Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics SPACE I: Survey 2012, MF Aebi, N Delgrande

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Council of Europe ANNUAL PENAL STATISTICS SPACE I Survey 2012 Marcelo F. Aebi Natalia Delgrande University of Lausanne, Switzerland
2 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 This report has been written by Marcelo F. Aebi and Natalia Delgrande on behalf of the Council for Penological Cooperation (PC-CP) of the Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France. The report has been prepared under a contract with the Action against Crime Department, Information Society and Action against Crime Directorate, DGI - Directorate General Human Rights and Rule of Law of the Council of Europe. It has also received support from the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. Country based information on penal institutions and prison populations was collected through the SPACE I 2012 questionnaire (Ref: PC-CP (2013) 10) and analysed by the authors of this report. In addition, during the preparation of the report, three validation procedures were applied: internal, cross-national and peer- review. The responsibility for the content of this report lies with the authors, and the content does not represent the views of the Council of Europe; nor is the PC-CP responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained herein. Suggested citation [APA norms]: Aebi, M.F. & Delgrande, N. (2014). SPACE I ­ Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: Prison populations. Survey 2012. Strasbourg: Council of Europe © Council of Europe & University of Lausanne, 2014 Reproduction is authorised, except for commercial purposes, provided that the source is acknowledged.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 3 Executive summary of SPACE I 2012 1. The participation rate in the 2012 SPACE I Survey was 90%: 47 out of the 52 Prison Administrations of the 47 Member States of the Council of Europe answered the questionnaire. 2. The median European Prison Population Rate [PPR] was 126 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants. There was noted an increase of +2.7% compared to 2011 (122 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants). As median calculated values are less sensitive to the extreme figures (i.e. very low prison population rates in small countries with less than 1mln inhabitants), it is preferable to use these values as a more reliable alternative to the average figures. 3. On 1st September 2012, there were 1,737,061 inmates held in penal institutions across Europe. On the same date in 2011, there were 1,825,356 inmates and, in 2010 there were 1,861,246 inmates respectively. Yet, the visible decrease in raw figures is not reliable. The total number of inhabitants in each country fluctuated widely which may explain these paradoxical trends (increase in the PPR and decrease in the raw figures of inmates). 4. On average, on 1st September 2012, European prisons were at the top of their capacity, holding 98 inmates per 100 places (average and median values are identical). In particular, about half of the Prison Administrations were experiencing overcrowding. Since 2009, the European prison density remains close to full. 5. The median age of the European prison population was 34 years, which is more than in 2011 (with 33 years respectively). 6. The median proportion of female inmates was 5.0% of the total prison population. Compared to the same indicator in 2011 (4.9%), there is no change. One fourth of female inmates were pre-trial detainees. 7. The median proportion of foreign inmates was 13% of the total prison population. The average value being of 21%. Yet, there are very big differences between countries. a. The lower numbers of foreign inmates are found in Eastern European countries, where they seldom represent more than 2% of the prison population, and the highest are in Western European countries, where they usually represent more than 30%. b. Around one quarter of the foreign inmates was constituted of citizens of EU Member States. 8. About 16% of the inmates in Europe were pre-trial detainees. This percentage rises until 22% when those inmates held in custody without a final sentence are also included in the calculation. 9. Length of custodial sentences: a. The median proportion of sentenced prisoners who were serving sentences shorter than one year was 15%, which is lower compared to 2011 (19% respectively). b. The most common category of lengths of sentences was the one lasting from one to less than three years (the median percentage of such inmates was 25%). c. Around 12% were serving very long sentences of 10 years and over. This proportion remained exactly the same as in 2011 (12%). 10. Inmates were sentenced mainly for the following types of criminal offences: theft (17.1%), drug offences (16.7%), robbery (12.5%), and homicide (11.6%). 11. The average length of imprisonment in 2011 was 8 months, which is shorter compared to 2010 (9 months). In contrast with this improvement of the general length, the part of the pre-trial detention duration is one month longer than in 2010. Consequently, the pre-trial duration increased from 5 months in 2010 to 6 months in 2011. 12. The median mortality rate in 2011 was 26 deaths per 10,000 inmates. There is a slight increase compared to 2010 when this indicator was at 25 deaths respectively. 13. The average amount spent per day and per inmate in 2011 was 103 Euros. It is 10 Euros more than in 2010 (93 Euros). But the median amount is actually 42 Euros, and it is lower than the previous median amount (50 Euros). The amounts vary widely across Europe: from 3 to 750 Euros. The 42 Prison Administrations that provided data on this item had spent more than 16.000 million Euros in 2011. 14. On average, there were about 3 inmates per one custodian in 2012. This ratio remained the same as in 2011. 15. The most recent data (stock figures on 1st January 2013: total number of inmates, total capacity of penal institutions, prison density per 100 places, and prison population rates) are available here: http://www3.unil.ch/wpmu/space/space-i/prison-stock-on-1st-january-2013/.
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4 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
Contents
Executive summary of SPACE I 2012 ____________________________________________ 3 Contents __________________________________________________________________ 4 Survey Background _________________________________________________________ 7 0.1 General overview _____________________________________________________________ 7 0.2 General notes ________________________________________________________________ 8 0.3 Main modifications made in the latest SPACE I surveys (2008-12) ______________________ 9 Explanatory notes to the Report______________________________________________ 10 A. Global Indicators of Prison Populations on 1st September 2012 ______________________ 10 B. Prison Movements during 2011 ________________________________________________ 16 C. Prison Staff ________________________________________________________________ 20 C.1 Annual Module: Prison Staff (detailed) ___________________________________________ 21 Conventions and Statistical Measures _______________________________________________ 23 Conventions used ___________________________________________________________________ 23 Measures of central tendency _________________________________________________________ 23 Demographic Data_______________________________________________________________ 24 Data Validation Procedure ________________________________________________________ 25 Statistical Tables __________________________________________________________ 26 A. Prison Populations: Global indicators on 1st September 2012 ________________________ 27 A.1. Legislative or other measures which directly influence trends in the number of prisoners ______ 28 Table 1: Situation of penal institutions on 1st September 2012________________________________ 39 Table 1.1: Categories included in the total number of inmates in table 1 _______________________ 40 Table 1.2: Capacity of penal institutions on 1st September 2012 (by categories) __________________ 49 Figure 1.a: Countries with more than 100 prisoners per 100,000 inhabitants (highest prison population rates) _____________________________________________________________________________ 56 Figure 1.b: Countries with prison population overcrowding (more than 100 prisoners per 100 places) 56 Table 1.3: Situation of penal institutions on 1st Sept. 2012. Adjusted figures_____________________ 57 Table 1.4: Situation of penal institutions on 1st September 2012 by decreasing prison population rates (non-adjusted and adjusted figures) ____________________________________________________ 58 Table 1.5: Evolution of prison populations between 2003 and 2012 ___________________________ 60 Table 1.6: Year-to-year percentage change of prison population rates between 2011 and 2012 _____ 62 Map 1: Prison population rates per 100,000 inhabitants ____________________________________ 65 Table 2: Age structure of prison population on 1st September 2012____________________________ 66 Table 2.1: Age and criminal responsibility ________________________________________________ 68 Table 2.2: Minors and persons between 18 and 21 of age on 1st September 2012 ________________ 74 Figure 2: Countries with the youngest (less than 34 years) prison population classified by decreasing median age ________________________________________________________________________ 76 Table 2.3: Median and Average ages of the prison population on 1st September 2012 _____________ 76 Map 2: Age of criminal responsibility and percentages of inmates less than 18 years of age in European countries __________________________________________________________________________ 77 Table 3: Female inmates on 1st September 2012 ___________________________________________ 78
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 5 Table 4: Foreign inmates on 1st September 2012 ___________________________________________80 Table 4.a: Asylum seekers and illegal aliens held for administartive reasons among foreign inmates on 1st September 2012 __________________________________________________________________82 Table 5: Legal status of prison populations on 1st September 2012 (numbers)____________________84 Table 5.1: Detainees not serving a final sentence on 1st September 2012 (percentages and rates)____88 Table 5.2: Dangerous offenders under security measures on 1st September 2012 (numbers and percentages) _______________________________________________________________________90 Table 6: Main offence of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) on 1st September 2012 (numbers) ____93 Table 6.1: Main offence of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) on 1st September 2012 (percentages) 94 Table 7: Length of sentence of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) on 1st September 2012 (numbers) __________________________________________________________________________________ 98 Table 7.1: Length of sentence of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) on 1st September 2012 (percentages) ______________________________________________________________________ 104 Table 7.2: Length of sentence of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) on 1st September 2012 (cumulative percentages) ____________________________________________________________105 Table 7.3: Length of sentence of prisoners sentenced to less than one year (final sentence) on 1st September 2012 (percentages)________________________________________________________106 Figure 3: Countries with highest percentages of prisoners sentenced to less than one year ________107 B. Prison Movements during 2011 _______________________________________________ 108 Table 8: Flow of Entries to Penal Institutions in 2011 ______________________________________110 Table 9: Flow of Releases from Penal Institutions in 2011 ___________________________________114 Table 10: Turnover Ratio of inmates IN 2011 _____________________________________________120 Figure 4: Countries with lowest turnover ratios In 2011 ____________________________________121 Table 11.1: Indicator of Average Length of Imprisonment in 2011, based on the total number of days spent in penal institutions____________________________________________________________122 Table 11.2: Indicator of Average Length of Imprisonment in 2011, based on the total stock of inmates in penal institutions on 1st September 2011________________________________________________125 Table 12: Escapes from penal institutions during 2011 _____________________________________126 Table 13.1: Deaths in Penal Institutions in 2011 (by type of registered death)___________________129 Table 13.2: Suicides in Penal Institutions in 2011__________________________________________131 Table 13.3: Types of deaths and suicides in Penal Institutions in 2011 _________________________132 Map 3: Suicide rate per 10,000 inmates in Penal Institutions in 2011__________________________135 Table 14: Expenses in penal institutions in 2011 (in )______________________________________136 Table 14.A: Categories included in the calculation of custodial expenses in 2011, in Table 14 ______138 C. Prison Staff _______________________________________________________________ 143 Table 15: Staff working in Penal Institutions on the basis of Full-time equivalents (FTE) on 1st September 2012 (numbers) ____________________________________________________________________144 Table 15.1: Staff working in Penal Institutions on the basis of Full-time equivalents (FTE) on 1st September 2012 (percentages)________________________________________________________149 Table 15.2: Staff working inside Penal Institutions on the basis of Full-time equivalents (FTE) on 1st September 2012 (percentages)________________________________________________________150 Figure 5: Staff working inside penal institutions On 1st September 2012, Percentages ____________151 Table 16: Staff (FTE) working in Penal Institutions but not employed by the Prison Administration on 1st September 2012 (numbers and percentages) ____________________________________________152 Figure 6: Highest ratios of inmates per one custodian On 1st September 2012 __________________156 Table 17: Ratio of inmates per categories of staff on 1st September 2012 ______________________157 C.1. Annual Module ____________________________________________________________ 158 Table AM1: Special categories included in the total number of staff on 1st September 2012 (numbers) _________________________________________________________________________________ 159
