaku practiced painful austerities, for example, letting poisonous insects bite him and standing under the Nachi waterfalls in the thick of winter.19 Once he submerged himself to the neck under the water for several days. When he was swept away in the current, a handsome youth appeared and pulled him ashore. Not discour-
aged by this setback, Mongaku went back under the waterfall and on the second day, eight youths came to pull him out again, during his recitation of the three hundred thousand Fud invocations. Despite their efforts, he fought them off and continued his practice. Nevertheless, when he stopped breathing on the third day, two divine youths descended from the summit of the waterfall and revived him by rubbing him down with their fragrant hands, from head to toe. These two boys identified themselves as Kongara and Seitaka, the two main attendant dji attached to Fud.20 Another case illustrating the guardian role of the goh dji was that of Eik Risshi. In an excess of religious zeal, Eik Risshi climbed up a cinnamon tree and cast himself down into the valley. He was saved by a goh dji, who spread out his sleeves and caught him.21 Moreover, goh dji would manifest in dreams to deliver the prediction of the practitioner's attainment of buddhahood and to show the correct path when one is lost. In the Dainihonkoku hokekygenki (Miraculous Tales of the Lotus Sutra from Ancient Japan), we see the following story. The Tendai Priest Chen of Tsukushi Province had recited the Lotus Sutra and worshipped Fud My since his youth. After many years of ascetic practice, he acquired miraculous powers. One day after fasting for twenty-seven days and reciting the Lotus Sutra, he dreamt that the Eight Great Attendants of Fud My, all equipped with weapons, including swords and iron vajra-s, listened to his recitation and said admiringly, "The ascetics who served the Buddha were the same as the Buddha and would attain the supreme enlightenment just as other bodhisattvas!"22 On another occasion when he lost his way trying to cross Mount mine, he recited the Lotus Sutra fervently and a boy appeared in his dream showing him the right way. 23 Goh were also used in monks' contests of magical powers. For instance, a genkurabe or contest in magical powers took place between Jz Hshi, whose goh brought him flowers and water as described in the Kokonchomonj, and the goh of another powerful ascetic called Shun'y. They sent the goh into a white stone. Jz commanded the stone to move, whereupon it began to jump up and down like a football. Shun'y then commanded the stone to be still, whereupon it at once lay quiet. Next, Jz recited a passage from the Nirvana Sutra in a voice that echoed among the clouds, and the white stone leapt up and split in half. The two contestants finally got up, bowed to each other, and departed. This type of match attested to the advancement of a monk in his practice. Goh dji act as a kind of barometer to gauge the practitioner's progress. The more advanced a monk was in his spiritual power
, the more powerful his goh would be. Also, the tale showed that the power of the priests was not exercised directly over the stone, but over the goh who acted as an intermediary, through whom the stone was made to move.24 Even though the goh dji were protectors of the dharma, sometimes they would go against the spirit of the dharma in obedience to their master.
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We see a description of such behavior in the Uji shi monogatari.25 The yamabushi Keitb was furious that the ferryman ignored his request to board a boat, despite the fact that he had not offered to pay the fee for crossing over. He commanded his goh to turn the boat back. But when there was no response, he threatened to cut himself from the Buddha's three treasures. Thereupon, the boat turned around and headed for the shore. However, this did not assuage his anger and he next ordered the goh to sink the boat. He was finally satisfied when the boat capsized and everyone on board was thrown into the water.26 Goh dji could also be excessively violent in carrying out their duties. In the following excerpt from Konjaku monogatarish, we see this in an account of the goh dji of Shk of Shoshazan:
Shk was a reciter of the Lotus Sutra. He isolated himself in Kirishima and recited the Lotus Sutra, day and night. Subsequently he moved to the mountains and continued to recite the Lotus Sutra. Children about ten years of age sat down with him and read with him.... Later, a youth of about seventeen or eighteen years of age with red hair appeared announcing that he would serve Shk. Even though the youth was short, he was very strong. He cut wood for Shk. Other disciples did not regard this youth as a great treasure, and said to Shk, "This child's gaze is frightful and we don't like him." Much later, a youth bigger than the first youth appeared. Over a little matter, the smaller youth got mad and hit the bigger youth on the head. With one punch, he killed him. They poured water on the youth, but failed to revive him. Shk told the small youth that he was useless and decided to send him away. The child started to cry, and said that if he were to leave, he would be greatly punished. Yet Shk drove him out. The youth cried and repeated that he must serve the saint, otherwise he would be punished by his master. And again he refused to depart. His disciples asked Shk what kind of being this youth was. Shk said that he had prayed to Bishmonten for someone to serve him and the youth was sent.27
From this story we discover that the goh dji had red hair and had great strength. This goh dji belonged to Bishamonten's family and was a converted yaka, thus he was a yaka dji. Bishamonten was served by a number of these yaka dji. Owing to the fact that they were converted demonic spirits, they could forget the rules and fail to exercise moderation at times, ending up inflicting cruelty and violence when they used their strength during the performance of their assigned duties. Even though they were commanded by kami, buddhas, and monks, and served them, they could kill other beings over a mistake, or in anger. Goh were powerful,
dangerous, and turbulent spirits, whose negligence or zeal was sometimes out of control in the fulfillment of an order.
