Consolidating the record: A subject guide of collections, resources and references on environmentalism in South Florida and Beyond, SM Stover, EN Mahaney, G Donovan, D Newsome

Tags: Florida, Smathers Library, University of Florida, the Everglades, environment, Corkscrew Swamp, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Ernest Taylor, archival collections, Everglades, special collections, Everglades National Park, Butler University, Oliver Perry Hay, William Perry Hay, University of South Florida, Chase Investment, The Chase, Chase Groves, Florida Historical Society, Florida House of Representatives, Sydney O. Chase, Cumberland University, Howard University, Department of Natural Resources, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Florida State Senator Austin Shuey Mann, correspondence, National Park Service, May Mann Jennings, National Geographic Society, Elizabeth Mann Jennings, Sydney Octavius Chase, Washington Entomological Society, Florida East Coast Railway, Administrative Files, Florida Keys Aqueduct Commission, George Washington University, Southwestern Florida, New College of Florida, South Florida, Jane Bancroft Cook Library, Library, Southwest Florida, Mote Marine Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ernest A. Taylor, Frank Taylor, National Audubon Society, Mina Walther Collection, marine environment, Everglades Digital Library, Cross Florida Barge Canal, Florida State University, Florida Museum of Natural History, Joshua Chase, Leroy Collins Papers, Joshua Coffin Chase, Florida Institute of Phosphate Research, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida university, Florida Virtual Campus, Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Gulf Coast University, Florida Keys, Dr. Carr
Content: Consolidating the Record A Subject Guide of Collections, Resources and References on Environmentalism in South Florida and Beyond ... By: Susan Stover Erin Mahaney Gail Donovan With assistance from Daniel Newsome Marissa Brady Kay K. Hale Draft Final Mote Marine Laboratory Technical Report No. 1722
The information in this publication represents only a small sample of all the archival and special environment-related collections available online or at south Florida (and beyond) libraries, museums and organizations. Researchers, students and the general public should note the names of institutions possessing the original materials and contact these organizations directly for information on reproductions, copyright, research assistance, and reading room hours. I speak for the trees, for the trees have no tongues. Dr. Seuss (1904 - 1991), The Lorax Gail Donovan, Librarian, New College of Florida, Jane Bancroft Cook Library (As of February 2014, Mote's Archivist) Mote Marine Laboratory, Arthur Vining Davis Library & Archives Susan Stover, Library & Archives Director and Erin Mahaney, Archivist Daniel Newsome and Marissa Brady, Mote Library interns Kay Hale, Mote Library volunteer We are grateful to our many library and archives colleagues throughout Florida for sharing their information and ideas. 1
Trends in Environmentalism
a) Naturalists/Early Conservationists
b) Conservationists/Preservationists
c) Environmentalists
Key Events in Florida's Environmental History
e.g. The Swamp and Overflowed Lands Act of 1850
Great Giveaway-Reclamation Act
Archival and Special Collections ....mainly print
Digital Collections (non-government)
Government Agencies (local, state, federal)
Plants and Herbariums
Facilities and Organizations
... whose mission is to preserve and protect Florida's environment
References and Suggested Readings
Introduction to Consolidating the Record: A Brief History of Environmentalism in Florida Susan M. Stover Library and Archives Director Mote Marine Laboratory Sarasota, Florida, USA [email protected] Gail Donovan Archivist Library and Archives Mote Marine Laboratory Sarasota, Florida, USA [email protected] Abstract This paper describes the activities leading to the development of a subject specific collection guide that will be utilized by students, researchers, and the public. The information in the Guide is the foundation of a collaborative project to create an annotated list of environment-related collections, materials and organizations in Florida with specific attention to the southern part of the state. Keywords: Florida, libraries, archives, collections, environment, nature Background Over the last five to six years libraries have been reviewing the significance of their resources and collections, and ardently examining ways to reinvent themselves. In 2008 the director of the Mote Marine Laboratory Library initiated actions to add value to Mote's one-person Library. First, the term "Archives" was added to the name of the Library. Next grant proposals were written and received for basic processing of the archival and special collections that were housed in long-term storage. These collections contained ninety years of environment-related, primary source data associated with Southwest Florida and beyond. A component of the grants involved the digitization of various items from the collections and addition of the e-documents to Mote's institutional repository (IR). The final phase entailed promotion of the collections. Brochures were developed and distributed, and presentations were given at local organizations and professional conferences. Following the promotional activities there was interest in and requests for materials from the collections. However, to validate the rationale for maintaining the archives a broader patron-base was needed to increase usage. 3
The need to promote the collections along with two other incentives prompted the compilation of a subject guide of environment-related collections. Students, interns and novice researchers may not always know where to begin a literature search for valid environmental information, and they may not be knowledgeable about the reliability of the sources they find. This has been noted by numerous librarians as students, the public and other patrons venture into the library seeking materials to meet their information needs. A second motivator was the following statement in the 2013 report titled Field Stations and Marine Laboratories of the Future: A Strategic Vision, "The more than 500 FSMLs around the world, and the long-term records they maintain, make it possible to study environmental processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales". This statement enforces the fact that the materials held in libraries, archives and digital repositories are vital to the present and future global environmental challenges. And, preservation of and access to the scholarly environmental record is critical. The valuable content these collections contain can provide a basis for people to manage ecological resources and maintain a sustainable environment. (This report was developed by the Organization of Biological Field Stations (OBFS) and the National Association of Marine Laboratories (NAML) to help field stations and marine laboratories anticipate and prepare for the future needs of science and society.) The overall objectives were to compile a guide of environmental collections and materials in Florida, with attention to the southern part of the state; have it available open access online for students, researchers and the public; and, enhance usage of archival collections. It was at this phase that colleagues, interns and volunteers were enlisted to help compile the publication. The Guide The information in the Guide reviews the history and records of environmental activity in Florida, mainly in the twentieth century. It lists the variety and types of materials and collections related to Florida's environmental history, where they are housed, and their accessibility. Records depicting the history of the environment include natural history collections, herbaria, technical reports, data sets, field notes and more. Goals of the Project a) Consolidate the Florida environmental record. b) Help uncover hidden collections. c) Solicit input from archives and libraries throughout the state. d) Promote to target audience of students, scientists, historians, and more. e) Produce an online Guide to help facilitate environmental research thereby . . . f) Saving the planet! (or at least Florida). In early 2013 the project was presented at two meetings to solicit input and information from colleagues about their collections. First at the Florida university systems annual meeting, Florida Virtual Campus (FLVC), held in Sarasota in April 2013, then at the 4
Society of Florida Archivists (SFA) meeting the following month in Tallahassee. The audiences embraced the project and were willing to provide information about their collections to be included in the Guide. During this time individuals and various organizations that might have hidden or unprocessed collections were also contacted. Onsite visits were made to many of these libraries and archives to gather pertinent information about their materials. The Content The starting point was the development of an Index to steer the project. The Guide was divided into seven sections. The first two parts present the novice researcher with an overview of 1) trends in environmentalism discussing how the ideas of the naturalists, conservationists, and environmentalists differ; and 2) key events in Florida's environmental history including the Swamp and Overflowed Land Act of 1850 that pushed for the draining of the Everglades to turn it into viable farmland, the proposed Cross Florida Barge Canal that would cut a waterway path through the state to reduce shipping times, and the dredge-fill projects that threatened coastal ecosystems. The remaining sections cover the various types of collections: archival and special collections (mainly print); non-government digital collections; local, state and federal government agencies; plants and herbariums; facilities and organizations whose mission is to preserve and protect Florida's environment; and references and suggested readings. Entities highlighted consist of a sampling of academic institutions, government agencies, independent and nonprofit research institutions, as well as individual activists and environmental organizations. Notable collections such as the Reclaiming the Everglades Project in the Everglades Digital Library, lesser known archival collections such as the New College of Florida's Environmental Studies Program, and the papers of the Archbold Biological Station in Venus, FL (formerly John Roebling's Red Hill Estate) are included. Information relating to the papers and materials from 1) individuals such as Archie Fairly and Marjorie Harris Carr; 2) organizations such as the Florida Defenders of the Environment and Friends of the Everglades, and local chapters of the Sierra Club and the Audubon Society; 3) collections at universities and colleges such as Rollins College Special Collections, University of Miami's Biscayne Bay materials, and the numerous University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections; and 4) government organizations including federal agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Florida state agencies including the State Archives and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWC). Naturalists, Conservationists, Preservationists, Environmentalists Understanding how the current theory of environmentalism developed starting with its predecessors the naturalists and conservationists adds to the knowledge base of the 5
novice researcher. Hence, the first section of the Guide provides an overview of these advocates. Naturalists in general were a phenomenon of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, as interest in science and exploration exploded in North America, Europe, and Asia. At the time, the prevailing attitude was that nature existed to serve and benefit man, not be preserved or shepherded. Nevertheless, their work paved the way for later ideas. Naturalists and early conservationists provided descriptions of Florida's environment and helped shape how later generations viewed and used Florida. Before the establishment of biology, ecology, and similar fields as sciences, the study or observation of the natural world was labeled "natural history". Virtually anyone who made any study of the natural world, scientifically or as a leisure pursuit, could be called a "naturalist". William Bartram (1739-1823) is a classic example of this type. Although he lacked any formal scientific training, he traveled through the American South and took extensive notes on the wildlife, plant life, and Native Americans he encountered, which he subsequently published in his 1791 book Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws; Containing An Account of the Soil and Natural Productions of Those Regions, Together with Observations on the Manners of the Indians. The later decades of the 19th century and early decades of the 20th century saw the development of many sciences in their modern form and the rise of a new position on humanity's relationship with the environment. This perspective viewed the environment as a resource to be consumed and exploited, but also to be safeguarded and used intelligently to preserve it for sustainable long-term use. On the Florida state level there was extensive conservation reform, notably from May Mann Jennings (1872-1963), the First Lady of Florida, who was extremely active and influential in developing state parks and forests throughout the state. She also helped create what is now the Florida Division of Forestry. Nationally President Theodore Roosevelt (1859-1919) typified the conservation movement. Recognized as an accomplished hunter and outdoorsman, he designated more federally owned land for preservation purposes than all of his collective predecessors. In more recent years William R. Mote (1906-2000), a prominent businessman and avid sport fisherman served actively on Florida committees and councils for oceanography. He then became a major benefactor of the Cape Haze Marine Laboratory, which subsequently renamed itself Mote Marine Laboratory in honor of Mote and his sister for their support. Mr. Mote's legacy continues in Mote's fish stock enhancement and sustainable aquaculture research programs. Roosevelt and Mote were men who had grown to love the environment, and sought to prevent its destruction by wasteful overuse and abuse. The 20th century saw the arrival of the modern environmental movement following its immediate predecessors, the conservationists and the preservationists. Distinct from 6
conservationists, who emphasized the right to utilize nature's resources in a sustainable way, preservationists believed that the environment has intrinsic value and should be preserved unaltered for its own sake, rather than for sustainable exploitation by civilization. These two groups encompass the contemporary environmentalists who respond to environmental destruction, and aim to prevent or halt future destruction basically thorough policies and stewardship. In Florida, few voices in the environmentalist movement were ­ or are ­ so prominent as Marjory Stoneman Douglass (1890-1998), a writer, journalist, and most notably an environmentalist who changed the way the Everglades are seen. Until the mid 20th century, the Everglades was generally viewed as a worthless swamp to be drained and paved. In 1947, the same year that the Everglades National Park was created, Douglass published the book The Everglades: River of Grass. This one work, the product of five years of research, radically redefined popular and scientific views of the Everglades and established the area as worth preserving in its own right. Archival Collection Records: Background and Examples The largest section of the Guide covers the Archive and Special Collections throughout central and southwest Florida. This section provides information on many of the hidden or unprocessed materials encountered during the project. Two of those collections are highlighted here including their associated Guide record. The Environmental Studies Program Collection Background This New College of Florida Archives collection offers significant resources for researchers although most of the contents of the collection have received minimal processing and description. An online collection description or finding aid exists and the collection record is accessible via a search in WorldCat. The collection was selected for this project because it is fairly `hidden' and demonstrates a significant history of innovative work and interdisciplinary relationships, which are an integral facet of the College, which has historically offered students undergraduate research opportunities and could provide insight to future researchers. The documents also provide evidence of early collaborations in the scientific community with several other research organizations including Mote Marine Laboratory. The Map series has received some initial organization although it is in need of refinement, updating and greater accessibility. The collection overall has minimal content digitized so both internal and external researchers could benefit from additional surface exposure and outreach from this Guide. Record Collection Title: Environmental Studies Program Collection, 1972-2013 Library/Archive: Jane Bancroft Cook Library at New College of Florida, Sarasota, FL. Volume/Storage Container: 48 linear feet Description of Material: Correspondence, literary production, printed material, financial documents, photographic materials, an extensive map collection, and subject files for associated programs and activities. Some materials digitized. 7
Abstract: The Environmental Studies Program Collection is a synthetic collection documenting the history of the academic program, which initially focused on environmental science research under the direction of the notable New College faculty member, John Morrill and has since transcended into becoming a far more interdisciplinary program. Early records include the description by John D. MacDonald regarding the proposed program, the potential challenges and benefits, and his insightful vision for the program. The materials, such as the Environmental Studies Program First Decade publication and other annual reports reflect the evolution of the program, the influence of several directors, the program administration, student research projects, seminars, courses, lectures, conferences, and opportunities for off-campus, graduate research, and employment. Records in the collection provide evidence of student field work in the Southwest Florida Region, group research, experience writing proposals, as well as, the support of a network of cooperative researchers and professionals. The Program materials, also, document the environmental study needs of the community, including the early records of the Citizens Advisory Committee. The repository at the Carriage House offers an extensive and unusual map collection, and related subject files and materials reflecting the significant work of the program participants and a robust level of research activity. URL: Breder Collection Background Dr. Charles M. Breder Jr. (1897-1983) was an experimental and behavioral ichthyologist with a specific interest in the study of flying fish and fish sounds. His hand-written field journals and photographs depict zoological research in Florida, the Caribbean, Mexico and New York from the 1920s through the early 1970s. His meticulous field notes are an invaluable source of scientific information and social commentary of the time. His pioneering fish research helped draw attention to the west coast of Florida. Dr. Breder worked at various facilities during his lifetime including the New York Aquarium, the American Museum of Natural History and the Lerner Marine Laboratory in Bimini, Bahamas. He was the mentor and long-time friend of Mote's founder, Dr. Eugenie Clark, who is known world-wide as the "Shark Lady." He also served as interim director of Mote Marine Laboratory in 1967 and spent many years as research associate in residence and member of the board of directors at Mote. His collection of field journals, illustrations, photographs, slides and other materials were donated to Mote Marine Laboratory in 1984 by his wife, Phyllis. The materials remained in storage until the launch of Mote Library's 2009 archives basic processing grant. Currently, the majority of the collection has been processed, a finding aid created, a collection record added to Archon (an archives descriptive management system), and numerous field journals transcribed. Record Collection Title: Charles Marcus Breder, Jr. Collection, 1920-1974. Library/Archive: Arthur Vining Davis Library and Archive at Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL. Volume/Storage Container: 18 linear feet 8
Description of Material: 21 field journals, field notes, correspondence, illustrations. Finding Aid available. Some materials digitized. Abstract: Dr. Breder (1897-1983) was an experimental and behavioral ichthyologist whose work and achievements dominated the field. During his lifetime he wrote 160 papers and books. Covering thousands of pages he recorded an unparalleled array of field and laboratory investigations, and systematic and distributional studies. Many of his field trips and expeditions for the New York Zoological Society, the American Museum of Natural History and the New York Aquarium involved research in Florida and the Caribbean. The contents of his field journals include notes, itineraries, illustrations, and observations from specific scientific expeditions and laboratory research. They also provide an insight into the early meticulous scientific thoughts of this biologist, and how he examined and developed ideas. Notes: An ichthyologist is a zoologist who studies fishes. URL: Figure 1. Guide Cover The Guide has been added to the Mote Library open access repository. It is available at Acknowledgements The authors are indebted to Erin Mahaney, Mote Archivist, Daniel Newsome and Marissa Brady, Mote Library interns, and Kay Hale, Mote Library volunteer who assisted in compiling the information and entering the data. We are grateful to the many library and archives colleagues throughout Florida who shared their information and ideas, and to the colleagues that allowed us to visit their facilities to explore their archival collections. We thank The Arthur Vining Davis Foundations and the Henry E. and Pauline S. Becker Foundation for their support. 9
References Bartram, W. 1791. Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws; Containing An Account of the Soil and Natural Productions of Those Regions, Together with Observations on the Manners of the Indians. Philadelphia: Printed by James & Johnson. xxxiv, 522 p. Billick, Ian et al. 2013. Field Stations and Marine Laboratories of the Future: A Strategic Vision. National Association of Marine Laboratories, NAML and Organization of Biological Field Stations, OBFS. [iv] 54 p. Davis, J.E. and R. Arsenault, eds. 2005. Paradise Lost? The Environmental History of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 432 p. Davis, J.E. and K. Frederickson, eds. 2003. Making Waves: Female Activists in Twentieth-Century Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 352 p. Florida Defenders of the Environment. 1970. Environmental Impact of the CrossFlorida Barge Canal with Special Emphasis on the Oklawaha Regional Ecosystem. Gainesville: Florida Defenders of the Environment. 115 p. Grunwald, M. 2006. The Swamp: The Everglades, Florida, and the Politics of Paradise. New York: Simon & Schuster. 450 p. Mongillo, J. and B. Booth, eds. 2001. Environmental Activists. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 368 p. Mote Marine Laboratory. 2001. A man who truly gave back to the sea, William R. Mote 1906- 2000 [brochure]. Noll, S. and D. Tegeder. 2009. Ditch of Dreams: The Cross Florida Barge Canal and the Struggle for Florida's Future. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 394 p. Links Mote Library Mote Repository New College Library New College Repository th Presented at Visualizing a Bright Future, the combined 39 IAMSLIC Conference and SAIL Meeting, NOVA Southeastern University, Dania Beach, Florida, 20-24 October 2013. 10
TRENDS in ENVIRONMENTALISM NATURALISTS / EARLY CONSERVATIONISTS Before the establishment of biology, environmental biology, and similar fields in their modern sense as sciences, the study of the natural world in general was labeled "natural history" and those who studied it, professionally or as a hobby, were called naturalists. It is difficult to establish further generalities about naturalists, as virtually anyone who made any study of the natural world, scientifically or otherwise, could be called such. William Bartram is a classic example of the type. Although he lacked any formal scientific training, he traveled through the American South and took extensive notes on the wildlife, plant life, and Native Americans he encountered, which he subsequently published in his book Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida. Indeed, formal education for those called naturalists could at times be minimal. Charles Torrey Simpson, nicknamed "The Sage of Biscayne Bay" for his extensive studies of the plant life and mollusks in the Miami area, had only a high school education and was later awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Miami. An entirely different sort of naturalist was David Fairchild, who worked for the US government and introduced many exotic species of plants to the United States. Thomas Barbour is often considered one of the last of the naturalists, a biologist with extremely diverse interests which included insects, birds, and reptiles. Naturalists in general were a phenomenon of the 19th century, as interest in science and exploration exploded in North America, Europe, and Asia. Although many were unprofessional by modern standards, their work in documenting and collecting the environment, whether for work or for pleasure, laid the foundations for the modern sciences of ecology, biology, and environmentalism. That said, this was generally not their intention. At the time, the prevailing attitude was that nature existed to serve and benefit man, not be preserved or shepherded. Nevertheless, their work paved the way for those later ideas. 12
CONSERVATIONISTS / PRESERVATIONISTS The later decades of the 19th century and early decades of the 20th saw the codification of many sciences in their modern form and the rise of a new perspective on humanity's relationship with the environment. This perspective, known as utilitarian conservationism or simply conservation, was centered around the concept of "rational exploitation." In this view, the environment is a resource to be consumed and exploited, but also to be safeguarded and used intelligently to preserve it for sustainable long-term use. Maximized exploitation, in this view, is wasteful and inefficient by destroying resources for a marginally higher short-term gain. In the United States, President Theodore Roosevelt was the standard-bearer of the conservation movement. An accomplished sportsman and outdoorsman in his own right, Roosevelt created the United States Forest Service, five national parks, eighteen national monuments, four game preserves, fifty-one bird preserves, and more than a hundred national forests ­ themselves a new idea. Altogether, Roosevelt set aside more federally owned land for preservation purposes than all of his predecessors combined. His close ally and chief of the Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture, Gifford Pinochet, promoted private use ­ for a fee ­ of national forests under the supervision of the federal government. On the state level, too, there was extensive conservation reform, notably from May Mann Jennings, the First Lady of Florida, who created what is now Florida's Division of Forestry and was extremely active and influential in developing state parks and forests in Florida. The roots of the conservation movement in outdoor sportsmen should not be dismissed, either. Theodore Roosevelt was an accomplished hunter who contributed greatly to the conservation movement, to name one example. Another is William R. Mote, a prominent sport fisherman who served actively on Florida committees and councils for oceanography, then became a major benefactor of the Cape Haze Marine Laboratory, which subsequently renamed itself Mote Marine Laboratory in honor of William R. Mote and his sisters for their efforts. These were men who had grown to love the environment, and sought to prevent its destruction by wasteful overuse and abuse. Mote Marine Laboratory. 2001. A man who truly gave back to the sea, William R. Mote 1906-2000 [handout]. 13
ENVIRONMENTALISTS The 20th century saw the arrival of the modern environmental movement and its immediate predecessors, the preservationists. Distinct from conservationists, preservationists believed that the environment has intrinsic value and should be preserved unaltered for its own sake, rather than for sustainable exploitation by civilization. One of the earliest of these environmentalists was John Muir, called "The Father of the National Parks," who traveled extensively through the western United States, particularly the Yosemite region. Muir co-founded the Sierra Club and was responsible for the creation of the Yosemite National Park. Muir's life also saw the formation of the rift between the conservation and preservation movements, as exemplified between Muir himself and Gifford Pinochet, a major leader of the conservation movement. In general terms, Muir wished to preserve the wilderness unaltered and untouched by human hands for transcendent qualities, while Pinochet believed that the environment exists to be used ­ intelligently and sustainably, but used. In Florida, few voices in the environmentalist movement were ­ or are ­ so prominent as Marjory Stoneman Douglass, a writer, journalist, and most notably an environmentalist who changed the way the Everglades were seen. Until the middle of the 20th century, the Everglades were generally seen as a worthless swamp to be drained and paved over. In 1947, the same year that the Everglades National Park was created, Douglass published the book The Everglades: River of Grass, the product of five years of research. This one work radically redefined popular and scientific views of the Everglades and established the area as worth preserving in its own right, and is still in publication today, with the 60th anniversary edition as recent as 2007. Although the modern environmentalist movement encompasses a variety of smaller groups and movements, it is this notion that the environment possesses intrinsic value beyond as a resource to be consumed that sets the movement apart. 14
KEY EVENTS One of the first major events in Florida's environmental history was the Swamp and Overflowed Land Act of 1850, just five years after Florida achieved statehood. At the time, nothing resembling the modern environmental movement existed, and the Everglades were regarded as a useless, dangerous area ­ US Army officials claimed that the largest factor in the Army's difficulties fighting the Seminole was the impenetrable morass of Florida's terrain, and the Everglades were a fertile cauldron for disease and parasites. However, some did see the economic opportunity in draining the Everglades to turn it into viable farmland, which the act of 1850 tasked the state with subsidizing. Although a committee was formed to organized grants for this purpose, the Civil War and Reconstruction diverted much in the way of funds and attention from this effort. This subsequently led to "The Great Giveaway," where the state government gave away acres upon acres of swampland to anyone, mainly carpetbaggers and robber barons, who promised to drain and develop the land. Little of this land was actually developed due to simple lack of capability, particularly in the largely vain hopes of driving railroads through the morass of southern Florida terrain, but the effort was there. The 19th century was a particularly bleak time for Florida's bird population. The newest trend in Victorian hat fashion, starting in the 1870s, starred large bird plumes ­ the bigger and more exotic, the better. Some particularly egregious hats included entire stuffed exotic birds mounted on the hat. One of the primary hunting grounds for this trade was the Florida Everglades, targeting flamingoes, roseate spoonbills, great egrets, peafowl, and especially the snowy egret. The scope of the slaughter is difficult to understate, and in the later years of the plume trade more than five million birds were being killed every year. In 1915, plumes sold for $32 an ounce ­ the price of gold at that time. Simply put, by 1900 an estimated 95% of the pre-trade shore bird population had been exterminated. Only in the early 20th century did a combination of environmental laws, establishment of bird sanctuaries, and the end of the plume fashion craze end the slaughter of Florida's birds and give populations a chance to recover. The fortunes of the Everglades during the 20th century have been mixed, particularly in recent decades. Although environmentalists successfully stopped the construction of a leviathan jetport proposed to be built in the Everglades in 1969, and made the Everglades one of three locations in the world to be recognized as an International Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, and a Wetland of International Importance by the Ramsar Convention, development of southern Florida has continued. The Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project has repeatedly disrupted the ecology of the Everglades in favor of protecting nearby developments, and the introduction of fertilizers in nearby farmlands to the nutrient-poor Everglades through runoff and the aquifer has escalated disruptions further. Invasive exotic species are also a serious concern, notably Burmese pythons that threaten to displace native alligators and may be ravaging populations of smaller animals. Attempts to control the pythons and other invasive species have met with unclear results at best. 16
Air pollution is another concern in Florida, particularly in the Jacksonville area due to the extensive paper and phosphate industries. Florida's soil is naturally high in phosphorous, and a combination of mining and phosphorous-based fertilizers pose their own problems for the ecosystem. Although the environmental health of the air in Florida is generally good, air pollution from the aforementioned industries is a growing concern in northern Florida. One major triumph for environmentalists in Florida is the Marjorie Harris Carr Cross Florida Greenway, or as it was originally proposed, the Cross Florida Barge Canal. The canal was an old idea ­ something akin to it was first proposed in 1567 by Phillip II of Spain ­ with the goal of creating a barge canal across Florida to connect the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. While the canal would have been a major feat of engineering comparable with the Panama Canal, and construction began in 1935, the project met with fierce opposition from both environmentalists and those who believed the project was a waste of money. The canal repeatedly stopped and restarted construction in middle of the 20th century until President Richard Nixon finally stopped the project by executive order in 1971. Finally, in 1991, the project was formally deauthorized and turned into a state recreation and conservation area, then in 1998 was renamed in honor of Marjorie Harris Carr, the leader of the environmentalist movement that had opposed the canal project. 1957 was a temporary victory for environmentalists in Florida with the halting of unrestricted dredge-fill projects in coastal Florida. Hydraulic dredging had been used in the early-to-mid-20th century across Florida to create new coastal real estate, and often with little regulation. In 1956, however, Robert F. Hutton, Bonnie Eldred, Kenneth D. Woodburn, and Robert M. Engle completed a special report on the ecology of Boca Ciega Bay in the Tampa Bay region, which had been considered for another dredge-fill operation, and included a particular study of the bay's ecology in the event the planned "Furen Fill" was carried out. The conclusion of this landmark study was that the fill would destroy the ecology of the bay, including the viability of sport and commercial fishing in the area. This study lead directly to state legislation to control dredge-fill projects the following year. Unfortunately, this legislation has proven largely toothless and most efforts to stop dredge-fill projects in ecologically sensitive coastal areas have been unsuccessful. Finally, the Gulf of Mexico has seen two disastrous oil spills to date, the Deepwater Horizon spill in 2010 and the Ixtoc I spill in 1979. Coastal and oceanic pollution from both accidents were extensive, Ixtoc I primarily affecting Mexican waters and Deepwater Horizon primarily affecting the United States. The ecological and commercial damage from these disasters likely needs no introduction ­ devastating effects on shorebirds, marine animals, bans on commercial fishing due to oil contamination, and other effects. Considering the sheer number of oil rigs in the Gulf it is perhaps fortunate that major accidents have been so rare, but when accidents do occur, it is significant. 17 18