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6 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 Table AM2: Special categories included in the total number of staff on 1st September 2012 (percentages) _____________________________________________________________________ 160 Table AM3: Uniformed staff (FTE) working inside penal institutions on 1st September 2012 (numbers) ________________________________________________________________________________ 162 Table AM4: Uniformed staff (FTE) working inside penal institutions on 1st September 2012 (percentages) _____________________________________________________________________ 163 Figure AM1: ratios of uniformed staff working inside penal institutions per 100 inmates On 1st September 2012 ___________________________________________________________________ 165 Table AM5: Civilian staff (FTE) working inside penal institutions on 1st September 2012 (numbers)__ 166 Table AM6: Civilian staff (FTE) working inside penal institutions on 1st September 2012 (percentages) ________________________________________________________________________________ 167 Table AM7: Uniformed staff (FTE) working outside penal institutions on 1st September 2012 (numbers) ________________________________________________________________________________ 170 Table AM8: Civilian staff (FTE) working inside penal institutions on 1st September 2012 (numbers)__ 171 List of Tables and Figures __________________________________________________ 175
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 7 COUNCIL OF EUROPE ANNUAL PENAL STATISTICS ­ SPACE I 2012: SURVEY ON PRISON POPULATIONS Marcelo F. Aebi and Natalia Delgrande1 Survey Background
0.1 General overview The SPACE I 2012 annual report is part of the SPACE project2. This project produces annual overview on main indicators of custodial and non-custodial activities in all Member States of the Council of Europe. The first part of the project (SPACE I) provides data on the populations held in custody and/or in other types of penal institutions across Europe. Moreover, this report contains useful information about the conditions of detention (e.g. capacity, expenses, staff), as well as about the custodial movement (e.g. entries, releases, deaths, escapes). The second part of the project (SPACE II), concentrates on persons serving non-custodial sanctions and measures. A separate report3 is produced on these categories of penal populations supervised in community. Both reports have the common goal of ensuring as much as possible the collection, analyses and interpretation of reliable data through a common methodology. In particular, the questionnaires used for the collection of the data were designed to allow the maximum comparability between Prison and Probation agencies, as well as among Member States of the Council of Europe (CoE). For writing this report, national raw data and comments were collected by means of the standard questionnaire, which was answered by correspondents in each CoE Member State. Generally, the national correspondents in charge of collecting, explaining and validating the raw data are representatives of the Prison Administrations. As every year since 2004, the SPACE I 2012 questionnaire has been improved on the basis of previous experiences and according to the assessments and CoE recommendations; but ensuring as far as possible the comparison with the historical SPACE I series, started in 1983. The modifications made since 2004 allow a better visibility of the categories included by each country in their statistics. This implies collecting metadata on the national rules applied for collecting data for prison statistics. The answers to these questions ­presented mainly in Table 1.1­ suggest that cross-national comparisons of prison populations must be conducted cautiously as the categories included in the total number of inmates vary from country to country. The same is true for comparisons of prison mortality and, more specifically, of suicides occurred in penal institutions.
1 Marcelo F. Aebi, Professor and Natalia Delgrande, Part-time Lecturer: Institute of Criminology and Penal Law, School of Criminal Sciences, University of Lausanne, Switzerland 2 Website of the SPACE Project: www.unil.ch/space 3 Aebi, M.F. & Marguet, Y. (2014). SPACE II ­ Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: Persons serving non-custodial sanctions and measures. Survey 2012. Strasbourg: Council of Europe
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8 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 Since the conceptualisation of the categories in national statistics is crucial for cross-national comparisons, this SPACE I 2012 survey initiates the collection of additional information through Annual Modules. These modules correspond to topical issues approved to be answered by a majority of national correspondents. This year, the Annual Module examines the topic of staff employed by Prison Administration. Given the reforms initiated mostly in Eastern and Central European countries, the questions on the uniformed and non-uniformed categories of staff are important to be answered in a comparative perspective. Aside from the data presented in this report, it is possible to access on the Website of the SPACE project some other useful information on custodial activities across Europe (e.g. recidivism studies, useful links and addresses). Moreover, there are presented the most recent data on the number of inmates, the prison density and the prison population rates available on 1st January 2013. Concerning the deadlines of the SPACE I 2012 survey, it should be stated that the data collection started mid-August 2013, when all CoE Member States received the questionnaire. The deadline for the data- collection was set on 1st October 2013. At this date, only one half of all concerned countries answered the questionnaire. The data collection lasted until 15th March 2014. In the meantime, almost 2/3 of responding countries were contacted with diverse requests related to the data-validation. 0.2 General notes Figures on prison population (stock) as well as on staff employed by prison administrations relate to 1st September 2012; while the number of entries/releases into/from penal institutions (flow), total number of days spent in these institutions, and incidents that occurred during the year (i.e. escapes, deaths and suicides) relate to the whole year 2011. When data on 1st September 2012 were not available, the Member States were asked to use the closest possible date of reference. The exceptions are expressly stated in the notes to the Tables concerned. The forty-seven Member States of the Council of Europe in 2012 counted fifty-two Prison Administrations under their control. Forty-seven (90%) of these Prison Administrations answered the 2012 SPACE I Questionnaire. Only five Prison Administrations did not answer the survey despite several reminders: (1) BH: Bosnia and Herzegovina (state level) has not answered the questionnaire because of the acute lack of human resources (only one pre-trial institution). (2) Georgia: national correspondent has not been appointed for this survey. (3) Greece: national correspondent has not been appointed for this survey. (4) Malta: no special explanation. (5) Russian Federation has not answered the SPACE I questionnaire since 2006, and all our efforts to obtain an answer from that country proved unsuccessful. Data were not available for the following geopolitical entities: northern part of Cyprus (see "Cyprus" under I.1 General Notes), Kosovo, Transdniestria, Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh. The majority of the countries answered the questionnaire on time (the deadline was set on 1st October 2013). Yet, some countries delayed the supply of their responses; therefore, 1/3 of the questionnaires arrived during the first months of 2014. Last questionnaire arrived in March 2014. At the same time, for some of the countries that answered the questionnaire on time, the data validation procedure (see below, point E) took several months. Finally, for a few countries (and in particular for some specific figures) the data validation procedure could not be achieved. For this reason the non-validated figures are presented between brackets. A small part of the figures which seemed to be totally unreliable were excluded from the present report, but are available in the database and can be provided on request.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 9
0.3 Main modifications made in the latest SPACE I surveys (2008-12) Prison population ·New item on private facilities was added in the SPACE I 2011 questionnaire. ·An item has been added in order to measure the number of persons under security measures and those serving preventive detention for dangerous offenders (SPACE I 2011). ·Regarding the legal status of prisoners, two additional subcategories have been included: persons detained because of the revocation, suspension or annulment of the conditional release or probation and persons detained as a consequence of the conversion of a fine (fine defaulters). This item was firts used in the SPACE I 2009. ·The following categories of offences have been added in the SPACE I 2009 questionnaire: economic and financial offences, terrorism and organised crime. ·Under the category of juvenile offenders held in special institutions, an additional item (introduced in the SPACE I 2009) allows getting information on the number of the persons aged 18 and over. · Until SPACE I 2009, only general questions on foreign inmates were asked. In the SPACE I 2010, an item on foreign prisoners who are citizens of Member States of the European Union has been added. ·Since the SPACE I 2010, the questionnaire allows a distinction between male and female deaths. Conditions & Metadata ·Since the SPACE I 2010 and revised in 2011, a new breakdown by categories was designed for the capacity of penal institutions. More reliable information has been collected on institutions for pre-trial detention, places for persons serving custodial sentences and for juvenile offenders, and places in other types of institutions for the detention of inmates. ·In former SPACE questionnaires -before the SPACE I 2008- there was a slight difference between the French and the English definitions of assault and battery. While the English version referred to assault, the French version referred to assault and battery (coups et blessures volontaires). This problem has been solved and both versions refer now to assault and battery. ·Former SPACE questionnaires -before the SPACE I 2008- referred to rape, but an analysis of the answers received suggested that some countries were including other sexual offences under that heading. As a consequence, sexual offences have been divided in two categories: rape and other types of sexual offences. ·In order to avoid as far as possible the misinterpretation of the figures, special attention has been given to the codes used to answer the questions when no data were available (i.e. NA, NAP). Custodial events ·Since the SPACE I 2011 and 2012, the former item on the number of deaths was slightly improved: specific categories on the causes of death have been used (homicides, accidents, drug/alcohol intoxications, suicides, other causes). ·In the questionnaires SPACE I 2010, 2011 and 2012, some clarifications were introduced in the definitions of other items, such as the counting units used in each country and the date of reference for the information. ·Since the SPACE I 2008, the category of entries to penal institutions has been completed with several follow up questions in order to distinguish transfers from the rest of the entries. In the SPACE I 2010, this item was fully revised and allows taking into account international tranfers. ·In the SPACE I 2010, an item with 5 sub-categories has been designed in order to collect information on releases from penal institutions (including conditional releases and external placements). Prison policies ·The item foreseen for the information on the changes in national prison policies and on the events that may have had an influence on the number of inmates was divided in several categories and allows a more reliable comparison among countries (since the SPACE I 2008 questionnaire). ·Since the SPACE I 2010, special attention was given to the issue of the age of criminal responsibility and the minimal age for the application of custodial sanctions and measures. Since the 2008 survey, the questionnaire is translated into Russian language. The aim of the translation is to facilitate the data collection in certain countries and to allow the inclusion of comments on the particularities of the national data. This version, used relatively sporadically, increased the number of responses received from Member States and improved the reliability of the provided information.