GOH DJI AS MEDIUMS IN EXORCISM In another capacity goh dji became mediums for exorcism conducted by priests or other religious specialists, in addition to driving out evil spirits themselves. This development was in line with the general use of child mediums in exorcism.28 During the medieval period there was a popular notion that illness was caused by evil spirits (mononoke), which would have to be exorcised by healing ritual
s.29 Sometimes instead of the goh dji directly driving out an evil spirit from the possessed, a medium (yorimashi), usually a child or woman, would be used as an intermediary to entice the mononoke to leave the body of the sick and enter the body of the yorimashi instead. Thereafter, the mononoke would be ousted from the body of the yorimashi by the goh dji. In the Uji shi monogatari, we see two accounts of goh dji driving out evil spirits. In one, the Lord Uji (Fujiwara Yorimichi, 9921074) became ill after falling off a horse, and the high priest Shin'yo was summoned to perform an exorcism. Before the priest arrived, a spirit that possessed one of the ladies-in-waiting revealed that he was responsible for the Lord Uji's illness, and was subsequently driven out by a goh dji who came ahead of the priest.30 Here we can again see that the goh dji could be invoked to carry out a monk's orders from a distance. Similarly, a goh dji was also mentioned in a story about the curing of the illness of the prime minister from Horikawa (Fujiwara Mototsune, 836892), also in the Uji shi Monogatari. He (the prime minister) said, "While I was asleep, I was just dreaming that fearsome demons were inflicting all manner of tortures on me when a boy with his hair done in a bun on each side and carrying a wand came in the direction of the inner gate and drove the demons off with the wand, till they scattered and ran away. When I asked him who he was, he said, `A certain priest of the Gokuraku-ji, grieving over your illness, has been beside the inner gate ever since this morning, praying for you by zealously reciting the Ninn Sutra, the scripture he has recited for many years. As a tutelary spirit watching over him, I have driven off these evil demons which were afflicting you.' At that point I woke up, and afterwards felt quite well, just as if I had been wiped clean of an illness."31 From the story, it was clear that it was not the sound of the sutra being chanted nor other incantations that acted directly upon the mononoke, but
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that such sounds acted as catalysts to activate the goh to "possess" the sick person, thus driving out the mononoke. Exorcism by goh dji could be accomplished either by direct possession, or by this kind of double possession. Goh appeared in dreams to those who were ill, as in Uji shi monogatari, and then manifested again in dreams to confirm that the person had been cured.32 From the end of the Heian period into the medieval period, shiki gami came to be identified with goh. This development is illustrated in the Naki Fud emaki, which tells the story of Chik, the high priest of Miidera.33 Shk volunteered to be the yorimashi in order to cure his teacher, Chik, of illness. In the rite of exorcism performed by the onmyji Abe no Seimei, he used two goh, who were depicted as two oni (demons), instead of shiki gami to drive out the mononoke, or yakuby gami (epidemic deities), that were causing Chik's illness. Goh were igy spirits (strange spirits), and in this case demonic spirits. Here one goh had a long nose and looked more like a human, the other goh had a short nose, more similar to a monkey. They both had the image of warriors with knives fastened to their waists and sticks in their hands. Finally, one can say that the most memorable image of gh dji is the sword-goh (Tsurugi no Goh or Ken no Goh) in the illustrated scroll, Shigisan Engi.34 This engi or foundation legend described miraculous tales about Myren, a high priest who devoted his life to the worship of Bishamonten in seclusion at Shigisan in Yamato Province. Scroll one was that of "The Flying Granary" and it told how Myren sent his bowl flying to obtain alms instead of leaving the mountain itself.35 In the second scroll, Myren was summoned to perform a rite of exorcism for the Emperor Daigo. Prior to this, many prayers and rites were performed to cure of the emperor's illness, but he did not recover. Thus, on someone's advice, the Imperial Court requested Myren to travel to the palace to perform an exorcism. Despite the imperial summons to go to the capital, Myren did not go to the palace, but instead performed the rite at Shigisan. He was asked how the emperor would know whether the rite was effective. Myren replied that at the end of the rite, he would send his servant spirit, a sword-goh, who would appear in the emperor's dream as evidence of the efficacy of the rite. The sword-goh did appear in the Tenno's dream with a dharmacakra preceding him or ridden by him, and he carried a sword in his right hand and ropes in his left. He wore a collar from which hung numerous swords.36
GOH DJI AND SHIKI GAMI Onmyji were active not only in performing rites of exorcism like Buddhist priests, but also in performing divination and prayer rituals for the
aristocrats. Onmyji activated servant spirits, which could take the form of children or animals. In Onmyd, illness was believed to result from a curse of an enemy or from an angry spirit. On the one hand, the goh or shiki gami prevented the interference of evil spirits in the practitioners' worship of deities and drove away spirits possessing the sick. They would "return the spirits" who were possessing the ill person, in other words, send the spirits back to the person who originally had put a curse on the ill person. Thereby, in returning a curse, these shiki gami took revenge on the original wrongdoer, punishing him or her.37 On the other hand, shiki gami could in turn deliver a curse, making the accursed ill, or even causing death. In the Uji shi monogatari, we see how goh were attached like shadows to their masters. There is a story about an old priest who was accompanied by his goh, two lads of about ten years old, on a trip in an attempt to test Abe no Seimei's skills. Seimei saw through this right away and made the old priest's goh disappear. The old priest, then realizing that Seimei had tremendous power, said, "It is easy to make use of goh, but to make the goh that someone else is using disappear is a feat that is beyond me. From now on I wish to be your pupil."38 Thereupon Seimei returned the two lads to the old priest. We can observe how fierce shiki gami can be when they are delivering a curse. The following tale relates how Abe no Seimei used his magic powers to protect an archivist minor captain, who had been cursed by a jealous brother-in-law. The shiki gami, who was delivering the curse to kill the captain, could not harm him owing to Seimei's protection. In turn, the onmyji who had been employed to put the curse and had sent a shiki gami to deliver the curse was struck dead when his curse was sent back to him by Abe no Seimei.
Seimei was once seated in his official place at the Palace, watching the high court nobles arrive with their fine array of outriders, when he saw an elegant and very handsome young archivist minor captain alight from his carriage and enter the palace. Just at that moment, Seimei saw a crow fly over the officer's head and drop its dung on him. Seimei took a careful look at it and thought to himself, "What a shame that such a handsome and very popular young man should have been attacked by an evil spirit! This crow is clearly some diviner's familiar [goh or shiki gami]." Evidently it was not the officer's destiny to die yet, for Seimei felt so sorry for him that he went over and asked him, "Are you having an audience of His Majesty? Forgive me if I seem a little presumptuous, but why have you come to the palace? I have seen signs that you will not live through the night. Fate willed that it should be revealed to me. Please come with me and let me see what I can do."... With
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the minor captain clasped tightly in his arms, Seimei cast spells to protect him, and all night long, without a moment's sleep, he never once stopped reciting incomprehensible incantations and prayers. It was a long autumn night, but he concentrated his efforts, and towards dawn there came a knocking at the door. At Seimei's suggestion, someone was sent out to see what it was, and it turned out to be the familiar who had been brought down on the minor captain by his brother-in-law, who had held the archivist's Fifth Rank. They lived in different parts of the same house, and the minor captain's brother-in-law was jealous because their father-in-law had a poor opinion of him, while he was very pleased with the minor captain as a son-in-law and made a great fuss of him. The brother-in-law was so jealous, in fact, that he had engaged a diviner to bring this spirit familiar down onto his rival. The minor captain had thus been close to death when Seimei had observed him, and after Seimei's night-long praying, a messenger had come from the diviner, who had brought down the evil spirit and announced in a loud voice, "Foolishly, and without reason save that I had been commanded to do so, I brought down an evil sprit on you, but you had such strong protection that it has turned back on me and I have now been struck dead, as a result of the awful thing that I did." "Do you hear that, sir?" said Seimei, "If I had not discovered this last night, that is what would have happened to you." The messenger was sent back in the company of a servant, who on inquiry was told that the diviner's death had been instantaneous. The son-inlaw who had engaged the diviner to bring down the evil spirit was immediately sent packing by his father-in-law, who was overcome with tears as he thanked Seimei, and was scarcely able to reward him handsomely enough to express his gratitude.39