ARCHIVAL and SPECIAL COLLECTIONS People and Organizations The list is arranged alphabetically by collection author's last name or organization title. Descriptive information was obtained from the organization's website or the various collection Finding Aids. Author: Archbold, F.M. Collection Title: Frances May Archbold & Mann Randolph Page Hufty Collection. Library/Archive: Archbold Biological Station Library, Venus, FL. Contact Librarian. Volume/Storage Container: Finding aid available. The Finding Aid contains a complete listing and number of materials of all portions of the collection along with accession records with lists/addresses of other donated materials. Collection includes 78 rare documents and letters. A 1700s/1800s/Early 1900s Transcribed Documents/Letters Guide was created to better understand the rare documents and letters. The digitized collection materials are available on zip drives. Description of Material: Consists of family photographs and famous individual photographs, personal family papers including personal family correspondence, correspondence with famous individuals, business records, legal documents, genealogy records, family involved organization's correspondence, photographs and records, certificates (marriage/awards), scrapbooks, sketchbook, books, artifacts and diaries. Keywords: Archbold, Frances May/Archbold, Richard/Hufty, Mann Randolph Page/Archbold Biological Station/history/genealogy/Hufty Foundation. Abstract: The primary mission of this archive is to preserve the Archbold-Hufty family photographs, records and information of permanent historical value and promotes the use of these materials by any generation of the family branches, scholars, and the public with approval of a Hufty Foundation Manager. Notes: The archive promotes the use of these materials by any generation of the family branches, scholars, and the public with approval of a Hufty Foundation Manager. URL: Author: Archbold, R.A. Collection Title: Richard Archbold Correspondence, 1925-1941. Library/Archive: Archbold Biological Station Library. Contact Librarian. No Finding Aid. Volume/Storage Container: 4 archival shelf boxes. Description of Material: The collection concerns his expeditions to Madagascar (1929) and New Guinea (1933-1939), and his personal correspondence with his family. Keywords: Lake Placid/ Red Hill Estate/Roebling family/biological research/insects/ ants/plants/birds/Florida scrub jay. Abstract: Richard Archbold (1907-1976) was born in New York City. Heir to early fortunes of the Standard Oil Company, Archbold became an internationally renowned aviator and explorer. During 1929-1939, in affiliation with the American Museum of Natural History, he organized, supported, and led four biological expeditions, first to Madagascar and then three to interior New Guinea. These expeditions are still famous for 20
their comprehensiveness and significance to science. They included the discovery of a major human civilization in the New Guinea highlands, previously unknown to the outside world. In 1941, he moved to Lake Placid, Florida to fulfill a dream. He established a permanent biological research station on a 1,000-acre preserve, the Red Hill Estate, gifted to him by John A. Roebling II (grandson of the Brooklyn Bridge designer). The land contained an unusual diversity of natural habitats, a cluster of well-constructed buildings, and other improvements ideally suited for an ecological field station. It provided a place where scientists could live, explore, and conduct research on animals and plants in their native settings. Early research was dominated by botanical and entomological explorations, and many scientists developed long-term projects that became milestones in their fields. Several of these scientists continue to visit the Station regularly even today. The Archbold website provides an abbreviated family tree for the seven Roebling and six Archbold family members associated with the station history. URL: Author: Austin, E.S and O.L. Collection Title: Elizabeth S. and Oliver L. Austin Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 6 linear feet, 13 boxes. Description of Material: The collection includes manuscripts of several of Elizabeth Austin's published works and correspondence, largely relating to the publication of Frank Chapman in Florida, and a scrapbook of her nature columns, Wild Adventure, in the Florida Times-Union. The collection also includes several drafts of the manuscript of Birds of the World by Oliver Austin including an unbound printed copy, and a microfilmed scrapbook, primarily of his column, Birds and Such, from the Cape Cod Colonial, 1936-1937. Keywords: Gainesville/Florida State Museum/University of Florida ornithologist/birds. Abstract: Elizabeth S. Austin, author and ornithologist, was a Research Associate of the Florida State Museum. She authored several birding books, all represented here, including The Birds That Stopped Flying, Penguins, and The Random House Book of Birds, co-authored by Oliver Austin. She was the editor of Frank Chapman in Florida, and wrote a weekly newspaper column on birds, Wild Adventure. Her husband, Oliver L. Austin, Jr., was born in 1903 and educated at Wesleyan University and Harvard (Ph.D.). He was the author of numerous books including Birds of the World (1961), and editor of Auk, the Journal of the American Ornithologists Union and the Bulletin of the Florida State Museum. His positions included Curator of Ornithology at the Florida State Museum of the University of Florida and director of the Austin Ornithological Research Station on Cape Cod. URL: Author: Bailey-Matthews Collection Title: Bailey-Matthews Shell Museum & Library. Library/Archive: The Shell Museum Library Volume/Storage Container: A collection of worldwide and local mollusks that encompasses about 150,000 lots. 21
Description of Material: The Museum features more than 30 exhibits of mollusks from around the world. Exhibits are devoted to shells in art and history, shell habitat, rare specimens, fossil shells, common Southwest Florida shells, and more. The Library has an extensive collection of scientific and popular books, scientific journals, and shell-club newsletters from around the world. Abstract: Since its opening to the public in 1995, the Museum has operated as an information and reference center for national and international scientists, students, and shell enthusiasts who are interested in the marine, terrestrial, and land mollusks of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida. It is a specialized natural history museum and a collecting museum. Its collection of shells and preserved specimens represents a large fraction of the global biodiversity of mollusks. The Museum houses a collection of worldwide and local mollusks that encompasses about 150,000 lots. The regional nature of the collection is expanding, with a growing focus on mollusks from the coast of southwest Florida, its barrier islands, and the Gulf of Mexico. Records of the holdings are administered through a database management system and searches of the collection may be performed online. URL: and Author: Bartram, J. Collection Title: Bartram Family Papers 1684-1841 (Bulk 1765-1803). Library/Archive: Held at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Volume/Storage Container: 3 linear feet, 10 boxes, 13 volumes. Description of Material: This collection contains papers of John Bartram and his sons William, Isaac, and Moses. Included are journals written by John Bartram, observations of his journeys, and correspondence. William Bartram is represented by correspondence, photostats of his journey observations, illustrations, a commonplace book, and his Pharmacopoeia. Also included in the collection are Moses Bartram's diplomas, Isaac Bartram's letter book, and miscellaneous family letters, checks, and receipts. Keywords: naturalist/botanist/plants/illustrations. Abstract: John Bartram was an eighteenth-century botanist. He established a premier botanic garden in America and made extensive journeys throughout the eastern United States, during which he gathered many hitherto unknown American plants. His son William was also an eminent botanist. This collection contains papers of John Bartram and his sons William, Isaac, and Moses. Included are journals written by John Bartram, observations of his journeys, and correspondence. The majority of materials relate to John and William Bartram. Items of note in the collection include the incoming correspondence of John, incoming and outgoing correspondence of William Bartram and fragments of the journals both men kept during various exploratory missions. Among the correspondents represented are William Byrd, Alexander Calhoun, Mark Catesby, Peter Collinson, Benjamin Franklin and John Fothergill. Texts written by John Bartram consist of his Journal Through the Catskill Mountains with Billy, 1753; a portion of his observations made on his journey through the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida, 1765; and the full text of the diary, 1765-1766, transcribed by William Darlington, with illustrative notes from his correspondence. William Bartram's writings are represented by his Travels through the Carolinas, Georgia and East and West Floridas, 1773-1777 and his Engravings of Plants add a visual representation of his work to the collection. Items such 22
as William Bartram's commonplace book and Pharmacopaeia complete his section of the collection. Notes: Additional materials can be found at the British Museum, London. William Bartram's Travels is freely available online. URL: and Author: Bass Lab Collection Title: Bass Biological Laboratory Collection, 1931-1945. Library/Archive: Arthur Vining Davis Library and Archives at Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota. Volume/Storage Container: 36 linear feet, 53 boxes. Collection is open to the public for research by appointment. Description of Material: The collection includes varied correspondence, invoices, maps, permits, photographs, telegrams, field notes, ecological and meteorological data, species lists, personal papers and more. Keywords: Englewood/biological station/zoology/specimens/research. Abstract: The Bass Biological Laboratory was a biological research facility that operated during the 1930s and 1940s in Englewood, Florida. It was the first year-round collecting station in the region and the first co-educational research field station in Florida. The records in this collection include papers from visiting scientists (including Archie F. Carr, who frequently visited the lab), research records, laboratory operational records, and personal papers of John F. Bass, Jr. The items originate from the research done at the lab by staff and visiting scientists as well as the daily operations of the lab. The Zoological Research Supply Company was the profit-making subsidiary of the Bass Biological Laboratory. The ZRS sold biological specimens to organizations and universities throughout the country for display, research, and dissection. The activities and therefore the records of both the Laboratory and the Zoological Research Supply Company were closely intertwined. URL: and Author: Biscayne Bay Collection Title: Biscayne Bay Special Collection, 1890-2000. Library/Archive: Held by the Library of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS), University of Miami, Miami, Florida. Volume/Storage Container: Shelved in vertical files and shelves at the RSMAS Library. Some documents are available from the Richter Library at the University of Miami main campus. Keywords: Miami/Biscayne Bay/marine environment/bibliography/ecology/history Abstract: A collection of publications dating to the 1890's on the marine environment of Biscayne Bay which is located along the southeast coast of Florida between Miami and Homestead, and its surrounding waters. It includes books, scientific articles, theses and dissertations, book chapters, Conference Proceedings, reports and government publications. It does not include newspaper articles, accounts of public hearings, personal correspondence or articles from popular boating and sports magazines. 23
Notes: The collection is based on Biscayne Bay: A Bibliography of the Marine Environment, by Kay K. Hale, published in 1993 by the Florida Sea Grant College Program. The original bibliography listed 1,718 documents but was updated in January 2000 to include 2,412 documents. In July 2000, it was expanded into Biscayne Bay: Environmental History and Annotated Bibliography by A.Y. Cantillo, K. Hale, E. Collins, L. Pikula and R. Caballero and published as NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS CCMA 145 in Silver Spring, MD by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and is available online. A searchable database, updated by the RSMAS Librarian and the Librarian at the NOAA Southeast Fisheries Science Center is also available online as Biscayne Bay Virtual Library: A Bibliography of the Marine Environment. URL: and Author: Brass, L.J. Collection Title: Leonard J. Brass, Science Correspondence and Herbarium. Library/Archive: Archbold Biological Station, Venus, FL. Contact Librarian. The Brass correspondence is organized by author into folders by person or place. Needs archival curation. No Finding Aid. The Herbarium may be visited from 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. on regular work days or by prior arrangement with the Plant Ecology Lab. Volume/Storage Container: The Herbarium contains approximately 4,050 specimens of vascular plants, representing over 1,600 species. Separate collections include lichens, mosses, and seeds. Keywords: Big Cypress Region/Lake Wales Ridge/herbarium/botanist/plant ecology/ vascular plants/lichens/moss/seeds/Archbold expedition. Abstract: Leonard J. Brass (1900-1971) was the botanist for six Archbold Expeditions to New Guinea (1933-1940, 1953-1959) and one to Australia (1946-1947). At Archbold Biological Station, he was the staff botanist (1944-1966) and author of four editions of the Station booklet (1947-1964). At the Station, Brass founded and built the herbarium, which was named the Leonard J. Brass Herbarium in his honor on 18 March 2010. At the Station he created the herbarium, concentrating on collecting vascular plants of the Lake Wales Ridge, especially on, and adjacent to, the Station, and in the Big Cypress region of southwestern Florida. He also made special collections of Florida mosses, lichens, and seeds. Brass's extensive field work in south-central Florida made him the resident regional expert, and botanists routinely stopped at the Station and consulted with him about their plans for collecting. Brass was honored by many plant taxonomists who have named more than180 species for him including at least two genera. The Herbarium contains approximately 4,050 specimens of vascular plants, representing over 1,600 species. Most specimens (60%) were collected in Highlands County and the collection focuses on plants of the Lake Wales Ridge, including many endangered and threatened plants. About ј of the specimens were collected at Archbold. The Station's plant list, based entirely on voucher specimens, is on the Station's Web site. URL: and 24
Author: Breder, C.M. Collection Title: Charles Marcus Breder, Jr. Collection, 1920-1974. Library/Archive: Arthur Vining Davis Library and Archives at Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota. Volume/Storage Container: 19 linear feet, 24 boxes. Description of Material: 21 field journals, field notes, correspondence, illustrations. Finding Aid available. Some materials digitized. Keywords: ichthyologist/fish research/flying fish/fish sounds Abstract: Dr. Breder (1897-1983) was an experimental and behavioral ichthyologist whose work and achievements dominated the field. During his lifetime he wrote 160 papers and books. Covering thousands of pages he recorded an unparalleled array of field and laboratory investigations, and systematic and distributional studies. Many of his field trips and expeditions for the New York Zoological Society, the American Museum of Natural History and the New York Aquarium involved research in Florida and the Caribbean. The contents of his field journals include notes, itineraries, illustrations, and observations from specific scientific expeditions and laboratory research. They also provide an insight into the early meticulous scientific thoughts of this biologist, and how he examined and developed ideas. Notes: An ichthyologist is a zoologist who studies fishes. URL: Author: Briggs, J.C. Collection Title: John C. Briggs Collection of Ichthyology. Library/Archive: Nelson Poynter Memorial Library at University of South Florida, St. Petersburg. Special Collections and University Archives. Volume/Storage Container: a large collection of books/monographs/access information is available on their website. Books are individually cataloged. Description of Material: Monograph collection dating to the 16th century, materials include illustrations, fore-edge paintings, lithographic prints, and rare books. Items include M. P. Bleeker's nine volume Atlas Ichthyologique des Indies Orientales Nйerlandaises; an octavo by Pierre Belon, De Aquatilibus, Libri Duo, printed in Paris in 1553; C. Gesner's Medici Tigurini Historiж Animalum Liber IIII, Qui est de Piscium plus Aquatilium Animantium Natura--a 1558 folio with woodcuts-- representing one of four classic biological studies of the sixteenth century. Keywords: St. Petersburg/USF/Department of Marine Science/biology/natural science/ ichthyology/botany/monographs. Abstract: John C. Briggs earned his Ph.D. in biology and natural science from Stanford University in 1952. For many years, he taught at the Department of Marine Science (now College of Marine Science) located on the physical campus of USF St. Petersburg. After entering phased retirement in the 1980s, he negotiated a purchase/partial donation of his extensive collection of works on ichthyology, natural science, botany, and biology to the Nelson Poynter Memorial Library. Research Notes: Descriptive information taken from collection's Finding Aid. URL: 25
Author: Broward, N.B. Collection Title: Napoleon Bonaparte Broward Papers, 1879-1918. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 10.75 linear feet, 14 boxes. Description of Material: The Broward Papers date from 1879 to 1918, with the bulk of the papers coinciding with the gubernatorial term from 1905 to 1909. The major subject covered in the collection is the drainage of the Everglades and the development of South Florida lands. Additional topics include real estate, race relations, education, labor unions, liquor, taxes, transportation, waterways, railways, and Broward's campaigns for Governor and the U.S. Senate. The collection is comprised of incoming and outgoing correspondence, speeches, news clippings, campaign material, photographs (including images of dredging operations), legislative material, and legal documents. There are a small number of articles, pamphlets, circulars, and other publications pertaining to the drainage of the Everglades, dredging equipment, forestry, sugar, and waterways. In addition to the incoming and outgoing correspondence, there are four bound letterbooks containing letters written by Broward from 1905-1909. Correspondents include numerous real estate developers, business leaders, representatives of state and federal agencies, and Florida politicians such as William Sherman Jennings. Keywords: Collier County/Everglades/Governor/Senator/drainage/real estate/race relations/education/labor unions/liquor/taxes/waterways/railways/political campaign/ legislature. Abstract: Napoleon Bonaparte Broward was born in Duval County, Florida, in 1857. Throughout his young life he worked in various positions on farms, in logging camps, and on steamboats. As the owner of a steam tug, The Three Friends, he earned a reputation smuggling guns to Cuban revolutionaries prior to the Spanish-American War. Broward held various public positions, serving as sheriff of Duval County, on the Jacksonville city council, in the Florida House of Representatives (1901), and on the State Board of Health (1901-1904). He served one term as Governor of Florida, from 1905 to 1909. As Governor, he was instrumental in the drainage of the Everglades and encouraged development in South Florida. Following his gubernatorial term, he was elected U.S. Senator in 1910 but died before taking office. URL: and Author: Carr, A.F. Collection Title: Archie F. Carr, Jr. Papers, 1907-1994 and Supplemental Papers, 1938-1987. Library/Archive: University of Florida Smathers Libraries, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: Main collection 28 linear feet, 49 boxes. Supplemental Papers 8 linear feet, 19 boxes. Description of Material: The papers of Archie Fairly Carr, Jr., University of Florida Professor of Zoology, author and conservationist. The papers include his writings, correspondence, research, and files on miscellaneous subjects. Dr. Carr's Papers consist of various drafts and other material relating to his principal published works and numerous unpublished notebooks, individual and official correspondence, records of 26
grants and of organizations with which he worked, and files on miscellaneous subjects with which he was involved or collected material. These include several manuscripts by other authors. Photographs are found throughout the Papers along with the documents which they originally accompanied. There is no separate photograph file. The entire span of his career is covered. Correspondence is found from his graduate student years until shortly before his death. The collection is arranged in four series: (1) Carr's Manuscripts, published and unpublished, (2) Correspondence, (3) Organizational and Sponsored Research Records, and (4) Miscellaneous Papers. They remain in the general grouping and arrangement used by Dr. Carr. Some rearrangement has been done of individual items. A significant addition to the collection was made in 1999. These supplementary materials, are described separately and include Caribbean Conservation Corporation records, IUCN and CITES records, Carr's early turtle notes, and photographs and lay-out material for some publications. These supplementary materials, are described separately in the Guide to the Archie F. Carr, Jr. Supplemental Papers, MS 30A. Keywords: professor/herpetology/zoology/biology/sea turtles/migration/naturalist/ conservationist/Everglades. Abstract: Archie Fairly Carr, Jr., University of Florida Graduate Research Professor of Zoology, was associated with the University for more than fifty years. As a zoologist, he was most noted for his pioneering work in studying sea turtles and especially for discovering their migration patterns. Earlier in his career he specialized in the regional natural history of reptiles and of turtles in general. As a conservationist and writer, he sparked worldwide interest in saving turtles from threatened extinction. His entire career was spent at the University of Florida, first as a student, B.A. (1932), M.S. (1934), and as the University's first Ph.D. (1937) in biology. He continued as a faculty member until his death. One of the University's Life Sciences buildings, Carr Hall, and the Archie F. Carr Center for Sea Turtle Research are named in his honor. Other distinctions earned by Dr. Carr include the Daniel Giraud Elliott Medal from the National Academy of Science (1952) for his Handbook of Turtles, the John Burroughs Medal for nature writing in 1955, a University Distinguished Alumnus award in 1972 and the University's Presidential Medallion in 1986. In 1987 Carr received the Gold Medallion of the New York Zoological Society and in 1984, the first Hal Borland Award from the National Audubon Society. The Florida Museum of Natural History periodically awards the Archie F. Carr Medal to individuals who have distinguished themselves in biological conservation. Dr. Carr's most noted work, The Windward Road (1956) is credited with creating worldwide attention on the plight of the sea turtle. His other works include High Jungles and Low (1953, republished 1992), Ulendo, Travels of a Naturalist In and Out of Africa (1964, republished 1992), So Excellent a Fishe, a Natural History of Sea Turtles (1967), and three Time-Life books, Everglades (1973), Land and Wildlife of Africa (1964), and Reptiles (1963). Dr. Carr was also the author of a Guide to the Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fresh-water Fishes of Florida (1955) and a Handbook of Turtles (1952). A Naturalist in Florida was published posthumously in 1994 by the Yale University Press. Sources: Independent Florida Alligator, March 9, 1987, May 26, 1987, April 4, 1989; Audubon, March, 1982, and July, 1984; New York Times, May 23, 1987, Biological Conservation (August, 1987), and letter to Kenneth Cooper, May 18, 1959. A folder of 27
bio-bibliographical information on Dr. Carr may be found in the University Archives Vertical File. Notes: Collection has access restrictions-consult with Special Collections staff before use. URL: and Author: Chase, S.O. Collection Title: Chase Collections. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 97 linear feet, 228 boxes, 24 volumes. Description of Material: The collection consists of four record groups and 12 records series. Record Group I documents the history of Chase and Company, the Chase Investment Company, and other affiliated companies as well as the general business interests of both generations of Chases. Record Group II consists of the personal papers of Sydney Octavius Chase, Joshua Chase and Sydney O. Chase, Jr. Record Group III contains photographs from the collection depicting both business and family life. Record Group IV is a collection of family historical materials and contains letters and other records dating back to the 18th century as well as genealogical material. However, the bulk of collection covers the one hundred year period, 1884-1984, of the Chase industries in Florida. The Chase Collection contains correspondence, industry statistics, maps, photographs, and business records such as corporate minutes and audits. The collection also contains genealogical information related to the Chase ancestry. Some of the earliest materials showed evidence of research done by two historians hired by the Chases to write a history. Photocopies of documents and transcriptions of holographic materials were found in the files along with notes from the historians' research. These were removed from the collection whenever found, but more may exist. Keywords: Chase Industries/Florida/industry statistics/maps/insurance/storage facility/fertilizer sales/agriculture/celery/tung oil/vegetables/sugar cane/citrus/ Abstract: The story of the Chases in Florida began in 1878 when Sydney Octavius Chase (1860-1941), having read about orange groves in Scribner's Magazine, came to Florida from Philadelphia. His brother, Joshua Coffin Chase (1858-1948), joined him in 1884 and together they formed Chase and Company that year. The Chase brothers came to Florida at the right time for Florida citrus and at the right time for them as investment entrepreneurs. Strong family ties in the North provided them with financial backing for their ventures. Joshua left Florida in 1895 to work in the California citrus industry. He returned to Florida in 1904 and rejoined his brother. Another brother, Randall, remained in Philadelphia and augmented his brothers' finances when convenient. Sydney and Joshua were also important civic leaders who took part in community development, most notably in the City of Sanford. Both were elected to the Sanford city commission. They also supported the development of Rollins College, worked with the Florida Historical Society, and were the benefactors of numerous charities. 28
Chase and Company began as an insurance company and branched out to storage facilities and fertilizer sales. The latter was the beginning of the company's lucrative agricultural supply division which remained in operation throughout the existence of the company. Although citrus was the primary interest, the company also invested in other agricultural pursuits including celery in central Florida, tung oil production in Jefferson County, and winter vegetables and sugar cane in the Lake Okeechobee muck lands. The company was also involved in the peach business in Georgia and North Carolina. The company was incorporated in 1914, with the Chase brothers owning 75 percent of the stock, and reincorporated in 1948. A second generation of Chases began its involvement in the family operations when Sydney O. Chase, Jr. (b. 1890) became a citrus buyer in 1922. He was later joined by his brother Randall who served as president of Chase and Company from 1948-1965. Outside the Chase Family, Alfred Foster, W. R. Harney, and William "Billy" Leffler figured prominently as company executives and investors. This company dissolved in 1979 when its principal assets were sold to Sunniland for $5.5 million. The Chases' interest in citrus began when Sydney came to Florida and became associated with General Henry S. Sanford. The Chases would eventually own General Sanford's experimental farm, Belair, and the Chase family home in Sanford was located there. Over the years, the Chases invested in a number of citrus groves and owned others outright. In 1912, they organized the Chase Investment Company as a holding company for their farms. Initially, the company operated the Isleworth, Nocatee, Belair, and Kelly citrus groves as well as celery farms in Sanford. The company was renamed Chase Groves, Inc. in 1951. From time to time, Chase Investment was involved in real estate in Florida and North Carolina. The latter included Fort Caswell, a former military property that was held for a time and then sold. Unquestionably, the jewel in the Chase crown was the Isleworth grove at Windermere. Isleworth's four hundred lake-tempered acres carried the Chases through many difficult times. It proved to be the principal asset at the company's demise when it was sold to golf legend Arnold Palmer in 1984. Chase Groves dissolved that same year, 100 years after the founding of Chase and Company. URL: Author: Civilian Conservation Corp Collection Title: Civilian Conservation Corps Records. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 1 linear foot, 2 boxes. Description of Material: The collection primarily contains newsletters and periodicals from various Florida CCC camps. Each camp was allowed to publish its own newsletter, and many of the newsletters were sent to other camps so that camp advisors could see what other camps were doing and perhaps implement new programs as a result. Examples of newsletter titles include The Rogers Post, The Pick and Spade, and Osceola News. There is one folder on the University of Florida's involvement with the camps. Faculty and recent graduates of the University worked in the camps to teach basic literacy and other courses to those employed by the camps. Most of the folders are named using the camp number and location. 29
Keywords: New Deal/Roosevelt/employment/conservation programs. Abstract: The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a New Deal employment program launched by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. The CCC primarily employed young men for conservation projects across the country. The Department of Labor was responsible for employing the men but the Army actually oversaw the operations of the various camps scattered across the country. The men mainly worked in rural areas for six-month periods for about a dollar a day. The organization was disbanded during World War II because many of the eligible young men were drafted into the Army and the country focused on the war effort. URL: Author: Collins, L. Collection Title: Leroy Collins Papers, 1946-1991. Library/Archive: University of South Florida Tampa Library, Special and Digital Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 385 boxes. Description of Material: The collection focuses on Collin's time as governor of Florida and his 1968 Senate campaign. The collection consists of 344 manuscript boxes, approximately 200 linear feet of papers which include and are not limited to correspondence files, working papers, reports, campaign research, memoranda, speeches, etc. The collection also includes approximately 45 linear feet of films, recordings and videotapes. 35 scrapbooks, memorabilia, and an extensive amount of pictures. Keywords: Leon County/Florida House of Representatives/Governor/Senate/lawyer/ Florida universities/desegregation/civil rights/community relations. Abstract: LeRoy Collins was born in Tallahassee on March 10, 1909. He received a degree in law from Cumberland University in Birmingham, Alabama, returned to Tallahassee and married Mary Call Darby. Soon after his marriage to Mary Call, Collins was elected as the representative of Leon County to the Florida House of Representatives in 1934. He served in this position until 1940 when he filled the term of the late William Hodges in the Florida Senate. Collins resigned his position from the Florida Senate to join the Navy in 1942. He was reelected to the Florida Senate upon his return from World War II in 1946. He was reelected in 1950, serving until 1954 when a special election was held to fill the remaining two years in the term of the late Governor Daniel T. McCarty, who had died in office in 1953. Collins served as Florida's thirty-third Governor from 1955 to 1961 where he dealt with the complicated social and political issues of the time. His two greatest issues were the dismantling of segregation and the process of political patronage. Collins was also integral in the development of the Florida University system, including the University of South Florida in Tampa. He is considered by many historians to be one of the first liberal Southern Democrats to transform the political agenda of the South and his time as governor is remembered positively. Collins served as the Chairman of the Democratic National Convention in 1960, where he was a possible candidate for the presidential nomination due to his leadership position amongst Southern Governors and his strong stance on Civil Rights which would attract Northern liberals, however he did not seek the nomination. Upon leaving the governor's office, he became President of the National Association of Broadcasters, where he served until 1964. President Lyndon 30
B. Johnson appointed Collins to be the first Director of Community Relations, a government office created out of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This was followed by an appointment to the Undersecretary of Commerce in 1965 by President Johnson. Following his service in the federal government, Collins sought reelection to the Florida Senate in 1968. He won the primary but lost in the general election. His progressive stand for Civil Rights and his highly publicized role in the Selma, Alabama march while Director of Community Relations is credited with having cost him the 1968 Senate election. Upon his retirement from public service, Collins retired from his law firm in Tampa in which he had been a partner. Collins died in 1991. Research Notes: Collins' official papers are available at the State Archives of Florida, and additional material is available at Florida State University. URL: Author: Culpepper, J.B. Collection Title: J. Broward Culpepper Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 12 linear feet, 32 boxes. Description of Material: The J. Broward (John Broward) Papers relate to higher education in Florida and the state universities in particular. Keywords: Florida State University/educator/principal/dean of students/executive director/board of control/chancellor/state university system. Abstract: Educator. Born in Perry, Florida; attended the University of Florida, Gainesville. Principal, P.K. Yonge Laboratory School, Gainesville, 1935-1938; supervising principal in Leesburg and Tallahassee, 1940-1944; Dean of Students, Florida State University, 1947-1954; Executive Director, Florida Board of Control/Chancellor, State University System of Florida, 1954-1968. URL: Author: Deevey, E.S. Collection Title: Edward S. Deevey Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 17 linear feet, 31 boxes. Description of Material: The Deevey Papers include correspondence (business and personal), research field notes, projects, publications, research proposals, associations, photographs and miscellaneous materials. The correspondence (1924-1988) primarily concerns Deevey's research projects, various people asking for his assistance, and letters concerning his journal articles. He remained in contact with his graduate professor G.E. Hutchinson throughout his career. Other names of interest in the collection are: Don and Pru Rice, Daniel Livingstone, Margaret Davis, Mark Brenner, and Mike Binford. The field notes, projects, publications, and research proposals document Deevey's research interests and his contributions to limnology, paleolimnology, and other scientific fields. The research is centered in New England, Guatemala, Florida, and Yunnan, China. The field notes concern more of Deevey's early work with lakes in New England. 31