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10 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
Explanatory notes to the Report Part A of the Survey includes global indicators of the prison populations on 1st September 2012 (Section A.1) as well as data on the flow of entries, flow of releases, length of imprisonment, escapes and deaths for the whole year 2011 (Section A.2). In order to ensure as much as possible the comparability across countries, some figures are included only in the raw data tables. Therefore, figures that did not seem to fit the definitions used in the questionnaire were not integrated in the tables with calculations of rates and percentages. A. Global Indicators of Prison Populations on 1st September 2012 The situation of prison populations on a given date of the year (stock statistics) is set in Tables 1 to 11. The number of inmates varies over time under the influence of the number of entries into and releases from penal institutions and the length of the stays in these institutions. Table 1: Situation of penal institutions on 1st September 2012 (1) Total number of inmates (including pre-trial detainees). This indicator is commonly known as prison stock. Usually, in the total number of inmates are included the standard categories of inmates, such as persons held inside a penal institutions at a given date and, more specifically, pre-trial detainees and sentenced prisoners. Sometimes countries include as well juvenile offenders. Nevertheless, it becomes common to observe inside prison stock the following: persons under penal (therapeutic) measures, persons held in private facilities, or those held in open penal institutions. Moreover, in prison stock may also be included inmates detained for administrative reasons, under security measure, recalled from probation, fine-defaulters, etc. (2) Prison population rate4 per 100,000 inhabitants corresponds to the ratio of the number of inmates (including pre-trial detainees) per 100,000 population of each country, as of 1st September 2012. Taking into account that the information on the populations of the countries is available on 1st January of each year, the figures on the populations used for the calculations are respectively on 1st January 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. (3) Capacity of penal institutions: number of places available in penal institutions for the accommodation of the inmates (excluding all spaces that primary are designed for other needs than the proper accommodation of the inmates). (4) Surface area per inmate (calculated in square meters). This indicator corresponds to the legal standard in each Member State. According to legal provisions, each inmate should dispose of individual area inside the cell, excluding common places such as shower enclosures, WC, sport areas, classrooms and other common spaces inside a penal institution. (5) Prison density per 100 places of the regular capacity. This indicator corresponds to the ratio between the number of inmates (including pre-trial detainees) and the number of places available in penal institutions. Generally, the indicator of prison density is used for assessment of overcrowding.
4 This indicator is sometimes referred to as "detention rate", or "prisoner rate", or "imprisonment rate", but these terms are ambiguous. Therefore the Council of Europe has adopted the term "prison population rate".
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 11
As a complement to Table 1, the report includes six supplementary tables, two graphs, and one map.
Table 1.1
Table 1.1: Categories included in the total number of prisoners The goal of this Table is to clarify the categories of persons included in the calculation of the total prison population held in different types of penal institutions. The Table includes the answers (Yes, No or NAP [not applicable]) to the question: Does the total number of inmates include the following categories? (1) Persons held in police stations (2) Persons held in custodial institutions/units for juvenile offenders (2.1) If the persons held in custodial institutions/units for juvenile offenders (2) are counted, how many among them are 18 years and over (3) Persons placed in educational institutions/units for juvenile offenders (4) Persons held in institutions for drug-addicted offenders outside penal institutions
·Table 1.1 shows that the categories included in the total number of prisoners vary from country to country. ·As a consequence, international comparisons of prison population rates, as the ones performed in Table 1, cannot be regarded as unproblematic. ·This methodological issue must be kept in mind when using data from Table 1 and similar Tables.
(5) Persons with psychiatric disorders held in psychiatric institutions or hospitals outside penal institutions
(6) Asylum seekers or illegal aliens held for administrative reasons
(6.1) If the persons under point (6) are counted, how many of them are held in centres/sections especially designated for this type of detention
(7) Persons held in private facilities (e.g. private prisons, detention centres, centres for the application of certain penal measures [e.g. centres for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, centres for the treatment of addictions etc.]) (8) Persons under electronic surveillance/ Electronic Monitoring
Table 1.2: Capacity of penal institutions on 1st September 2012 (by categories)
(1) Total capacity of penal institutions o Surface area per prisoner (m2/inmate) (2) Capacity of remand institutions and those designed for serving custodial sentences a. Capacity of remand institutions/sections ("pre-trials") b. Capacity of institutions designed for serving a sentence (3) Capacity of institutions for juvenile offenders (4) Capacity of other types of institutions
Table 1.3: Situation of penal institutions on 1st September 2012: adjusted figures
In this Table, figures from Table 1 are adjusted according to the information provided in Table 1.1. The adjustment consists in excluding ­whenever possible­ all the categories of Table 1.1 from the total number of inmates, and recalculating the rate of inmates held in penal institutions for adult offenders per 100,000 inhabitants. The figures included in this Table are estimates, and should not be considered as official national data.
Table 1.4: Situation of penal institutions on 1st September 2012 by decreasing prison population rates (non-adjusted and adjusted figures)
In this Table, countries are classified in a decreasing order according to their prison population rates per 100,000 inhabitants on 1st September 2012. On the left-hand side of the Table, they are classified according to the non-adjusted (official) figures, and on the right-hand side they are classified according to the adjusted (calculated) figures (see the explanation to Table 1.3). The last column informs about the difference in percentage between adjusted and non-adjusted figures. In order to ensure an appropriate reading of this table, particular attention should be paid to the explanatory notes of Tables 1 and 1.1.
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12 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
Table 1.5: Evolution of prison populations between 2003 and 2012
This Table presents the total number of prisoners (including pre-trial detainees) and the prison population rate per 100,000 inhabitants on 1st September of each year from 2003 to 2012. Data are retrieved from the relevant SPACE I reports. The Table indicates also the evolution (in percentages) of prison population rates between 2003 and 2012 as well as between 2011 and 2012.
Table 1.6: Year-to-Year percentage change of prison population rates between 2011 and 2012
This Table shows the evolution of prison population rates between 2011 and 2012. Countries are classified in three categories according to the increase, the stability or the decrease of their prison population rates between 1st September 2011 and 1st September 2012:
Increase of more than 5%
Between ­5% and +5%
Decrease of more than 5%
Map 1: Prison population rates per 100,000 inhabitants on 1st September 2012
This map presents the prison population rates in each Member State of the Council of Europe and allows a visual comparison of the official figures (non-adjusted) for the whole European geographical area. All the rates presented on the map refer to the data included in Table 1.
Table 2: Age structure of prison population (including pre-trial detainees) on 1st September 2012
(a) Less than 14 years (b) From 14 to less than 16 years; (c) From 16 to less than 18 years; (d) From 18 to less than 21 years; (e) From 21 to less than 25 years; (f) From 25 to less than 30 years;
(g) From 30 to less than 40 years; (h) From 40 to less than 50 years (i) From 50 to less than 60 years (j) From 60 to less than 70 years (k) From 70 to less than 80 years (l) 80 years and over
Table 2.1: Age and criminal responsibility
Age of criminal responsibility: starting from this age, juveniles are considered as old enough to be recognised as responsible and to be tried under a criminal justice system which is specific to them;
Minimal age for the application of custodial sanctions and measures: starting from this age, it is possible to sentence a juvenile to custody or to education measures in closed penal institutions;
Age of criminal majority: starting from this age the person should be tried under criminal justice system for adults and do not benefit of no special condition of juvenile.
Table 2.2: Minors and persons between 18 and 21 of age on 1st September 2012
In this Table are included raw data and calculated percentages of inmates under 18 years of age, as well as inmates between 18 and 21 years of age. Normally, in these figures are also included pre-trial detainees.
Table 2.3: Median and Average ages of the prison population on 1st September 2012
This table includes the median and average values calculated by national Prison Administrations. However, some calculations have been made by the authors of this report on the basis of the raw data provided by national correspondents. The particularities of these calculations are stated in the notes to the Table.
One additional graph (Figure 2) completes the table with the distribution of the countries with the youngest prison populations (the distribution is based on the median values).
Map 2: Age of criminal responsibility and percentages of inmates less than 18 years of age on 1st September 2012:
This map includes two indicators: the first one is the minimal age for the application of custodial sanctions
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 13
and measures across Europe and the second one is the percentage of juveniles held in penal institutions in each country.
Table 3: Female inmates on 1st September 2012
In this Table are presented raw data and percentages on female prisoners. The following categories are included:
(1) Total number and percentage of female inmates in the total prison population;
(2) Pre-trial detainees: number and percentage of pre-trials in the total number of female inmates;
(3) Foreign female inmates: number and percentage in the total number of female inmates;
(4) Juvenile females aged less than 18: number and percentage.
Table 4: Foreign inmates on 1st September 2012
In this Table are presented raw data and percentages on foreign prisoners. The following categories are included:
(1) Total number and percentage of foreign inmates in the total prison population;
(2) Pre-trial detainees: number and percentage of pre-trials in the total number of foreign inmates;
(3) Foreign inmates citizens of Member States of the European Union: number and percentage;
(4) Juvenile foreigners aged less than 18: number and percentage;
(5) Inmates for which the nationality is unknown.