SHUGEND AND GOH DJI Goh dji played similar roles in Shugend as in Buddhism and Onmyd. These roles included guiding, attending, and protecting the practitioner (shugenja) into the mountain, and also of serving the shugenja in obtaining oracles and in rites of possession and exorcism.40 The shugenja often carried small images of a dji or ji as their guardian deities in their ascetic practices in the mountains, and sometimes they enshrined these images at the roadsides.41 According to the Diary of Visiting Kumano ascribed to En no Ozunu (En no Gyja no Kumano sankei no nikki), places where dji or ji were enshrined were believed to be defiled or haunted by evil deities,
and thus purification ceremonies or rituals for the enshrined deities were performed there.42 For example, in the medieval period pilgrimage to one of the sacred sites, Kumano, started with a visit to the Fushimi Inari Shrine, where each pilgrim was given a goh to accompany and protect him or her. After the completion of the pilgrimage, each pilgrim would again go the shrine in order to return the goh.43 In particular, the goh "kong dji" was highly valued in Kumano, where there were a hundred thousand kong dji, and there was an ascetic rite, the "Kong Djih," which should be practiced at Kumano.44 Kong dji were popular beyond the Shugend circle during the medieval period, as they were mainly invoked in calamity-averting or exorcistic rituals.45 They appeared in many forms and could multiply in number. Goh dji also performed the role of mediators, communicating people's wishes to the deities. In obtaining oracles, shugenja would send their goh to possess the mediums, who would then function as mouthpieces or oracles (kuchiyose). The mediums or yorimashi were selected from boys and girls
who were clever and without blemish, from about seven to fifteen years old.46 The mediums would achieve identification with their goh and would use the power thus acquired to summon the requested spirits. As for rites of exorcism, there were two types.47 In tsukimono otoshi (getting rid of possessing spirits), the shugenja would drive out the possessing spirit. In chbuku (subduing the spirits), the shugenja would ritually identify with Fud My, so that the shugenja could manipulate the goh dji of Fud My, who would in turn drive out the evil possessing spirits. It was clear that for the chbuku more power was needed, since it was employed when the regular tsukimono otoshi proved to be ineffective. In the chboku, it was the manipulation by the shugenja of Fud My's retinue of goh dji who could then control and defeat the evil deities or spirits. Fud My's retinue of servant spirits included Kongara and Seitaka, who were his two main attendant goh dji, as well as his Eight Great Goh Dji, and Thirtysix Great Dji. The founder of Shugend, En no Ozunu (also known as En no Ubasoku and En no Gyja) also had his goh doji: two demon attendants whom he had converted, known as Zenki (Front Demon) and Goki (Back Demon), in addition to the Eight Great Dji. In the Nihon ryiki, it was said that in his late forties En no Ozunu went to live in a cave, wore clothing made of vines, drank the dewdrops on pine needles, bathed in pure spring water to rinse away the filth of the world of desire, and learned the "Formula of the Peacock" (Mahmyrvidyrjс) to attain extraordinary power. Thus, he could employ spirits (kijin, demonic spirits) and kami.48 The Shoku Nihongi records miracle tales about En no Ozunu: "Popular tradition had it that Ozunu had demonic powers at his beck and call; that he had them draw his water and gather his firewood; and that if they failed to
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obey him, he would bind them with spells."49 The founder of Hakusan Shugend, Taich, was attended by two goh dji, Fuseri Gyja and Shj Gyja. Shoshazan's Shok was also attended by two goh dji, Oto Goh and Waka Goh. Shugenja used dji as servants or attendants, especially in exorcism and in the rite of the flying bowl (hihatsuh).50 For example, En no Ozunu was said to have put his mother in his begging bowl and sent it flying to China.51 Myren had the services of Tsurugi no Goh (the swordgoh) and Khatsu Goh (the empty begging bowl goh). Now let us look at a particular form of goh for the yamabushi, the tengu, and explore the relationship of tengu to goh dji in Buddhism.
GOH DJI AND TENGU Tengu is a type of long-nosed goblin. In the beginning there was the crow tengu, characterized by the beak and wings of a Siberian black kite, the original incarnate form of the creature; sometimes it was embodied as a human with a bird's bill.52 By the early seventeenth century, the image of the tengu had generally become that of a ruddy-faced and long-nosed itinerant monk, symbolizing vainglory. In the Tengu zshi, tengu were said to inhabit mountains and to descend to the world of man to cause mischief. It also says that Buddhist monks who forget the true teachings of their faith would turn into tengu.53 In the Buddhist context, the enemies of goh dji were the tengu, as illustrated in the story of Zegaib.54 Zegaib was a Chinese tengu who came to Japan in order to challenge the senior priests of Enryakuji at Mt. Hiei, only to suffer an ignominious defeat. The story is as follows. In 966, during the reign of Emperor Murakami, Zengaib, the chief tengu of the Empire of China, came to Japan. Meeting Nichiraib, the Great Tengu of Mt. Atago, Zegaib boasted that he had subjugated all the high priests in China and that the purpose of his visit to Japan was to measure his virtue with monks in Japan, possibly to obstruct their enlightenment. Asked to serve as a guide, the Japanese tengu led his Chinese colleague up Mt. Hiei. Zegaib turned himself into an old monk while Nichiraib hid behind a tree in the distance, waiting until monks descended the mountain. Yokei Risshi was riding in a palanquin on his way to the palace and as Zegaib approached, a burning iron wheel sent him flying, with his wings burned. Nichiraib laughed and said that this monk believed in Fud My, and was reciting a mantra of Fud My--the mantra of the fire realm--which burned
demonic forces. Zegaib, not discouraged by this thwarted effort, got ready again. Next came Jinzen(sen), a bishop of Imuro, who was also a believer of Fud My. Jinzen recited another mantra of Fud My and suddenly two red-haired boys appeared with raised canes and started to chase Zegaib, and the tengu was severely beaten. Nichiraib rebuked Zegaib, and Monzeb, the tengu of Mt. Hira, joined in the reprimand. Nichiraib told Zegaib that the two boys were the servant spirits of Fud My: the goh dji Kongara and Seitaka. Without any sign of contrition, Zegaib ran into the party of Rygen (Jie Daishi), the august abbot of the Tendai sect, whose young mysterious-looking attendants bound the tengu up and gave him a good thrashing, led by Oto Goh and Waka Goh. The beaten Zegaib was carried home by Nichiraib's tengu, who ridiculed him mercilessly. Zegaib asked for treatment in a hot spring to ease his pain, but was told that since spas were sacred sites, he would be sure to have another hard time of it there. Then they gave him a hot bath on the banks of the Kamo River and nursed him. Seventeen days later, when he finally recovered, Zegaib thanked Nichiraib for his help. Realizing the futility of his extended stay in such a sacred site, he expressed his wish to return to China. 55
Tengu were regarded in Shugend as servants of kami, buddhas, eminent monks, and yamabushi, like the servant spirit of goho dji in Buddhism.56 In Buddhist tales such as the Konjaku monogatarish, however, these tengu were depicted as turbulent mountain deities and were represented as enemies of Buddhism. We see illustrations of this development in Tengu zshi and in the account of Zegaib, which is different from the development in popular cults of tengu. In popular religion, tengu were worshipped for preventing fire and robbery. Tengu were mountain spirits, deities that were pacified and converted by the yamabushi, and in esoteric Buddhism they became identified with Kong Dji. Thus the cult of Kong Dji, the protective spirit of Shugend, became influenced by the cult of tengu.57 mine had the Eight Great Kong Dji and the Eight Tengu as protective spirits.58 Tengu also became deities of happiness/wealth (fukujin), owing to the belief that they brought good harvests. For those who mine mountains, tengu were regarded as gods of fortune. This brings to mind the fact that other turbulent spirits who were creators of obstacles became protectors of them and also became deities of wealth, such as Dsojin. The story of Zegaib takes the perspective of the eminent monks of Hieizan, emphasizing the miraculous powers of Fud My and goh dji against the evil power of the tengu. In Tendai mikky, the tengu symbolized
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the Buddhist concept of evil, later turned into a path of rebirth, and finally were regarded as enemies of Buddhism. Haruko N. Wakabayashi stated that tengu are enemies of Buddhism, demonic creatures that defy Buddhism, and constituted the antithesis to the ideal of the Buddhist order.59 Thus, these tengu are very similar to "ma" (mra). An illustration of how tengu could be saved from the evil path and also be reborn as a monk with the help of goh dji is as follows.