Deevey's largest research project, the Historical Ecology of the Maya, is well documented in these groups. The materials pertaining to his professional associations consist of notes and papers from various conferences and symposiums, as well as minutes from various organizations. Deevey was on five editorial boards, including Radiocarbon, American Journal of Science, Bioscience, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, and Human Ecology. He participated in eleven professional societies, including the Ecological Society of America (with a lifetime member award), American Society of Naturalists, and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. The miscellaneous papers include lecture notes, mostly from Yale University, and biographical information. The photographs are mainly from research projects, and include numerous presentation slides and graphs. There are also photos of Edward Deevey and Georgiana Deevey, and one of Mark Brenner. The correspondence is arranged chronologically, and the rest of the collection primarily is arranged alphabetically by folder title. Keywords: Gainesville/Florida State Museum/Graduate Research Curator/pollen/ limnology/paleolimnology/marine ecology/population biology/radiocarbon dating/low temperature/geochemistry/biogeography/paleoanthropology. Abstract: Edward S. Deevey was born in Albany, New York on December 3, 1914. He earned his Bachelor's (1934) and Ph.D. (1938) at Yale University. Deevey taught biology at the Rice Institute in Houston, Texas from 1939 to 1943. He worked as a research associate at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution until 1946 when he began teaching at Yale University. In 1953-1954 Deevey worked on a Guggenheim Fellowship and a Fulbright Research Award in Denmark. He became a full professor at Yale in 1957 and worked there until 1968. In 1964-1965 Deevey traveled to New Zealand on a National Science Foundation and Fulbright Travel Grant. In 1968 Deevey moved to Canada and began teaching biology at Dalhousie University. During his time at Dalhousie he also was a member of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. In 1971 Deevey left Canada for Gainesville, Florida as the Graduate Research Curator of the Florida State Museum. He continued to receive various research grants, mostly for work in Guatemala, Florida, and China. He remained with the Florida State Museum until his death in 1988. Deevey made substantial contributions in pollen analysis, limnology, paleolimnology, marine ecology, population biology, radiocarbon dating, low-temperature geochemistry, biogeography, and paleoanthropology. He wrote his thesis on paleolimnology under G.E. Hutchinson and introduced concepts that helped develop the field into a quantitative science. He established the standard pollen stratigraphy for Eastern North America. He pollen research was extremely influential, but his largest research project was the Historical Ecology of the Maya, in which he attempted to interpret environmental consequences of human activity in a changing climate. URL: Author: DeGrove, J.M. Collection Title: John Melvin DeGrove Papers, 1937-2007 (bulk: 1990-2007). Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. 32
Volume/Storage Container: 17.25 linear feet, 28 boxes. Finding aid. Description of Material: The collection relates to regional planning, water resources development and environmental laws and legislation. It includes correspondence and publications documenting DeGrove's activities with various groups, including the American Planning Association, the American Institute of Certified Planners, the National Academy of Public Administration, the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, and the Nature Conservancy. There are numerous files pertaining to the 1000 Friends of Florida, including correspondence, memoranda, and clippings. The collection also includes a small number of photographs, audiovisual recordings, awards, plaques, and memorabilia. The majority of the correspondence files are arranged by subject or by the name of the correspondent. However, there are a few folders of general correspondence arranged chronologically. There are a few files pertaining to the FAU/FIU Joint Center for Environmental and Urban Problems, but most of the files generated during DeGrove's service as director of the Joint Center are not included in this collection. Similarly, there are only a few files pertaining to his tenure as a faculty member at FAU and his service as Secretary for the Florida Department of Community Affairs. Keywords: Boca Raton/Florida Atlantic University/1000 Friends of Florida/professor/ researcher/ growth management/urban government/politics/planning/administration/ legislation/natural resources/smart growth/land management. Abstract: John Melvin DeGrove was born May 4, 1924 in St. Augustine, Florida. He served in the U.S. Army Infantry from 1942 to 1946 during World War II. He graduated with a Bachelor's degree from Rollins College in 1953, and he earned a Master's degree from Emory University in 1954. He received a Ph.D. in political science in 1958 from the University of North Carolina. Following graduation, he worked as an assistant and associate professor in political science at the University of Florida from 1958 to 1964. In 1964, DeGrove became a professor and chair of the Political Science department at Florida Atlantic University (FAU). From 1968 to 1972, he served as dean of the FAU College of Social Science. He also served as provost of the FAU Broward County campus from 1980 to 1983. Throughout his career, his teaching and research interests focused on growth management, urban government and politics, planning, public administration, natural resources, smart growth, and land management. He explored ways to manage growth and change so as to assure sustainable natural and urban systems over time. In 1971, DeGrove became the director of the Joint Center for Environmental and Urban Problems, which was created by the Florida Legislature as a joint center of FAU and Florida International University. In this position, he led applied research efforts focusing on environmental and urban issues affecting state and local governments. He directed the Center until 1998. In 1999 he was named the John M. DeGrove Eminent Scholar Chair in Growth Management and Development in the FAU College of Architecture, Urban, and Public Affairs. He retired in 2000 and was named Eminent Scholar Emeritus. DeGrove was a longtime leader in Florida's growth management efforts and public administration. From 1972 to 1974 he chaired Governor Reubin Askew's Commission on Local Government. He was a gubernatorial appointee on two of Florida's Environmental Land Management Study Commissions. Between 1983 and 1985, he served as Secretary of the Florida Department of Community Affairs for Governor Bob Graham. He also 33
served as a member of the Governor's Commission for a Sustainable South Florida from 1994 to 1999. He developed and championed important legislation throughout his career, including the Environmental Land and Water Management Act (1972), the Water the Land Conservation Act (1972), and the Comprehensive State Planning Act and the Omnibus Growth Management Act (1985). He also chaired or served on numerous state task forces and committees on issues such as water management, land use, growth, and the environment. In addition to his leadership role in Florida, DeGrove was a national authority in growth management, planning and public administration. He was appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson to the National Commission on Urban Problems (the Douglas Commission) from 1967-1968. He served as a member of the White House Conference on Growth Management and the National Academy of Science National Research council. He also served as a planning and growth management advisor in numerous states. Professional associations include the American Planning Association, the American Institute of Certified Planners (Fellow, 2006), the American Society for Public Administration, the National Academy of Public Administration (Fellow, 1975), the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, and the Nature Conservancy. He was a founding member and is President Emeritus of the 1000 Friends of Florida, a nonprofit growth management advocacy organization. DeGrove is the author of numerous articles, books, book chapters and reports. His books include: Land, Growth and Politics (1984), Balanced Growth: A Planning Guide for Local Government (1991), and Planning Policy and Politics: Smart Growth and the States (2005). Source: Biographical materials and curriculum vitae in the DeGrove Papers, University of Florida. URL: Author: Dosh, R.N. Collection Title: Robert N. "Bert" Dosh Papers Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 1.25 Linear feet. 3 Boxes Description of Material: Correspondence with political figures and letters relating to the Cross Florida Barge Canal, which he supported strongly. Also includes editorials from the Ocala Evening Star and Ocala Star Banner, which he worked for as editor. Keywords: journalism/newspaper editor/Cross Florida Barge Canal. Abstract: Journalist. Born in Missouri; moved to Ocala, Florida, in 1895. Editor of the Ocala Evening Star and Ocala Star Banner. URL: Author: Douglas, M.S. Collection Title: Marjory Stoneman Douglas. Library/Archive: Florida International University, Everglades Digital Library and Library of Congress American Memory Project. 34
Volume/Storage Container: Digital Collections. The materials in this online compilation are drawn from sixteen physical collections housed in the archives and special collections of the University of Miami, Florida International University and the Historical Museum of Southern Florida. Description of Material: Reclaiming the Everglades digital collection includes personal correspondence, essays, typescripts, reports and memos; photographs, maps and postcards; and publications from individuals and the government. Keywords: Collier County/Miami/Everglades/editor/natural history/conservation Abstract: After her marriage ended Douglas moved to Miami to work with her father, Frank Stoneman, then the editor of The Miami Herald. As an assistant editor on the paper, Douglas also wrote editorials urging protection and development of Florida's unique regional character in the face of rapid commercial development. After leaving the paper in 1923, she devoted herself to her literary career. In 1947, Douglas published The Everglades: River of Grass, a best-selling guide and natural/political history that not only raised public consciousness regarding the Everglades but also helped to diminish the national misperception of wetlands in general as swamps. Douglas also became a leader of the successful campaign for the establishment of Everglades National Park and in 1969 helped to found the conservation organization Friends of the Everglades. The FIU Everglades Digital Library includes a short Bio of Douglas. The online Library of Congress American Memory Project (Reclaiming the Everglades) materials are drawn from sixteen physical collections housed in the archives and special collections of the University of Miami, Florida International University and the Historical Museum of Southern Florida. URL: and Author: Edison Collection Title: Edison Botanic Research Laboratory Collection. Library/Archive: Edison and Ford Winter Estates, Fort Myers, FL Description of Material: The Edison Ford Winter Estates Archives includes holdings related to the Edison Botanical Research Corporation. Parts of this collection may not be available. Researchers must be preapproved to access the Edison Ford Winter Estates Archives and are required to fill out a Research Policies and Procedures form, available on their website. Keywords: Fort Myers/Edison, Thomas/Ford, Henry/Firestone, Harvey/Edison Botanical Research Corporation/foreign sources/rubber. Abstract: Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, and Harvey Firestone were concerned about America's dependence on foreign sources for rubber for its industrial enterprises. As a result, the three men formed the Edison Botanic Research Corporation (EBRC) in 1927. Under Edison's leadership, the corporation sought a source of rubber that could be grown and produced quickly in the U.S. in the event of a shortage in the foreign supply. After testing over 17,000 plants, Edison eventually discovered a source in the plant Goldenrod. The laboratory, built in 1928, was the headquarters for Edison and his staff and was operational until 1936 (five years after Edison's death) when the project was transferred to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The layout of the interior contained a chemical processing area, machine shop, grinding room, office and dark room. 35
URL: Author: Everglades Commission Collection Title: Everglades National Park Commission Papers Library/Archive: Collection managed by the South Florida Collections Management Center, under the Everglades National Park Museum, part of the Everglades National Park of the National Park Service. Description of Material: These materials include the papers of Ernest F. Coe (18661951), a landscape architect who played a crucial role in the establishment of the Everglades National Park in 1934. "Father of the Everglades National Park." Keywords: Coe, Ernest/architect/Everglades. Research Notes: For additional information or to make a research appointment, please email the archivist or call 305-242-7804. URL: Author: Everglades, Friends of the Year: 1969-present Title: Friends of the Everglades. Abstract: Friends of the Everglades was founded in 1969 by renowned journalist, author, and environmental activist Marjory Stoneman Douglas. The mission of Friends of the Everglades is to preserve, protect, and restore the only Everglades in the world. URL: Author: Everglades Museum Collection Title: Everglades National Park Museum Collections. Library/Archive: ENP museum collections are managed by the South Florida Collections Management Center, under the Everglades National Park Museum, part of the Everglades National Park of the National Park Service. Volume/Storage Container: The collection includes over 2.1 million archival items, over 62,000 biological specimens, and over 675,000 archaeological objects (archaeological objects are stored at the NPS Southeast Archaeology Center in Tallahassee, FL). Description of Material: Everglades National Park's museum collection consists of over 2.8 million objects, archival documents and photographs, and specimens. The collection preserves the history, culture and research of the park. Examples of materials in the archives include: the Everglades National Park Commission Papers; Superintendent's Month Reports, 1947-1968; newspaper clippings from 1920s-present; field notes, data, and reports documenting the park's natural and cultural resources; oral histories from former residents of Old Flamingo and from soldiers stationed at Nike missile base HM69; and extensive photographic collections documenting the people and resources of the park. The collection also includes over 62,000 biological specimens, including molluscs, birds, insects, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and a large herbarium of plants collected in the park. Examples include rare Miami blue butterflies, exotic pythons, Florida tree snails (Liguus fasciatus), orchids and other plants. The biological specimens and associated 36
records document a wide variety of research conducted in the park, by National Park Service and other researchers. The park's fluid-preserved specimens are on loan to the Florida Museum of Natural History. Keywords: biological/archeological/molluscs/birds/insects/reptiles/amphibians/ pythons/mammals/Miami blue butterflies/tree snails/plants. Research Notes: A variety of finding aids from the Everglades National Park archives are available. New finding aids will be posted as they are completed. For additional information or to make a research appointment, please e-mail the archivist or call 305242-7804. URL: Author: Everglades, Museum of the Collection Title: Museum of the Everglades, Collier County Museums. Abstract: First opened in 1927 as a commercial laundry, today's Museum of the Everglades in Naples, FL dates back to a time when construction of the famous Tamiami Trail was well underway and the tiny settlement of Everglades served as the first County seat. The museum's permanent and rotating exhibits provide visitors with an in-depth look at over 2,000 years of human history in the area and tell the story of those adventurous enough - and stubborn enough - to settle Southwest Florida's lush "River of Grass." "A collection of over 300 of Rob Storter's sketches and artifacts was acquired in 2004 by the Friends who loaned some of the items for traveling exhibits to the Bonita Springs Historical Society and the Historical Museum of Southern Florida.The Friends donated the Storter Collection to Collier County Museums in 2007. The Museum of the Everglades in historic Everglades City, Florida, is devoted to displaying local history from early Native American times to the present. Permanent exhibits tell the story of adventurers stubborn enough to persevere in Southwest Florida's "Last Frontier". Keywords: Everglades/Native Americans/archaeology/history/Storter, Rob Notes: The museum's main gallery offers over 10,000 square feet of new displays, plus a traveling exhibit room, and lecture hall. URL: Author: Fairchild, D. Collection Title: David Fairchild's Typescript, Southern Trip. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 0.25 linear feet, 1 volume Description of Material: Typescript volume with hand corrections and notes, as well as photographs. Report of a trip from Washington, D.C. to Florida January to April, 1917, to survey the disappointing progress of some bamboo plants which were showing signs of insect damage when introduced to Florida. While there, a fierce winter storm came in, and Fairchild describes the effects of the freeze, February 3, 1917. Many of the photographs show icicles on various plants. During the course of the trip he does some research on cross pollination. Many personal comments, as well as comments handwritten into the volume up to 30 years later by the author, give wonderful insights to this botanist. 37
Keywords: Washington DC/Florida/naturalist/botanist/survey/bamboo plants/pollination/ winter freeze. Abstract: David Grandison Fairchild was an American botanist. He was born in Michigan in 1869. For most of his career he worked in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, managing the Department of Plant Introduction. He was a frequent visitor to Florida, and in 1898 he established a garden for introducing tropical plants in Miami. In 1926, he built a family home in Miami and filled the property with a large collection of rare tropical plants. The home is now the site of the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden. Fairchild died in 1954. URL: Author: Fairchild Garden Collection Title: Manuscript and Image Collections (Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden). Library/Archive: Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Archives, Miami, FL. The Archive is available, by appointment, to researchers and scholars. Volume/Storage Container: 14 special collections, 150,000 documents, 30,000 images Description of Material: Includes manuscripts, correspondence, photographs, and printed material related to the history of Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Col. Robert H. Montgomery, Dr. David Fairchild, and other important figures in the fields of horticulture and botany in South Florida. Keywords: Miami/Everglades/Bahamas/Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden/ Colonel Robert H. Montgomery/Dr. David Fairchild/John Kunkel Small/horticulture/botany. Abstract: The archives include 14 collections, an estimated 150,000 documents (including letters, manuscripts, architectural drawings, etc.), audio and video tapes, and over 30,000 images in almost every imaginable format. Much of this collection has been preserved and is accessible to those doing scholarly research on the history of botany in the United States. The papers of David Fairchild represent the core of the archive collection. Of the estimated 6,000 photographic images taken by David Fairchild 4,000 individual photos have been cataloged and indexed, and 2,000 have been preserved. In addition, the Archive includes the collections of over a dozen south Florida botanists and horticulturists. Future projects include digitizing photographs and audio tapes. Research Notes: Papers by and relating to Charles Torrey Simpson can be found here. URL: montgomerylibrary/ Author: Fletcher, D.U. Collection Title: Senator Duncan U. Fletcher Papers, 1860-1936. Library/Archive: Florida State University, Special Collections Archives and Manuscripts Volume/Storage Container: 2 boxes Manuscript Number: 01/MSS 0-110 Description of Material: Correspondence, books, photographs, newspaper clippings. The collection is largely comprised of correspondence sent to Duncan Fletcher from various United States presidents, senators, heads of departments of state and other related officials as well as information about his family and estate. There are also other materials 38
such as books from his senate office, a group photograph of the Jacksonville Kiwanis Club, and photocopies of newspaper clippings about Fletcher. Keywords: Jacksonville/councilman/Florida East Coast Railroad/mortgaging/domestic land/foreign land. Abstract: Duncan U. Fletcher was born on January 6, 1859, near Americus, Georgia. He graduated from Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1880, and studied law there. In 1881 he moved to Jacksonville, Florida, where he practiced law and became the chief counsel of the Florida East Coast Railroad. He began his political career as a Jacksonville councilman in 1887. In 1893 he served a term in the Florida House of Representatives, and was mayor of Jacksonville from 1893-1985, and 1901-1903, helping to rebuild the city after the fire of 1901. He was also chairman of the State Democratic Executive Committee from 1905-1908. In 1909, he was elected to the United States Senate, and remained there until his death on June 17, 1936. During this time he helped to form the Securities Exchange Commission, helped to sponsor farm loan legislation, and became an advisor to presidents on domestic and foreign land mortgaging. Notes: Scattered correspondence also exists in the Minnie Moore Wilson Papers, and the Bass Biological Laboratory Collection, among others. URL: Author: Florida Defenders of the Environment Collection Title: Records of the Florida Defenders of the Environment, 1943-1994. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 35 linear feet, 85 boxes. Description of Material: This collection is comprised of correspondence, news clippings, journal articles, court testimony, speeches, government reports, financial records, proposed legislation, and other records created or collected by FDE over several decades. Although FDE was established in 1969, some of the documents predate the group and the collection spans 1943 to 1994. The bulk of the materials, however, date from 1969 to 1994. The collection is divided into two groups: Accession I and II. Accession I is comprised of two series of records: Newspaper Clipping files and Correspondence and General files. The majority of these materials, which date from 1962 to 1992, pertain to the Cross Florida Barge Canal, the Ocklawaha River, FDE meetings, and various environmental issues in Florida. Marjorie Carr is the primary correspondent. Accession II is arranged into several series including: Cross Florida Barge Canal (CFBC) Files, Non-CFBC Correspondence and Issue Files, Reading Files, News Clippings, Committee Files, Meetings, Administrative Files, Conferences, Photographs, and Publications and Reports. Although the Cross Florida Barge Canal is the primary topic covered by the materials, other related topics include the Rodman Reservoir, the Everglades, conservation of natural resources, the Florida panther and wildlife conservation, water management, planned development, and the Ocklawaha, Withlacoochee and other central Florida rivers. Marjorie Carr is the primary correspondent, but other individuals include Nathaniel Reed, Bill Partington, Archie Carr, Claude Pepper, Lawton Chiles, Bob Graham, and Buddy 39
MacKay, among others. A number of organizations and government agencies are represented, including the Canal Authority, the Environmental Service Center, the Army Corps of Engineers, the Audubon Society, the Sierra Club, and the Environmental Defense Fund. In addition to documents created by other environmental and conservation groups, there is a large amount of letters, reports and testimony by expert scientists and economists. The records of the Alachua Audubon Society, found in the Cross Florida Barge Canal (CFBC) series, are of particular interest because they document the issues and discussions that led to the establishment of FDE. Most of the records series are arranged alphabetically by folder title. The Correspondence and General Files series in Accession I, and the News Clippings series in both Accessions I and II are primarily arranged chronologically. Keywords: Gainesville/Carr, Majorie/Florida ecosystem/Cross Florida Barge Canal/ Cross Florida Greenway/conservation/protection/growth/development. Abstract: The Florida Defenders of the Environment (FDE) was established in 1969 in Gainesville by Marjorie Harris Carr, Bill Partington, John Couse, and other scientists, economists, and lawyers who were concerned about the Florida ecosystem. It was the successor to an earlier group known as the Alachua Audubon Society. The organization's primary focus was to stop the construction of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, which was designed to cut across the middle of the state in order to improve transportation of goods across Florida. The canal had been planned since the early 1930s and under construction since 1964. In creating the canal, the state of Florida planned to flood parts of the Ocklawaha River basin and parts of the surrounding region. The FDE and several other environmental groups argued that the environmental effects of such a canal would have been disastrous. Through exhaustive campaigns, scientific and economic studies, and volunteer work from many individuals, the organizations successfully stopped the construction of the canal in 1971. The canal was officially de-authorized by the federal government in 1990 and by Florida in 1991. Following the de-authorization of the canal, the organization has continued to be a leading environmental advocacy group. They are largely credited with creating the Cross Florida Greenway, a recreation and conservation area made up of much of the land originally designated for the Cross Florida Barge Canal. The Greenway was renamed the Marjorie Harris Carr Cross Florida Greenway in 1998. The group still closely monitors the condition of the Ocklawaha River, and also works to repair the damage done by earlier canal construction. The organization also actively works on other environmental issues in Florida, including the Everglades, wildlife protection, and sustainable growth and development. Marjorie Carr (1915-1998) served as president of FDE for approximately thirty years. She held a Master's in Zoology from the University of Florida and was married to environmental scientist, Archie Carr. The FDE web site also maintains pages providing biographical information on Marjorie Carr. For more information, see the FDE site: URL: Author: FFWCC 40
Collection Title: Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) Papers and Publications, 1955-present. Library/Archive: Research Information Center, FWC Florida Wildlife Research Institute(FWRI), St. Petersburg, FL. M-F 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m. Contact Librarian. Keywords: Tallahassee/research/wildlife/protect/conservation/management. Abstract: The Research Information Center is a repository of historical research data and books, journal subscriptions, reprints, and slides on biological systems. Its collection contains the papers and correspondence of the institution and staff scientific publications. The publications list containing all publications authored by Florida Wildlife Research Institute researchers across the state is available to the public online. Many of the staff scientific publications and technical reports have been digitized and are available online. Through effective research and technical knowledge, FWC provides timely information and guidance to protect, conserve, and manage Florida's fish and wildlife resources. URL: Author: Florida State Land Office Collection Title: Florida State Land Office. Correspondence, 1858-1913. Library/Archive: State Archives of Florida. Volume/Storage Container: 70 vols., 1 cubic ft. Description of Material: The series contains letterpress copies, both bound and loose, of correspondence of the State Land Office with various private individuals, the United States Land Office at Gainesville, the United State General Land Office in Washington, D.C., and the Surveyor General of the United States for the State of Florida. The correspondence is from the Register of Public Lands, Commissioner of Lands and Immigration, and Commissioner of Agriculture. The correspondence concerns the sale of public lands, tax deeds, homestead and swampland claims, and payments received for the Seminary, School, and Internal Improvement Trust Funds. Keywords: Gainesville/internal home improvement lands/homesteads/swamp lands/ records/surveys/maps/field notes/patents/claims/payments. Abstract: In 1845, a public land office was established under the control of the Register of Public Lands (Sections 1, 2, and 3, Ch. 54, Act of December 26, 1845). The public land office was officially designated the State Land Office in 1852 (Ch. 503, Act of December, 1852). The State Land Office was assigned to the Commissioner of Lands and Immigration in 1869 (Secs. 1 and 2, Ch. 1727, Act of June 23, 1869). In 1885, the Commissioner of Agriculture assumed control of the State Land Office (Article IV, Section 26, 1885 Constitution). All records, surveys, maps, field notes, patents, claims, and payments related to internal improvement lands, homesteads, swamplands, and other public lands were filed with the State Land Office. URL: Author: Gilbert, P.W. Collection Title: The Perry W. Gilbert Collection, 1912-2000. Library/Archive: Arthur Vining Davis Library and Archives at Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota. Volume/Storage Container: 16 linear feet Manuscript Number: PWG 41
Description of Material: The Collection contains the papers of former Cornell University professor, shark researcher, and Mote Lab director (1967-1978), Dr. Perry W. Gilbert. The materials cover 1944-1992 and contain fascinating information on shark investigations and the development of Mote as a major center for shark and marine research. The collection includes Dr. Perry W. Gilbert's published papers, articles, and books; correspondence with other researchers, the U.S. Navy and legendary figures e.g. Lloyd Bridges, Peter Benchley, and Jacques-Yves Cousteau, William Vanderbilt, and Scott Carpenter (astronaut, and aquanaut), documents on the development of shark repellents and the expansion of Mote; and photographs of sharks and other sea life. The records cover parts of the United States and the Pacific, and include published papers, reprints, news clippings, correspondence, and photographs. Keywords: biology/sharks/downed aviators/shipwrecks/Navy's Shark Research Panel/shark repellants/Cape Haze Marine Laboratory/Clark, Eugenie/Mote Marine Laboratory. Abstract: Dr. Perry W. Gilbert (1912-2000) was born in Connecticut to Scott and Hester Gilbert in 1912. He attended Dartmouth College where he majored in biology, and later Cornell where he attained a Ph.D. in vertebrate biology. Dr. Gilbert's lifelong passion was for the biology and behavior of sharks, though he also enjoyed downhill ski racing, mountain climbing, long bow, scuba diving, and reading. Perry Gilbert and his wife Claire had a total of eight children. Following World War II, the Office of Naval Research approached Dr. Gilbert for assistance on downed aviators and shipwrecked sailors suffering from shark attacks. In 1957 he was chosen to head the Navy's Shark Research Panel and, as a result, organized and coordinated shark research programs around the world for 13 years. Gilbert's research led to shark repellants using chemical, electrical fields, and even trained Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. He received multiple fellowships including the Carnegie and Guggenheim, and his work eventually led him to Cape Haze Marine Laboratory where he met Dr. Eugenie Clark. In 1967 Dr. Gilbert became the director of Mote Marine Laboratory, and remained in this position until his retirement in 1978. During his career he was involved with the Lerner Marine Laboratory in the Bahamas, Mt. Desert Island Biological Laboratory in Maine, the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California and various laboratories in Hawaii, the South Seas, Australia, South Africa, and Japan. Notes: This collection also includes information on William R. Mote, businessman, sportsman, and Mote benefactor. Additional materials on Perry W. Gilbert can be found at Cornell University. URL: and Author: Goggin, J.M. Collection Title: John M. Goggin Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 12.5 linear feet, 24 boxes. Description of Material: The John Mann Goggin Papers include his correspondence with family, colleagues and peers, his publications, an assortment of subject files on 42
various topics used by Goggin while conducting his research, and his field notebooks covering the years between 1932 and 1960. His fieldwork is also documented in photographs. Other sections of the collection include his class notes and newspaper clippings on various subjects spanning the years between the 1940s through the 1960s. Correspondence includes letters organized by writer/recipient, as well as general correspondence arranged chronologically. Subject files, publications, and research files are arranged alphabetically by topic or title. The field notebooks of Goggin's excavations are arranged chronologically and researchers are referred to his published work and to Brent Weisman's biographical study Pioneer in Space and Time for information on Goggin's extensive resume of fieldwork. Newspaper clippings are arranged both alphabetically by subject and the more general clippings are arranged chronologically. Only about half of the photo collection is labeled with captions. Negatives are unlabeled. Slides are stored in slide boxes and separated by subject tabs. There are five scrapbook photo albums. One scrapbook is labeled on the front cover "Florida" and contains personal photographs and photographs of fieldwork in various places in the state. Another scrapbook is labeled "Bahamas Islands" and contains photographs from the Andros Island archaeological survey, spanning the months July August in 1937. The photos in this album are labeled. A third scrapbook is labeled "Florida: Camping and Ecological Pictures." All of the photographs in this album are labeled. The fourth scrapbook is labeled "Mexico 1939" and it contains travel documents to Mexico as well as photographs, most of which are labeled. The last scrapbook is a large green album with no title. It contains photographs from various parts of Florida and spans the years 1932 - 1935. All of the photographs in this album are labeled. There are ten card boxes numbered from 15 to 24. Box 15 is a miscellaneous box containing material such as artifact catalog cards, notes on types of plants, and bibliographical information. Boxes 16 and Box 17 contain notecards on Seminole ethnology. Box 18 contains notes on the Seminoles and early Seminole leaders. Box 19 contains notes on Creek ethnology. Boxes 20 and 21 contain notes on sites and material culture. Boxes 22 through 24 contain lecture notes for classes. Keywords: Gainesville/University of Florida/professor/editor/historical/archaeological/ artifacts/Indian tribes/Florida Anthropological Society/Department of Anthropology/ Spanish olive jars. Abstract: Goggin's career included work in archaeology, ethnology, and cultural anthropology. As a professor at the University of Florida, he continued his field work in Florida, Mexico, and throughout the Caribbean. His findings contributed important collections to the Yale Peabody Museum, the Florida State Museum (now the Florida Museum of Natural History), and other institutions. One of his most important contributions was his application of the concept of pottery typologies and seriation to the study of additional kinds of archaeological and historical artifacts. He was also the first to develop a time - space chart for Florida archaeology, as well as the first to describe and name cultural traditions amongst Indian tribes in Florida. He was a founder of the Florida Anthropological Society and editor of its journal and was an active member of the Eastern States Archaeological Federation. He was also responsible for establishing the department of Anthropology at UF and for creating an underwater archaeology program 43