Table 5: Legal status of prison populations on 1st September 2012 (numbers)
(a) Untried detainees (no court decision reached yet);
(b) Detainees found guilty but who have not received a sentence yet;
(c) Sentenced prisoners who have appealed or who are within the statutory limits for doing so;
(d) Detainees who have not received a final sentence yet, but who have started serving a custodial sentence in advance;
(e) Sentenced prisoners (final sentence) ­ Including:
o Persons detained as a consequence of the conversion of a fine (fine defaulters) o Persons detained because of the revocation, suspension or annulment of the conditional release or probation; (f) Other cases.
Table 5.1: Detainees not serving a final sentence on 1st September 2012 (percentages and rates) Four indicators have been selected to compare the situation of prison populations across Europe: (a) Percentage of detainees not serving a final sentence (often inaccurately referred to as percentage of unconvicted detainees): part of detainees whose sentence is not final expressed as a percentage of the total number of inmates; (b) Rate of detainees not serving a final sentence per 100,000 inhabitants: ratio of detainees whose sentence is not final in relation to the number of inhabitants expressed per 100,000 inhabitants.
Table 5 ·When no data were available under heading (c) "sentenced prisoners who have appealed or who are within the statutory time limit for doing so" of Table 5, without any further information being provided, it was assumed that prisoners in that situation are included among those under heading (e) "sentenced prisoners, final sentence". In that case, both indicators are presented between brackets and must be interpreted cautiously. ·When there is no data available under heading (b) "prisoners convicted but not yet sentenced" of Table 5, without any further information being provided, it cannot be excluded that prisoners in that situation are included among those under heading (a) "untried prisoners (no court decision yet reached)". In that case, both indicators are presented between brackets and must be interpreted cautiously.
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In order to calculate indicators (a) and (b) for Table 5.1, the number of detainees not serving a final sentence is obtained by adding headings (a), (b), (c) and (d) of Table 5.
(c) Percentage of untried detainees (no court decision yet reached): number of untried detainees (not yet convicted), present at that date, expressed as a percentage of the total number of inmates;
(d) Rate of untried detainees (no court decision yet reached) per 100,000 inhabitants: number of untried detainees (not yet convicted) in relation to the number of inhabitants at the same date expressed per 100,000 inhabitants.
In order to calculate indicators (c) and (d) for Table 5.1, only persons under heading (a) "untried detainees (no court decision yet reached)" of Table 5 are taken into account.
Table 5.2: Dangerous offenders placed under security measures on 1st September 2012 (numbers and percentages)
This Table concerns prisoners placed under special penal measures. These inmates are usually defined as dangerous offenders. The measures applied to them may take different names such as security measure, secure prevention detention or preventive supervision. According to the (Draft) Recommendation CM/Rec(201X) XX5 (Strasbourg, 12th April 2013):
"Dangerous offender is a person who has been convicted of a very serious sexual or violent crime against person(s) and who presents a high probability of re-offending with further serious sexual or violent crimes against person(s).
Secure preventive detention means detention imposed by the judicial authority to a person after the fixed term of imprisonment has been served. It is not imposed as the punishment for a crime, but on the basis of an assessment revealing that the offender may commit other serious offences in future and is therefore a measure for public protection.
Preventive supervision means measures of control, monitoring, surveillance or restriction of movement imposed by the judicial authority at the time of sentencing to a person after having committed a crime and after having served a prison sentence or instead of, but in all these cases on the basis of an assessment revealing that the offender may commit other serious offences in future and is therefore a measure for public protection."
Each Member State has its own legislation concerning the special requirements and conditions for institutional placement/imprisonment of this category of offenders. Yet, only the following comparable categories have been included in this Table:

Total number of persons under security measures/preventive detention for dangerous
offenders. Of which:
Persons considered as not criminally responsible by the court;
Persons considered as totally or partially criminally responsible by the court and who have been sentenced. Table 6: Main offences of final sentenced prisoners on 1st September 2012 (numbers)
Table 6.1: Main offences of final sentenced prisoners on 1st September 2012 (percentages)
Tables 6 and 6.1 present the breakdown of prisoners with final sentence those under heading (e) of Table 5 according to the main offence for which they were convicted.
In spite of effort to keep SPACE categories as large as possible, one should bear in mind the fact that in some countries the main offence rule is not defined. Therefore, data from these countries (mostly the breakdown percentages) are not fully comparable with data from the ones that apply this rule.
5 (Draft) Recommendation CM/Rec(201X) XX (Strasbourg, 12th April 2013). Part I ­ Definitions and basic principles (p.3): http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/CDPC/PC-GR-DD/Draft%20Recomemndation%20EN%2012-04-13.pdf
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The following breakdown is used:
(a) Homicide (including attempts) (b) Assault and battery (c) Rape (d) Other types of sexual offences (e) Robbery (f) Other types of theft
(g) Economic and financial offences (h) Drug offences (i) Terrorism (j) Organised crime (k) Other offences (l) Total
Table 7: Lengths of the sentences of prisoners (final sentenced) on 1st September 2012 (numbers)
Table 7.1: Lengths of the sentences of prisoners (final sentenced) on 1st September 2012 (percentages)
Tables 7 and 7.1 present the breakdown of prisoners with final sentence those under heading (e) of Table 5 according to the length of the sentence imposed on them. The following breakdown is used:
(a) Less than one month (b) From one month to less than three months (c) From three months to less than six months (d) From six months to less than one year (e) From one year to less than three years (f) From three years to less than five years (g) From five years to less than ten years
(h) From ten years to less than twenty years (i) Twenty years and over (j) Life imprisonment (k) Security measures (dangerous offenders) (l) Sentence to death (m) Other cases (n) Total
Table 7.2: Lengths of the sentences of final sentenced prisoners on 1st September 2012 (cumulative percentages)
This Table presents the breakdown, expressed in cumulative percentages, of prisoners with final sentence those under heading (e) of Table 5 according to the length of the sentence imposed on them. The following breakdown is used:
(a) Prisoners sentenced to less than one year (b) Prisoners sentenced to one year and over (fixed-term sentence) (c) Prisoners sentenced to three years and over (fixed-term sentence) (d) Prisoners sentenced to five years and over (fixed-term sentence) (e) Prisoners sentenced to ten years and over (fixed-term sentence)
(h) Prisoners sentenced to any fixed-term sentences (all) (i) Prisoners sentenced to life imprisonment (j) Prisoners under to security measures and/or under other forms of imprisonment (k) Prisoners sentenced to death (l) Total
Table 7.3: Length of the sentences of final prisoners sentenced to less than one year, on 1st September 2012 (percentages)
This Table presents the breakdown, expressed in percentages, of prisoners sentenced to less than one year according to the length of the sentence imposed on them. The following breakdown is used:
(a) Less than one month (b) From one month to less than three months
(f) From three months to less than six months (g) From six months to less than one year
Figure 3 provides a comparative view of the highest percentages of prisoners sentenced to less than one year. The figure is based on the figures included in Tables 7.2 and 7.3.
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B. Prison Movements during 2011
Tables 8 to 14 show the main indicators of prison movements occurring during one reference year. All information in the Part A.2 of the report refers to a whole calendar year, from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2011:
(1) number of entries into and releases from penal institutions during a reference year (flow statistics),
(2) the length of imprisonment,
(3) number of escapes, and
(4) deaths in penal institutions.
Table 8: Flow of entries to penal institutions in 2011
(a) Total number of entries to penal institutions in 2011 corresponds to the indicator better known as flow of entries;
Entry (definition) ·Only entries of untried detainees (not yet convicted), prisoners convicted but not yet sentenced, or sentenced prisoners who have appealed or those who are within the statutory time limit to do so are recorded under heading (c) of Table 8. ·Therefore, this figure constitutes a subset of the entries recorded under heading (a). Consequently, entries into pre-trial detention are included.
(b) Rate of entries to penal institutions per 100,000 inhabitants: the number of entries in 2011, in relation to the average number of inhabitants during the same period; (c) Entries before final sentence: numbers and percentages; (d) Entries after the revocation, suspension or annulment of the conditional release or probation: numbers and percentages; (e) Entries following transfer from a foreign country to the country concerned (numbers and percentages) o Entries following transfer from a Member State of the European Union to the country concerned (numbers and percentages). Figures relate to the number of events (entries) and not to the number of individuals. The same individual may enter prison several times in the same year for the same case. This applies, for instance, to an individual who is placed in pre-trial detention during year N (first entry), released by the prosecution authorities at the pre-trial investigation stage, tried without being re-detained, convicted and sentenced to a term of imprisonment exceeding the period of pre-trial detention, and re-imprisoned during the same year N to serve the remainder of the sentence (second entry). A fortiori, the same individual might enter prison several times in the same year for different cases.
In the SPACE I questionnaire, national correspondents were asked to meet the following definition of entry:
THE TERM "ENTRY" REFERS TO ALL ENTRIES INTO PENAL INSTITUTIONS, EXCEPT IN THE FOLLOWING SITUATIONS:
(1) Entry following transfer from one penal institution to another;
(2) Entry following the prisoner's removal from the institution in order to appear before a judicial authority (investigating judge, trial court, etc.);
(3) Entry following prison leave or a period of authorised absence;
(4) Entry following an escape, after re-arrest by the police.