A tengu from India was on his way to China, heard the water of the ocean chanting a phrase of the "Daihannyaky," and decided to prevent such chanting and looked for its source. Thus following the sound of the chanting, he passed over China and arrived at Japan. Tracing it to a river flowing from Mt. Hiei, he saw the Four Heavenly Kings and other protectors of the dharma guarding the water. He went toward a heavenly child (tend), here a goh dji, guarding the river and asked why the water was chanting the sutra. The goh dji replied that it was owing to the fact that the source of the flow starts from the privy of the learned monks of Hieizan. The tengu was so taken by the account that he forgot his thought of putting a stop to the chanting and instead upon promising to become a monk at Hieizan disappeared. He kept his word and later was reborn as the monk Mygu.60
Here we see goh dji guarding a river that chanted sutra and originated from a privy at Hieizan. And we also see that the tengu was so moved by the goh dji's account that he was converted to Buddhism and later reborn as a monk. In Buddhist tales, tengu were viewed as obstacles to the followers of the dharma. They were even known to possess people, but were in turn exorcised, like mononoke or evil spirits. Despite their trouble-making, we find that they were rendered powerless when they encountered the protectors of the dharma, and sometimes were even converted by the goh zenshin. In contrast to this Buddhist outlook, tengu continued to be worshipped as gods of fortune and even gods of fertility in popular religion.
GOH DJI AND YKAI While the enemies of Tendai mikky were the tengu, we find that the ykai (ghosts, goblins) were the enemies in Shingon and Onmyd. Goh dji would protect against ykai attacks and could even convert such ykai. Following the Shingon doctrines of sokushin jbutsu (attainment of buddhahood in this very body) and of hij jbutsu (plants and other
nonsentient beings' ability to attain buddhahood), even ykai could attain buddhahood. In the Muromachi period, the representatives of the ykai were the utsuwa no ykai (tool goblins), also called tsukumogami (ghosts of old objects). In Tsukumogami-ki (Record of the Ghosts of Old Objects), an otogizshi of the late fifteenth century, we see the following account.61 The text begins by quoting the Onmy zakki (Miscellaneous Records Concerning the Yin and Yang), which states that utsuwa mono (tools) obtain spirit or tama after hundreds of years.62 People used to welcome spring by throwing away old tools in the street; this custom was known as susuharai. As a result new tools, furniture, and clothing were brought into the house as the old ones were tossed out or discarded into the streets. During the Kenp era (964968), there was a rebellion of old tools. They were angry about being discarded after having provided years of service. Thus, these tools transformed from inanimate to animate beings, became ghosts of tools (utsuwa ykai) on the first day of spring (setsubun), and sought revenge on human beings by killing them and their animals. These ykai organized themselves and made a procession along First Street in Kyto. The Emperor summoned a Shingon high priest to perform the great rite of the "Supreme Dhra" (sonsh darani) for seven days and seven nights. On the evening of the sixth day, a light was seen--the light of the Seven Heavenly Boys, who were on their way to the north of Kyto to fight these utsuwa yokai. These Seven Heavenly Boys, goh dji of my such as Fud My, appeared to the utsuwa yokai and said that if they would take refuge in the Three Jewels and arouse the desire to attain enlightenment, their lives would be spared; otherwise, they would be killed. The yokai were terrified and as a result asked for instructions in Buddhist teachings, and converted to Buddhism. One day, while they were being instructed about Shingon teachings and their miraculous power, such as sokushin jbutsu, several of the utsuwa yokai were said to have "become buddha in their very bodies" (sokushin jbutsu). Finally let us turn to household servant spirits in folk religion, the zashiki warashi, or literally, children of the parlor or the drawing room.
CHILD SERVANT SPIRITS OF HOUSES: THE ZASHIKI WARASHI Zashiki warashi were child servant spirits who were attached to a specific house. They were children aged from five or six, up to twelve or thirteen years old. These children were usually boys, although there were also some rare instances of girls. According to the folklorist Chiba Toku, usually one could not see zashiki warashi, who were said to have red faces
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with long, flowing hair. However, one could trace their whereabouts by following the footprints that they left behind.63 Having zashiki warashi reside in one's house would bring good fortune, while their departure would bring misfortune.64 There were many names for zashiki warashi, which varied according to locale: zashiki bokko, kurawarashi, kurabokko, notabariko, ushitsukiko. These servant spirits represented a type of tsukimono (possessing spirits), since they possessed the house in which they lived. In medieval Japan, people attributed sudden increases or decreases in wealth to possession by animals, animal deities, humans, or plant spirits. It was believed that whereas possession by spirits that were lower than the human existence (e.g., foxes or dogs) would bring malevolence, possession by spirits higher than the human form (e.g., kami) would bring benefits.65 In Yanagita Kunio's Tno monogatari (The Legends of Tno) there were several accounts of zashiki warashi.
Among the older households there are quite a few houses that have the spirit zashiki warashi (parlor child). At the oldest this kami is twelve or thirteen years old. From time to time it reveals itself to people. At Iide in Tsuchibuchi village, Kanjr Imabuchi's daughter, who goes to a girls' high school
, recently returned home for vacation. One day in the dark corridor all of a sudden she bumped into a zashiki warashi and was badly shocked. This zashiki warashi was definitely a male child. At Yamaguchi in the same village the mother of Mr. Sasaki was sewing alone one day when she heard the sound of paper rustling in the next room. That room was only for the master of the house, but he was in Tokyo. Thinking it strange, she opened the wooden door and looked in, but no one was there. After having been seated a short time, again there was the sound of someone sniffling. She concluded that it must be zashiki warashi. It had been rumored for some time that zashiki warashi resided in this house. The house that this kami lives in is said to become rich and prestigious.66
Zashiki warashi could also be a girl child as we see in the following account.
It has been traditionally said that there are two girl kami in the house of Magozaemon Yamaguchi, also an old house in Yamaguchi. One year a certain man from the village was on his way back from town and near Tomeba bridge when he met two lovely girls whom he had never seen before. They were walking pensively towards him. "Where did you come from?" he asked. "We have come from Magozaemon's in Yamaguchi," they replied.