at UF. His work on Spanish olive jars and majolicas laid the groundwork for future historical archaeology of the Spanish circum - Caribbean. In addition to his archaeological work, Goggin dedicated much of his time to the study of the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Florida Seminole, including studies of language, arts, and other aspects of culture. He taught classes in all fields of anthropology. Goggin published many books and articles. Some of his major works include: Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archeology, Florida; Indian and Spanish Selected Writings, Spanish Majolica in the New World: Types of the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries, The Spanish Olive Jar: An Introductory Study and Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida. URL: Author: Graham, D.R. Collection Title: D. Robert "Bob" Graham Florida Legislature Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 41.75 linear feet, 95 boxes. Description of Material: Correspondence, legislation, memoranda, committee files, press releases, notes, reports, news clippings, speeches, trip files, publications. This collection covers Graham's legislative activities and public policy initiatives during his tenure in the Florida House of Representatives (1966-1970) and the Florida Senate (19701978). In addition to the legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Graham, the bulk of the collection is comprised of committee files, subject files, and correspondence regarding legislative issues. Major topics include education, environmental conservation, Florida economics, and health care. Other topics include the Equal Rights Amendment, the Cross Florida Barge Canal, aging, Dade County issues, state universities, Big Cypress, housing, desegregation, the Education Commission of the States, Lands for You, abortion, Interama, 4 Clean Water, the Select Council on Post-High School Education (SCOPE), underground power, and land use. The collection also includes a large number of speeches, articles, news releases, and publications by Graham. A small amount of office files and itineraries also provide information regarding the activities of Graham and his staff. Campaign files document Graham's rise in Florida politics from state representative in 1966 to governor in both 1978 and 1982. Additionally, campaign files also document Graham's aid to electing fellow Democrats, Broward Williams, Talbot "Sandy" D'Alemberte, Robert King High, and LeRoy Collins. Files are arranged chronologically from 1966 to 1982. The largest amount of material relates to Graham's first campaign for governor in 1978. Keywords: Miami/Miami Lakes/lawyer/developer/Florida House of Representatives/ senator/governor. Abstract: D. Robert "Bob" Graham was born in Coral Gables, Florida on November 9, 1936. He graduated from Miami High School in 1955, received a bachelor's degree from the University of Florida in 1959, and received a law degree from Harvard in 1962. Prior to entering public office, he practiced law, served as an executive with the Sengra 44
Corporation, a family-owned construction firm, and with the Graham Companies. He and his family have been instrumental in developing portions of South Florida, including Miami Lakes. He served in the Florida House of Representatives (1967-71) and the Florida Senate (1971-78). He was elected governor of Florida in 1978 and 1982. After serving two terms, Florida's limit, he was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1986 and reelected in 1992 and 1998. November 9, 1936 Born in Dade County, Florida 1955 Graduated, Miami Senior High School 1959 Received bachelor's degree, University of Florida 1959 Married of Adele Khoury of Miami Shores 1960 Established Graham Companies and commenced development of Miami Lakes 1962 Received bachelor of law degree, Harvard 1966 Elected as Florida State Representative 1968 Re-elected as Florida State Representative 1970 Elected as Florida State Senator 1974 Re-elected as Florida State Senator 1974 Began "Workdays" 1978 Elected as Florida Governor 1982 Re-elected as Florida Governor 1986 Elected as United States Senator 1992 Re-elected as United States Senator 1998 Re-elected as United States Senator URL: Author: Graham, E.R. Collection Title: Ernest R. Graham Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 15 linear feet, 37 boxes. Description of Material: The Ernest R. Graham papers contain correspondence and other written documents, photographs, and newspaper clippings, illustrating Graham's career in truck and dairy farming, as a public servant on the Dade Drainage Commission and the State Highway Board, as a member of the Florida Senate, and as a political campaigner for the governor of Florida and Dade County Commission. There is strong emphasis on subjects such as horse racing and racketeering, the gubernatorial campaign, and on drainage and other forms of water control in Dade County and in the Everglades. Keywords: Dade County/politician/dairy farmer/rancher/supporter of Barge Canal Abstract: Ernest R. "Cap" Graham was a Florida politician, dairy farmer, and rancher. He was born in 1886 and moved to Dade County, Florida, in 1921 to raise sugar for the Pennsylvania Sugar Company. By 1929, Pennsylvania Sugar apparently had discontinued operations in Florida, and Graham was involved as operator of the Pennsuco Farming Company, either leasing land from or in partnership with the sugar company. In time Graham acquired the property and converted it to dairy farming. He was a member of the boards of the Dade Drainage District and the State Road Department (1929-1931). 45
In 1936 Graham was elected to the Florida State Senate, where he served two terms from 1937 to 1944. As a state senator, he sought to increase taxes on horse racing in order to increase funding for the aged. This led to his chairing of a Senate Committee to Investigate Racing in the State of Florida, which resulted in the publicizing of alleged corruption and mob connections within the Florida racing industry. Some increase in taxation did result. Graham went to Washington in 1942 as a lobbyist for Dade County and Miami, seeking more government contracts and other benefits for the area. He promoted the use of a barge canal across Florida through Lake Okeechobee to avoid the risk of war-time shipping through the Florida Straits. He entered the 1944 gubernatorial campaign against two major opponents, Millard Caldwell and Robert Lex Green. After finishing third in the Democratic primary, he supported Green. After leaving the state legislature, Graham returned to farming in Dade County. In 1947-48, he returned to politics to campaign for a seat on the Dade County Commission, running largely on water control issues. He lost in the primary election. Graham was married twice, to Florence Morris and Hilda Simmons Graham, and had four children: Philip Graham, former publisher of the Washington Post; William "Bill" Graham, president of the Graham Company and principal developer of Miami Lakes; Mary Graham Crow; and D. Robert "Bob" Graham, former Florida Governor and U.S. Senator. Ernest Graham died in 1957. URL: Author: Grosenbaug, L.R. Collection Title: Lewis R. Grosenbaugh Papers Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 1 linear foot, 3 boxes. Description of Material: The collection consists of miscellaneous materials from Grosenbaugh's tenure as a Unit Director for the U.S. Forest Service, "Pioneering Research Unit in Forest Mensuration." Keywords: U.S. Forest Service/Researcher/forest mensuration Abstract: Forester. Unit director, "Pioneering research in forest mensuration," United States Forest Service. URL: Author: Harrisson, T. Collection Title: Tom Harrisson Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 3.3 linear feet, 8 boxes. Description of Material: The Harrison Papers document his career as a turtle researcher and conservationist during his tenure as curator of the Sarawak Museum and as an active member of the SSC of the IUCN and as co-chair of its Marine Turtle Specialist Group. The Papers contain many of Harrisson's complete manuscripts, including the book length Turtle Island, his turtle notes and observation records from 1947, correspondence, some published writings, manuscripts and secondary materials of other writers, and his IUCN 46
files. A very small portion of the Papers are more personal, or relate to subjects other than turtles. Harrisson was closely associated with Archie Carr, whose presence and influence is very noticeable in the Papers. Many of the correspondents and topics are the same as in the Carr Papers, and there is doubtless duplication. Harrisson's Papers often expand the point of view found in Carr's Papers and are rich in details of certain geographic areas, notably Malaysia and Indonesia, but also other islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Harrisson's IUCN files are more extensive than Carr's. Researchers on turtle topics are advised to consult both the Carr and the Harrisson Papers. Condition: At some point, some of the Papers became wet. In addition to moisture damage, this caused clips and staples to rust extraordinarily, resulting in further deterioration. Keywords: Carr, Archie/turtles/conservationist/tagging/hatching/research. Abstract: Tom Harrisson, noted turtle scientist and conservationist, first began turtle observations as curator of the Sarawak Museum in Borneo and as chief executive officer of the Sarawak Turtle Board, posts to which he was appointed in 1947. His activities included turtle tagging, hatching young turtles, and keeping detailed records of eggs collected. In 1974 he was appointed co-chair, with Archie F. Carr, Jr., of the Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG) of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Survival Services Commission (SSC), and undertook a reorganization of the group. Upon retiring from Sarawak, Harrisson joined the Southeast Asian studies faculty at Cornell University (1967-68) and for the remainder of his life was involved with IUCN activities and as director of the Mass-Observation Archive at the University of Sussex. Harrisson died along with his third wife, Barronne Christine Forani, in a traffic accident in Thailand, January, 1976. Before assuming his duties in Borneo, Harrisson had been active in mass observation in his native England. Earlier in his life, he attended Pembroke College, Cambridge, participated in several scientific expeditions, and lived among native tribes in the Pacific. He was the author of numerous books, primarily based on his experiences in the Pacific and on mass observation. He was the author of many articles, but no published books on turtles. (Cf. Who Was Who, 1971-1980). URL: Author: Hay, W.P. Collection Title: William Perry Hay Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 0.4 linear feet, 1 box. Description of Material: Includes correspondence, zoological drawings and papers, and copies of articles. Letters were received by Hay from scientists in the United States, Germany, and France. Some of the correspondence, ca. 1905-06, relates to the Washington Biological Society of which Hay was an officer. Crustacea, especially crayfish, is the predominant subject matter of the papers. Correspondents include A. E. Ortmann, M. J. Rathbun, R. Ridgeway, W. B. Scott, Thomas Stebbing, G. L. Swiggett, 47
and Hay's father Oliver Perry Hay. Some correspondence is also addressed to the elder Hay. Keywords: zoologist/professor/natural history/biology/chemistry/lecturer/entomologist/ North American crustacea/Astacidae. Abstract: Zoologist and educator William Perry Hay (1872-1947) was born in Eureka, IL, on Dec. 8, 1872. His father was paleontologist Oliver Perry Hay (1846-1930). He was educated at Butler University (B.S., '91; MS. '92). Instructor of Zoology, Central High School, Washington, D.C., 1892-1898; head, Dept. of Biology, Washington high schools, 1898-1900; professor of natural history, Howard University, 1900-1908; head, Dept. of Biology and Chemistry, Washington high schools, 1908-1931; instructor of biology, McKinley High School (Washington?), 1931-1934. Also assistant in zoology, George Washington University, and lecturer, Georgetown U. (ca. 1907?). Memberships: American Association for the Advancement of Science, Fisheries Society, National Geographic Society, Washington Academy of Sciences, Washington Biological Society (vp, 1907), Washington Entomological Society, Washington Biological Field Club (pres., 1903). Fields of research: Life history and relations of North American crustacea, and Astacidae of North America. (Source: American Men of Science, 8th edition, 1949.) URL: Author: Hodges, R. Collection Title: Executive Director, The Florida Department of Natural Resources. Randolph Hodges, Administrative Files, 1961-1971. Library/Archive: State Archives of Florida. Volume/Storage Container: 27 cubic ft. Description of Material: The files contain correspondence, memoranda, reports, regulations, surveys, maps, and budget files. Topics include the conservation of Florida's natural resources, development of water resources, coastal zone management, fishery management, and environmental policy. Keywords: Department of Natural Resources/executive director. Abstract: The series contains the administrative files of Randolph Hodges, Executive Director of the Department of Natural Resources and its predecessor agency, the State Board of Conservation, from 1961 to 1971. The Department of Natural Resources (DNR) was created in 1969 (Ch. 69-106, Laws), combining the functions of the State Board of Conservation; the Canal Authority; the Commission on Marine Sciences and Technology; the Florida Keys Aqueduct Commission; the Board of Parks and Historic Memorials; the Outdoor Recreational Development Council; the Board of Drainage Commissioners; and the Suwannee River Development Authority. In 1975, the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund also became part of the DNR (Ch. 7522, Laws). URL: Author: Ingraham, J.E. Collection Title: James Edmundson Ingraham Papers, 1854-1920. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 1 linear feet, 2 boxes. 48
Description of Material: The Ingraham Papers contain his business papers, correspondence, photographs, and miscellaneous materials pertaining to railroads, the Everglades and the sugar industry in Florida. Of particular interest are his manuscripts regarding the Flagler and Plant railroads and their role in developing South Florida. Keywords: Sanford/businessman/entrepreneur/railroad company executive/survey of Everglades. Abstract: Businessman, entrepreneur, and railroad company executive. James Edmundson Ingraham was born and educated in Racine, Wisconsin. He moved to Florida in 1874 and became associated with Henry Sanford in Sanford, Florida. He spent most of his career working in Florida for the railroad tycoons, Henry Flagler and Henry Plant. As part of his work for the Plant railroad along the west coast of Florida, he conducted a survey through the Everglades from Ft. Myers to Miami in 1892. From 1892 until 1897 he was employed by Flagler in various positions, and from 1897 to 1899 he served as land commissioner for the Florida East Coast Railway (1897-1899). After the turn of the century, he served as president of Flagler's Model Land Company and as an officer of several small land companies organized by Flagler. In this capacity, he promoted land sales and spurred the growth of towns in Florida for several years. URL: Author: Jennings, M.M. Collection Title: May Mann Jennings Papers, 1889-1963. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections and Digital Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 9 linear feet, 25 boxes, and digital images. Description of Material: The May Mann Jennings Papers (1889-1963) document her activities related to the Federation of Women's Clubs, the Royal Palm State Park, the Everglades, and her relationship with her husband, Governor William Sherman Jennings. Other topics include women's rights and suffrage, the Seminole Indians, beautification efforts, child welfare, public health, education, and Democratic politics. The collection consists of correspondence, photographs, news clippings, speeches, meeting minutes and biographical information. The personal correspondence includes letters to and from her husband and her son, Sherman Bryan Jennings. Keywords: politician/environmentalist/forestry/education/Royal Palm State Park/Everglades National Park. Abstract: May Austin Elizabeth Mann Jennings (April 25, 1872 ­ April 25, 1963) was a political and environmental activist and the wife of Florida Governor William Sherman Jennings. She was known as the "Mother of Florida Forestry" for her part in promoting and securing the legislative act that created the Florida State Board of Forestry, known today as the Division of Forestry. She was also instrumental in the development of Royal Palm State Park near Homestead, later donated to the National Park Service and incorporated into Everglades National Park. May Mann Jennings was a leading member of the women's club movement and an influential advocate for social reform and civic causes in Florida and nationwide. Born in New Jersey in 1872, she moved with her family to Crystal River, Florida in 1874. She was educated at St. Joseph's Convent in St. Augustine, and lived primarily in Jacksonville throughout her life. No stranger to politics, her father was Florida State Senator Austin Shuey Mann and she married future Governor 49
William Sherman Jennings in 1891. During their years in the Governor's mansion, she became known as the "Mother of Forestry" for her advocacy efforts on behalf of the state Board of Forestry. Her interests varied widely and she championed numerous causes related to the Seminole Indians, women's rights and suffrage, conservation, beautification efforts, child welfare, public health, education, and Democratic politics. A prominent leader in the women's club movement, she served as president of the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs from 1914-1917, and as both Florida director and vice president of the General Federation of Women's Clubs (1918-1920). She also held several important leadership positions with social club and civic organizations throughout Florida, including numerous beautification committees and the state Audubon Society. During her tenure as president of the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, she spearheaded the effort to have the Royal Palm State Park established in 1915, thereby preserving a portion of the Everglades for public use. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s she continued to oversee and advocate for the Royal Palm Park on behalf of the Federation. She was appointed to the Everglades National Park Commission in the late 1930s and pushed for the creation of a national Everglades park. She died April 24, 1963. Notes: Moore, Linda D. 1980. May Mann Jennings, Florida's Genteel Activist. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida. viii, 345 p. URL: and (photos) Author: Lemur Collection Title: Lemur Conservation Foundation. Library/Archive: Anne and Walter Bladstrom Library at the Lemur Reserve, Myakka City, FL. Volume/Storage Container: unknown Description of Material: The collection holds an extensive photograph collection showing research work at the Myakka City Reserve, in Tampolo, and around Madagascar; theses, disseration and research project notes emanating from research performed at the Reserve or by LCF staff and scientists; and a small print collection of key sources relating to lemurs, primates, animal behavior, conservation, Madagascar, Florida environment and natural history. Classic, historical and other materials related to lemur studies and no longer under copyright are being scanned and cataloged to be made available online to researchers. The American Museum of Natural History has begun a scanning project and is providing copies of specific materials that will be of benefit to researchers. Keywords: Myakka City/Manatee County/Lemur Reserve/agriculture/habitat Abstract: The 100 acre Myakka City, Florida Lemur Reserve is located in extreme eastern Manatee County surrounded on all sides by agriculture. A variety of habitat types occur on the site due to topographical gradients, various soil types and historical landuses, allowing environmental diversity on the reserve. The vegetation zones are defined as oak-pine mixed forest, upland coniferous forest, live oak hammock, mixed rangeland, pine flatwoods, scrub and brush land, palmetto prairie, freshwater marsh, and wetland mixed forest. The Anne and Walter Bladstrom Library located in the Mianatra Center for Lemur Studies opened January 2007. It serves as an on-site research facility for those 50
visiting the Reserve and also as an online virtual library and electronic information resource for anyone interested in lemur studies. URL: and Author: Mann, A.S. Collection Title: Austin Shuey Mann Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 1 linear foot, 3 boxes. Description of Material: The collection contains business and personal correspondence, telegrams, receipts, and memorabilia. Box 1, which covers 1892-1905, the material mostly concerns land sales, the Good Roads Association, the Florida Agricultural Society, and railroad projects in Florida. Box 2, which covers 1905-1908, the material mostly concerns land sales, the Good Roads Association, travel plans, agriculture (specifically apple trees), and timber lands. Box 3, which covers 1909-1912, the materials mostly concern the Florida Homeland Company, lands records, Celery Farms Colony (with correspondence between Mann and HT White and TS Hand), family correspondence, and miscellaneous papers. The collection is arranged in chronological order. Keywords: lawyer/politician/businessman/Good Road Association/Florida Agricultural Society/land sales/railroad projects. Abstract: Austin Shuey Mann was born in Ohio on January 14, 1847. He attended law school and worked at his cousin's law firm until 1873 when he moved to Ocala, Florida. He bought an orange grove on Crystal River and continued to practice law. In 1883, Mann was elected to the Florida State Senate and represented Hernando County from 1883-1887. He was present at the 1885 Constitutional Convention. In 1887 he was instrumental in the division of Hernando County into Citrus, Pasco, and Hernando counties. Also during this year he moved to Brooksville and bought a newspaper business. In 1891 he was elected into the Florida House of Representatives on the Farmers' Alliance ticket. In 1892 he became involved in the Peoples' Party of Florida. He moved to Jacksonville in 1900. Mann was President of the Florida Homeland Company and the Florida State Agriculture Association. He was vice-president and a national organizer for the Good Roads Association. He also was a manager for the Florida Home Market. Mann died on September 19, 1914. Sources: May Mann Jennings: Florida's Genteel Activist by Linda D. Vance, University of Florida Press, c1985. Also, Senator Austin S. Mann, a student paper by John Q. Langford, Jr., circa 1950 (available in the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History). URL: Author: Marshall, A.R. Collection Title: Arthur R. Marshall, Jr. Collection, 1954-1984. Library/Archive: Print held at the University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. And, the Everglades Digital Library. Volume/Storage Container: 3.5 linear feet, 8 boxes. 51
Description of Material: The Papers consist of manuscripts and printed texts of Marshall's writings, correspondence, documents from numerous government and private organizations, and secondary material documenting his own efforts to protect and his interest in Florida's environment. The Papers are organized according to: published and unpublished writings, correspondence, awards received by Marshall, South Florida papers, and general papers filed alphabetically. Finding guide available. Keywords: enivronmentalist/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/restoration. Abstract: Arthur R. Marshall, Jr. (1919-1985) retired from a career with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. He was a visionary environmental advocate. His papers held at the University of Florida document his efforts to protect and his interest in Florida's environment. They emphasize the restoration of natural water flow to South Florida and include materials related to Florida Defenders of the Environment, Central and South Florida Flood Control Districts, South Florida Water Management District, and the University of Miami-Division of Applied Ecology. The digital reproductions in the Everglades Digital Library provide an overview of his total system view, recognizing the scientific basis for treating the Everglades from Lake Kissimmee to the Florida Bay as a single ecosystem, and prevails as the approach for restoring the South Florida ecosystem today. Notes: The Arthur R. Marshall Foundation: the mission of the Foundation is to develop, promote, and deliver science-based education and public outreach programs central to restoration of the greater Everglades ecosystem and its historic "River of Grass." URL: and Author: Mead, T.L. Collection Title: Theodore L. Mead Collection, 1840-1936. Library/Archive: Rollins College, Winter Park Florida. Volume/Storage Container: 31 boxes totaling 33 linear ft. of archival collections and 13 linear ft. of journals from Mead's personal library collection. Description of Material: Contains manuscripts, photographs, memorabilia, periodicals, and pamphlets from Mead's personal library. Keywords: Mead, Theodore Luqueer, 1852-1936/Nehrling, Henry, 1853-1929/Seminole County/history/agriculture/amaryllis/butterflies/botany/gardening/orchids/orchid culture/ tropical plants. Abstract: The personal papers, correspondence and library in the T.L. Mead Collection at Rollins College contain manuscripts, photographs, memorabilia, periodicals, and pamphlets from Mead's personal library. As the last remaining survivor of his immediate family, Mead received the collected correspondence and papers which belonged to his mother, father, and to his brother. The T. L. Mead collection documents the story of an early Florida horticulturist. Along with T. L. Mead's own inventory of papers and letters, the total collection of documents spans nearly a century from 1840 to 1936. With his family papers, and hundreds of letters, we can trace the comprehensive history of an American family for more than one-hundred years. Notes: Link to photo gallery included. URL: and 52
Author: Morgan Collection Title: Arthur E. Morgan Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 0.8 linear feet, 2 boxes. Description of Material: The Morgan Papers include correspondence, photographs, new clippings, magazine articles, pamphlets, reports, and other documents related to drainage of the Everglades and the 1912 Congressional investigation of the Wright report. The collection spans 1912 to 1954 and covers subjects such as flood control, drainage districts, dredging, and land reclamation. Of particular interest is a portion of an unpublished 1954 autobiography, in which Morgan describes the 1912 investigation and provides his analysis and opinions about proposed drainage operations. In addition, there are engineering materials (including photo negatives) related to the Dayton-Morgan Engineering Company's various water control projects throughout the state of Florida. Also included is a copy of a Florida State Senate bill that was prepared in collaboration with Morgan. Keywords: Miami/Everglades/engineering/writer/chairman/Tennessee Valley Authority engineering projects/drainage/flood control/dredging/land reclamation. Abstract: Arthur Ernest Morgan (1878-1975) was the first chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority engineering projects from 1933-1938. Morgan also led the Miami (Ohio) Conservancy District in a mammoth pioneer reconstruction program after the disastrous flood of 1913. He went on to become the President of Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, serving from 1920-1936 while still working actively on engineering projects around the country. Morgan also was a writer well into his nineties and past the point of physical blindness. He is the author of: The Making of the TVA, Dams and Other Disasters: A Century of the Army Corps of Engineers in Civil Works, The Community of The Future and The Future of Community, and Nowhere was Somewhere: How History Makes Utopias and Utopias Make History. In 1912 when Morgan was employed in the office of Drainage Investigations in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U.S. House of Representatives opened hearings to investigate the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) involvement in promoting land sales in the Everglades. In 1909, a preliminary report on the feasibility of draining and reclaiming land in the Everglades had been prepared by USDA employee, James Wright, who concluded that the Everglades could be drained fairly easily and inexpensively. The facts and conclusions presented in the Wright report were extremely unsound, but the USDA officially approved the report anyhow. The land companies in Florida were able to use the USDA report as propaganda to spur real estate sales in South Florida. As part of the 1912 investigation Morgan analyzed the Wright report and testified before a Congressional committee that the report was seriously flawed and that the USDA had acted inappropriately in approving it. Morgan's expert testimony during the investigation refuted the claims that draining the Everglades would be easy, thereby causing the boom in land sales to slow down temporarily. URL: 53
Author: Muir, J. Collection Title: John Muir Papers. Library/Archive: University of the Pacific Library, Holt Atherton Special Collections, Online Archives of California. Volume/Storage Container: 22 reels of microfilm containing 6581 letters, 6581 digital objects. Description of Material: The Muir Papers consist of John Muir's correspondence, journals, manuscripts, notebooks, drawings, and photographs. It also includes some Muir family papers, the William and Maymie Kimes collection of Muir's published writings, the Sierra Club Papers (1896-1913 ), materials collected and generated by his biographers William Badи and Linnie Marsh Wolf, and John Muir's clippings files and memorabilia. Keywords: naturalist/preservationist/writer/wilderness/national parks/natural settings. Abstract: John Muir (1838-1914) was a Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. He was the co-founder and first president of the Sierra Club which helped establish a number of national parks after he died. During his lifetime Muir published six volumes of writings, all describing explorations of natural settings. Four additional books were published posthumously. Several books were subsequently published that collected essays and articles from various sources. From September 1867-January 1868, Muir undertook a walk of about 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from Indiana to Florida, which he recounted in his book A Thousand-Mile Walk to the Gulf, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1916. He had no specific route chosen, except to go by the "wildest, leafiest, and least trodden way I could find." A long illness in Florida led him to change his plans and turn his interests westward. This book does document a trip to Cuba. Many of his writings are available online. Notes: List of the published writings of John Muir, nearly complete to date (Bibliography): Newspaper letters, essays, book reviews, magazine articles, scientific papers, etc. List was prepared by Muir in 1890 but was not published until 1894. Held by Sierra Club, CA. URL: Author: Nehrling, H. Collection Title: Henry Nehrling Collection, 1886-1929. Library/Archive: Rollins College, Winter Park Florida. Volume/Storage Container: 8.5 linear ft., 12 boxes of archival collections and 48 linear ft. of books and journals from Nehrling's personal library collection. Description of Material: Contains manuscripts, photographs, memorabilia, correspondence periodicals, and pamphlets from his personal library. Keywords: Nehrling, Henry, 1853-1929/Mead, Theodore Luqueer, 1852-1936/Florida/ Orange County/Collier County/history/agriculture/gardening/botany/birds/climate/soils/ tropical plants. Abstract: The personal papers and library of Henry Nehrling contain manuscripts, photographs, memorabilia, periodicals, and pamphlets from his personal library. The collection also includes Nehrling's correspondence with internationally famous botanists, plant collectors and horticulturists of his time, such as Theodore L. Mead. 54
Notes: Portions of collection available online. Link to photo gallery included. URL: and Author: New College of Florida Collection Title: Environmental Studies Program Collection, 1972-2013. Library/Archive: New College of Florida, Jane Bancroft Cook Library, Archives and Carriage House Repository, Sarasota, FL. Volume/Storage Container: 48 linear feet. Description of Material: Contains correspondence, literary production, printed material, financial documents, photographic materials, a map collection, and subject files for associated programs and activities. Keywords: Environmental studies/Sarasota County/ecology/water quality/maps/urban studies/ecological anthropology/environmental policy. Abstract: The Environmental Studies Program Collection is a synthetic collection documenting the history of the academic program, which initially focused on environmental science research under the direction of the notable New College faculty member, John Morrill and has since transcended into becoming a far more interdisciplinary program. Early records include the description by John D. MacDonald regarding the proposed program, the potential challenges and benefits, and his insightful vision for the program. The materials, such as the Environmental Studies Program First Decade publication and other annual reports reflect the evolution of the program, the influence of several directors, the program administration, student research projects, seminars, courses, lectures, conferences, and opportunities for off-campus, graduate research, and employment. Records in the collection provide evidence of student field work in the Southwest Florida Region, group research, experience writing proposals, as well as, the support of a network of cooperative researchers and professionals. The Program materials, also, document the environmental study needs of the community, including the early records of the Citizens Advisory Committee. The repository at the Carriage House offers an extensive and unusual map collection, and related subject files and materials reflecting the significant work of the program participants and a robust level of research activity. URL: Author: Odum, H.T. Collection Title: Howard T. Odum Papers, 1935-2003. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 117.5 linear feet, 91 boxes. Description of Material: The Odum Papers document the life and career of one of the most important ecologists and environmental scientists in the 20th Century. The collection spans the majority of this life, with materials dating from 1935 to 2003. The bulk of the collection is comprised of Odum's professional files related to his research and educational activities. The collection is organized into several series of files. The Biographical Files series includes Odum's curriculum vita, lists of his contributions and accomplishments, an oral 55
history interview and miscellaneous materials related to his death and memorial. The series also includes files related to awards and honors, such as the Crafoord Prize and Institute de la Vie award. Odum's correspondence can be found throughout the collection, but there are three series that contain the majority of his letters, memoranda and electronic mail. The Subject Correspondence series includes files pertaining to colleagues, students, organizations, countries and research topics. There are multiple files related to the Cousteau Society, Biosphere 2, China, the International Society for the Systems Sciences, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, and various universities. Correspondents include David M. Scienceman, Dennis Collins, Thomas A. Robertson, Sheng-Fang Lan, Ariel Lugo, and Jan Sendzimir. The Chronological Correspondence series includes letters filed by date from 1955 to 2001. The USA Correspondence series includes files marked by Odum as pertaining to correspondents and subjects in the United States. There is a great deal of overlap between files in all three correspondence series. Research Projects, one of the largest series in the collection, includes research data, notes, correspondence, graphs, diagrams, and miscellaneous materials pertaining to Odum's research. Research topics with significant coverage include energy transformities, Ecuador, Biosphere 2, emergy, energy analysis, New Zealand, phosphate, the Kissimmee River and Lake Okeechobee. There are numerous files pertaining to the Terrestrial Ecology Program and Odum's rainforest research at the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center in the 1960s, including data, reports, notebooks, and correspondence. The Florida Files series primarily relates to research Odum conducted on Florida springs and other bodies of water in the 1950s and 1970s. Odum pioneered the way to study and measure energy flow in ecosystems quantitatively in his study of Silver Springs in Florida during the 1950s. The Air Force Files contain materials created by Odum while studying meteorology in Puerto Rico in the Army Air Force and while serving as an instructor at the Air Force Tropical Weather School in Panama. The Proposals series includes research proposals submitted by Odum and his associates, particularly related to the UF Center for Wetlands. The Systems Models series includes models and simulations created by Odum using his symbol language. The large number of publications and other writings produced by Odum throughout his career are organized in several series. The Journal Articles and Papers series includes writings published and presented by Odum from 1950 to 2002. The Manuscripts and Books series includes published versions of Odum's books, as well as the manuscripts written prior to publication. The Reports series includes project reports created by Odum and his associates. The Chapters series includes chapters written by Odum for publication in books by other authors and editors, as well as some chapters from Odum's own books. The Miscellaneous Writings series includes reviews written by Odum, fragments of larger writings, notes, figures and charts used in publications, and a variety of miscellaneous documents where the author is unidentified. The News Clippings series primarily includes articles by and about Odum, as well as other members of the Odum family. The Reference Files include publications, papers, clippings, and other materials written by other authors and collected by Odum for reference and research purposes. Similarly, the Writings by Others series includes articles, papers and reports written by other 56