Table 9: Flow of releases from penal institutions in 2011
(a) Total number of releases (flow of releases);
Rate of releases from penal institutions per 100,000 inhabitants: the number of releases in 2011, in relation to the average number of inhabitants during the same period;
(b) Releases of pre-trial detainees: number and percentage;
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(c) Releases of final sentenced prisoners: number and percentage. Of which: o Releases as a result of a release under condition (including conditional releases and external placement under Electronic Monitoring or probation) o Unconditional releases at the end of a custodial sentence (d) Other types of releases6 Table 10: Turnover ratio of inmates in 2011 The turnover ratio (estimated exit rate per 100 potential exits) is defined in the present report as the ratio between the number of prisoners released during the year 2011 and the number of prisoners held in prison during that whole year. The latter can be estimated by adding the number of persons held in penal institutions on 31st December 2010 (stock) and the number of persons that entered into penal institutions during the year 2011 (flow of entries). However, as stock data on 31st December 2010 are not available, the number of prisoners held in penal institutions on 1st September 2010 has been used as a proxy. This ratio measures the prison population turnover. A high rate implies a fast turnover, while a low rate implies a slow turnover. The Turnover Ratio (TR) is calculated as follows:
,
100
Tables 10 & 11 ·This kind of data is usually prepared by the departments responsible for prison budgets and is used to calculate the average daily cost of imprisonment.
Where: o R is the number of releases during the 2011 year, o S is the number of prisoners on 1st September 2010 (taken from the SPACE I 2010), and o E is the number of entries into penal institutions during the year 2011. o The turnover ratio is expressed per 100 prisoners. An additional graph (Figure 4) has been included with the lowest values of the exit rate (countries with a slow turnover of the prison population).
Table 11.1: Indicator of average length of imprisonment in 2011, based on the total number of days spent in penal institutions
(a) Total number of days spent in penal institutions in 2011;
(b) Average number of inmates in 2011: b = (a)/ 365;
(c) Total number of entries to penal institutions in 2011 (flow of entries) = heading (a) of Table 8;
(d) Indicator of average length of imprisonment expressed in months (D): quotient of the average number of prisoners in 2011 (P) by the flow of entries during that period (E), multiplied by 12 (months):
12
(e) Number of days spent in pre-trial detention in 2011; (f) Average number of detainees in pre-trial detention in 2011: (f) = (e)/ 365; (g) Number of entries before final sentence in 2011; (h) Indicator of average length of pre-trial detention (calculated on the basis of the same formula as the indicator under heading (d)).
6 In the category "Other forms of releases" generally are also included the following situations: deaths, releases/discharges/ related to health reasons (including transfers to community hospitals that lead to the full discharge from serving the rest of the custodial sentence), expulsions to the countries of origin, escapes leading to lifting the status of "inmate/prisoner", or any other form of release likely to lead to lifting of the status of "inmate/prisoner".
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18 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 The figure under heading (a) corresponds to the total number of days spent in penal institutions by all persons placed in detention for at least one day during the reference year (2011). This might be time spent in pre-trial detention or time spent serving a prison sentence, or might even correspond to other circumstances (detention for failure to pay a fine, for instance). No distinction is made here between those categories. By dividing the number of days of imprisonment by 365 (366 in leap years) we obtained the "average number of prisoners in the year" or the number of "prisoner-years" (b), which constitutes probably the best possible indicator of the average number of prisoners present in the year. Table 11.2: Indicator of average length of imprisonment in 2011, based on the total number of inmates (stock) on 1st September 2011 As some countries did not provide data regarding the total number of days spent in penal institutions in 2011 heading (a) of Table 11.1 and others provided figures that did not seem reliable (see Notes to Table 11.1), we have added Table 11.2. In this Table, the indicator of the average length of imprisonment has been calculated by using the total number of prisoners on 1st September 2011 (source: SPACE I 2011 report) instead of the total number of days spent in penal institutions. Table 12: Escapes from penal institutions during 2011 The Table includes two types of escapes: (a) Escapes by inmates (convicted prisoners or pre-trial detainees under the supervision of the prison administration) from a closed penal institution or during an administrative transfer (for example, to or from a court, another penal institution, or a hospital). In the SPACE I questionnaire used for this survey it is clearly indicated that the counting unit is the person. In the event of a group breakout, the number of escapes is equal to the number of inmates involved. Relating the number of escapes to the total number of prisoners on 1st September 2011 (S) ­used here as an estimate of the average number of prisoners­ provided in SPACE I 2009 report we obtain the rate of escapes per 10,000 prisoners (REs): 10,000 (b) Other forms of escape (absconding or running off): Examples are escapes from open institutions (such as work farms) or from semi-detention, and escapes during an authorised short-term absence (or leave) from all kinds of institutions (including closed institutions). We have not calculated a rate for these forms of escapes, as that would lead to calculate the ratio of escapes (other forms) to the average number of prisoners, without taking account the proportion of inmates placed in open institutions. Table 13.1: Deaths in penal institutions in 2011 (by type of registered death) (a) Total number of deaths in penal institutions, of which: a.1 Homicides a.2 Accidents a.4 Drug/alcohol intoxications a.5 Suicides (of which number of females) a.6 Other causes (incl. illness) (b) Mortality rate per 10,000 inmates While dividing the total number of deaths (a) by the number of inmates on 1st September 2011 (S) (used here as an estimate of the average number of prisoners), provided in the SPACE I 2011 report, we obtain the following:
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Mortality rate per 10,000 inmates: 10,000 Table 13.2: Suicides in penal institutions in 2011 In this table are presented percentages of suicides in the total number of deaths as well as the part of females who committed suicide in the total number of suicides registered. Moreover, the rate of suicide per 10,000 inmates is included in Table 13.2. Suicide rate per 10,000 inmates:
10,000
. 4 13.1
Table 13.3: Types of deaths and suicides included in Tables 13.1 and 13.2 The goal of this Table is to clarify which types of deaths are being counted in each country. The Table includes the answers (Yes or No) to the following questions: (a) Does data include inmates who died or committed suicide in prison hospitals? (b) Does data include inmates who died or committed suicide in community hospitals? (c) Does data include inmates who died or committed suicide outside prison (during a prison leave or a period of absence by permission)? For each category of deaths included in this Table, separate figures on female inmates have been provided. Map 3: Suicide rates per 10,000 inmates across Europe in 2011 We included one additional Map with the breakdown of suicides rates per 10,000 inmates in 2011. Table 14: Average expenses per day of detention of one person in 2011 (in Euros) The figures included in this Table should allow comparisons of the costs of detention across Europe. No rigorous definition has been used in the questionnaire; therefore national particularities (e.g. the way in which costs are calculated) are indicated in the notes to the Table. Figures in national currencies other than Euro have been converted in Euros. The categories included in this Table are the following: (a) Total budget spent by Prison Administrations in 2011 (b) Average amount spent per day for the detention of one person in 2011, of which: 1. In pre-trial detention; 2. In correctional facility; 3. In special facilities/sections for persons with psychiatric disorders; 4. In institutions for juvenile offenders. Table 14.A: Categories included in the calculation of custodial expenses in 2011, in Table 14 This table present the categories included/excluded while calculating the average amounts shown in Table 14: Security Health care (incl. medical care, psychiatric services, pharmaceuticals, dental care etc.) Services (incl. maintenance, utilities, maintenance of inmate records, reception, assignment, transportation, etc.) Administration (excl. extra-institutional expenditures) Support (incl. food, inmate activities, inmate employment, clothing, etc.) Rehabilitation programs (incl. academic education, vocational training, substance abuse programs, etc.) Other costs.
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C. Prison Staff Part B of the Survey includes figures related to persons working in penal institutions or, more generally, in the penitentiary system. The Survey makes a distinction between staff working under the control of the National Prison Administrations and staff working under the control of any other authority. Data on the staff employed by the Prison administrations are presented without distinction between full- time and part-time staff.
Full-time equivalents (FTE) have been used as the counting unit for these tables (see the box).
Tables 15 & 15.1: Staff working in penal institutions (FTE) on 1st September 2012 (numbers and percentages)
Table 15.2: Staff working INSIDE penal institutions (FTE) on 1st September 2012 (percentages)
Tables 15 to 15.2 present the situation of staff employed by Prison Administration on 1st September 2012. The goal of these Tables is to count all staff employed by the Prison Administrations.
In this Table are included the following categories: staff at the national prison administration (Head
Office), staff in regional prison administration offices, executives (managers)
of penal institutions, custodial staff, medical and paramedical staff, staff FTE
responsible for assessment and the psychologists, staff responsible for
education activities (including social workers, teachers, educators, etc.), staff responsible for workshops or vocational training, other.
·Respondents were asked to calculate the number of staff working part
Respondents were asked to exclude persons working in penal institutions but not employed by the prison authorities (in some countries this applies to
time on the basis of "full-time equivalents" (FTE). This means that
doctors, teachers or perimeter guards). These persons are included in Table 16.
when two people work half the standard number of hours, they
Table 16: Staff working in penal institutions but not employed by Prison Administration (FTE) on 1st September 2012 (numbers and
count for one FTE. One half-time worker should count for 0.5 of a FTE.
percentages)
This Table presents the staff employed by authorities that are not under the control of the Prison Administration (i.e. staff not employed by the Prison Administration), but who are involved in the security, treatment, training or other activities developed in penal institutions that are under the authority of prison administration.
In some countries these categories do not exist. In others, doctors, teachers and perimeter guards might sometimes be employed by external institutions such as health authorities, departments of the Ministries of Education, Interior or Justice, or private security.
Table 17: Ratio of inmates per categories of staff on 1st September 2012
(1) Total number of inmates at 1st September 2012: see Table 1.
(2) Total number of custodial staff at 1st September 2012: see Table 15.
(3) Rate of supervision of prisoners (number of prisoners per custodian): c = a / b
(4) Total number of treatment, education staff, and staff responsible for workshops.
(5) Rate of supervision of prisoners (number of prisoners per other employee): e = a / d.
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C.1 Annual Module: Prison Staff (detailed)
Since SPACE I 2012, every year the SPACE I additional questionnaire will examine a special aspect of the custodial organisation in order to gather more detailed information about it.
This year, the annual module focuses on the categories of penitentiary staff and its statutes. As much as it was possible, we tried to adapt the categories of staff to make them correspond to the particularities in some of Eastern and Central European countries.