"Where are you headed now?" he inquired. "To a certain house in another village," was the reply. That certain household in a somewhat distant village is now wealthy and the people live well. Hearing this the man conjectured that Magozaemon was headed for ruin, and it was not too long after that twenty or so people in the family died in one day from mushroom poisoning. Only one seven-year-old girl did not die. She merely grew old without having any children, and recently died of an illness.67
Chiba identified the zashiki warashi with Okunai-sama, the household deity that looked after the fate of the family. He also connected zashiki warashi with the small child or koz from the Dragon Palace, and to Hanatare Koz (translated by Komatsu Kazuhiko as "Snotty-nosed Brat"), whose stay in one's house was tied to the fortune of the house.68 The story of Hanatare Koz is as follows.
This child was given to an old man in Higo who sold firewood. He had prayed to the Dragon God and thrown his unsold firewood into the water. A beautiful woman appeared and gave him a child with the admonition that since this child was a gift from the Dragon God, the child would grant any wish of the old man, but in return, he must offer the child a shrimp a day. The old man put the child beside his altar and went into town to buy a shrimp to offer to the child every day. The child produced everything the old man asked for, and in no time, he became very rich. One day, however, he got tired of going into town to buy a shrimp for the hanatare koz so he told the child to go back to the Dragon Palace. Upon the child's departure, his house and wealth vanished.69
The child who was worshipped every day brought fortune, and in this respect is a child of good fortune. In contrast, the child who was neglected or expelled brought misfortune, and in this respect is a disaster-causing child. Furthermore, this child is strange (irui igy)--in most versions of the tale of the Dragon Palace Child he is depicted as being physically ugly, or mentally abnormal. This reminds us of other strange children (id), such as the onigo, or demon child. Such onigo include Benkei, who was black in color, and Kintoki, who was red in color, both of whom could also bring both benefit and harm to the human community. Such strange children were both desired and feared at the same time. Their turbulent and unpredictable nature needed to be "well-managed" by their master. Only in this way could their oscillation between bringing wealth and bringing calamity be brought under control, and benefit those around them.
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CONCLUDING REMARKS The goh dji was a double symbol combining both the symbol of the guardian deity and the symbol of the child. Guardian deities were originally demonic spirits and local deities opposed to Buddhism. Their turbulent or fierce propensities were not eliminated, but rather were kept intact, and placed under the management of buddhas and bodhisattvas in the service of Buddhism. These deities were violent and merciless in punishing the transgressors of the dharma, but benevolent and compassionate in rewarding the followers of the dharma. Like other guardians of the dharma, goh dji were also characterized by the same dual propensities of malevolence and benevolence in protecting the followers of Buddhism. But while their duty to protect the dharma was similar to that of other guardians, since they were also children, they had to be supervised or directed by adult principals, in this case master deities or religious specialists. Furthermore, because they were children they could perform more mundane tasks or odd jobs. Goh dji not only followed the orders of their masters and delivered their messages, but also attended to their every need, no matter how menial or trivial. However, since they were children, their actions were not always predictable, as they might at times be overzealous in carrying out their orders. The changeability supposedly characteristic of children--oscillating between benevolence and malevolence, peacefulness and turbulence, compassion and cruelty, freedom and dependency--was put to use by the adult principals. As double-edged swords, able to bring blessings or calamities at the command of their masters, goh dji became very popular and effective servants. In Buddhist circles and beyond, accounts of these child servant spirits soared in the medieval Japanese imaginaire, as these children took on different names or forms in the ever-expanding discourse about them.
NOTES 1. I am very grateful to Iyanaga Nobumi for his valuable comments, corrections, and encouragement. As always, I am thankful for Paul Harrison's criticism and support. An earlier version of this paper was presented at a workshop which I held on "Images and Concepts of Childhood" at Stanford Humanities Center and Stanford Center for Buddhist Studies, Stanford University
, December 2000. 2. I have not been able to find an equivalent for the symbol of goh dji in Medieval Chinese
discourse. In medieval Chinese hagiography, there are references to monks being served or attended by spirits or ghosts, but no mention of child servant deities in particular. In the Song gaoseng zhuan deities (shen) and spirits appear as evidence of the resonance (ganying) eminent monks inspire. On this issue, see John Kieschnick, The Eminent Monk: Buddhist Ideals in Medieval Chinese Hagiography (Honolulu, University of Hawai
i Press, 1997). For instance, we find spirits who assist monks in sweeping roads, lighting lamps, replenishing incense, drawing water, bringing fruit and wood, causing floodwaters to recede, and in punishing those who abuse monks. See for example, Song gaoseng zhuan, T. 2061, vol. 50, 25.17 (870b2324) and 22.2 (850a911). The one specific instance I came across of such a guardian child spirit is the heavenly youth who attended Daoxuan, identified as Nuocha or Nacha, the son of Vairavana (Bishamonten). See Song gaoseng zhuan, T. 2061, 14.1 (791a913). Daoxuan is also served by Weituo, a youthful deity who can be viewed as another goh dji type, and Weituo's servants. See Daoxuan lьshi ganlong lu, T. 2107, vol. 52 (435c16). There are, of course, acolytes who attend bodhisattvas, for example Guanyin's two acolytes, Shan Tongzi (Virgin Lad [Keeping Track] of Good Deeds) and E Tongzi (Virgin Lad [Keeping Track] of Evil Deeds). These two Virgin Lads are the subject of an extensive study by Michel Soymiй, "Notes d'iconographie chinoise: les acolytes de Ti-tsang (I)," Arts asiatiques 14 (1966): pp. 141170. However, these acolytes do not become a unique symbol like goh dji in medieval Japanese discourse. 3. Carmen Blacker and Christine Guth have both written general surveys on the subject of divine boys, in the context of Japanese Buddhism and Japanese art respectively. See Carmen Blacker, "The Divine Boy in Japanese Buddhism," Asian Folklore Studies 22 (1963): pp. 7788 (also in Carmen Blacker, Collected Writings of Carmen Blacker [Tokyo, Tokyo Library Japan, 2000], pp. 101109) and Christine Guth, "Divine Boy in Japanese Art," Monumenta Nipponica 42, no. 1 (1987): pp. 123. Whereas Blacker defines the "divine boy" in terms of goh dji in Buddhism specifically, Guth represents the "divine boy" as a religious archetype, such as the infant