authors and collected by Odum. The Travel Files series includes materials pertaining to some of the trips that Odum made to various countries around the world. The Conference Files include materials pertaining to conferences attended by Odum, including some of the papers presented by Odum at the conferences. Keywords: zoologist/biochemistry/strontium/limnology/biology/University of Florida/research/springs/estuaries/engineering/professor/Center for Wetlands/Center for Environmental Policy/ecology/science/economics/engineering/energy analysis/ microcosms. Abstract: Howard Thomas Odum was born September 1, 1924 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, where his father, Howard Washington Odum, worked as a sociology professor at the University of North Carolina. He served in the U.S. Air Force from 1943-1946, studying meteorology in Puerto Rico and serving as an instructor at the Air Force Tropical Weather School in Panama. He earned an A.B. degree in zoology from North Carolina in 1947, and a Ph.D. from Yale in 1951. Although his degree was in zoology, his dissertation focused on the biogeochemistry of strontium. From 1950 to 1954 he taught limnology and biology at the University of Florida and conducted research on springs and estuaries. He initiated microcosm studies while employed at Duke University in 1954, and he served as Director of the Institute of Marine Science at the University of Texas from 1956 to 1963. From 1963 to 1966 he worked as Chief Scientist at the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, which was operated by the University of Puerto Rico for the Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he initiated large scale environmental experiments on irradiation of rainforests in the Luquillo Mountains. From 1966 to 1970 he served at the University of North Carolina as a professor in zoology, botany and environmental sciences and engineering. In 1970, Odum returned to the University of Florida as a professor in engineering. He founded the Center for Wetlands in 1973 with grants from the Rockefeller and National Science Foundations. He spent the rest of his career at UF, serving as a Graduate Research Professor in Environmental Engineering Sciences, Director of the Center for Wetlands from 1973 to 1991, and also as Director of the Center for Environmental Policy, which he founded in 1991. The Center for Wetlands was later named the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetlands in his honor. Odum was a pioneer in the fields of systems ecology and energy analysis, and was instrumental in the development of ecological science, ecological economics, and ecological engineering. Related research and teaching specialties included experimental microcosms, biogeochemistry, environmental valuation and policy and systems modeling. Much of Odum's research focused on understanding the way flows of energy develop maximum power and order in ecosystems, and the common similarities among all systems. He was particularly interested in the similarities in patterns of energy flow and behavior in ecosystems, economic systems and social systems. Throughout his career, Odum focused on the experimental and theoretical study of ecosystems and larger environmental areas, making controlled experiments of whole ecosystems, developing experimental microcosms, and creating systems models and computer simulations. He analyzed energy flows in numerous ecological systems 57
including streams, rivers, coral reefs, lagoons, springs, mangroves, salt marshes, rain forests, and agricultural systems. In the 1960s and 1970s he developed a language of symbols used for representing concepts about energy systems in network diagrams, which could be translated into mathematical equations for simulation. Over the next four decades, he used the energy symbol language to illustrate the structure and function of systems, and also to identify similarities between different systems. He developed the "maximum power" principle, focusing on the efficiencies of energy intake, transformation, and production in systems. His "net energy" theory stated that a society must not expend more energy during the production of energy than the total energy produced. In 1983 he and colleagues, including Mark T. Brown, coined the term "emergy" (spelled with an "m") to discuss quantitative evaluations of embodied energy concepts for public policy. Odum was a prolific author with hundreds of journal articles, papers and other publications. His books include: A Tropical Rainforest, A Study of Irradiation and Ecology at El Verde, Puerto Rico (1970 with R.F. Pigeon); Environment, Power and Society (1971); Energy Basis for Man and Nature (1978, 1982 with Elisabeth C. Odum); Systems Ecology: An Introduction (1983); Cypress Swamps (1985 with K.C. Ewel); Ecological Microcosms (1993 with R.J. Beyers); Ecological and General Systems: An Introduction to Systems Ecology (1994); Maximum Power: The Ideas and Applications of H.T. Odum (1995); Environmental Accounting: Energy and Decision Making (1996); Environment and Society in Florida (1998 with Elisabeth C. Odum and Mark T. Brown); Biosphere 2: Research Past and Present (1999 with B.D.V. Marino); Modeling for All Scales: An Introduction to System Simulation (2000; with Elisabeth C. Odum); Heavy Metals in the Environment, Using Wetlands for Their Removal (2000); A Prosperous Way Down: Principles and Policies (2001 with Elisabeth C. Odum); and, Environment, Power, and Society for the Twenty-first Century: The Hierarchy of Energy (2007). URL: Author: Owen, R.B. Collection Title: Ruth Bryan Owen Papers, 1930-2003. Library/Archive: State Archives of Florida. Volume/Storage Container: 1.5 cubic feet. Description of Material: This collection contains correspondence, news clippings, subject files, and photographs documenting Ruth Bryan Owen's career as a legislator, diplomat, educator, and public speaker. Materials of interest include clippings and correspondence from her career as a representative from Florida in Washington, D.C.; clippings of her career in the Foreign Service to Denmark and the United Nations; and biographical information. Keywords: lecturer/Miami/University of Miami/Everglades/politics/government. Abstract: Ruth Bryan Owen was born in Jacksonville, Il., in 1885, travelled extensively, and worked at the University of Miami as a lecturer and administrator. The daughter of William Jennings Bryan, three-time Democratic presidential nominee and Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson, Owen had a natural interest in politics and government. In 1929, just eight years after women obtained the right to vote, Owen was 58
elected to the Seventy-first Congress and was re-elected to the Seventy-second Congress in 1931. She was a widow and the mother of four when elected to her first term. As the representative of Florida's Fourth Congressional District, she sponsored numerous bills benefiting south Florida, including the proposal designating the Florida Everglades as a national park. She also led passage of bills to develop state rivers and harbors, including Port Everglades. In 1933 President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Ruth Bryan Owen as Minister to Denmark; she was the first woman to represent the United States in so high a diplomatic post. She served successfully until 1936 when she married Rohde, a Danish Captain of the King's Guard. This gave her dual citizenship as a Dane, so she resigned her post. In 1949, President Truman named Owen an alternate delegate to the UN General Assembly. In 1954 Ruth Bryan Owen died in Denmark at the age of 68. Research Notes: Additional material on Ruth Bryan Owen is available in the Reclaiming the Everglades digital collection and in the Helen Muir Papers and Minnie Moore Wilson Papers, held at the University of Miami. Descriptive information taken from State Archives of Florida finding aid and Reclaiming the Everglades biography. URL: Author: Pennekamp, J.D. Collection Title: John D. Pennekamp Papers, 1938-1977 (bulk 1940s-1960s). Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 0.8 linear feet, 2 boxes. Finding Aid. Description of Material: His collection is primarily related to Pennekamp's environmental work, and includes several folders of correspondence pertaining to the Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials from 1966-1976. Other materials include photos, speeches, newspaper clippings, and records dealing with various conservation projects. There is some biographical information, personal correspondence, and a family history and genealogy folder that includes letters written in German from Dr. Heinrich Pennekamp concerning family history. This folder also contains some translations of the letters and a German newspaper. The newspaper clippings in the collection deal with Florida state parks, biographical and commendatory information, court cases involving the Miami Herald and Pennekamp, and miscellaneous information. The bulk of clippings range from the 1940s to the 1960s. The majority of the photographs depict the 1947 dedication ceremony of the Everglades National Park. Speeches, which date from 1947-1967, discuss Florida's parks, general conservation concerns, local politics, and miscellaneous subjects. Of note in the collection is the 1948 correspondence with Florida Attorney General Tom Watson in which Pennekamp is called a cur for denouncing Watson's opposition to the Everglades National Park. Pennekamp's work on other conservation projects besides the Everglades National Park is also included. Some of these projects are the Bahia Honda Park, the Hugh Taylor Birch Park, and the Everglades Park Reunion. The records for all of the projects range from 1962-1969. Furthermore, the collection houses a scrapbook from the Miami Herald titled "The Everglades National Park." 59
The collection also includes miscellaneous publications and documents, such as property appraisal reports, advertisements, a legal brief, and maps. Keywords: journalist/Miami Herald/newspaper editor/Everglades National Park/conservation/environment/conservation/Miami Herald/Coral Reef Preserve. Abstract: John D. Pennekamp was a longtime journalist, newspaper editor, and environmentalist in South Florida. He was born in 1897 and moved from Cincinnati to South Florida after 14 years of newspaper experience at the Cincinnati Post. In 1925, he continued his newspaper career at the Miami Herald as a city editor. He also worked as the associate editor of the paper for several years, and he retired from the newspaper in 1976. One highlight of his work at the Miami Herald was winning a notable court case (John D. Pennekamp and The Miami Herald Publishing Company vs. the State of Florida), thus proving that newspapers had the right to criticize the courts. Pennekamp was a leader in the creation of the Everglades National Park. His interest in conservation led him to serve as a member of the Everglades National Park Commission from 1945-1947 and as chairman of the Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials from 1953-1976. In 1960, Governor LeRoy Collins named America's first underwater state park the John D. Pennekamp State Park in acknowledgement of Pennekamp's dedication to conservation. Pennekamp died at the age of 81 in 1978. Source: Some of Pennekamp's journalistic career is covered in Cornelia Mae Twigg's 1977 thesis, Editor John D. Pennekamp: Herald of Change, which is held at the University of Florida. URL: Author: Quackenbos, M. Collection Title: Max Quackenbos Collection. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 5.25 linear feet, 9 boxes. Description of Material: The Max Quackenbos Collection provides information about a variety of environmental activities and discussions related to Martin County and South Florida that occurred from the late 1970s to the turn of the century. In particular, the materials provide a great deal of evidence about the meetings and activities of the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) because Quackenbos was a regular meeting attendee and planning participant. The collection includes studies, reports, meeting agendas, correspondence, presentation materials, plans, newsletters, clippings, and notes. Correspondents include SFWMD personnel, environmentalist Nathaniel Reed, members of state and local environmental groups, and various Martin County Commissioners. Some of the correspondence from the 1970s and 1980s is the correspondence of Donald B. Benedict with the Martin County Conservation Alliance. The files in the collection were divided into multiple categories. The Water files contain materials focusing on water supply and quality, SFWMD, the Everglades, water management plans, and sustainability. The Wetlands files primarily pertain to wetland mitigation, lakes and rivers, restoration of the Kissimmee River, Lake Okeechobee, phosphorus levels, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the Everglades, and the Surface Water Improvement and 60
Management (SWIM) Plan. The Indian River Lagoon files pertain to the National Estuary Program, the St. Lucie Estuary, the SWIM plan, and other matters related to the Indian River Lagoon. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) files focus on the plan to restore and protect the Everglades and the water resources of central and southern Florida. The General files include reports, statistics, correspondence and newsletters covering miscellaneous topics including SFWMD, St. Lucie River, storm water, canals, water quality and use, and general information about Florida's natural environment. Although the files are divided into categories, there is a great deal of overlap between the groups. For example, all of the groups contain SFWMD reports, evaluations, annual reports and budgets, studies, and plans, particularly relating to Martin County, St. Lucie River, and Lake Okeechobee. Keywords: chemical engineer/protection/enhancement/sustainability/ natural environment/water supply/quality/flood control/environmental restoration/Martin County Conservation Alliance. Abstract: As a leading member of organizations such as the Martin County Conservation Alliance, the St. Lucie River Initiative and the Rivers Coalition, Harrie Maxwell "Max" Quackenbos, Jr. has devoted several years to environmental issues in Stuart, Florida, and the surrounding region. Quackenbos graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1941 and spent his career as a chemical engineer working in the chemical and plastics industry for corporations such as DuPont and Union Carbide. After retiring, he became involved in environmental groups in Stuart. Starting in the 1980s Quackenbos became a regular attendee and participant in local and state meetings, particularly meetings of the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD). The Martin County Conservation Alliance formed in 1965 under the leadership of members from several local environmental groups. The Alliance sought to "promote the protection, preservation, enhancement, and sustainability of the natural environment of Martin County." The SFWMD was created in 1972 by the Florida Legislature as the regional governmental agency responsible for water quality and supply, flood control, and environmental restoration in sixteen counties from the Orlando region to the Florida Keys. Quackenbos and other Stuart citizens formed the St. Lucie River Initiative (SLRI) in 1991 because of the river's continuing decline. The Rivers Coalition, which was formed in 1998 with SLRI as a founding member organization, is dedicated to restoring and protecting the St. Lucie River Estuary and Indian River Lagoon. URL: Author: Randell Collection Title: Randell Research Center e-Publications. Place Published: 7450 Pineland Road, Pineland, Florida 33945 Library/Archive: Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL. Volume/Storage Container: Online resources and collections available onsite at the Florida Museum of Natural History. Description of Material: Reports, books, theses, dissertations, articles on archaeology, history and ecology of Southwest Florida. 61
Keywords: teaching/archaeology/history/ecology/shell mound/Southwest Florida/Florida Museum of Natural History/Gainesville. Abstract: The Randell Research Center (RRC) is a permanent facility dedicated to learning and teaching the archaeology, history, and ecology of Southwest Florida. The RRC encompasses more than 60 acres at the heart of the Pineland archaeological site, a massive shell mound site extending across more than 100 acres from the mangrove coastline. The RRC is state-owned and is a program of the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville. The Pineland area is important to archaeology and ecology. Its waterlogged deposits preserve artifacts not found in dry sites, including ancient botanical remains found nowhere else in North America. The remains of many centuries of Calusa daily life reveal a complex world that existed before the arrival of Europeans. Pineland also provides a key to understanding larger, global issues. Its accumulated deposits hold information on sea-level fluctuations and even climate changes of interest to scientists all over the world who study the earth's environmental history. The Florida Museum of Natural History has undertaken archaeological and ecological field research at Pineland since 1988. The results have been published in both professional and lay-public forms. Notes: The Calusa Heritage Trail at RRC is a 3,700-foot interpretive walkway that winds through the mounds, canals, and other features of the archaeological site. Interpretive signs provide detailed information regarding the Calusa Indians who inhabited the Pineland site, their culture and environment, and the history of Southwest Florida after the Calusa left. URL: Author: Red Hill Collection Title: Red Hill Papers and Photographs. Library/Archive: Archbold Biological Station Library, Venus, FL. Contact Librarian. No Finding Aid. Volume/Storage Container: 2 file drawers of correspondence, drawings, invoices, and other papers, and 500 large-format photographs and negatives. Keywords: construction/Red Hill Estate/Archbold Biological Station. Abstract: Materials relating to the construction of John A. Roebling's Red Hill Estate (1930-1941), which became the Archbold Biological Station in July 1941. (John A. Roebling II was the grandson of the Brooklyn Bridge designer.) All of the items were generated, stored, and eventually donated, by Alexander Blair (1877-1975), the resident construction engineer of the Red Hill Estate, Venus, Florida. The collection is still in its original organizational scheme, however, the materials have been transferred to archival file folders. URL: Author: Reed, N.P. Collection Title: Nathaniel P. Reed Everglades Papers, 1983-2000. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. 62
Volume/Storage Container: 6 linear feet, 12 boxes. Finding Aid. Description of Material: Personal correspondence and other documentation relating to the Everglades. Arranged in straight chronological order from 1983 on. Some publications on the Everglades such as periodic status reports and copies of newspaper clippings are also included. Related files on the SFWMD are included for the years19871991. Files relating to the 1000 Friends of Florida are included for the years 1990 and 1992. Numerous papers relate to the Army Corps of Engineers Central and Southern Florida Project Comprehensive Review Study (1998). For the years 1993 and 1999, there are additional files relating to Lake Okeechobee. Files are missing for the years 19941995. Keywords: Everglades/environmental activist/public official/South Florida Water Management District/The army Corps of Engineers/Everglades National Park/Everglades Coalition Abstract: Nathaniel Pryor Reed was born in New York City, July 23, 1933. He graduated from Trinity College in Connecticut with a B.A. in 1955 and served as an officer in the U.S. Air Force (1955-1959). He was Assistant Secretary of the Interior in the Nixon and Ford administrations (1971-77.) He served in numerous offices in Florida, including that of Special Assistant to the Governor (Kirk) for the Environment, 19671971, and as a member of the Governing Board of the South Florida Water Management District for many years. He has been an officer or board member of numerous environmental organizations, including the National Audubon Society, the Nature Conservancy, the National Resources Defense Council, and 1000 Friends of Florida. The papers include Reed's personal correspondence and other documentation relating to the Everglades from the year 1983, the beginning of the Save our Everglades program declared by Governor Bob Graham, created and gathered by him as an environmental activist and, to a lesser degree, as a public official. Accompanying documentation includes documents from many agencies involved with the Everglades, especially the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), the Army Corps of Engineers, the Everglades National Park, the Everglades Coalition and numerous other environmentaladvocacy groups. URL: Author: Rudloe, J. and A. Collection Title: Jack and Anne Rudloe Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 45 linear feet, 72 boxes. Description of Material: The bulk of the papers represent Jack Rudloe's literary career, consisting of manuscripts, drafts, proof copies, and background material. Manuscript material is included for all Rudloe's published books, almost all of his articles, and for numerous book length and short unpublished writing. Rudloe recycled his unpublished writings and wrote on the same topics frequently. As a result, there may be overlap of the same or similar material in different places. Much of the material which exists in notes or rough drafts has never been published at all. 63
A smaller, but very significant, portion of the papers document his environmental activism, primarily in opposing wetland destruction in Wakulla County. There are a large number of papers relating to management practices of the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, also in Wakulla County. Other topics include sea turtles, which along with shrimping is a major topic of his writing, as well as jellyfish aquaculture, and coral management. Much of the Wakulla County material, found in the topical files, was recapitulated into an unpublished version of The Living Dock, included with the published book material. The general papers include bio-bibliographical documents, literary and miscellaneous correspondence, and records from several Rudloe expeditions and his lecture engagements. A box of "special format" material is included. Correspondence relating to a particular writing or project may usually be found with those records, rather than in the General Correspondence files. While the bulk of the papers are Jack Rudloe's, the work of Anne Rudloe is significantly represented in several ways. Many of the shorter writings were co-authored by Anne and Jack Rudloe. Even when not actively involved as a co-author, Anne participated in much of the research for the books and in other projects with Jack. In addition, the papers contain several examples of Anne Rudloe's own writings, both technical and literary. Keywords: Florida State University/Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory/enivronmental education/writer/sea turtles/fishing/horseshoe crabs. Abstract: Jack Rudloe was born in New York in 1943, moved to the Florida panhandle in 1957, and attended Florida State University. In 1964 he founded the Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory, an environmental education and research support center in Panacea, Florida, which provides marine life to schools and research laboratories throughout the nation. He participated in the International Indian Ocean Expedition to Madagascar, trips of the New York Zoological Society to Surinam to collect giant toadfish, and led deep sea trawling trips in the Gulf of Mexico to bring back giant sea roaches. Rudloe has conducted sea turtle research in conjunction with the Caribbean Conservation Corporation and the National Marine Fisheries Service. He has served on a National Cancer Institute advisory panel to review proposals on drugs from the sea. He has been active in fishery development and aquaculture projects, including an attempt to start a domestic fishery for cannonball jellyfish. His books include The Sea Brings Forth, The Erotic Ocean, The Living Dock, Time of the Turtle, The Wilderness Coast, and The Search for the Great Turtle Mother. His articles have appeared in numerous magazines, and he has appeared on the NBC Today Show, Good Morning America, and National Public Radio. His conservation efforts on behalf of Florida wetlands and his writing career have been the subject of a Walt Disney television and a Florida Public Television documentary. [Source: Adapted from Controversial Aspects of Net Fishing in Florida, a Report to the Organized Fisherman of Florida.] Anne Eidemiller Rudloe was born in Virginia in 1947. She earned her bachelor's degree from Mary Washington College and a M.S. and a Ph.D. in biology from Florida State University. Her dissertation topic concerned the ecology and behavior of horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemous). She is the co-author with Jack of several popular periodical 64
articles, as well as numerous scientific journal articles on horseshoe crabs, electric rays, sea turtles, and other topics. She has also participated in numerous scientific projects and taught at Florida State University. More information about the professional activities and publications of both Anne and Jack Rudloe may be found on the Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory web page. URL: Author: Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation Collection Title: Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation Papers, 1967 Place Published: 3333 Sanibel-Captiva Road, Sanibel, Florida 33957 Volume/Storage Container: unknown. Description of Material: Institutional papers, scientific research documents on seagrasses, mangroves, harmful algal blooms, fish populations and shellfish restoration. Keywords: preservation/conservation/natural resources/wildlife habitat/Sanibel Captiva/Florida Wildlife Research Institute/ Florida Gulf Coast University/Mote Marine Laboratory/marine/estuarine/freshwater habitats/restoration. Abstract: On October 31, 1967, the Sanibel Captiva Conservation Foundation was incorporated "to preserve natural resources and wildlife habitat on and around the islands of Sanibel and Captiva." SCCF manages over 1300 acres of land on the islands and owns an additional 500 acres on nearby Pine Island. Located on J.N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge property in the Tarpon Bay Recreation Area it includes a nature center, education programs and a marine laboratory. The majority of the research conducted at the laboratory is conducted in collaboration with scientists in academia, local governments, and state agencies. These partners in research include the City of Sanibel, Florida Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Gulf Coast University, Mote Marine Laboratory, and the J.N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge. Research currently conducted by laboratory scientists includes: (1) studies of marine, estuarine and near freshwater habitats including their restoration and functioning; and (2) nearshore water quality and barrier island lakes. All research conducted at the lab is enhanced by the River Estuary Coastal Observing Network (RECON), an instrument array composed of eight near real-time sensors deployed at locations within the Caloosahatchee Estuary and Pine Island Sound. Notes: The Sanibel Report, prepared by SCCF in 1974-75, reports on every facet of the island's natural systems, such as beach, mangroves, interior wetlands, hydrology and wildlife information. This was incorporated into the Sanibel Plan, adopted in 1976, which is still used by the City of Sanibel as it balances orderly development with the preservation of ecological integrity. URL: and Author: Selby Botanical Gardens Collection Title: Marie Selby Botanical Gardens Collections. Library/Archive: Selby Gardens Research Library. Volume/Storage Container: Rare Books Collection 500 bound volumes. Botanical Prints Collection. Keywords: tropical botany/epiphytes/orchids. 65
Abstract: The Research Library houses a diverse collection of media resources on tropical botany, with an emphasis on epiphytes. The Research Library houses 7,000 books, including a rare book collection and several hundred active periodicals, along with engravings, slides, videotapes, and microfiche files. The Library, primarily a research and reference tool for staff scientists and horticulturists is also used by plant professionals and plant enthusiasts. The Rare Book Collection consists of 65 titles, comprising more than 500 bound volumes of hard-to-find botanical works, some more than 200 years old. Included is an entire set of Curtis' Botanical Magazine, dating from 1788; Edwards Botanical Register, 33 volumes from 1815; Loddiges Botanical Cabinet, 20 volumes from 1817­1833; Paxton's Magazine of Botany, 1834­1849; and Bateman's Orchidaceae of Mexico and Guatemala, published in 1834. Access to the collection requires accompaniment by a librarian. The Botanical Print Collection is stored in a climate-controlled room with the rare books; access is limited. These prints, accumulated through donation and purchase are mostly from various illustrated books. All have been cataloged in a database that allows retrieval by artist, plant family, plant name, or source document. Notes: The Library is available by appointment. Call (941) 366-5731 x 248. Library materials are not available for public checkout. URL: Author: Shields, H. Collection Title: Harmon Shields Administrative Files, 1969-1978. Executive Director, The Florida Department of Natural Resources. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 23 cubic ft. Description of Material: The records include correspondence, memoranda, reports, and publications. Topics include the conservation of Florida's natural resources, development of water resources, control of state lands, coastal zone management, fishery management, and environmental policy. The series documents the interactions between the Executive Director and the Department's divisions, other state and federal agencies, and organizations and associations. Keywords: natural resources/administration. Abstract: The Department of Natural Resources was created in 1969 (Ch. 69-106, Laws), combining the functions of the State Board of Conservation; the Canal Authority; the Commission on Marine Sciences and Technology; the Florida Keys Aqueduct Commission; the Board of Parks and Historic Memorials; the Outdoor Recreational Development Council; the Board of Drainage Commissioners; and the Suwannee River Development Authority. In 1975, the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund also became part of the Department of Natural Resources (Ch. 75-22, Laws). Author: Sierra Club Collection Title: Sierra Club, Florida Chapter, Records, 1964-1987. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 8.3 linear feet, 20 boxes. 66
Description of Material: Includes correspondence, minutes, newsletters, and miscellaneous materials. Keywords: environmental group/nature Abstract: One of the oldest grassroots environmental organizations. URL: Author: Small, J.K. Collection Title: John Kunkel Small Records, 1892-1938 (bulk 1908-1935). Place Published: New York Botanical Garden, Mertz Library, Archives and Manuscripts. Volume/Storage Container: 18.3 linear feet, 28 boxes. Description of Material: Series 12: Lists, notes, unpublished typescripts, maps, and 2 bound volumes comprising Small's studies of Florida flora are found in this series. Included are lists of additions to published works on Miami and the Keys, studies of particular genera, maps, and manuscripts of journal contributions. Small's work on the Everglades, including an unpublished but bound flora, a systematic list of plants, and manuscripts urging the formation of Everglades National Park are included here. Illustrations for this material are found in Series 18: Art and Illustrations. Material on ferns is located in Series 5: Ferns. Material on palms is found in Series 7: Palms. Additional material on this subject might be in Series 16: Unidentified Lists and Notes. Keywords: botanist/conservation/wetlands/cacti/ferns/palms/vines/hammock/Everglades National Park. Abstract: J.K. Small (1869-1938). The collection documents Small's tenure as the first Curator of Museums at The New York Botanical Garden; his published and unpublished floristic studies of the south central, southeastern, and northeastern United States, and Florida, New York, and Texas; and his studies of cacti, ferns, palms, and vines. Small was the first botanist to explore Florida since A. W. Chapman and many of the areas he documented had never been examined before. His doctoral dissertation, published as Flora of the Southeastern United States in 1903, and revised 1913 and 1933, remains the best floristic reference for much of the south. His first trip to Florida was in 1901 when Miami had some 2,000 residents. The Florida hammock in which he was particularly interested had disappeared to such an extent by 1929 that he published From Eden to Sahara: Florida's Tragedy, sparking a movement for conservation of the wetlands that eventually resulted in the formation of The Everglades National Park. Notes: Alvan Wentworth Chapman (September 28, 1809­April 6, 1899) was an American physician and botanist who wrote Flora of the Southern United States in 1860, the first comprehensive description of U.S. plants in any region beyond the northeastern states. Author: SRI Collection Title: SRI International, Archives. Library/Archive: Marine Science & Technology, 450 8th Ave. SE, St. Petersburg, FL. Volume/Storage Container: unavailable Description of Material: 1) printed material of a non-contractual nature and 2) all photographic material up to the start of digital photography. The first category includes all the various SRI research journals and staff publications, phone books, annual reports 67
and much more, while the second consists mainly of tens of thousands of negatives and some slides. Keywords: marine environment/research/port security. Abstract: Oceans cover much of the Earth's surface, but they remain largely unexplored. SRI conducts R&D and provides services to improve the health and security of the marine environment for maritime industry and government clients, such as the Naval Air Systems Command. To understand and protect ocean ecosystems, researchers in the Marine Technology Program at SRI St. Petersburg study surface and subsurface marine environments. SRI also directs the Center for Maritime and Port Security in Tampa Bay, Florida, which provides technologies and programs to defend the nation's waterways from terrorist attacks. The Alumni Association's Archive Committee has the responsibility to catalog and store two important parts of SRI history: 1) printed material of a non-contractual nature and 2) all photographic material up to the start of digital photography. The first category includes all the various SRI research journals and staff publications, phone books, annual reports and much more, while the second consists mainly of tens of thousands of negatives and some slides. URL: Author: Stewart, H.B. Collection Title: Harris B. Stewart Publications, 1952-1993. Library/Archive: Held by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD. Volume/Storage Container: 2 boxes. Keywords: oceanography/coastal zone/submarine topography/upwelling Abstract: Collection of selected publications by Harris B. Stewart chiefly on oceanography and the activities of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA), Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories (AOML), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Florida topics: Continental slope off southwest Florida [1959]. Summer upwelling along the east coast of Florida [1959]. Submarine topography of the Western Straits of Florida [1961]. Statement of Dr. Harris B. Stewart, Jr., Director ESSA Atlantic Oceanographic Laboratories, Miami, before the Sub-committee on Oceanography of the Florida Senate [1968]. Why ESSA came to Florida [1968]. The Turkey Point case : power development in south Florida: a study in frustration [1970]. Conclusions and recommendations of the Conference and Workshops on Marine Environmental Implications of Offshore Drilling in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico, St. Petersburg, Florida, January 31-February 2, 1974 [1974]. The coastal zone: why fishing, recreation, commerce, energy, esthetics must be considered in plans to use southeast Florida's coastal zone [1976]. Author: Taylor, E. Collection Title: Ernest Taylor Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 1.5 linear feet, 4 boxes. 68