In order to differentiate the staff accordingly to the duties they perform, in Annual Module were included questions on (a) uniformed staff and (b) civil servants. We made the distinction between staff working inside and outside penal institutions. Moreover, other specific categories that exist in national systems but that do not correspond to the SPACE categories were left to the discretion of national correspondents to be filled in. Some countries chose to introduce new categories, and they were asked to provide a maximum of details in order to make as clear as possible the distribution of the staff in their national systems.
All the categories included in the sub-chapter related to staff are calculated and presented on the basis of "full-time equivalents" (FTE). This is an additional reason for keeping the detailed figures comparable with the ones included in the main chapter (see chapter C. Prison Staff).
Tables AM1 & AM2: Special categories included in the total number of staff on 1st September 2012 (numbers and percentages)
A.
Total number of staff on 1st September 2012.
B.
Temporary missing staff (maternity leaves, long sick leaves, long-term trainings, inter-sectorial
exchanges, etc.).
C.
Staff who work inside penal institutions but who are not employed by the Prison Administration
(e.g. employed by Probation agencies, other State / Governmental bodies).
D.
Staff employed under contracts made between Prison Administrations and private companies,
groups, associations, etc.
E.
Staff employed by the Prison Administration but who do not perform duties inside penal
institutions (e.g. escorts from/to the courts, guards in the courts, etc.).
F.
Persons under temporary contracts (e.g. trainees, researchers, interim staff).
G.
Staff working inside penal institutions but who do not perform "penal duties" (e.g. civil engineers
on the construction sites, local auditors).
H.
Other.
Table AM3&AM4: Uniformed staff working inside penal institutions on 1st September 2012 (numbers and percentages)
Total number of uniformed staff on 1st September 2012, of which:
o Custodians (guards) o Security staff (other than custodians) o Management staff o Doctors o Other medical staff (e.g. nurses, occupational therapists) o Teachers o Educators o Psychologists and other staff involved in the assessment of the inmates (dangerousness, individual plans of the execution of sentences etc.)
o Other
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Conventions and Statistical Measures The report aims to give an overview of the custodial situation across Europe, not to mix-up all national traditions and practices in a rigid unrealistic definition of prison. Indeed, this latest approach would be scientifically unreliable and could not serve as a tool for the public policies and criminal justice practitioners. Therefore, in SPACE survey we are fully concerned about the quality of the data provided. In order to minimise any misinterpretation of figures included here, any user should be aware about the conventions used to replace ambiguous signs and abbreviations.
CONVENTIONS USED
NAP *** 0 NA ... (number)
The question is irrelevant; the item refers to a concept not found in the penal system of the country concerned (Not applicable). The number is 0 but the concept exists in the penal system of the country concerned. No figures available, but the concept exists in the penal system of the country concerned. When the data are shown in brackets this means that they are not strictly comparable with the data requested by SPACE I questionnaire. For example, this applies to items whose definition is not the same as the one used in the SPACE questionnaire. Or when the total number of analysed figure is less or equal to 10 individuals. When the questionnaire box is left blank or a symbol is used, whose meaning is not explicit (for example "/" or "-"), we leave the box blank.
All cases of divergence and additional comments provided by national correspondents have been grouped and explained in the notes to the Tables.
MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY In Tables containing rates or percentages, we have used the following measures to describe the distribution of the data: Mean: the arithmetic mean is the outcome of dividing the sum of the data supplied by the total number of countries. The mean is sensitive to extreme values (very high or very low). Median: the median is the value that divides the data supplied by the countries concerned into two equal groups so that 50% of the countries are above the median and 50% are below it. The median is not influenced by very high or very low values. Minimum: the lowest recorded value in the given column of the Table. Maximum: the highest recorded value in the given column of the Table.
For reasons of accuracy we have calculated the mean and median values from the original database, which contains all the decimals not presented in the tables. Readers who rework the calculations from the data in the tables - which only contain one or two decimals - will therefore obtain slightly different results than ours.
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24 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 Demographic Data The rates presented in this report have been calculated using demographic data (total population of each European country on January 1st, 2012), taken from the Eurostat Database ("Population on 1st January by age and gender"7). Exceptions: For some countries, the figures of the population are not available in the Eurostat datasets (i.e. for 2012 it was the case of Albania and Monaco). Moreover, some national correspondents provided information for different territorial divisions than the ones used in EUROSTAT demographic data. The territories concerned and the sources used for their demographic data are the following: Albania: Demographic data refer to 1st January 2012. Data were retrieved from the Website of Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) Population: Population 1 January 2001-2013 by age groups (subcategory: Figures), available at: http://www.instat.gov.al/en/themes/population.aspx (retrieved on February 26th, 2014). Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina): Demographic data refer to 30th June 2012. Data were retrieved from the Website of the Federal Office of Statistics (report: The estimate of the present population by age and sex, June 30, 2012), available at: http://www.fzs.ba/saopcenja/2012/14.2.1.pdf (retrieved on February 26th, 2014). Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republika Srpska): Demographic data are estimates. The estimates are done for 2012 on the basis of the natural changes of population and migration ("Demographic statistics. Statistical Bulletin" no. 16, Republika Srpska Institute of Statistics, Banja Luka, 2013, p. 15), available at: http://www.rzs.rs.ba/front/article/778/ (retrieved on February 26th, 2014). France: Demographic data includes the European territory of France (known as the Metropolitan France), the French overseas departments (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guiana and Reunion, known as DOM or Dйpartements d'Outre-mer) as well as overseas communities (French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Mayotte, Saint-Pierre-and- Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna, Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthйlemy). Serbia: Demographic data exclude Kosovo and Metohija territories. Monaco: Demographic data are mid-2012 estimates. Data available on the Website of the Word Bank: http://data.worldbank.org/country/monaco (retrieved on February 26th, 2014). Spain (State Administration and Catalonia): Demographic data refer to 1st January 2012. Data were retrieved on February 26th, 2014, available for Spain (Total figure) and separately for Catalonia on the Website of the National Statistics Institute of Spain (INE) in the dataset Populations by Autonomous Communities and Cities and sex: http://www.ine.es/jaxi/tabla.do. United Kingdom (England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland): Demographic data are mid-2012 estimates. Data were retrieved on February 26th, 2014: i. England and Wales: Statistical bulletin: Annual Mid-year Population Estimates for England and Wales, 2012, by Office for National Statistics: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/pop- estimate/population-estimates-for-england-and-wales/mid-2012/mid-2012-population- estimates-for-england-and-wales.html, ii. Northern Ireland: Mid-Year Population Estimates, by Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA): http://www.nisra.gov.uk/demography/default.asp17.htm. iii. Scotland: Mid-2011 and Mid-2012 Population Estimates Scotland Population estimates by sex, age and administrative area, by National Records of Scotland: http://www.gro- scotland.gov.uk/files2/stats/population-estimates/mid2012/mid-2011-2012-pop-est.pdf .
7 http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_database (figures retrieved from the database on February 26th, 2014)
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 25
Data Validation Procedure
The comparability of the data collected is one of the main concerns and main problems that any international survey seek to solve. Therefore, special attention is given every year to the improvement of data validation techniques s used in SPACE.
According to the authors of the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics (Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 1999), "validation is often the most important ­and in many cases the most forgotten­ stage of the data collection process".
Thus, since the 2002 SPACE I survey, we have introduced a validation procedure for the data received. Such procedure substantially increases the workload of all the individuals and countries involved in the elaboration of SPACE. It also delays the publication of the data. However, we believe that the results obtained in other words, the improvements to the quality of the data justify its use.
As part of the validation procedure, we produce a preliminary version of SPACE report and a series of control Tables that reveal a number of inconsistencies or visible "outliers" in the raw data received from national correspondents.
Cross-sectionnal
European definitions Attention to the national peculiarities Internal counting rules
Then, significant differences (generally annual discrepancies of more than 10% or 20% depending on the quality of the item) are corrected by national correspondents.
Comparability
Categories incl./excl. Vertical check
In some cases, it is imperative to translate or to provide additional explanations in order to avoid new error. Most of the countries correct their figures or indicate the reasons for the divergences identified.
Longitudinal Figure 0: SPACE I Comparability Levels
Build time-series Time-series mapping Attention to the significant gaps/jupms
It was noticed that divergences are mainly due to differences in the national prison statistics systems as well as in criminal justice systems across Europe and are explained in the notes to the relevant Tables.
Nevertheless, despite our efforts to identify errors and the very rigorous methodology applied for the validation, it is not possible to guarantee the full reliability of all data included in this report. Some of figures may still remain "invisible" and others may have been introduced involuntarily during the data processing. Moreover, it has not always been possible to correct the inconsistencies discovered in a totally satisfactory way. In that context, any readers' comments, notes or criticisms are welcomed.
Finally, the authors would like to thank all those who brought their support, advice, suggestions or knowledge of specific national features have contributed to the achievement of this report, in particular the national correspondents of each Member State of the Council of Europe. A particular gratitude goes to Mr Roy Walmsley for his attentive and critical reading of SPACE reports during the last 10 years. We are also grateful to Mr Walmsley for having shared with us some missing figures and, therefore, for contributing to increase of the quality of SPACE comparisons.