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Buddha or Shitta Taishi, the infant Prince Shtoku or Nambutsu Taishi, the boy Kb Daishi or Chigo Daishi, the boy Monju or Chigo Monju and the adolescent Monju or Nawa Monju, and the child Kannon or Chigo Kannon. Yanagita Kunio has also written a short article on the subject. He stresses the point that these heavenly children (tend) who protect the buddhadharma are also demonic spirits and are used as mediums in exorcism. Yanagita Kunio, "Goh dji," Kydo kenky 2, no. 11 (1915): pp. 641654. More recently Koyama Satoko, a Ph.D. candidate working on the goh dji, has published a number of articles on her research. See for example, Koyama, "Chsei zenki no Shren'in monzeki ni okeru goh dji shink no juy," Nihon shky bungakushi kenky 4, no. 1 (2000): pp. 3862; Koyama, "Dainihonkoku hokekygenki ni miru goh dji," Setsuwa bungaku kenky 35 (July 2000): pp. 105-117; Koyama, "Goh dji no zuzteki sekai," Setsuwa 10 (February 2000): pp. 4168; Koyama, "Chsei zenki ni okeru dji shink no rysei to mapp shis," Bukky shigaku kenky 43, no. 1 (2000): pp. 4569. She examines the possible origins and the development of the cult of goh dji. Some of her main points are as follows. The popularity of dji in the early medieval period can been seen as a result of the belief in the final age of the dharma (mapp), in which buddhas and bodhisattvas will manifest in the most appropriate form to save sentient beings, i.e., in the form of children. Furthermore, the cult of dji originated from the Lotus Sutra, and as a result the earliest form of dji are the tend, who protect those who recite the Lotus Sutra. These tend later came to be identified with the dji of Fud My, in particular, Kongara and Seitaka, in addition to the kong dji who vowed to protect sentient beings during mapp as goh. Thus by the latter part of the medieval period, the cult of goh dji developed as the amalgamation of the cults of tend and goh, to encompass the servant spirits of esoteric deities such as Fud My and Benzaiten, and in this way the goh dji's protection extended well beyond the reciters of the Lotus Sutra to the followers of the dharma. The actual term goh dji came to be used during the latter part of the Muromachi period even though in the mid-Heian period there were expressions such as goh or tend. On the art history front, there have recently been two special exhibitions on children in Japanese art at the Hikone Castle Museum in 2000 and at the Tokyo National Museum in 2001. The respective catalogues from the exhibitions are Bijutsu no naka no dji, compiled by Hikonej hakubutsukan, 2000, and Bijutsu no naka no kodomotachi, compiled by Tokyo Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan, 2001. Furthermore there is a journal issue devoted to the forms of children in the medieval period. See Tsuda Tetsuei, ed., "Chsei no dji-gy," Nihon no bijutsu 2003, no. 442 (March). I am indebted to Iyanaga Nobumi for this reference. 4. The vidy rja Acala (Fud My) is also a youth, at times appearing as a child, and is a messenger. See, for example, Asabash, T. zuzbu 9,
324b2325. In Daoism, we see that messenger deities often took the form of children, e.g., the Azure Lad and the Jade Maiden. For a study on the Azure Lad, see Paul Kroll, "In the Halls of the Azure Lad," Journal of the American Oriental Society 105, no. 1 (JanuaryMarch 1985): pp. 7594. We can also compare such child deities with other Western messenger deities, such as the Greek Hermes, who is often represented as a young deity and is a god of communication, and Eros, another young deity who is a god of communication between men and women
. I am indebted to Iyanaga Nobumi for bringing this comparison to my attention and also for the following reference. See Laurence Kahn, Hermes passe, ou, Les ambiguites de la communication [collection Textes a l'appui] (Paris: F. Maspero, 1978). 5. For discussion of the notion of muen, see Amino Yoshihiko, Muen, kugai, raku: Nihon chsei no jiy to heiwa, Heibonsha sensho 58 (Tokyo: Heibonsha, 1978) and Amino Yoshihiko and Abe Kinya, [Taidan] Chsei no saihakken: ichi, zyo, enkai (Tokyo: Heibonsha, 1994). 6. See Iijima Yoshiharu, "Folk Culture and the Liminality of Children," Current Anthropology
28, no. 4 (1987): pp. 4147. This also brings to mind two Indian threshold deities or guardians of the door: Skanda, who appears as a handsome young man (Kumra) or sometimes even as a boy (dji), and Gaea, a god of obstacles who is an ugly dwarf with a potbelly and an elephant head with a single tusk. For a discussion of these guardian deities, see R.A. Stein, "The Guardian of the Gate: An Example of Buddhist Mythology, From Indian to Japan," in Asian Mythologies, ed. Yves Bonnefoy (Chicago and London: University of Chicago
Press, 1993), pp. 112136. On the birth stories of Gaea and Skanda, see Iyanaga Nobumi, Kannon hen'ytan, Bukky shinwagaku II (Kyoto: Hzkan, 2002), pp. 11 31. Skanda later becomes Weituo in China and his form is very similar to that of goh dji. Weituo is known to have served the monk Daoxuan, bringing him food from the heavenly kitchen every day (Iyanaga, Kannon hen'ytan, pp. 117121). He is also known to be able to send a begging bowl flying. For more details on this issue, see note 35. Weituo not only becomes the guardian of the monastery gate in China from the seventh century onwards, but later also becomes the guardian of the kitchen in Chan and Zen monasteries to ensure plentiful food supply
for the sangha. Maсjur, another young man type, is also known as the keeper of the refectory. Stein, "The Guardian of the Gate," pp. 125127. 7. Iijima, "Folk Culture and Liminality of Children," p. 42, and Nakano Chizuru, "Goh dji to ddji," Bukky shigaku kenky 27, no. 1 (1984): pp. 2362. 8. Tanaka Takako, "Torai suru kami to dochaku suru kami," in Nihon no kami, vol. 1: kami no shigen, ed. Yamaori Tetsuo (Tokyo: Heibonsha, 1995), pp. 174208.