Description of Material: The collection includes Taylor's correspondence, dated from 1952 to 1962. The letters describe efforts by Taylor and others regarding Corkscrew Swamp, and detail the steps that resulted in its preservation. The correspondence includes a large number of letters to and from E. O. Frye of the Florida Game and fresh water fish Commission; John Baker, President of the National Audubon Society; and Bill Piper of the Everglades Wonder Gardens. The correspondence is arranged chronologically according to month and year, although there is one folder of correspondence that spans 1958-1962. Taylor's papers include multiple versions of his manuscript, The Trek. The paper was edited many times to accommodate various publications or venues for presentation. In addition to The Trek, there are several other writings by Taylor, news clippings, articles by other authors about Corkscrew Swamp, maps of the region, and transcripts of radio interviews in which Taylor discusses the swamp. Taylor's slide presentation of The Trek as well as other photographs of the Corkscrew Swamp region are included with the papers. The photos and slides show the flora and fauna in Corkscrew Swamp circa 1952-1954, document the first meetings to preserve the swamp, and show the opening of the resulting park in 1956. The collection also includes biographical information, notes, and correspondence created by Ernest Taylor's son, Frank Taylor, and other family members. The most recent of these papers were created in 2006. The bulk of the collection, however, consists of materials created by Ernest Taylor between 1952 and 1962. Keywords: engineer/roads/bridges/naturalist/herpetologist/Tamiami Trail/Big Cypress Swamp/Corkscrew Swamp/The Trek. Abstract: Ernest A. Taylor was born on September 12, 1886 and moved to Florida in 1925. Although his formal education ended in the 8th grade Taylor became an engineer and worked to build various roads and bridges in Florida, including the Tamiami Trail. After he experienced heart problems that nearly claimed his life he was forced to retire. Taylor was widely known in Florida as an avid naturalist and herpetologist, and in 1952 he was contacted by three men from Illinois who were interested in seeing the Big Cypress Swamp. Taylor and the men explored the region known as Corkscrew Swamp in June 1952, a trip that he later referred to as The Trek. Following the 1952 trip, Taylor began to actively pursue the preservation of the Corkscrew Swamp. Over the next three years Taylor wrote hundreds of letters to various individuals and government agencies. He also gave a photographic slide presentation about Corkscrew Swamp and The Trek to numerous individuals and organizations. In 1953 he led a second trek to Corkscrew Swamp and nearby Bonita Springs. He eventually was successful in sparking greater interest in preserving the swamp and by 1955 the Audubon Society had purchased thousands of acres for preservation. Despite his efforts, Taylor received little credit for his work in creating the preserve. He passed away on December 12, 1964. URL: Author: Tinsley, J.B. Collection Title: Jim Bob Tinsley Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. 69
Volume/Storage Container: 4 linear feet, 8 boxes, 2 record albums. Description of Material: The Tinsley collection contains the galley proofs for He Was Singin' This Song and For a Cowboy Has to Sing, as well as photographs for the books. Accompanying the galley proofs and photographs are approximately 50 pieces of Western sheet music ranging in date from 1900 to 1950. In addition, this collection also contains background research for Tinsley's work on the Florida panther, bass fishing sites in Florida, and his book The Sailfish, Swashbuckler of the Open Seas. Keywords: outdoorsman/writer/musician/wildlife/Florida panther/bass/sailfish. Abstract: Jim Bob Tinsley (August 12, 1921-January 18, 2004) was an avid outdoorsman, writer, and musician, principally known for Western and cowboy songs and ballads. He performed with WWNC radio station out of Ashville, North Carolina and during the course of his career played with numerous celebrated people, including Gene Autry and Sir Winston Churchill. Tinsley wrote major books on western music, For A Cowboy Has To Sing and He Was Singin' This Song, which won the Cowboy Hall of Fame's Western Heritage Award for music in 1982. Tinsley received many awards and honors including the Pioneer Award, the Cowboy Cultural Award, and induction into the Western Music Association Hall of Fame. He also was the recipient of the Will Rogers Lifetime Achievement Award from the Academy of Western Artists in 2000. In other interests, Tinsley produced several books about wildlife. These included The Puma: Legendary Lion of the Americas, The Florida Panther, and The Sailfish, Swashbuckler of the Open Seas. His passion for western music left him with numerous artifacts from the West that are on display at the Transylvania Heritage Museum, Brevard, North Carolina. URL: Author: Walther, M. Collection Title: Mina Walther Collection (1965-2003). Library/Archive: Arthur Vining Davis Library and Archives at Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota. Volume/Storage Container: 9 linear feet. Description of Material: The Mina Walther Collection includes 26 years of newspaper columns and writings on Florida nature and wildlife from the 1970s to 2003 written for her column Tide Lines in the Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Two books have been compiled from her columns, Nature is Wonderful, in 2006, and Tide Lines: The Sea and its Inhabitants, in 1982. Walther's articles include narrative descriptions of Florida's wildlife and nature, animal behavior, historical notes, and more. This collection also includes 6 boxes of color slides (approximately 3000) from Walther's travels around the world (1965-1990). Keywords: Florida/biology teacher/nature/history/newspaper columns. Abstract: As a biology teacher and administrator in Chicago's public schools, Wilhelmina (Mina) Walther (1908-2003) developed an interest in marine biology. Upon retirement she moved to Sarasota, on Florida's Gulf coast and four years later in 1977 she became a volunteer columnist for the Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Her essays, titled Tide Lines, were published on Sundays and covered various subjects concerning nature and the environment, including narrative descriptions of animal behavior, mollusks, manta rays, oarfish, and an occasional column on a historical figure or event. 70
Her columns were meticulously researched. She spent hours in the public library and at Mote doing research. Even at the age of 90 she would spend the week writing her column, and hand delivering it to the Sarasota Herald-Tribune each Friday. After her passing a letter to the editor stated: "Too often today we are caught up in our daily lives and do not take time out to appreciate the simple beauty around us. I believe that Ms Walther gave us a reality check. We are a part of something bigger than ourselves and we must show the proper respect for the environment in which we live lest will lose it". URL: Author: Will, T.E. Collection Title: Thomas E. Will Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 14 linear feet, 25 boxes. Description of Material: The Will Papers are comprised of business and personal correspondence, scrapbooks, articles, speeches, writings, publications, legal documents, and governmental reports and hearings. The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence relating to Will's land development work in the Everglades, particularly in Okeelanta, as well as his writings about the Everglades. Correspondents and topics covered in the correspondence include the Everglades Land Sales Company, Laura V. McCullough, Lawrence E. Will, the town of Fruitcrest, the Everglades Sugar and Land Company, and various local, state, and federal agencies. The articles, publications, news clippings, writings and notes (many of which are housed in scrapbooks) document Will's efforts to promote development of the Everglades. In addition, there are several legislative reports, hearings, and other official documents regarding the Everglades, Lake Okeechobee, and flood control and drainage programs. The collection is an excellent resource for researchers interested in the drainage and land reclamation in the Everglades, early land sales and development, South Florida agriculture, and in particular, the settlement and early years of Okeelanta. In addition to the letters, writings, and other papers pertaining to the townsite, there are various small maps of Okeelanta filed throughout the business correspondence. Keywords: history/political science/educator/lecturer/writer/forestry/conservation/ drainage/development/Everglades/Everglades Land Sales Company/Florida Everglades Homebuilders Association. Abstract: Educator, author, and developer of the Florida Everglades. Born in Illinois on November 11, 1861. Graduated from Harvard in 1890, and earned a M.A. from Harvard in 1891. He worked as a professor of history and political science at Kansas State Agricultural College from 1894-1897, and served as president at Kansas State from 18971899. He worked in various cities as an educator, lecturer, free-lance writer, and as an employee of the U.S. Census Office from 1900-1905. He took a position with the U.S. Forest Service in 1906, and served as secretary of the American Forestry Association and editor of its journal, Conservation, for the next three years. In 1910 Will visited the Everglades for the first time, and he became so excited about the prospects for development there that he quit his Forestry positions to dedicate himself to 71
the Everglades. Between 1910 and 1914, he spent most of his time working in Washington, D.C., promoting drainage and development of the Everglades, and primarily working as a real estate agent associated with the Everglades Land Sales Company and the Florida Everglades Homebuilders Association. He also spent a great deal of time writing articles and making speeches in order to promote further land purchases. In 1911 he was the principal compiler of Senate Document 89, which included treaties, acts, legislative reports, drainage reports, and other materials pertaining to the Everglades. Between 1912 and 1914, Will purchased several tracts of land near Lake Okeechobee. Between 1913 and 1914, Will began the development and settlement of the region's first planned townsite, Okeelanta. As one of the pioneers, he spent considerable effort experimenting with agricultural crops and practices suitable for the land. He sold plots to other settlers, and tried to make a living by selling farm products. Will's efforts suffered a serious setback between 1920 and 1930 when the drainage program proved to be insufficient. He was forced to live in Ft. Lauderdale from 1921-1931, focusing his efforts on coastal land sales. Throughout that decade Okeelanta deteriorated rapidly, but Will continued to promote development of the Everglades through drainage, flood control, and improved navigation and highway transportation. Throughout the 1930s he refocused his energies on developing Okeelanta, continuing to write and speak on the merits of the Everglades. He died on March 5, 1937. Source: Dovell, J.E. "Thomas Elmer Will, Twentieth Century Pioneer," Tequesta (1949), p. 21-55. URL: Author: Williamson, F.L. Collection Title: Fred L. Williamson Papers. Library/Archive: University of Florida, Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections. Volume/Storage Container: 1 linear foot, 3 boxes. Description of Material: Diaries, correspondence, newspaper clippings, congressional hearings and engineering reports. The papers document the efforts of business and individuals to control water in South Florida in the late 1920s. The collection contains the records of the New River, Lake Okeechobee and Caloosahatchee Navigation Association. Mr. Williamson was the President of the Association whose goal was to obtain government support for flood control, navigation, land reclamation, drainage and irrigation. Some of the issues discussed in the materials include levees on Lake Okeechobee after the 1928 hurricane, the Cross State Waterway between Fort Lauderdale and Fort Myers and improvements to Port Everglades and Hollywood Harbor. Other organizations mentioned in the records include the Florida Navigation and Flood Control Association, Florida Everglades Drainage District and the Florida Flood Control Association. The Williamson diaries cover a significant period in the history of Clewiston and Lake Okeechobee. Williamson was closely involved in the development and sale of mucklands for agriculture, especially for the planting of sugar cane. He lived through and described many major events affecting South Florida, including the 1926 and 1928 hurricanes and their aftermaths, the effects of the stock market crash of 1929, and the impact of World 72
War II. Entries frequently mention business partners and early residents of the Clewiston area. In addition to the diaries, there is one desk calendar from 1926 and a pocket notebook from 1927. The collection contains three folders contributed by Dr. R.V. Allison, which include materials created or collected by Williamson pertaining to flood control in Florida. This collection also has been known as the Robert V. Allison Papers. Keywords: Clewiston/sugar cane/canals/levees/Everglades. Abstract: Fred L. Williamson was a director and vice president of the Southern Sugar Company in Clewiston, Florida. Prior to moving to Florida, he was a director of the Fidelity National Bank and Trust Company, Kansas City, Missouri. The Southern Sugar Company was organized in 1925 as part of the B. G. Dahlberg Sugar Cane Industries, which also owned the Celotex Company. Southern Sugar owned 125,000 acres of reclaimed land on the southern shore of Lake Okeechobee, built extensive canals and levees in the Everglades areas, and operated sugar mills in Clewiston and Canal Point. URL: 73
DIGITAL COLLECTIONS PALMM DIGITAL COLLECTIONS From the PALMM website: "Publication of Archival, Library and Museum Materials (PALMM) is a cooperative initiative of the public universities of Florida to provide digital access to important source materials for research and scholarship. PALMM projects may involve a single university or may be collaborative efforts between a university and partners within or outside of the state university system. PALMM projects create high-quality virtual collections relevant to the students, research community and general citizenry of Florida. Materials in most PALMM collections can be found by searching the database for photographs, images, books, and text. The user can search the entire database or specific collections." The PALMM collections below are listed alphabetically. -Big Cypress National Preserve Collection This is a digital photo-album documenting the natural heritage of the Big Cypress National Preserve located in southwest Florida. The preserve is part of the U.S. Park Service. Big Cypress has a mixture of pines, hardwoods, prairies, mangrove forests, cypress stands and domes. White-tailed deer, bear and Florida panther can be found here along with the more tropical Liguus tree snail, royal palm and cigar orchid. This meeting place of temperate and tropical species is a hotbed of biological diversity. Hydrologically, the Preserve serves as a supply of fresh, clean water for the vital estuaries of the ten thousand islands area near Everglades City. This photo-album was produced by the Preserve's staff in collaboration with the Southwest Florida Library Network (SWFLN) in a project funded by the State of Florida's Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) grants program. Additional assistance was provided by the Digital Library Center at the University of Florida and the Florida Center for Library Automation. -Everglades Digital Library (EDL) This is an evolving library of information resources relating to the South Florida environment. The scope of the collections includes scientific and technical reports, natural history writings, educational and interpretive materials, datasets, maps, photos, and a directory of other Internet sites relating to the greater Everglades. The Everglades Digital Library is a project of the Everglades Information Network, a collaborative effort of the Florida International University Libraries, the Florida Center for Library Automation, Everglades National Park, and numerous other agencies and research organizations. 75
-Florida Environments Online (FEOL) The collection contains both digital full-text materials and research bibliographies about the ecology and environment of Florida. Digitized materials include more than 200 seminal texts on species and ecosystems selected by scientific experts throughout the state of Florida and digitized specifically for the Linking Florida's Natural Heritage project. They also include the publications of the Florida Geological Society, agricultural documents created by the Agricultural Experiment Station/Extension Service (IFAS), the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Affairs, as well as engineering documents created by the UF Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station. -Florida Heritage Collection The Florida Heritage Collection is an ongoing cooperative project of the State University System (SUS) of Florida to digitize and provide online access to materials broadly representing Florida's history, culture, arts, literature, sciences and social sciences. Thematic areas in this growing collection include Native American and minority populations, exploration and development, tourism, the natural environment, and regional interests. Materials are taken from archives, special collections, and libraries of the ten state universities which make up the SUS. -Mile Markers Mile Markers is a community photo album that depicts the diverse cultural history and economic development of the Florida Keys (1880-present). Early industries such as sponging, shark fishing, turtle canning, and cigar manufacturing are present as well as the unique architecture, sea, sun, fishing, and fun often associated with Keys vacations. Images of the building of Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway, construction of the Overseas Highway, presidential visits, the founding of the Conch Republic, the Mariel Boat Lift, and the aftermath of devastating hurricanes are also searchable here. Linking Keys History is a collaborative digital library project of Monroe County Public Library, Florida International University, and the Historic Florida Keys Foundation. With a grant from the State Library of Florida and generous technical support from the Florida Center for Library Automation, over 900 photographic images on the cultural and economic history of the elongated, bow-shaped chain of low lying islands known as the Florida Keys are accessible here. -Reclaiming the Everglades This is a collaborative digital library project of the University of Miami, Florida International University, and the History Miami (formerly Historical Museum of Southern Florida) libraries and special collections. With a grant from the Library of 76
Congress and generous technical support from the Florida Virtual Campus (FLVC), nearly 10,000 pages of images of primary source materials relating to south Florida environmental history are accessible here. This digitized documentary evidence spans the years 1884 to 1934 and covers topics such as the establishment of the Everglades National Park, Native American land rights, agriculture, urban development, endangered species, invasive plants, and the role of women in the modern conservation movement. -Southwest Florida Environmental Documents (SWFEDC) Comprises the Estero Bay Documents Collection, the Charlotte Harbor Information Resource Center Documents Collection, and the Caloosahatchee Documents Collection contains recent and historical scientific information related to the environment of Southwest Florida, the Caloosahatchee River, and its watershed. Reports, surveys, monographs, and other materials from agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are collected together with materials from local agencies such as the South Florida Water Management District, the Charlotte Harbor National Estuary Program, the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, the Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council, and local consulting and engineering firms. These collections were made possible in part through grants generously provided by the Charlotte Harbor National Estuary Program and the South Florida Water Management District for the benefit of scientists, researchers, and planners working in Southwest Florida and has since also proven valuable to students interested in the biology, geology, and environment of the area. 77
GOVERNMENT AGENCIES: LOCAL, STATE and FEDERAL NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION ­ NOAA NOAA Central Library (Silver Spring, MD) NOAA is a Federal agency that enriches life through science. Their reach goes from the surface of the sun to the depths of the ocean floor as they work to keep citizens informed of the changing environment around them. From daily weather forecasts, severe storm warnings and climate monitoring to fisheries management, coastal restoration and supporting marine commerce, NOAA's products and services support economic vitality and affect more than one-third of America's Gross Domestic Product. NOAA's dedicated scientists use cutting-edge research and high-tech instrumentation to provide citizens, planners, emergency managers and other decision makers with reliable information they need when they need it. NOAA's roots date back to 1807, when the Nation's first scientific agency, the Survey of the Coast, was established. Since then, NOAA has evolved to meet the needs of a changing country. NOAA maintains a presence in every state and has emerged as an international leader on scientific and environmental matters. -Coral Reef Database Florida is the only state in the continental United States to have extensive shallow coral reef formations near its coasts. These reefs extend from near Stuart in Martin County on the Atlantic coast, to the Dry Tortugas in the Gulf of Mexico. The most prolific reef development occurs seaward of the Florida Keys. The most extensive living coral reef in the United States is adjacent to the island chain of the Florida Keys. The Florida Reef Tract which extends from Soldier Key, located in Biscayne Bay, to the Tortugas Banks possesses coral formations very similar to those found in the Bahamas and Caribbean Sea. The Florida Reef Tract is nearly 150 miles long and about 4 miles wide extending to the edge of the Florida Straits. It is the third largest barrier reef ecosystem in the world. All but the northern-most extent of the reef tract lies within the boundaries of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The 2,800 square nautical mile Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), designated in 1992, surrounds the entire archipelago of the Florida Keys and includes the productive waters of Florida Bay, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Discontinuous and less biologically diverse coral reef communities continue northward along western Florida shores to the Florida Middle Grounds, a series of submerged pinnacles rising to within 60-80 ft of the surface, about 100 miles northwest of St. Petersburg. In addition to local residents, millions of vacationers come to Florida in order to enjoy scuba diving, snorkeling, and fishing on south Florida's coral reefs. These activities provide a great source of income for Florida and its coastal communities. It is estimated 79
that coral reef activities in Martin, Palm Beach, Broward and Miami-Dade counties generate $3.4 billion in sales in general and income and support 36,000 jobs in the region each year. -National Marine Sanctuary Program ­ Florida Keys Designated on November 16, 1990, Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary is one of 14 marine protected areas that make up the National Marine Sanctuary System. Administered by NOAA, a federal agency, and jointly managed with the State of Florida, Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary protects 2,900 square nautical miles of waters surrounding the Florida Keys, from south of Miami westward to encompass the Dry Tortugas, excluding Dry Tortugas National Park. The shoreward boundary of the sanctuary is the mean high-water mark, essentially meaning that once you set foot in Keys waters, you have entered the sanctuary. Within the boundaries of the sanctuary lie spectacular, unique, and nationally significant marine resources, from the world's third largest barrier reef, extensive seagrass beds, mangrove-fringed islands, and more than 6,000 species of marine life. The sanctuary also protects pieces of our nation's history such as shipwrecks and other archeological treasures. The sanctuary offers many recreational activities, including world-class diving, swimming, snorkeling, and fishing. However, rules and regulations are in place to make sure that these activities only happen in ways ­ and at places ­ that reduce user conflict and are not harmful to the sanctuary's natural and cultural resources. -National Weather Center The National Weather Center provides the public with weather, water and climate information, along with forecasts and warnings. NOAA REGIONAL DATABASES: -Biscayne Bay Environmental History and Annotated Bibliography Biscayne National Park is a very diverse place. Four distinct ecosystems melt into one another creating rich edge communities, or "ecotones." These edges support an incredible array of wildlife, including hundreds of species of colorful fish and plants found nowhere else in the United States, and visitor favorites like pelicans, manatees and turtles. Winds, currents, storms and the park's close proximity to one of the nation's largest urban areas means that the entire park is in a constant state of flux -- ever- 80
changing in the face of new challenges posed by the constant cycle of building and destruction. Biscayne Bay's combination of aquamarine waters, emerald islands, and fishbejeweled coral reefs. Here too is evidence of 10,000 years of human history, from pirates and shipwrecks to pineapple farmers and presidents. -Dry Tortugas Scientific Studies on Dry Tortugas National Park An Annotated Bibliography Dry Tortugas National Park, located 110 km west of Key West, Florida, is an elliptical, atoll-like, coral reef formation, approximately 27 km long and 12 km wide with shallow water depths ranging from 12-20 m in channels between reefs. In 1935, the area was designated Fort Jefferson National Monument, the World's first underwater National Park unit. Central to the area is Fort Jefferson, America's largest coastal nineteenth century masonry fort. In 1992 it was re-designated Dry Tortugas National Park. Because of the islands' unique location, the first tropical marine biological laboratory in the Western Hemisphere was established on Loggerhead Key by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D. C. Following the closure of the Tortugas Laboratory in 1939, periodic marine biological assessments have been conducted in response to manmade and natural environmental perturbations. This annotated bibliography is an attempt to provide researchers and resource managers with access to the rapidly accumulating body of information on the park's natural resources. A total of 424 references (published and unpublished) on scientific studies in, (and what later became) Dry Tortugas National Park were annotated and indexed according to major scientific topics. Studies from a wider area were included if they also sampled in Dry Tortugas National Park. The 100-square mile park is mostly open water with seven small islands. Accessible only by boat or seaplane, the park is known the world over as the home of magnificent Fort Jefferson, picturesque blue waters, superlative coral reefs and marine life, and the vast assortment of bird life that frequent the area. -Florida Bay Virtual Database Florida Bay is a shallow inner-shelf lagoon located at the southern end of the south Florida watershed. It is an area where fresh water from the everglades mixes with the salty waters from the Gulf of Mexico to form an estuary that is surrounded by mangroves forests and encompasses over 200 mangrove islands. Its nearly 1,000 square miles of interconnected basins, grassy mud banks, and mangrove islands are nesting, nursery, and/or feeding grounds for a host of marine animals: the American crocodile, the West Indian manatee, the loggerhead turtle, bottlenose dolphins, a variety of bird species 81
and many gamefish. Parts of the bay are also the nursery grounds for the economically valuable pink shrimp and Caribbean spiny lobster. Florida Bay is also important economically, supporting a 59 million dollar shrimp fishery and 22 million dollar stone crab fishery. NOAA's Florida Bay database covers the area located between the Florida Everglades and the Florida Keys (view location map). The bibliographic references contained in this database cover topics that have impacted the bay and its environment from 1910 to 2005. -St. Andrews Bay Digital Library St. Andrews Bay is located directly adjacent to Panama City, Florida with St. Andrews Sound located southeast of the bay. Covering approximately 280 sq. km (Keppner and Keppner, 2001), the estuary includes West Bay, North Bay, St. Andrews Bay and East Bay, and extends for approximately 49.6 km along the Gulf coast. Unique among Florida estuaries, St. Andrews Bay lacks input from any major river system, but does receive freshwater from numerous creeks, bayous and wastewater treatment plants. The restricted amount of freshwater allows the influence of Gulf of Mexico water to dominate the bay. Connection with the Gulf is via two passes on the eastern and western ends of Shell Island. The bay has been designated as an Aquatic Preserve in Florida and has the largest seagrass stock in the Florida panhandle. Salt marshes and tidal flats are also dominant in the bay system. The estuary supports approximately 3,643 species, including birds, fish and shellfish species, a significant number of which are rare, endemic and/or protected species. 82
NATIONAL ESTUARY PROGRAMS (NEPs): The NEPs were authorized by Congress in the Water Quality Act of 1987 with the purpose of developing and implementing science-based Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans (CCMPs) to identify, restore, and protect nationally significant estuaries of the United States. The United States has 28 national estuary programs. In Southwest Florida, 3 contiguous estuaries of national prominence (Tampa Bay, Sarasota Bay and Charlotte Harbor) are vital to providing resiliency to Gulf of Mexico marine resources. In August 2012, the three Southwest Florida National Estuary Programs agreed to develop one list of priority environmental projects for consideration by the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Council (GCERC) and the State of Florida. Cities, counties, nonprofit organizations, universities and other institutions were invited to submit project information. The 280 proposals received were rigorously reviewed, vetted and ranked by technical and science advisers, using criteria defined by the Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Restoration Strategy and the RESTORE Act. The final regional ranked list was approved on March 8, 2013 by the elected officials and agency representatives comprising the three Policy Boards. The projects proposed expand on work identified in the CCMPs, which are specifically outlined in the RESTORE Act as funding mechanisms for implementation. The Southwest Florida NEPs have a proven track record of success in protecting and restoring Southwest Florida ecosystems and Gulf of Mexico resources. Their Boards found that putting forward one list of environmental projects will provide a unified vision that presents the priority environmental restoration and research needs of more than half of Florida's Gulf Coast (stretching from the Big Bend region to the Everglades) and almost 20% of the total US Gulf coast. The proposed Southwest Florida Regional Ecosystem Restoration Plan is currently available online for review. -Biscayne Bay Estuary Program Biscayne Bay is the largest estuary on the coast of southeast Florida and is contiguous with the southern Florida Everglades and Florida Bay. It is home to Biscayne National Park, the largest marine park in the U.S. national park system, and to Oleta River State Park, Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park, the Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve, Barnacle State Historic Site, and numerous local parks. It supports important sport and commercial fisheries. It is a source of environmental education and recreation. Its waters and shores are favored for sailing, boating, snorkeling, and swimming, bay viewing and sunbathing. More importantly, the bay is ecologically significant, supporting and nurturing an enormous variety of wildlife. 83
-Charlotte Harbor National Estuary Program (updating website 11/7/2013) Homepage of this agency devoted to the Charlotte Harbor watershed. The agency researches and helps the public to understand and appreciate Florida's water resources. Charlotte Harbor Information Resource Center: Bibliographies, web guides and more related to the study of Southwest Florida's environment. Resources maintained by FGCU Library Services for the Charlotte Harbor National Estuary Program. Publications: Charlotte Harbor Water Atlas: -Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program The St. Johns River and South Florida water management districts sponsor the Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program, which works with a network of partners and has implemented more than $80 million in projects to improve water quality in the lagoon. The Program is involved in water quality and conservation, water resources for agriculture, harmful algal blooms, fisheries habitats and seagrasses. See the St. Johns River Water Management District website for publications and more information. -Sarasota Bay Estuary Program (SBEP) Sarasota Bay Estuary Program is dedicated to restoring the region's most important natural asset ­ Sarasota Bay. The program strives to improve water quality, increase habitats and enhance the area's natural resources for the use and enjoyment by the public. Since 1989, SBEP and its partners have had a vision of Sarasota Bay with clear waters, healthy habitat, abundant wildlife, and a growing community enjoying the Bay's resources and recreation. The Program deals with storm water pollution, restoration of habitats, adding new acres of land to the wetlands, creating artificial reefs, mapping seagrasses, red tides, and restoring shellfish populations and their habitats (Bay Scallop Restoration Project). Publications: Sarasota County Water Atlas: -Tampa Bay Estuary Program Tampa Bay, Florida's largest open-water estuary stretches 398 square miles at high tide. Popular for sports and recreation, the bay also supports one of the world's most productive natural systems. The tasks of the Tampa Bay Estuary Program consist of restoring bay habitats, enhancing fish and wildlife populations, and finding different ways to use dredge material. They provide information on boating, fishing, wading birds, estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves, and invasive species Publications: Tampa Bay Water Atlas: 84