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26 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 Statistical Tables
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 27 A. Prison Populations: Global indicators on 1st September 2012
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28 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
This part of the report presents statistical Tables, explanatory notes and Figures and Maps that cover the general situation of European penal institutions. It also includes data on detention in custody, including different types of penal institutions as well as an analysis of the evolution of several indicators of the penitentiary systems across Europe. A.1. LEGISLATIVE OR OTHER MEASURES WHICH DIRECTLY INFLUENCE TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF PRISONERS ALBANIA 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: Regulation on the protection of personal data of prisoners has been approved on 6th December 2012, by order nr. 8697 of the Director General of Prisons. This Regulation aims the protection of personal data and their security in pre-trial detention centres as well as during the execution of prisons sentences. 3. Amnesties: Approval by the Albanian Parliament of the Law no.107 dated 08.11.2011 "On granting of amnesty". As a result, 517 persons deprived of their liberty have been released, and other 58 prisoners benefited of reduction of the period of imprisonment at 1/4 from serving the rest of their custodial sentence. 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. ANDORRA 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. ARMENIA 1. Changes in criminal law: Some changes were introduced in the degree of the punishments by the amendment act in the Criminal Code (23.05.2011); 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: Amnesty act pronounced on 1st October 2012. As a result, 4 persons were amnestied. 4. Individual pardons: 11 individual pardons granted on 1st October 2012; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. AUSTRIA 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 200 inmates ­ Individual pardon is granted by the President of Federal Republic of Austria; 5. Collective pardons: 48 inmates ­ Traditional Christmas pardon granted by the President of Federal Republic of Austria; 6. Other: Electronic Monitoring surveillance was introduced in Austria on 1st September 2010. AZERBAIJAN General note: Some of the figures for 2012 are not fully comparable with the ones from previous years. Persons held in police stations are not included in the total number of prison population. 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: Law On protection of rights and freedoms of detainees (22.05.2012 N 352-IVQ) summarized, clarified and improved norms of different legislative acts related to pre-trial detention. The law defines the types of remand institutions, embodies the grounds for placement to the places of pre-trial detention, specifies time restrictions for keeping detainees in certain types of institutions, and regulates transfers of prisoners from one place of detention to another. 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 221 inmates ­ Pardon orders by the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: NA.
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BELGIUM 1. Changes in criminal law: NA; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: NA; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA ­ STATE LEVEL General note: All information refers only to the pre-trail detainees held in the Pre-trial detention unit of the State Court of BiH which falls in the competency of the BiH Ministry of Justice. Other penitentiary establishments are in the competence of the entity Ministries of Justice. 1. Changes in criminal law: NA; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: NA; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA ­ FEDERAL LEVEL 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 29 (The institute of pardon is regulated in the separate Law on Pardon according to which President of the Federation of BiH decides on the application for pardon in each individual case, and these data are included here); 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: 474 conditional released. In the FBiH legislation, conditional release (CR) is regulated in the provisions of the Law on Enforcement of Criminal Sanctions according to which the Conditional Release Commission decides on the CR application in each individual case. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA ­ REPUBLIKA SRPSKA 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: Changes and amendments to the Law on execution of criminal sanctions of RS (Official Gazette of Republika Srpska, no 117/11); 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 358 inmates, of which: 24 sentenced inmates, 93 on the proposal of the penitentiary establishment, and 241 on the decision of the governor; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. BULGARIA General note: Stock figures relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. The penitentiary system in Bulgaria consists mainly of two levels of custody: investigative detention facilities and prisons. Stock figures presented in this report refer to inmates held in prisons, including pre-trial detainees held there. Moreover, these figures do also include persons residing within the investigative detention facilities (IDF). Errata SPACE I 2011: In previous SPACE report it was stated that persons held in the IDF were not included in the total prison population. One should pay attention that these inmates WERE included (1,252 inmates). 1. Changes in criminal law: In the Act for Execution of sentences and detention; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: NA; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 8; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. CROATIA General note: Stock data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 3; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No.
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30 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 CYPRUS General notes: (a) Prison population figures do not include the areas that are not under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus. (b) Stock figures concern 694 inmates in the Prison Institution and 236 inmates held in Police stations. 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 696 persons. Collective Pardon refers to a suspension of sentence offered by the President of the Republic of Cyprus with the agreement of the Attorney General of the Republic. This is imposed with terms (i.e. for Cypriots, if they commit another crime during a three year period, they return back to prison and they serve their full previous sentence as well; foreigners are deported). 6. Other: 1 released on parole; 10 were released by the Supreme Court; 9 were transferred. Note: In northern part of Cyprus, according to the 2012 Annual Human Rights Report of the United States Department of State, on 31st December 2012, there were "286 prisoners and detainees held at year's end, 42 percent were foreigners, most of whom were Turkish citizens. Of those sentenced, 60 percent were sentenced to heavy penalty and 40 percent were sentenced to light penalty. Five female prisoners and two juveniles were incarcerated [...] Approximately 38 percent of the prisoners were awaiting trial."8. CZECH REPUBLIC General note: Stock data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: There was a presidential amnesty on 1st January 2013 (more than 6000 prisoners were released); 4. Individual pardons: 6 persons concerned; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. DENMARK 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: "Amendment of The Danish Criminal Code (Act no. 159 of 28 February 2012 - acted in to force on 1 March 2012): Prior to the amendment in 2012, inmates who had been sentenced to deportation from Denmark were usually released after having served 7/12 of the sentence, but at least two months of the sentence (if the exclusion from entering Denmark was only in force for a limited number of years, for example three, five or ten) or after serving 1/2 of the sentence, but at least two months of the sentence (if the exclusion from entering Denmark was permanent). However, this applied only if it was possible for the inmate to leave the country soon after the release and if probation was not deemed "inadvisable" as stated in the Criminal Code. If an inmate did not wish to be released before the end of the sentence as outlined above, the inmate was almost always released on "mandatory probation" after serving 2/3 of the sentence. This would only apply, however, if it was possible for the inmate to depart soon after the release and probation was not deemed "inadvisable". In accordance with the explanatory notes to (Act no. 159 of 28 February 2012) all inmates who have been sentenced to deportation from Denmark (both limited and permanent exclusion from entering Denmark) can (as of 1 April 2012) be released after serving 1/2, yet at least two months, of the sentence. Furthermore, such inmates can be released after serving 1/2 of the sentence even though the persons in question do not want to be released ("mandatory release"). This will only apply, however, if it is possible for the inmate to depart soon after the release and probation is not deemed "inadvisable". 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No.
8 See in particular the Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012humanrightsreport/index.htm?dynamic_load_id=204275&year=2012#wrapper.
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ESTONIA 1. Changes in criminal law: Amendments to the Criminal Procedure Code entered into force on 1st September 2011. These amendments establish that in case a criminal matter cannot be adjudicated within a reasonable time and the violation of the right of the accused to hearing of the criminal matter within a reasonable period of time cannot be cured in any other manner, the court may, with the consent of the accused, also terminate the criminal proceedings. 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 2 inmates concerned; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. FINLAND 1. Changes in criminal law: The Act on Monitoring Sentence entered into force on 1st November 2011. A monitoring sentence can be imposed instead of an unconditional prison sentence not exceeding six months if there is an obstacle to sentencing to community service. 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. FRANCE General notes: Stock data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Data relate to the European territory of France (known as Mйtropole) as well as to French overseas territories (Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana and Reunion, known as DOM or Dйpartements d'Outre-mer). 1. Changes in criminal law: No. 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: Article 16 of the Law No. 2011-939 of August 10th 2011, entered into force on January 1st 2012, amended the conditions for granting conditional release for certain categories of prisoners sentenced to ten years and over of imprisonment; 3. Amnesties: The last law on amnesties was adopted in August 2002; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: Constitutional Law on the modernisation of the 5th Republic's institutions from 23rd July 2008 abolished collective pardons. Article 17 of the Constitution from 4th October 1958 was modified. Nowadays this article foresees the following: "The President of the Republic has the right to grant individual pardons"; 6. Other: No. GEORGIA 1. Changes in criminal law: NA; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: NA; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA. GERMANY General note: Stock data relate to 31st March 2012 instead of 1st September 2012; 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. GREECE 1. Changes in criminal law: NA; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: NA; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA.