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9. Tanaka, "Torai suru kami to dochaku suru kami," p. 206. 10. For studies of the cult of arhats see Michibata Rysh, Rakan shinkshi (Tokyo: Dait shuppansha, 1983) and Sylvain Lйvi and Edouard Chavannes, "Les seize Arhat protecteurs de la Loi," Journal asiatique 8 (1916): pp. 548, 189304. 11. I have discussed this issue elsewhere. See Irene H. Lin, "From Thunder Child to Dharma-protector: Dj hshi and the Buddhist Appropriation of Japanese Local Deities," in Buddhas and Kami in Japan: Honji Suijaku as a Combinatory Paradigm, eds. Teeuwen and Rambelli (London and New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003), pp. 5476. 12. On honji suijaku, see Teeuwen and Rambelli, Buddhas and Kami in Japan. 13. I have examined this issue elsewhere. See Lin, "The Ideology of Imagination: The Tale of Shuten Dji as a Kenmon Discourse," in Buddhist Priests, Kings, and Marginals: Studies on Medieval Japanese Buddhism, eds. Bernard Faure and Franзois Lachaud, Cahiers d'Extrкme Asie 13 (2002 2003): pp. 379410. 14. T. 76, 2410, 782784. For an introduction to the Keiranshysh, see Allan Grapard, "Keiranshysh: A Different Perspective on Mt. Hiei in the Medieval Period," in Re-Visioning "Kamakura" Buddhism, ed. Richard K. Payne (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1998), pp. 5569. 15. T. 76, 2410, 783a and b. All translations are my own unless otherwise noted. Benzaiten is given as having fifteen or sixteen sons who are incarnations of various Buddhist deities symbolizing various crafts of which she is a patron. See Louis Frйdйric, Buddhism: Flammarion Iconographic Guides (New York: Flammarion, 1995). Sensha Dji is an incarnation of Yakuj Bosatsu. Seitaka Dji, who serves Fud My, is often paired with Kongara as the two acolytes most often represented with him. He can have two, eight, thirty-six, or forty-eight child acolytes. 16. T. 76, 2140, 783c. Iyanaga Nobumi kindly edited my translation of this story and pointed to the fact that this single-pronged vajra had been transmitted to the Monk So from the monarchal rector (sj) Rykai of Iimuro and is still in Mt. Hiei. 17. Konjaku monogatarish, fasc. 13, no. 23. Nihon koten bungaku taikei 24, ed. Takagi Ichinosuke et al. (Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 19571968), pp. 239240. 18. Kokonchomonj, fasc. 17, no. 600, Nihon koten bungaku taikei 84, pp. 461462. 19. Helen Craig McCullough, trans., The Tale of Heike (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1988), pp. 178179. 20. In the Asabash, the chapter on Fud My contains a section describing the two attendants of the deity, Kongara Dji and Seitaka Dji. Asabash, T. zuzbu 9, 325a1920. The text states that Kongara Dji is very careful and
respectable, whereas Seitaka is hard to deal with and has a malevolent character. 21. Hanawa Hokiichi, compiler, Gunsho Ruiju (Tokyo: Nagai Shoseki, 1928 1937), book 487. 22. Yoshiko Dykstra, trans., Miraculous Tales of the Lotus Sutra from Ancient Japan: The Dainihonkoku hokekykenki of Priest Chingen (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1983), pp. 114115. Usually the text is read Dainihonkoku hokekygenki, not hokekykenki as Dykstra reads it. Thus in the paper I refer to the text in the conventional way. 23. Yoshiko Dykstra, Miraculous Tales of the Lotus Sutra from Ancient Japan, p. 115. 24. Kokonchomonj, fasc. 2, no. 46, Nihon koten bungaku Taikei 84, pp. 81 83. Another magical contest involving a goh is found in kagami fasc. 3, Nihon koten bungaku taikei 21, pp. 148149; Helen Craig McCullough, trans., kagami: The Great Mirror Fujiwara Michinaga (9961027) and His Times, A Study and Translation (Princeton and Tokyo: Princeton University
Press and University of Tokyo Press, 1988), p. 150. 25. D. E. Mills, trans., A Collection of Tales from Uji: A Study and Translation of Uji Shi Monogatari (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1970). 26. Mills, A Collection of Tales from Uji, pp. 193194. 27. Konjaku monogatarish fasc. 12, no. 34, Nihon koten bungaku taikei 24, pp. 185186. 28. For a discussion of the use of child-mediums in possession and exorcism, see Michel Strickmann, Chinese Magical Medicine (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2002), pp. 194227. 29. For a study of such exorcistic rituals, see Komatsu Kazuhiko, Hyrei shinkoron (Tokyo: Kdansha, 1994). 30. Mills, A Collection of Tales from Uji, p. 146. 31. Ibid., pp. 425426. 32. Ibid., p. 266. 33. There is a variation of this story in the Soga monogatari. See Thomas J. Cogan, trans., The Tale of the Soga Brothers (Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1987), pp. 189193. 34. Nihon emaki taisei 4: Shigisan engi (Tokyo: Chkoronsha, 1977). 35. Scroll one tells of how Myren sends his bowl flying to the foot of the mountain, where there lived a rich landlord, for the purpose of obtaining food. One day, people in the squire's house were taking rice out of the granary when Myren's bowl came flying into a corner of the granary. Later, having forgotten that the bowl was still inside the storehouse, the
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workers closed the door. Suddenly the granary began to shake and rose into the air. The door opened, the bowl came out of the granary, and the bowl carried the building in flight to Shigisan. The squire later apologized for his negligence and begged Myren to return the rice. Myren said that the granary had to stay there, but the rice would be sent back. A noteworthy factor of this account is that one of the supernormal powers that could be acquired through meditation was the ability to fly (ddhi-s, which belong to higher knowledges or abhijс-s). Here, Myren's ability to send his bowl flying was indicative of his advanced state of practice that gave him the power of flight, which extended to his begging bowl. This brings to mind a similar account, Jietaisi of the flying bowl, which gets filled with jewels owning to the miraculous power of Skanda or Weituo. See Stein, "The Guardian of the Gate," p. 127 and Iyanaga, Kannon hen'youtan, pp. 8486. Another point worthy of mention here is that Myren's worship of Bishamonten may have also given him and objects associated with him powers of flight. In the Bishamontennky, it states that when a practitioner recites the sutra and makes offerings to Bishamon, the deity will manifest in the form of a dji or a layperson, according to the wish of the practitioner. See T. 21, 1244: 215216, 216a. Furthermore, the sutra continues by saying that "those who recite the sutra will obtain the ability to fly about freely." Art historians Miya Tsugio and Sawa Takaaki have suggested that the sword-goh is the fifth servant spirit of Bishamonten, which is evident from the similarity of images of the dji with that of this fifth servant spirit (an adult wearing a similar sword suit). Miya Tsugio, "Shigisan engi kyojitsu zakk," in Bukky setsuwa-e no kenky, ed. Kameda Tsutomu (Tokyo: Tokyo bijitsu, 1979), pp. 129146. For the image, see Taish zuzbu 7, 551; Sawa Takaaki, "Shigisan engi to Toba sj Kakuyu-k," in Nihon emaki taisei 4: Shigisan engi (Tokyo: Chkoronsha, 1977). 36. There is a version of this story in the Uji shi monogatari, which reveals more about the sword-goh and his relation to Bishamonten. Mills, A Collection of Tales from Uji, pp. 286291. 37. For a study of shikigami, see Komatsu, Hyrei shinkron, pp. 145228. Izanagiry, a folk religion with Onmyd influence, also used servant spirits known as shiki ji. These servant spirits were summoned by prayers, and they would get rid of the curse causing the illness of the person who was wronged. For a study of shiki ji, see Sait Hideki, Izanagiry: shiki ji (Tokyo: Shinkigensha, 2000). 38. Mills., A Collection of Tales from Uji, pp. 339340. 39. Ibid., pp. 175176. 40. For a detailed study of these rituals, see Miyake Hitoshi, Shugend girei no kenky (Tokyo: Shunjsha, 1985). For a summary of such rites, see Miyake Hitoshi, "Religious Rituals in Shugendo: A Summary," Japanese Journal of Religious Studies
16, nos. 23 (1989): pp. 101116.