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (DEP) The Florida Department of Environmental Protection's Division of State is Florida's lead agency for environmental management and stewardship, serving as staff to the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund (Governor and Cabinet). As such, the Division's role goes far beyond just acquiring lands for protection. It provides oversight for the management of activities on more than 12 million acres of public lands including lakes, rivers and islands. These public lands help assure all Florida's residents and visitors have the opportunity to truly appreciate Florida's unique landscapes. HISTORY NOTES: Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (DER) Florida Department of Environmental Regulation was the agency which, from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s, handled regulation, management, conservation, compliance and enforcement of a wide range of environmental and natural resource activities in the state of Florida, USA. Prior to that time, these activities were functions of the Florida Department of Health and of the Florida Department of Pollution Control. DER has now been merged with the Florida Department of Natural Resources to form the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). FL DER performed a regulatory role, relying on air and water quality standards and waste management regulations. It was specifically tasked with the goals of: keeping Florida's waters clean keeping Florida's air clear of pollutants keeping Florida's land free from contamination Info from: -Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Commission The Florida Department of Air and Water Pollution Control was the state of Florida's first agency devoted strictly to environmental quality. It was created under the authority of Florida Statute 69-109 during the administration of Governor Claude Kirk, in 1969. The agency's name was changed to the Florida Department of Pollution Control in 1971. This agency was merged with part of the Florida Department of Health several years later, to form the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation. Info from: 85
-Florida Division of State Lands The Florida Division of State Land's responsibility is environmental management. They oversee the conservation and preservation of many acres of land for lakes, rivers, and islands. They created many programs to help them manage the land such as the successful Florida Forever Program which is the largest land conservation program in the Country. The Florida Forever Program helped the State Land's Division with the acquisition and conservation of land. 609,270 acres of strategic habitat conservation areas 459,870 acres of rare species habitat conservation areas, including 806 sites that are habitats for 285 different rare species, 120 of which are federal or state-listed as endangered, 60 federal or state-listed threatened, and 20 species of special concern 686,530 acres of ecological greenways 119,480 acres of under-represented natural communities 480,695 acres landscape-sized protection areas 82,690 acres of natural floodplains 708,100 acres important to significant water bodies 351,600 acres minimize damage from flooding 7,700 acres of fragile coastline 300,350 acres of functional wetlands 681,120 acres of significant groundwater recharge areas 250 miles of priority recreational trails 348,160 acres of sustainable forest land 834 archaeological/historic sites 11,320 acres in urban service areas -Florida Forever Program: -Florida Building Commission The Florida Building Commission is a 25-member technical body responsible for the development, maintenance and interpretation of the Florida Building Code through a consensus-building process. The Commission represents architects, engineers, contractor, building owners, insurance, public agencies, local government, building and fire officials and people with disabilities. 86
-Florida Department of Environmental Permitting Florida Department of Environmental Permitting allows permit applicants and interested members of the public access to permit applications currently under review within the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). The Department deals with permit applications for air resource permits, joint coastal permits, control line permits, wetland permits, and self certification of single family docks. -Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) The Florida Public Service Commission is committed to making sure that Florida's consumers receive some of their most essential services -- electric, natural gas, telephone, water, and wastewater -- in a safe, reasonable, and reliable manner. In doing so, the PSC exercises regulatory authority over utilities in one or more of three key areas: rate base/economic regulation; competitive market oversight; and monitoring of safety, reliability, and service. The Commission was created by the Florida Legislature in 1887 and was originally called the Florida Railroad Commission. The primary purpose of the Commission was the regulation of railroad passenger and freight rates and operations. The Railroad Commission's responsibility included the management for the Telephone and Telegraph, Motor Carrier Transportation, Investor-Owned Electrics, Natural Gas, Water and Wastewater and the Airlines. -Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC or FFWCC) FWC administers Florida's fish and wildlife resources for their long-term wellbeing and for the benefit of people. They manage many habitats, and animal and plant species including invasive and non-native (exoctic) varieties. These species include bald eagles, bears, alligators, gopher turtles, sea turtles, the West Indian manatee, the Florida panther, seagrasses, hydrilla, water-hyacinth, old world climbing fern and cogon grass. FWC also oversees research on harmful algal blooms of red tide (Karenia brevis or K. brevis) and various habitats including waterways and coral and artificial reefs. Divisions: Fish and wildlife research; Marine fisheries management; Freshwater fisheries management; Habitat and species conservation; Hunting and game management; Licensing and permitting; Public access and viewing. Publications: Research Information Center/Library: (Headquarters in St. Petersburg, FL) 87
FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICTS The Department of Environmental Protection is involved in managing the quality and quantity of water through its relationship with the state's five water management districts: Northwest Florida Water Management District, Suwannee River Water Management District, St. Johns River Water Management District, South Florida Water Management District and Southwest Florida Water Management District. The responsibility of the Water Management District is flood protection programs, technical investigations into water resources, water management plans in case of water shortages and to obtain land for water management with the intention of preserving it in the Save Our Rivers program. -Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) State agency overseeing the water resources of the North Florida counties: Bay, Calhoun, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson (western half), Leon, Liberty, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Wakulla, Walton, and Washington. (Headquarters in Havana, FL) -Suwannee River Water Management District State agency overseeing the water resources if the counties near the Suwannee River area: Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, Hamilton, Lafayette, Madison, Suwannee, Taylor, Union and portions of Alachua, Baker, Bradford, Jefferson and Levy. Archive Center: (Headquarters in Live Oak) -St. Johns River Water Management District State agency overseeing the water resources if the counties near the St. Johns River area: Brevard, Clay, Duval, Flagler, Indian River, Nassau, Seminole, St. Johns, Volusia, and portions of Alachua, Baker, Bradford, Lake, Marion, Okeechobee, Orange, Osceola & Putnam. (Headquarters in Palatka) Publications and Videos: 88
-South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) State agency overseeing the water resources of the South Florida counties: Broward, Collier, Dade, Glades, Hendry, Lee, Martin, Monroe, Palm Beach, St. Lucie, and portions of Charlotte, Highlands, Okeechobee, Orange, Osceola and Polk. SFWMD is managing and protecting water resources of South Florida by balancing and improving water quality, flood control, natural systems and water supply. A key initiative is the restoration of America's Everglades ­ the largest environmental restoration project in the nation's history. The District is also working to improve the Kissimmee River and its floodplain, Lake Okeechobee and South Florida's coastal estuaries. (Headquarters in West Palm Beach) -Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) State agency overseeing the water resources of the Southwest Florida counties Citrus, DeSoto, Hardee, Hernando, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pasco, Pinellas, Sarasota, Sumter, and portions of Charlotte, Highlands, Lake, Levy, Marion and Polk. The mission of the SWFWMD is to manage water and related natural resources in west-central Florida to ensure their continued availability while maximizing environmental, economic and recreational benefits. Central to the mission is maintaining the balance between the water needs of current and future users while protecting and maintaining water and related natural resources which provide the District with its existing and future water supply. (Headquarters in Brooksville.) Publications and Documents: 89
STATE ARCHIVES of FLORIDA ­ Florida Department of State departments and divisions listed below The State Archives of Florida is the central repository for the archives of Florida's state government. It is mandated by law to collect, preserve, and make available for research the historically significant records of the state, as well as private manuscripts, local government records, photographs, and other materials that complement the official state records. Their online catalog allows searching and browsing of information about the State Archives of Florida's holdings of over 40,000 cubic feet of state and local government records and historical manuscripts. The catalog provides descriptions of over 2,700 collections and lists the content of containers and folders in many of those collections. The Department maintains records for all Florida government agencies including: All Governor Records, particularly Lawton Chiles, Bob Graham, Charlie Crist Canal Authority of the State of Florida (Cross-Florida Barge Canal, Marjorie Harris Carr) Railroad Commission of the State of Florida Water Management Districts Florida Board of Phosphate Commissioners Florida Department of Environmental Protection Florida Department of Agriculture Florida Department of Natural Resources Florida Department of Pollution Control Florida Division of Environmental Permitting Florida Division of Environmental Programming Florida Division of Land Sales and Condominiums Florida Division of Marine Resources Florida Division of Resource Management Florida Division of State Lands Florida State Agricultural Advisory Council Florida State Board of Conservation Florida Building Commission Florida State Land Office Florida State Soil Conservation Board Florida Department of Environmental Regulation Florida Geological Survey Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Commission Florida Environmental Land Management Study Committee Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWCC Library holds most of the records.) 90
-Florida Geological Survey - Publications Access to geological information provided by the Florida Geological Survey. -Spanish Land Grants The Spanish Land Grants were land claims filed by settlers in Florida after the transfer of the territory from Spain to the United States in 1821 in order to prove land ownership. Starting in 1790, Spain offered land grants to encourage settlement to the sparsely populated and vulnerable Florida colony. When the United States assumed control of Florida, it agreed to honor any valid land grants. Yet residents had to prove that validity through documentation and testimonials. Therefore, these records were the dossiers filed by grantees to the U.S. government. They were either confirmed (found to be valid) or unconfirmed (found invalid) by the US government through land commissions, federal courts, or by the U.S. Congress. Unfortunately, most of the records for West Florida are missing. 91
MISCELLANEOUS -United States Army Corp of Engineering Jacksonville District provides quality planning, engineering, construction and operations products and services to meet the needs of the Armed Forces and the nation. Program and project reports include: navigable harbors and channels; flood damage reduction ecosystem restoration; wetlands protection; shoreline stabilization; natural disaster response; and technical service to other agencies. Contact the Library for reports: [email protected] -United States Geological Survey: Water Resources of Florida The mission of the Water Discipline, which supports the overall mission of the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Geological Survey, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the best use and management of the Nation's water resources for the benefit of the people of the United States. The USGS provides current ("real-time") stream stage and streamflow, water-quality, and groundwater levels for sites in Florida. The National Water Information System (NWIS) Mapper is available to display active and historical station locations with links to their available data. NWIS Mapper: The Florida Water Science Center has five offices located throughout Florida. Offices are located in Tallahassee, with additional Offices in Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Orlando, Tallahassee, and Tampa. -FGCU Library Science Research Guides Recommended print, online, and web resources related to the Environmental, Biological, and Earth Sciences. Maintained by Florida Gulf Coast University Library Services. 92
PLANTS and HERBARIUMS PLANTS -Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP) The Aquatic Plant Control Research Program is the nation's only Federally authorized research program directed to develop technology for the management of nonindigenous aquatic plant species. The program provides effective, economical, and environmentally compatible methods for assessing and managing problem aquatic plants. The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (USACE) produce information on the growth and ecological requirements of problem aquatic plants and new biological, chemical, and ecological technologies for their management. Specific information on the biology and ecology of problem aquatic plants, obtained through research in the APCRP, has greatly improved the efficacy and diversity of management options, while minimizing adverse effects on the environment. -Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS) This is a bibliographic database that has been compiled by Victor Ramey and Karen Brown at the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. The total collection is world-wide in scope and contains more than 58,000 annotated citations to the literature, including grey literature such as proceedings and government reports. Records specific to Florida (5,500 + records) have been extracted for inclusion in Florida Environments Online (FEOL). To access the complete database, go to: To access the entire Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (CAIP) web site, which contains photographs, line drawings, basic and detailed information about many aquatic, wetland and invasive plant species, prohibited plant laws and lists, a list of plant manuals and field guides, and much more, go to: -Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants, University of South Florida (USF) Florida, with over 4,200 species of native or naturalized ferns and seed plants, is the third most floristically diverse state in the United States. The Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state. 94
-Bureau of Invasive Plant Management The Bureau is charged with controlling invasive aquatic plants in Florida's 450 public water bodies, covering 1.25 million acres of fresh water. Using the latest biological, mechanical and herbicidal management techniques, scientists reduce invasive plants to the lowest possible levels while conserving and protecting native plant and animal communities, human health and property. It also oversees the Upland Invasive Plant Management Funding Program. (Florida Dept of Environmental Protection) Reports available at: Plant Atlas University of South Florida's Plant Atlas website incorporates standards-based data-driven internet technologies to disseminate plant information, images and distribution maps to the public. The following is an abbreviated list of functionality available: Plant species are searchable by scientific and common name, including synonyms; Search results can be presented as a spreadsheet-style list of plant species or as a gallery of plant images along with summary information for the purpose of comparison; Users can browse for a plant species by selecting a family; genus; common name; or county. New 2013: Developed in partnership with Orange County, FLEPPC and USF, FLIP (Florida Invasive Plants) is a mobile field guide that can be accessed by a computer, smart phone, tablet, or other device with internet browser capability. -USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program (NAS) The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) information resource for the United States Geological Survey (USGS) is located at Gainesville. Its site was established as a central repository for spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of introduced aquatic species. The program provides scientific reports, online/realtime queries, spatial data sets, regional contact lists, and general information. The data is made available for use by biologists, interagency groups, and the general public. The geographical coverage is the United States. The NAS site will no longer serve data or track aquatic plants or marine invertebrates (except for Asian tiger shrimp - Penaeus monodon). Plants are being discontinued due to budgets cuts. Marine invertebrate data can now be obtained from their partners at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center from their National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS). The NAS system will focus on freshwater introductions and fishes (freshwater and marine). 95
INVASIVE SPECIES USGS Invasive Species Program: REEF: University of Florida IFAS Extension: Suncoast Cooperative Invasive Species Partnership: 96
HERBARIUMS About HERBERIA and HERBARIUM SPECIMENS A herbarium is a collection of plant samples preserved for long-term study. These materials may include pressed and mounted plants, seeds, wood sections, pollen, microscope slides, frozen DNA extractions, and fluid-preserved flowers or fruits; all are generally referred to as herbarium specimens. Worldwide there are over 300 million specimens preserved for research in herbaria (plural for herbarium). Herbaria are usually associated with universities, museums, or botanical gardens. The first is believed to have been established in 1570 in Bologna, Italy, by Luca Ghini. There are now around 4,000 herbaria in over 165 countries. Index Herbariorum: A Global Directory of Public Herbaria and Associated Staff A world catalog of public herbaria, Index Herbariorum, is published periodically by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy and provided on the web at: Each herbarium in Index Herbariorum is assigned an official acronym (code) that is used as a standard for referring to the institution and its specimens. -Archbold Biological Station (ARCH) No. of specimens: 6,500. Date founded 1941. Located: 123 Main Dr., Venus, FL 33960 Access contact: 863-465-2571 ext. 240, Carl Weekley, Curator, [email protected] Archbold Biological Station was a field station of the American Museum of Natural History from 1941 to 1980. Specialty: Vascular plants of central and southwestern Florida. -Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (FTG) No. of specimens 200,000. Date founded 1967. Located: 11935 Old Cutler Rd., Coral Gables, FL 33156-4242 Access contact: 305-667-1651 ext 3418, Brett Jestrow [email protected] Specialty: Native plants of Florida and Caribbean; Palms; Cultivated tropical plants; Arecaceae, Cycadales, Myrsinaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Agavaceae, Poaceae, especially Bambusoideae, and Clusiaceae worldwide. Important Collections: D. Austin, G. Avery, W. M. Buswell, D. S. Correll, H. B. Correll, F. Craighead, W. T. Gillis, R. K. Godfrey, W. L. McCart, R. O. Woodbury 97
Incorporated Collections: BUS (15,000 specimens) in 1999; and FAU in part (35,000 specimens) in 2001. Digital Virtual Herbarium: In 1999, Fairchild began a long-term initiative to put their entire Herbarium collection online. Currently they have nearly 50% of the collection in a database and linked to digital images that are searchable on the web. -Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Marine Research Institute (STPE) No. of specimens: 1,000. Date founded 1976 Located: 100 Eighth Avenue, S.E., St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5095 Access contact: 727-896-8626, David Creuz, Curator Specialty: Coastal plants, especially of Florida. -Marie Selby Botanical Garden (SEL) No. of specimens; 100,000. Date founded 1973. Located: 811 South Palm Ave., Sarasota, FL 34236-7726 Access contact: 941-955-7553 x 12. Bruce Holst, Herbarium Curator, [email protected] or Antonio Toscano de Brito, Curator, [email protected] Specialty: South American Andes; Orchidaceae; Bromeliaceae; Gesneriaceae; Araceae; Pteridophyta; Heliconiaceae; Marantaceae; vascular epiphyte. Important Collections: L. Besse, C. H. Dodson, G. C. K. Dunsterville, C. Luer, W. J. Kress, M. Madison, H. Wiehler, L. O. Williams. Extensive living collection of epiphytes. Orchid Identification Center, Bromeliad Identification Center, Gesneriad Research Center. Spirit Collection of 28,000 specimens. Library specializing in neotropical floristics and epiphyte biology. The herbarium consists of approximately 100,000 specialized collections of tropical flora, largely neotropical, with an emphasis on epiphytes. The herbarium is open for study to visiting scientists and students. Loans are available internationally to recognized institutions, generally for a period of one year with renewal upon request. The floras of the Andes and Central America are well represented. 98
-Mote Marine Laboratory Herbarium (MOT) No. of specimens: 8,000. Date founded: 1955. Located: 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34231 Access contact: the Mote Library: [email protected], 941-388-4441 x 333 There are 327 species folders with 1-52 specimens per folder, 3,600 microscopic specimen cards, 8000 specimens, 24 finding aids, 3 cabinets (2 ft 5 in w x 7 ft h). In addition to accessioned specimens, MOT contains a number of catalogs, supplementary resources including: reprints; lists; indices; algae by region; bibliographic records; card catalog of specimens numbering approximately 1280 cards; a collection of guides/catalogs numbering approximately 200 pages; preliminary checklists; artifact keys including diagrams, descriptions, classifications and lists; nine notebooks of collection contents and locations, and more. Unprocessed materials approximate 5.5 linear feet, 30 specimens not in species folders, 10 in. of miscellaneous specimens in boxes, and 1 booklet from 1870. Specialty: Florida: algae and seagrasses ( Sarasota, Florida Keys, Florida west coast, Pinellas County, Boca Raton, etc.) as well as from Belize, Brazil, California, Cayman Islands, Connecticut, Cuba, Ireland, Maine, Mexico, New Hampshire, North Carolina (Beaufort), Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, Southern Gulf of Mexico, US Virgin Islands. -Oscar Scherer State Park Herbarium (FLSP) No. of specimens 6621. Date founded 1990 Located: 1843 South Tamiami Trail, Osprey, Florida 34229, Access contact: 941- 486-2056, Email: [email protected] Speciality: vascular plants from 29 state parks in central and southwestern Florida. - Tall Timbers Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium (FSU) The Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium contains 2,561 species represented by approximately 200,000 specimens. Most of the specimens have been collected or determined by such respected taxonomists as Robert K. Godfrey, Roger F. Thorne, Robert F. Doren, Sidney McDaniel, and Angus Gholson. Specialty: Southeastern U.S., especially Florida; Central America, especially Costa Rica and Panama; Asteraceae, diatoms. Date Founded: 1940. Specimen data and high-resolution images are viewable through the Florida State University Database. Access to physical specimens is available by appointment. Contact: Director, [email protected] 99
-University of Florida Herbarium (FLAS) No. of specimens 470,000 Date founded 1891. Located: 379 Dickinson Hall, Florida Museum of Natural History, UF campus. Access contact: See webpage for individual collection hours and access policies, (352) 273-1990 This is the oldest and most comprehensive herbarium in Florida. It is the 4th largest herbarium in the southeastern United States. Our acronym, "FLAS", is derived from our affiliation with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. The principal holdings of the FLAS Herbarium include approximately 240,000 vascular plants (including both pressed/mounted specimens and the seed collection), 160,000 bryophytes and lichens, 56,500 fungi, and 15,300 wood samples. The collection includes specimens from every continent except Antarctica, but the geographic focus of the collection is circum-Caribbean and Neotropical (with an emphasis on Florida, the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S., Haiti, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and Brazil). In addition, the FLAS Herbarium includes a library of 5000 books, 50 serial titles, 10,000 reprints, 500 microfiche titles, 500 maps, and 1000 botanical illustrations. The herbarium's collections are actively growing; approximately 2500 plant specimens and 500 library items are added each year. In the FLAS Herbarium, the organizational scheme for the plant collections is taxonomic, geographic, and alphabetic. -Naples Botanical Garden (SWF) No. of Specimens 27,000. Date founded 1993, Reopened in 2009 Located: 4820 Bayshore Dr., Naples, FL 34112 Access contact: 239-643-7275 / 877-433-1874, George J. Wilder, [email protected] Formerly located at Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL Specialty: Southwestern Florida; northeastern U.S., especially Ohio; vascular plants. 100
FACILITIES and ORGANIZATIONS whose mission is to preserve and protect Florida's environment -Audubon of Florida, Tavernier Science Center "The Tavernier Science Center (TSC) was established in the Florida Keys in 1938, by National Audubon's first Director of Research, Robert Porter Allen. Allen began a full-time study of the Roseate Spoonbill, living among them in a tent for weeks at a time. At the time, scientists would typically study birds' eating habits by killing them an examining their stomach contents. However, the Spoonbill was so scarce by this time, Allen had to find another way to study them. His research changed how scientists studied birds and began 65 years of data investigating the spoonbill and its habitat." -Conservancy of Southwest Florida Located I Naples, Florida. "The work of saving our environment started in 1964 when plans were revealed to build a road through Rookery Bay, crossing Gordon Pass and into the Ten Thousand Islands. A small group of citizens became concerned, involved, and politically active mobilizing grassroots efforts to prevent the project. As a result, the road was never built. Rookery Bay and its inhabitants were saved and the Conservancy of Southwest Florida was founded." -Florida Caribbean Chapter of the American Bamboo Society The Society educates the public on bamboos, with emphasis on research and preservation and propagation of endangered species and the uses of bamboo for construction, artistic and utilitarian applications. -Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council The Council supports the management of invasive exotic plants in Florida's natural areas by providing a forum for the exchange of scientific, educational, and technical information. The Council includes members from various locations. 102
-Florida Industrial and Phosphate Research Institute The Florida Industrial and Phosphate Research Institute (FIPR Institute) located in Bartow was established by Florida law in June 2010. This legislation transformed the Florida Institute of Phosphate Research into a research institute within the University of South Florida Polytechnic. It also broadened the Institute's research program into nonphosphate topics such as energy, and the mining and processing of minerals other than phosphate. However, phosphate-related research will continue to be the focus of the Institute. (Originally, the Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR) was created in 1978 as a state agency to study phosphate issues that impact Florida's citizens, environment, and economy.) The Library houses a unique collection of phosphate-related resources and is the most comprehensive collection of phosphate-related resources in the U.S. and likely the world. The collection includes 8,500 books and reports, thousands of volumes of journals, 56 current journal titles, hundreds of maps, numerous company and government brochures, and thousands of news clippings about the Institute, its predecessor (FIPR), and the Florida phosphate industry. The FIPR Institute Library is focused on, but not limited to, the following areas as they relate to phosphate in Florida: Mining, Geology, Fertilizer production, Reclamation, Land use, Regulatroy Information, Florida ecosystems, Environmental and public health. In keeping with FIPR's broadened mission, the Library is beginning to collect material on biofuels, bioenergy, and the mining of other (non-phosphate) minerals in Florida. As of October 2007, the Institute's research reports are no longer published in print. All reports published after that date are published exclusively in pdf format, with the exception of two paper copies kept in the Library's collection, and are available on the Institute's website at The Library is open to the public M-F and Florida residents and USF students may check-out materials. -Florida Museum of Natural History ISAF: The Florida Museum of Natural History (Gainesville) investigates bird extinctions on Pacific islands, excavates shell mounds on the Southwest Florida coast, documents shark attacks worldwide (International Shark Attack File-ISAF), monitors endangered and threatened species such as the Florida panther and the manatee, and explores the genetic codes relating families of tropical orchids. -Friends of the Everglades Friends of the Everglades (Miami) was founded in 1969 by renowned journalist, author, and environmental activist Marjory Stoneman Douglas. The mission of Friends of the Everglades is to preserve, protect, and restore the only Everglades in the world. 103
-Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory (Panacea) was founded in 1963 to support marine research and education at universities by supplying live marine animals to academic scientists. Founder Jack Rudloe worked on shrimp boats, lending a hand in return for keeping species that were of no value to the fishermen. Commercial fishermen have remained important collaborators for many years. The Laboratory has 8,500 square feet of interior exhibition and program space, which houses approximately 30,000 gallons of seawater aquarium space as well as 1,000 square feet of pavilion space. It has easily accessible touch tanks and educational displays in three buildings, as well as a 300-foot dock and animal culture systems. These facilities house hundreds of species of local marine life used in educational and research programs in universities, aquariums and museums across the country. -Loggerhead Marinelife Center of Juno Beach Over 25 years ago, long-time Juno Beach resident Eleanor Fletcher started what is now Loggerhead Marinelife Center. Eleanor and her husband Robert had a real estate business in Juno Beach. Eleanor began to notice the abundance of sea turtles nesting on our shore in spring and summer. She was curious about why so many hatchlings headed landward after hatching, rather than back to sea, and as a result, began some of the earliest research on sea turtles in our area. Juno Beach is now recognized as one of the most active nesting beaches in the world! Eleanor became known as "The Turtle Lady" throughout the area. As Eleanor Fletcher learned more about the sea turtles, she began to see that the turtles were threatened by the encroachment of man as he moved and built closer and closer to the shoreline. She decided that educating children about the sea turtles and the need for conservation and protection was the best hope for the sea turtles to survive over the long term. In 1983 the Children's Museum of Juno Beach was incorporated, moving into what had been an old home in Loggerhead Park, thanks to the County's Department of Parks and Recreation. Reflecting an expanded mission, the name was changed to The Marinelife Center of Juno Beach in 1990.The center now hosts field trips, outreach programs, summer camp and other educational experiences. In addition, more than 200,000 visitors come to the center each year to see the exhibits and the sea turtle hospital ­ the only sea turtle hospital between Orlando and the Florida Keys. In April 2007, the organization relocated to a new 12,000 square foot certified "green" facility and changed its name to Loggerhead Marinelife Center. The new facility includes a state-of-the-art full service veterinary hospital, exhibit hall, outdoor classroom, research lab, and resource center. Park amenities include a guarded beach, nature trail, playground and picnic pavilions. Loggerhead Marinelife Center is located on the Atlantic Ocean in Palm Beach County, Florida. The facility houses a variety of exhibits, live sea turtles and other coastal creatures. Exhibits include a massive prehistoric 104
Archelon sea turtle replica, salt water aquaria and displays of local wildlife, as well as educational displays about South Florida's marine environment. -Mexico Beach Artificial Reef Association Construct artificial reef habitat to enhance sustainable fisheries in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The MBARA set a milestone of establishing 1000 patch reefs, or small artificial reef habitats in the waters off Mexico Beach, Florida. Working closely with the City of Mexico Beach, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission, and the United States Army Corps of Engineers, the MBARA is well on the road to achieving that milestone. View their website to see the artificial reef habitats constructed to date. -Mote Marine Laboratory and Aquarium Repository: Mote Marine Laboratory (Sarasota) is a non-profit facility that has been a leader in marine research since it was founded in 1955. Today, it incorporates public outreach as a key part of its mission. Mote is an independent nonprofit organization and has three directorates for marine research, the public Mote Aquarium, an Education Division specializing in public programs for all ages, and a marine research Library open to the public. The Arthur Vining Davis Library and Archives collection is maintained for the support of marine research and education. The Library's Special Collections contain ninety years of primary source environmental materials related to Southwest Florida and beyond. The Library also houses the scientific and technical publications of the staff. Many of the technical reports and special collection materials have been digitized and reside in the Library's open access repository, DSpace. The Library & Archives are open to the public M-F for research. -Museum of the Everglades, Collier County Museum. First opened in 1927 as a commercial laundry, today's Museum of the Everglades in Naples, FL dates back to a time when construction of the famous Tamiami Trail was well underway and the tiny settlement of Everglades served as the first County seat. The museum's permanent and rotating exhibits provide visitors with an in-depth look at over 2,000 years of human history in the area and tell the story of those adventurous enough and stubborn enough - to settle Southwest Florida's lush "River of Grass." "A collection of over 300 of Rob Storter's sketches and artifacts was acquired in 2004 by the Friends who loaned some of the items for traveling exhibits to the Bonita Springs Historical Society and the Historical Museum of Southern Florida. The Friends donated the Storter Collection to Collier County Museums in 2007. The Museum of the Everglades in historic Everglades City, Florida, is devoted to displaying local history 105