41. Miyake Hitoshi, "Kumano Gongen: The Idea of Deity in Shugend," in Shugend: Essays on the Structure of Japanese Folk Religion (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
, 2001), pp. 3659. 42. Ibid., p. 39. 43. Ibid., p. 48 44. Ibid., p. 49. 45. For example, women were believed to be especially susceptible to possession by evil spirits during the time of childbirth. Thus, when the daughter of Taira no Kiyomori, the Empress Kenreimon'in, was giving birth, a number of eminent monks were summoned to perform esoteric rituals to ensure safe delivery, and the Kong Dji ritual was one of these rites. Helen Craig McCullough, trans., The Taiheiki: A Chronicle of Medieval Japan (New York: Columbia University
Press, 1959), p. 12 and McCullough, The Tale of Heikei, pp. 100101. 46. Miyake, Shugend girei no kenky, p. 349. 47. Ibid., pp. 445474. 48. Kyoko M. Nakamura, trans., Miraculous Stories from the Japanese Buddhist Tradition: The Nihon ryiki of the Monk Kykai (Surrey: Curzon Press, 1997), pp. 140142. 49. Gorai Shigeru, "Shugendo Lore,"Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 16, nos. 23 (1989): pp. 117142. 50. For the rite of the flying bowl, Nyi hju tenrin himitsu genshin jbutsu konrinjuky, see T. 19, 961: 330324, 330c331a and Iyanaga, Kannon hen'youtan, pp. 8399. 51. Shugend no hon: kami to butsu ga yg yamagai no mandara, Collection Bukkusu Esoterika 8 (Tokyo: Gakush kenkysha, 1993), pp. 3440. 52. For a detailed study of the tengu, refer to the pioneering work of M.W. de Visser, "The Tengu," Transactions Asiatique Journal 36, no. 2 (1908): pp. 1159. 53. Tengu zshi, in vol. 27 of Shinsh Nihon Emakimono Zensh, ed. Umezu Jir (Tokyo: Kadokawa shoten, 1978). 54. Ibid. 55. Zegaib-e in vol. 27 of Shinsh Nihon Emakimono Zensh, ed. Umezu Jir (Tokyo: Kadokawa shoten, 1978). Compare this story to the following tale, which I have also translated. According to Komatsu Kazuhiko, the former story is based on the latter account. Komatsu Kazuhiko, Nihon Ykai ibunroku (Tokyo: Shogakkan, 1995), p. 90. There was a powerful tengu who lived in China, named Chira Eiju. He came to Japan and upon meeting Japanese tengu said that in his country, even though there were virtuous monks, the tengu
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were free in their actions. Hearing that there were also practicing monks in Japan, he wanted to compare the monks of the two countries and challenge the Japanese monks. Together they went to Hieizan's Ishi sotoba at take, and the Japanese tengu said that since his face was already known, he would hide, and advised the tengu from China to transform himself into an old monk and wait for passersby. Yokei then approached, sitting in a palanquin on his way to the capital. The Japanese tengu, who was anxious to see what tricks the Chinese tengu would play, instead saw the priest's procession pass by. Surprised at the turnout, he found Eiju hiding in a valley. Eiju explained that when he went near, he did not see the priest, but saw flames on top of the palanquin. Afraid to be burned, he hid himself in the valley. His next attempt was on Priest Jinzen. However, an attendant of the priest, a child with short hair (goh dji) swinging a stick, preceded the monk, saw Eiju, and chased him away. Then a group of people was seen descending the mountain. It was the Priest Jie surrounded by a group of boys, about twenty or thirty of them, holding whips. One of them said, "There is something suspicious nearby," and another said, "This is the place where the old monk hides," and others said, "Let's bind him ... don't let him escape." About ten of them approached and pulled him out, and started to whip him, asking his identity. The old monk replied that he was a tengu from China and recounted the whole story: how when Yokei (Jikaku daishi) came by, he chanted the mantra of Fud My, and then a big blaze appeared on top of his palanquin, thus he had to run away to escape the flame. Then when Jinzen came and read the mantra of Fud My, Seitaka Dji came and, holding an iron cane, chased him away. Hearing this, the group of boys then each took a turn and trampled on him. Thus beaten, the Japanese tengu took Eiju to a hot spring before sending him back to China (Konjaku monogatari-sh 4, pp. 14549). 56. Gorai, "Tengu to minkan shink," in Tengu zshi, vol. 27 of Shinsh Nihon Emakimono Zensh, ed. Umezu Jir (Tokyo: Kadokawa shoten, 1978), pp. 3538. 57. Ibid., p. 44. 58. Ibid., pp. 4445. Tengu are turbulent spirits: onry or kijin on one side and protective deities on the other side. 59. Haruko Nishioka Wakabayashi, "Tengu: Images of the Buddhist Concepts of Evil in Medieval Japan" (Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1995). 60. Konjaku monogatari-sh, vol. 4, in Iwanami koten bungaku taikei, vol. 25 (Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1962), pp. 144145. Iyanaga brings to my
attention that this tale represents a type of religious nationalism: a tengu from India comes to Japan via China, following the chanting of a phrase of the Daihannyaky, traced to Mt. Hiei. Thus, the source of the sutra chanting originates in Japan and reaches India via China, representing a "reverse flow" of the dharma. Nichiren had a similar idea that in the age of mapp, the dharma flows from the East to the West. This brings to mind other kinds of religious nationalism, for instance the reverse honji-suijaku of later Shinto and the ideas of Hirata Atsutane in the Edo period. 61. Tsukumogami-ki, in Yokoyama Shigeru and Matsumoto Takanobu, eds., Muromachi jidai monogatari taisei 9 (Tokyo: Kadokawa shoten, 1981). Komatsu has studied this text; see Nihon Ykai ibunroku, pp. 195202. 62. This text is cited in Tsukumogami-ki, 417425. Fabio Rambelli discussed this text at length in "Objects, Rituals, Tradition: A Genealogy of the Memorial Services (kuy) for Objects in Japan," work in progress, pp. 24 29. Komatsu Kazuhiko also discussed this story in Hyrei shinkron, pp. 336338 and Nihon Ykai ibunroku, pp. 188202. Also see accounts of such parade of ykai, or the Hyakki yagy, e.g., Tanaka Takako, Hyakki yagy no mieru toshi (Tokyo: Shinysha, 1994) and Tanaka Takako, Hanada Kiyoteru, Shibusawa Tatsuhiko, and Komatsu Kazuhiko, Zusetsu Hyakki yagy emaki o yomu (Tokyo: Kawade shob, 1999). 63. Chiba Toku, "Zashiki warashi," in Minzokugaku kenky 3 (1952): pp. 6184. 64. We also see mention of zashiki warashi in Yanagita Kunio's "Momotar no tanj," 1933 and Orikuchi Shinobu's Tabi to densetsu 7: 1 and Minkan densetsu 12: pp. 3, 6. 65. Komatsu, Hyrei shinkron, pp. 2627. 66. Kunio Yanagita, The Legends of Tno, trans. Ronald A. Morse (Tokyo: The Japan Foundation, 1975), p. 22. 67. Ibid., pp. 2223. 68. Chiba, "Zashiki warashi," pp. 89. Similarly, there are dog spirits that possess houses, inugami tsuki. If these inugami are satisfied, the house will be wealthy. If they are neglected, calamity will befall the house. 69. Komatsu has studied this Dragon Palace Child. Komatsu Kazuhiko, "The Dragon Palace Child: An Anthropological and Sociohistorical Approach," Current Anthropology 28, no. 4 (AugustOctober 1987): pp. 31 39. The story can be found in Seki Keigo, Mukashibanashi no rekishi (Tokyo: Shibund, 1966), pp. 822. We can view the Dragon Palace Child as a type of wish-fulfilling child (nyi-dji), a transformation of the wish-fulfilling jewel (nyoi hju) of the Dragon Palace. We recall that the possessor of the nyoi hju is granted any wish and thus becomes a great king, as in the case of Daishokkan Kamatari. On this subject, see Abe Yasur, "Daishokkan no seritsu," Kwakamai kyoku kenky 4 (Tokyo: Miyai shoten, 1986), pp. 80195.