from early Native American times to the present. Permanent exhibits tell the story of adventurers stubborn enough to persevere in Southwest Florida's "Last Frontier". Notes: The museum's main gallery offers over 10,000 square feet of new displays, plus a traveling exhibit room, and lecture hall. -Ostego Bay Foundation Marine Science Center The Center located in Fort Myers Beach, FL provides a marine science experience through interactive exhibits, aquariums, touch tank, one of kind collections and unique displays. One can explore and discover the natural beauty of Southwest Florida and learn about the unique ecology of the barrier islands and estuary ecosystem. A new environmental education extension program is being offered in partnership with the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences (UF-IFAS) and participating organizations throughout the state. -Save a Turtle The organization located in the Florida Keys is dedicated to the preservation and protection of rare and endangered marine turtles and to the enhancement of their habitats here in the Keys and partnering with other like minded organizations throughout the world. The organization was formed in 1985 under the sponsorship of the Florida Park Service, the Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission (now the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission or FWCC), and St. James the Fisherman Church. -Silver River Museum The Silver River Museum and Environmental Education Center (Center) is a program of the Marion County Public School system (MCPS). The Center is located within the Silver River State Park and works in close cooperation with the Florida Park Service. The Center provides unique hands-on learning opportunities for Marion County Public Schools students, staff, and the general public. Visitors learn about the cultural and natural history of Marion County, and the importance of protecting and conserving cultural and natural resources. It's primary mission is to educate Marion County Public School students about Florida history and ecology, and assist them in achieving the highest scholastic standards possible. 106
-Southeast Environmental Research Center The Center, operated through and located on the main campus of Florida International University in Miami, is composed of faculty, research associates, students and technicians from a variety of disciplines who work together on environmental research efforts in the Southeastern United States and the neotropics. SERC was founded in 1993 in response to a growing regional need for scientific investigations in threatened environments of South Florida. Research programs developed in Biscayne National Park, Big Cypress National Preserve, Everglades National Park, Florida Bay, the Florida Keys and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary have been instrumental in providing a basis for management decisions for sustaining these fragile resources. SERC research programs have grown rapidly with funding from the National Park Service, United States Geological Survey, South Florida Water Management District, US Environmental Protection Agency, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, National Science Foundation and many other federal, state and local agencies as well as NGOs and the private sector. In 2001, SERC received National Science Foundation funding to establish a Long-Term Ecological Research program in the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCELTER). In addition to fostering research with a long-term perspective, the FCE-LTER has allowed researchers to study regional problems in a larger ecological context and is facilitating expansion of key research ideas to other sites in the Caribbean basin and neotropics. SERC laboratories have advanced capabilities for water quality analyses, stable isotope analysis, ecotoxicological studies, digital microscopy, flow cytometry, and trace metals and organic compound analysis. These research facilities also provide a practical training ground for undergraduate and graduate students at FIU. All these elements are designed to work together within the Center's framework to promote a strong scientific underpinning for protection and restoration of the region's water resources, recreational lands, and natural ecosystems. -South Florida Museum all.aspx South Florida Museum- Exhibits in the Environmental Wing are designed to educate all visitors about Florida's environment incorporating the past, present and future. The message of the three exhibits; Riverine, Pine Uplands and Estuary focus on environmental awareness and what can be done to protect Florida's fragile ecosystems. As more people move into the Gulf Coast region, South Florida Museum (Bradenton) focuses on environmental education so that we [the public] move forward into the future with knowledge that will safeguard wild places. 107
-Tall Timbers Research Station & Land Conservancy Stewards of wildlife and wildlands The mission of Tall Timbers (Tallahassee) is to foster exemplary land stewardship through research, conservation and education. The organization's primary research focus is the ecology and management of fire-dependent ecosystems, and wildlife, including bobwhite quail, in the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Their conservation efforts are dedicated to helping protect the distinctive, rural landscape of South Georgia and North Florida and its traditional land uses. Their education programs transfer research and conservation information for resource management. The Archives, Records Management, and Historical Resources Department is responsible for drafting policies and procedures acceptable to professional standards in areas of archives, records management, museum and historic preservation at Tall Timbers. The Parker ­ Williams Library supports the research and conservation work of Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy. The library collection includes monographs, state documents and federal documents accessible through an online catalog available on staff desktops via our intranet. The collection specializes in forestry, fire ecology, plant and animal ecology, conservation biology, ornithology, mammalogy, herpetology, and the natural history and ecology of the southeastern United States. 108
REFERENCES and SUGGESTED READINGS The publications are arranged alphabetically by the author's last name or the organization's title. This list is a starting point for anyone involved in researching topics concerning Florida's environment. There are too many excellent books, reports and documents on the subject to mention every title. However, we endeavored to include a variety of materials that would be helpful to the novice researcher. The Reference lists and Bibliographies in each of these books include additional materials for further research. For example, Noll and Tegeder included in their 2009 Ditch of Dreams an Appendix guide to manuscript collections by location, a Bibliography of archival and manuscript collections including government documents, and an extensive Notes section. We would also remind researchers that most government agencies and research facilities now have their technical reports and other research publications available online. Links to some of these are provided in the main document. 1. Blake N.M. 1980. Land Into Water, Water Into Land: A History of Water Management in Florida. [Tallahassee, FL]: University Press of Florida. 344 p. (A 2010 update published by Orange Grove Texts Plus has four new chapters.) First published in 1980, this book puts our present situation in the perspective of two centuries of efforts to improve Florida's environment. The author traces the evolution of water policy from its initial emphasis on navigation improvements (beginning in the 1820s) and drainage (beginning in the 1880s), to an emphasis on flood control (beginning in the late 1920s) and ultimately water supply and management (beginning in the 1970s). Blake concludes his analysis in the late 1970s, immediately after "Florida's environmental revolution," when state lawmakers passed landmark legislation intended to ameliorate the impacts of massive economic and population growth. 2. Carr A. 1973. The Everglades. New York: Time-Life Books. 184 p. Carr describes how the ecosystem in the Everglades functions and with an interesting writing style includes many personal moments while exploring the Everglades. 3. Carter L.J. 1975. The Florida Experience: Land and Water Policy in a Growth State. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. 358 p. (RFF Press produced a Reprint edition January 19, 2011). The author records the activities of various land exploiters as they rape and pillage Florida's land and water resources...weaving a well-written chronicle of these rapacious events. It is a book that will interest a wide variety of concerned important book describing the land history of one of the fastest-growing states in the U.S. 4. Caulfield P. 1970. Everglades: Selections From the Writings of Peter Matthiessen. (Essay by J.G. Mitchell, Edited by P. Brooks.) Sierra Club Exhibit Format Series, no. 21. NY: Sierra Club, Ballantine Books. 143 p. Photographs by Patricia Caulfield accompany selected published and unpublished writings of Peter Matthiessen, a wildlife writer interested in the extinction and 110
endangerment of animal and bird species as a consequence of human settlement throughout North American history. 5. Cavanaugh P. 1992. Protecting Paradise: 300 Ways to Protect Florida's Environment. Fairfield, FL: Phoenix Publishing. 160 p. The authors present a brief description of the many threats of degradation to the Florida environment and suggest possible steps to be taken. They include additional references dealing with particular issues and sources for more information and assistance. 6. Davis, J.E. 2009. An Everglades Providence: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and the American Environmental Century. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. 758 p. This biography completes the portrait of one of the most important environmental figures of the twentieth century. It provides an excellent history of the modern environmental movement. 7. Davis, J.E. and R. Arsenault, eds. 2005. Paradise Lost? The Environmental History of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 432 p. From the earliest descriptions of the state's natural beauty to the degradation of the Everglades, virtually every facet of Florida environment is included. This collection of essays surveys the environmental history of the Sunshine State, from Spanish exploration to the present, and provides an organized, detailed overview of the reciprocal relationship between humans and Florida's unique peninsular ecology. It is divided into four thematic sections: explorers and naturalists; science, technology, and public policy; despoliation; and conservationists and environmentalists. The contributors describe the evolving environmental policies and practices of the state and federal governments and the dynamic interaction between the Florida environment and many social and cultural groups including the Spanish, English, Americans, southerners, northerners, men, and women. They have applied historical methodology and also drawn on the methodologies of the fields of political science, cultural anthropology, and sociology. 8. Davis, J.E. and K. Frederickson, eds. 2003. Making Waves: Female Activists in Twentieth-Century Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 352 p. These essays lift up the lives of outstanding Florida women who helped shape the course of 20th-century Florida. From Ruth Bryan Owen, Florida's first congresswoman, and Mary McLeod Bethune, founder of Bethune-Cookman College, to Betty Mae Tiger Jumper, the first chairwoman of the Seminole Tribe, and Marjory Stoneman Douglas, champion of the Everglades, "Making Waves" examines the lives and works of women activists who made a significant impact on Florida in the last century. 9. De Golia, J. 1978. Everglades. Las Vegas, NV: KC Publications. 64 p. As an Interpretive Specialist in eight National Parks the author spent many years interpreting the Parks. He served in both the Shark Valley and Royal Palm districts of Everglades National Park, where he developed an abiding interest in and respect for the truly unique natural world of the Everglades. Everglades National Park, located in south Florida, was established in 1947 to preserve the unique flora and fauna of the Everglades. 111
10. Derr, M. 1998. Some Kind of Paradise: A Chronicle of Man and the Land in Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 416 p. Derr's study of the country's most-visited state combines ecological, demographic, economic information with political and cultural history. In his account of the area's exploration, colonization and development, the author also portrays the developers, migrants and foreign laborers who shaped the state, primarily for the benefit of winter residents, retirees and tourists. Chief among the 19th-century entrepreneurs were friends and rivals Henry Plant and Henry Flagler, master builders of cities and resorts, whose vast rail systems opened up the peninsula and fostered exploitation of all kinds, including plantation slavery. While he describes the state's varied geography and how people have affected it, he concentrates heavily on the east and southwest coasts and the Everglades with scant mention of north Florida and the Panhandle. 11. Fishman, G. 2000. Journeys Through Paradise: Pioneering Naturalists in the Southeast. Gainesville: University of Florida. xv, 306 p. The author follows the original steps of pioneering naturalists and profiles thirteen men who explored North America's southeastern wilderness between 1715 and the 1940s. The following notables are included John James Audubon, John and William Bartram and John Muir. The book is also a personal travelogue as the author experiences the landscape through their eyes and describes the changes that have occurred along the region's trails and streams. 12. Edic, R.F. 1996. Fisherfolk of Charlotte Harbor, Florida. Gainesville: University of Florida, Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies. xiv, 178 p. This book records the history and vanishing fishing traditions of Florida's Charlotte harbor fisherfolk. It is an account of one of Florida's oldest industries, one that is rapidly disappearing. 13. Florida Defenders of the Environment. 1970. Environmental Impact of the Cross-Florida Barge Canal with Special Emphasis on the Oklawaha Regional Ecosystem. Gainesville: Florida Defenders of the Environment. 115 p. The report looks at the physical and biological features of the region that would have been traversed by the proposed Cross-Florida Barge Canal. It includes the physical factors such as geology, hydrology, climate and soils; and the biological systems comprising plants, animals and people. It also lists the recommendations of the environmental group Florida Defenders of the Environment. 14. Gantz, C.O. 1971. A Naturalist in Southern Florida. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press. xii, 256 p. In this guide the author describes what she has seen in walks on beaches, trails, some swamps and inland roads throughout southern Florida. She discusses what the casual visitor is most likely to encounter and notice. Includes B&W photos, illustrations and maps. 112
15. George, J.C. 1972. Everglades Wildguide. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service. 105 p. This book attempts to show the ecological complexity of the Everglades. It describes the complex, ever-changing, closely woven web of plants animals, rock soil, sun, water, and air. 16. Gleason, P.J., ed. 1974. Environments of South Florida: Present and Past. Memoir 2. Miami, FL: Miami Geological Society. vi, 492 p. The authors review environmental problems and management issues that exist in South Florida particularly with respect to interior wetlands and mangrove crescent including the Everglades-Big Cypress-Saline Tidal area. 17. Godfrey, M. 2012. River of Interests: Water Management in South Florida and the Everglades National Park 1948-2010. Washington, DC: GPO for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville, FL District. 339 p. Online, This is a history of the construction of the Central and Southern Flood Control Project (C&SF) and the project's unintended impacts on the environment, and the evolution of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). This thoroughly researched and footnoted report describes the historical conflict between environmentalists and economic interests in the Everglades, Lake Okeechobee, and the Kissimmee River region in south Florida. Dozens of maps, some dating back to the mid-19th century, and color photographs familiarize the reader with this fascinating ecosystem. 18. Gottlieb, R. 1994. Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement. Washington, DC: Island Press. 2nd ed., 423 p. (Revised edition published in 2005.) This book will considerably expand most readers' knowledge of environmentalism as experienced in the past and present in the United States. It offers a broad interpretation, beginning with a history of the environmental movement in this country from the 1890s forward, then examining contemporary environmental groups of the past 20 years. Mainstream groups such as the National Wildlife Federation, National Audubon Society, and Sierra Club are discussed, as are Greenpeace and various grass-roots organizations that are often considered alternative movements. Finally, individual chapters are devoted to gender, ethnicity, and class as they relate to environmentalism. 19. Grunwald, M. 2006. The Swamp: The Everglades, Florida, and the Politics of Paradise. New York: Simon & Schuster. 450 p. In a remarkable political and environmental turnaround, chronicled here with a Washington insider's savvy, Republicans and Democrats came together in 2000 to launch the largest ecosystem restoration project in America's history. The author emphasizes the role politics played in first despoiling and then reclaiming the Everglades. The author does not adequately explain today's Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, and assumed a condition of ecological purity to pre-European contact Florida. 113
20. Heald, E.J. 1971. The Production of Organic Detritus in a South Florida Estuary. Sea Grant Technical Bulletin No. 6. Miami, FL: University of Miami Sea Grant Program. 110 p. (Originally published as a Thesis.) This study was conducted on the North River in Everglades National Park. It attempts to delineate and quantify the pathways and mechanisms by which dead plant material, especially that of red mangroves, becomes incorporated into the aquatic system and thereby constitutes an important energy source. 21. Hodding, C. 2005. Stolen Water: Saving the Everglades from Its Friends, Foes, and Florida. New York: Atria Books. 274 p. For an Outside magazine feature the author agreed to paddle the ninety-nine-mile waterway in Everglades National Park to examine the landscape from all angles -physical, political, cultural, and very personal -- and get to the rock-bottom heart of the story. This book is the outgrowth of his journey. Through investigative research, eyewitness accounts, and interviews with key players in the conservation controversy, the author offers a rare portrait of a national treasure. 22. Howard, K. 1974. Water and the South Florida Environment. Miami, Fl: U.S. Geological Survey. v, 265 p. Increasing population and the concomitant urban sprawl and industrial growth in South Florida has caused concern to agencies involved in land-use planning and water management as to the adequacy of water supplies, determination of water quality, and changes in the environmental factors. This report describes the physical system, past and present, environmental problems, and alternative solutions to the problems 23. Hutton, R.F. et al. 1956. The Ecology of Boca Ciega Bay with Special Reference to Dredging and Filling Operations. Technical Series No. 17, Part 1. St. Petersburg, FL: Florida State Board of Conservation, Marine Laboratory. 86 p. Available online at As developers turn to dredge and fill operations as a means of creating new waterfront properties its accompanying effects on saltwater fishing and other recreational activities bring the developers into direct conflict with conservation, fishing and recreation interests. This study shows that if these operations occur much of the sports and commercial fishing will be eliminated. 24. Kappmeyer, C. 1993. Keep It Clean: A Citizens Guide to Protecting Our Estuary. Naples, FL: Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, with SFWMD and NOAA. 2nd ed. Rev., ix, 70 p. The waters of Rookery Bay are the primary concern of this book. Information is provided on specific pollution problems. Background information furthers the understanding of the environment. 25. Klien, Howard. Water and the South Florida Environment. Miami, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey. v, 265 p. 1974. Increasing population and the concomitant urban sprawl and industrial growth in South Florida has caused concern to agencies involved in land-use planning and water 114
management as to the adequacy of water supplies, determination of water quality, and changes in the environmental factors. This report describes the physical system, past and present, environmental problems, and alternative solutions to the problems. 26. Krucynski, W.L. and P.J. Fletcher, eds. 2012. Tropical Connections: South Florida's Marine Environment. Cambridge, MD: IAN Press, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. 492 p. This book summarizes technical information on the south Florida marine ecosystem in a manner that is easy to read and understand. It includes information on the geographic setting of south Florida, the oceanographic connection, water quality, coral reefs and hardbottom habitats, seagrasses, mangrove habitats, animal diversity and the human connection. 27. Lodge, T. 1994. The Everglades Handbook: Understanding the Ecosystem. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press. xix, 228 p. (Introduction by Marjory Stoneman Douglas.) The author answers the question "What would one need to know about the Everglades and related ecosystems in order to have a good understanding of what they are and how they work?" 28. McCally, D. 1999. The Everglades: An Environmental History. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. xxii, 215 p. This book discusses the formation, development, and history of the Everglades, considered by many to be the most endangered ecosystem in North America. It begins with south Florida's geologic origins - before the Everglades became wetlands - and continues through the twentieth century. 29. McIver, S.B. 2003. Death in the Everglades: The Murder of Guy Bradley, America's First Martyr to Environmentalism. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 216 p. An account of the Florida plume hunters, the devastation they wrought, and the painful progress--exemplified bravely on the hunting grounds by Guy Bradley--of the bird protection movement that ultimately succeeded. 30. Miller, C. 2001. Gifford Pinchot and the Making of Modern Environmentalism. Washington, DC: Island Press. 458 p. After founding the Forest Service and while serving as its first chief, Gifford Pinchot acted as the main publicist for what was called "utilitarian conservation", the belief that natural resources should be sustainably used and that the federal government should regulate their use. 31. Miller, J.J. and J.T. Milanich, eds. 1998. An Environmental History of Northeast Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 223 p. Uncovers much about land use in the state of Florida and the larger southeast U.S. Lets the reader consider the human impact in environmental history and our relationship to the land. 115
32. Mongillo, J. and B. Booth, eds. 2001. Environmental Activists. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 368 p. A reference source that explores the many issues surrounding environmental matters through the lives of people who have become actively involved in efforts to preserve our environment. Profiles of these individuals are provided, highlighting the different reasons for each one's deep involvement in environmental concerns and the different elements involved in the environmental debate as a whole. 33. Morse, R.A. 2000. Richard Archbold and the Archbold Biological Station. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 128 p. The legend of Richard Archbold (1907-1976), one of Florida's most prominent biologists, began in the remote jungles of Madagascar and New Guinea, journeys recorded in the pages of National Geographic and the Saturday Evening Post in the 1920s and 1930s. Under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History, Archbold financed and led scientific expeditions to unexplored regions of the world, mapping them and using aircraft for the first time to supply field staff. When war halted his overseas explorations, Archbold founded in 1941 what has become one of the premier centers in the world for biological research. The 5,000-acre estate, Archbold Biological Station near Lake Placid, Florida, covers one of the most scientifically unique and threatened ecosystems in the world, the Florida Scrub. Archbold's initial enthusiasm for the scrub and his dedication to research there has been fully vindicated: the station now supports 19 federally listed threatened and endangered species, including 13 endemic plants. Recognized as one of the most superbly appointed field sites in North America, it houses impressive bird, insect, plant, and vertebrate collections. 34. Myers, R.L. and J.J. Ewel, eds. 1990. Ecosystems of Florida. (Foreword by M.H. Carr.) Orlando: University of Central Florida Press. xviii, 765 p. In 1984, the scientific advisory committee of the fledgling Nongame Program of Florida's Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission determined that the lack of basic descriptions of the state's habitats was a major impediment to the management of nongame species. After a 1986 workshop at Archbold Biological Station the editors took on the challenge of having technically sound chapters written by specialists. This book introduces the ecology of Florida's landscape: its forests, fresh waters, marshes and marine life. 35. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1996. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Final Management Plan / Environmental Impact Statement (FMP/EIS). Strategy for Stewardship. Marathon, FL: NOAA/Florida Keys National Maine Sanctuary. 3 vols. The purpose of a sanctuary is to protect resources and their conservation, recreational, ecological, historical, research, educational, or aesthetic values through comprehensive long-term management. These 3 reports include v.1 The management plan- - v.2. Development of the management plan : environmental impact statement- - v. 3. Appendices. 116
36. Nolan, D. 1984. Fifty Feet in Paradise: The Booming of Florida. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 324 p. This book deals with the booms and busts in Florida's colorful real estate history. 37. Noll, S. and D. Tegeder. 2009. Ditch of Dreams: The Cross Florida Barge Canal and the Struggle for Florida's Future. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 394 p. For centuries, men dreamed of cutting a canal across the Florida peninsula. Intended to reduce shipping times, it was championed in the early twentieth century as a way to make the mostly rural state a center of national commerce and trade. Federal funding was began in 1930 but halted in 1971 due to environmental and political disputes. 38. Odum, H.T. 1998. Environment and Society in Florida. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers. 449 p. Using Florida as a model, this work offers a whole systems approach to understanding the environment and discusses the interactions between human systems and natural systems. It addresses the complicated issues stemming from these interactions among population, resources, economics, and environment, and discusses how we may better manage these challenges in the future. 39. Porter, J.W. and K.G. Porter, eds. 2002. The Everglades, Florida Bay, and Coral Reefs of the Florida Keys: An Ecosystem Sourcebook. Boca Raton: CRC Press. 1000 p., [16] p. of plates. Based on original research in the Everglades, Florida Bay, and the coral reefs of the Florida Keys, this book takes an encyclopedic look at how to study and manage ecosystems connected by surface and subsurface water movements. It presents scientific studies, discusses policy and management, and explores the whole watershed approach to protecting coral reefs. 40. Reynolds, J.E. III and R.S. Wells. 2003. Dolphins, Whales, and Manatees of Florida: A Guide to Sharing Their World. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. x, 148 p. This is the book of choice for anyone interested in an identification guide and general reference to marine mammal biology, conservation, and governmental protective regulations. Written by two scientists who are recognized as international leaders and pioneers in marine mammal research and conservation; and are the foremost authorities on marine mammals in Florida. The book will inform people how their activities affect marine mammals and what they can do to help safeguard the environment of Florida. 41. Richardson, C. 2008. Everglades Experiments - Lessons for Ecosystem Restoration. New York: Springer Science and Business Media. 197 p. This book provides the long-term integrated scientific studies needed to understand the functioning of the Everglades.. Background information about the current and historical ecological conditions of the region set the context for reports of long-term research projects, while a series of gradient studies determine the effects of hydrology and nutrient changes. Subsequent sections present models for predicting responses to various 117
conditions and analyze the studies and models, focusing on management and restoration of the Everglades. 42. Rosenau J. 1977. Springs of Florida. Tallahassee, FL: Bureau of Geology Division of Resource Management, Florida Department of Natural Resources. 456 p. An update of the original publication in 1947 by G.E. Ferguson et al, this report represents a comprehensive inventory of those springs made known to the authors in 1977. It provides data on spring flow and water quality useful for managing water resources and planning for conservation for future generations. 43. Sarney, E.D. 1994. Hill Cottage Midden Revisted: A Reassessment of the Late Archaic Period Marine Shell Midden at the Palmer Site (8S02), Sarasota County, Florida. Master's Thesis. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida. 203 p. In light of previous studies on the Hill Cottage Midden in Osprey, Florida, it was determined that the site is related to shell ring sites found in Georgia and South Carolina.The comparison was based on midden shape, artifact content, environmental context, resources exploited, and radiocarbon dates. This reassessment makes Hill Cottage Midden the southernmost documented shell ring site in the United Sates. 44. Schomer, N.S. 1982. An Ecological Characterization of the Lower Everglades, Florida Bay and the Florida Keys. Washington, DC: Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service. 246 p. This report describes how energies and materials flow through the lower Everglades, Florida Bay and the Florida Keys watershed. It crosses disciplinary boundaries in an effort to focus on how the watershed functions as an integrated ecological system. 45. Shirley, T. 2012. Everglades Patrol. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 275 p. As law enforcement officer and game manager for the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Lt. Tom Shirley shares the stories from his beat--an ecosystem larger than the state of Rhode Island. His vivid narrative includes dangerous tales of hunting down rogue gladesmen and gators and airboat chases through the wetlands in search of illegal hunters and moonshiners. 46. Simmons, G. 1998. Gladesmen, Gator Hunters, Moonshiners, and Skiffers. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 197 p. Florida has had a few economic booms and busts, and after the roaring Twenties, many Floridians survived only by hunting and fishing. The author, a lifelong gator hunter born in the swamps in 1916, documents that time, 47. Stamm, D. 1994. The Springs of Florida. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press. 112 p. This book was photographed and written for the diver and spring side visitor who wants to know more about the Florida springs environment. It is not a dive location guide, but a guide to the inhabitants and forces that make the springs of Florida a unique ecosystem. 118
48. Stephenson, R.B. 1997. Visions of Eden: Environmentalism, Urban Planning, and City Building in St. Petersburg, Florida, 1900-1995. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 234 p. After Florida's land boom, a series of ecological disasters in the 1970s finally compelled city officials in St. Petersburg to adopt an environmentally sound development plan. The author carefully explores St. Petersburg's slow awakening to ecological responsibility - to the importance of designing a community that meets both human needs and economic demands. As the debate over the "New Urbanism" moves forward, this book hopes to serve as a useful guide for those who will plan, build, and inhabit the cities of the 21st century. 49. Summers, C.M. 1999. Guide to Florida Archives and Manuscript Repositories. Gainesville: Society of Florida Archivists. [10] 31 p. The purpose of the Guide is to Increase public awareness of historical records resources held by Florida archival repositories and to encourage use of these collections. 50. Tebeau, C.W. 1980. A History of Florida. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press. 527 p. An overall general history of Florida which focuses on the state after it joined the Union. 51. Truesdell, W. 1973. A Guide to the Wilderness Waterways of the Everglades National Park. Coral Gables, FL: The Everglades Natural History Association, University of Miami Press. 64 p. This is a guide to the 100 mile water route from Everglades City on the Gulf of Mexico to Flamingo on Florida Bay. Maps show the markers and routes: campsites, Park boundaries, Ranger Stations, some rivers, creeks, bays, lakes and islands as well as some vegetation types along the route. 52. Viele, J. 1997. The Florida Keys Environmental Story: A Panorama of the Environment Culture and History of Monroe County Florida. Marathon, FL: Gemini Printing. 371 p. This resource book is aimed at educating the public about safeguarding the unique beauty, diversity and fragility of the Florida Keys, a subtropical environment unmatched in any other part of the continental United States. It includes natural and social history and concentrates on the quality and preservation of these environments. 53. Walther, W. (S.M. Stover, ed.) 2006. Nature Is Wonderful. Sarasota, FL: Mote Marine Laboratory. vi, 135 p. A collection of environmental and nature articles written between 1983-2003 by retired biology teacher and school administrator, Mina Walther, for her Sarasota Herald-Tribune column, Tide Lines. 54. Ware, J.D. and R.R. Rea. 1982. George Gauld Surveyor and Cartographer of the Gulf Coast. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. xx, 251 p. This is a biography of the first man to accurately survey and chart the Gulf Coast. Gauld, a British cartographer arrived on the Florida Gulf Coast in August of 1764, and for 119
sixteen years he explored and charted the coastline from Galveston Bay in Texas to the tip of Florida's peninsula. 55. Wharton, C.H. et al. 1977. Forested Wetlands of Florida ­ Their Management and Use. Final Report to Division of State Planning. Tallahassee: Division of State Planning. v, 348 p. This manual provides examples of good uses of wetlands and suggests answers to many practical problems that arise in the process of fitting man into wetlands regions. Swamp ecosystems are also described - their main patterns, processes, hydrogeology, and suggestions for management. 56. Whitney, E., D.B. Means, and A. Rudloe. 2004. Priceless Florida: Natural Ecosystems and Native Species. Sarasota: Pineapple Press, Inc. viii, 423 p. This book is primarily about healthy ecosystems. It highlights natural ecosystems and native species. It does not cover every species, however, in each chapter one or more groups are singled out for special notice. 57. Woolfenden, G.E. and J.W. Fitzpatrick. 1984. The Florida Scrub Jay: Demography of a Cooperative-Breeding Bird. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 426 p. The Florida Scrub Jay lives only in the Florida oak scrub. All acceptable habitat is constantly filled with breeders. Each year about half of the pairs are assisted by one to several nonbreeding helpers. This book provides extensive data on fecundity, survivorship, relatedness, and dispersal to establish the demographic milieu and to address questions arising out of observed helping behavior--whom, how, when, and why the helpers help. This is an important contribution to population biology and behavioral ecology. 58. Yassuda, E.A. 1996. Integrated Modeling of the Tampa Bay Estuarine System. Ph.D. Dissertation, Gainesville, University of Florida. 388 p. This study describes an integrated model that can be used to determine nutrient loading reduction targets required to maintain and expand seagrass meadows in Tampa Bay. The results indicate that integrated modeling is a viable approach to the understanding of estuaries and can be used in management practices for restoring these systems. 120

SM Stover, EN Mahaney, G Donovan, D Newsome

File: consolidating-the-record-a-subject-guide-of-collections-resources.pdf
Title: These collections represent only a small sample of all the archival treasures available from (south) Florida libraries
Author: SM Stover, EN Mahaney, G Donovan, D Newsome
Author: library
Published: Fri Jul 4 12:42:39 2014
Pages: 122
File size: 0.57 Mb

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