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HUNGARY 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: a. Act II of 2012 on Infringements, Post-Charge Non-Criminal Detention and the Registration of Infringement Proceedings entered into force at 15th April 2012. b. Moreover the XII. Law of 2012 on the execution of amnesty entered into force at 10th March 2012. However, the Prison Service is not directly affected. 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: NAP; 6. Other: No. ICELAND 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: a. According to Execution of Sentences Act No. 49/2005 Article 27, a person that has been sentenced to up to nine months' (six months until 1/10 2011); non-conditional imprisonment, it shall be possible, if this is not contrary to the public interest, to execute the sentence in the form of unpaid community service lasting a minimum of 40 hours and a maximum of 360 hours. b. According to Article 29 the Prison and Probation Administration (PPA) shall decide whether a prison sentence is to be executed in the form of community service. c. According to Execution of Sentences Act No. 49/2005 Article 24.a, the enforcement of a sentence outside prison is (from 1. October 2011) allowed under electronic monitoring. d. When an unconditional sentence is 12 months prison or longer the PPA may decide that a prisoner can complete serving his sentence outside prison provided he has a device (ankle bracelets) so that it is possible to track his movements. e. When an unconditional sentence is 12 months the electronic surveillance is 30 days and lengthens by 2.5 days per month, to the maximum of 240 days. The PPA has a contract with a private security company to monitor those who are in community service and under electronic monitoring in addition with the PPA. 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. IRELAND 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: From 01/05/12 boys up to the age of 17 years were no longer detained in adult prisons, but sent to children detention schools. This did not require a change in primary legislation but rather a change in recertification of capacity under secondary legislation. 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. ITALY General note: The Department of Penitentiary Administration does not process data concerning juvenile offenders. Therefore in this report are included figures only on adult inmates. 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: Law of 17 February 2012, nr.9, modifying the Law 199/2010, relevant to the Execution of the sentence at one's own domicile: Since the entry into force of the Law 199/2010 until 31st August 2012: 7588 persons concerned; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. LATVIA General note: Stock data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. 1. Changes in criminal law: a. Criminal Law (2012.09.01 ­ 2013.09.01.):
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i. Changes in Criminal Law on 13.12.2012 came into force on 1st April 2013 - significantly expanded the use of alternative sanctions, and introduced new additional sentences and reduced the penalty limits. ii. Changes in Criminal Law on 14.03.2013 came into force on 1st April 2013. Law clarified and supplemented: Sec.12. Liability in the Case of a Legal Person (A natural person who has committed a criminal offence acting in the interests of a legal person governed by private law, for the sake of the person or as a result of insufficient supervision or control thereof shall be held criminally liable, but the legal person may be applied the coercive measures provided for in this Law); Sec.70.1 Basis for the Application of a Coercive Measure to a Legal Person; Sec.70.2 -Types of Coercive Measures Applicable to a Legal Person; Sec.70.4 -Restriction of Rights; Sec.70.8 -Conditions for the Application of Coercive Measures to a Legal Person; b. Criminal Procedure Law (2011.09.01 ­ 2012.09.01): i. Changes in Criminal Procedure Law on 15.11.2012 came into force on 14.12.2012 provide full use of pre- trial evaluation report made by State probation Service (this was limited due to the economic crisis). ii. Changes of Criminal procedure law on 20.12.2012 came into force on 1st April 2013, and criminal penalty policy has substantially changed: Sec 273 -Grounds for the Application of Arrest to Minors, Pregnant Women, and Women in the Post-natal Period submitted in a new redaction Sec.278 -Terms of Arrest for Minors submitted in a new redaction : from three months to 30 days reduces the allowable term of imprisonment for a criminal offense - determine certain periods of detention for minors; Sec 379 ­first part supplemented with fifth point - an investigator with consent of a supervising public prosecutor, public prosecutor or a court may terminate criminal proceedings, if person committed a criminal offense at the time it was subjected to human trafficking and was forced to do it. Sec 381 ­changes in second part­ provided that person directing the proceedings shall be an obligation in cases if criminal offense has done by the juvenile and in criminal procedure mediation process is possible, must inform about that State Probation Service. 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: a. Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers (thereinafter ­ CM) (2012.09.01 ­ 2013.09.01.) i. 02.10.2012 ­ CM rules No. 673 "Rules of persons in forensic characterization and photography register"(L V, 158 (4761), 05.10.2012.). Regulations establish the procedure and scope of the Interior Integrated information system included details of the detainees, person in custody and persons who have been sentenced by deprivation of liberty, the cancellation procedure of listed facts and storage of time limits, the minimum technical requirements in relation to attainable photos, as well as institutions, which have given access to the information included in the information system; ii. 09.04.2013. - CM rules Nr.191 "Re-socialization of sentenced persons" (LV,70 (4876),providing detailed model of re-socialization of prisoners, regular risk and need assessment, re-socialization plan, education, psychological care, re-socialization program management, etc. iii. 9.10.2012 ­ CM rules No. 701 `'Changes into rules of CM from 31.10.2006 No. 899'' ,,Procedures for the Reimbursement of Expenditures for the Acquisition of Medicinal Products and Medicinal Devices Intended for Out-patient Medical Treatment" ("LV", 165 (4768), 18.10.2012.)- comes into force 19.10.2012. Prescribe the procedures for the reimbursement of expenditures for the acquisition of medicinal products and medical devices intended for out-patient medical treatment, which also apply to prisoners. iv. 25.09.2012 ­ CM rules No.654 ,,Changes into rules of CM from 19.12.2006 No. 1046" ,,Order of health service financing and organization." ("LV", 156 (4759), 03.10.2012.) - comes into force 04.10.2012. Aimed to improve healthcare in civil treatment institutions and make an influence to prisoners health care. 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: In total 21 inmates, of which 10 fully (e.g. discharged from further execution of their sentence), and 11 partly discharged (e.g. punishment cut by court ad judgement), including 10 males and1 female inmates. 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No.
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LIECHTENSTEIN 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. LITHUANIA General note: Stock data relate to 1st July 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. 1. Changes in criminal law: On 22nd December 2011, was adopted the Law. No. XI-1860 of the Republic of Lithuania on Probation; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: During the period from 1st September 2011 to 31st August 2012, 3 Presidential Decrees granted pardons. As a result: 9 prisoners had the term of their service reduced; and 3 prisoners were pardoned from the remaining term of the prison sentence. 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. LUXEMBOURG 1. Changes in criminal law: Law on international recidivism of 24th February 2012: a. Art. 56: Whoever, after having been convicted, commits an offense, can be sentenced to twice the maximum provided for in the law against the offense. The same sentence can be pronounced if the convicted person had previously been sentenced to a minimum of one year prison sentence, if he/she committed the new offense during the five year period running since he/she served his/her sentence. b. Art. 57-4. (L. 24th February 2012): The rules established for recidivism will apply following the previous articles, except for art. 57-1, in case of a previous final sentence in another Member State of the European Union against the same person but for different facts. The previous sentence is taken into account to the extent that the judicial effects attached to this sentence are equivalent to those attached to a prior national sentence. 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 7 persons concerned; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: In September 2011, the new centre for administrative detention replaced the special section in the Penitentiary Centre of Luxembourg used for administrative aliens which was closed. MALTA 1. Changes in criminal law: NA; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: NA; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA. MOLDOVA General note: Prison population figures do not include the region of Transdiestria. 1. Changes in criminal law: Law nr. 277 - XVI /18 December 2008 on the amendment of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 1; 4. Individual pardons: 3; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: 347 persons concerned by replacement of the unexecuted sentence with a milder punishment or with fine, releases due to illness, conditional release before time and after serving the sentence with privileged calculation of working days. MONACO 1. Changes in criminal law: a. Sovereign Ordinance No 3.782 of 16th May 2012 on the Organisation of the Prison Administration and detention in custody;
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 35 b. Order by Director of Legal Services No 2012-8 of 4th June 2012 setting out the conditions of application of the Sovereign Ordinance No 3.782, c. Order by Director of Legal Services No 2012-21 of 28th September 2012 laying down detailed rules of intervention adapted to detention centre, d. Internal Regulations of the Detention centre. 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: 1 inmate with reduced sentence (on day-parole) got a job outside the Detention centre. MONTENEGRO 1. Changes in criminal law: 0; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: a. Rulebook on House Order in the Administration for Execution of Criminal Sanctions, b. Rulebook on Methodology of Execution of Detention; 3. Amnesties: By Law on Amnesty from 2012, sentences for certain types of criminal offences are reduced 20%. Amnesty applied to 432 inmates. 4. Individual pardons: President of Montenegro acted upon 321 requests for pardon, and accepted 98 requests. Consequently, he reduced the sentences (1-6 months), replaced a part of the unserved sentence with release on parole, or fine. 5. Collective pardons: NAP; 6. Other: No. THE NETHERLANDS General note: In the total number of inmates are not included juvenile offenders. Moreover, persons held in custodial clinics (TBS) placed there under a hospital order are also excluded from the calculation of prison population. On the opposite, illegal aliens held for administrative reasons are included in the total number of prisoners. 1. Changes in criminal law: There is one law that has changed and came into effect on 3 January 2012. A new part of the law states that: a. Persons who committed serious crimes of assault or a serious sexual offence cannot be convicted to a community service sentence if it is not combined with an unconditional prison sentence. b. Someone convicted to community service sentence for a crime similar to a newly committed one (within 5 years after the previous crime) can only be convicted to community service sentence, if it is combined with an unconditional prison sentence. 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: In 2011, a total of 481 pardons were given, of which 155 with conditions. 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. NORWAY 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: NAP; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: NAP; 6. Other: No. POLAND General note: Stock data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. 1. Changes in criminal law: They were new rules connected with the safety of the mass events (this was connected with the preparation for EURO 2012); 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: There was one change in the Penal Executive Code concerning the use of direct force and firearms. 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No.
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36 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 PORTUGAL General note: Stock data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. 1. Changes in criminal law: Law No. 51/2011 of 12 April on "General Regulations of Prisons." The Act came into force in June 2011. However, this law does not have a direct impact on the trends in the number of inmates. 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. ROMANIA 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. RUSSIAN FEDERATION 1. Changes in criminal law: NA; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: NA; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA. SAN MARINO 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. SERBIA 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: applied on 13 inmates. 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA. Slovak Republic 1. Changes in criminal law: Introduction of new criminal acts, amendment of procedural acts. 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. SLOVENIA 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: NA.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 37
SPAIN (NATIONAL ADMINISTRATION) General note: The Penitentiary Administration does not have any competences over juvenile offenders. These categories of offenders are managed by the administrations of autonomous communities. Therefore in this report are included only figures on adult inmates. 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: NAP; 4. Individual pardons: applied on 502 inmates; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. SPAIN (CATALONIA) 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: NAP; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA. SWEDEN General note: Stock data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No. SWITZERLAND General note: Stock data relate to 5th September 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: New unified federal Code of Criminal Procedure (CCP) came into force on 1st January 2011; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA. THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA 1. Changes in criminal law: NA; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: NA; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: 12 inmates; 5. Collective pardons: 16 collective pardons were pronounced at New Year occasion and on 2nd of August. 6. Other: released by a court decision: 245; conditional released: 763; abolished judgment: 84. TURKEY 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: a. Amendment in Law No.5275 on the Enforcement of Penalties and Security Measures, which is the addition of Article 105/A, came into effect on 11 April 2012 through Law No.6291. Thus, prisoners who have a maximum of 1 year sentence left and who have spent their last six months in an open prison and who have good conduct can apply for probation. Applied on 33,976 prisoners. b. Amendment No.6352 came into effect on 5 July 2012; the upper limit of 3 years of prison sentence has been abandoned. Thus, prisoners sentenced to prison of more than 3 years can benefit from administrative control, too. Applied on 25,911 prisoners (between 5.07.2012 and 31.12.2012). c. Amendment in Law No.5402 on Probation Services, which is the addition of Article No.15/A, came into effect on 11 April 2012. Thus, electronic monitoring became available. Applied on 56 prisoners. 3. Amnesties: 0; 4. Individual pardons: 0; 5. Collective pardons: 0; 6. Other: No.
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38 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 UKRAINE 1. Changes in criminal law: NA; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: NA; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES General note: Stock data relate to 30th June 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. 1. Changes in criminal law: NA; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: NA; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA. UK: NORTHERN IRELAND 1. Changes in criminal law: NA; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: NA; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA. UK: SCOTLAND General note: Previous SPACE returns were completed using the Scottish Government statistical system which is based on data from the Scottish Prison Service PR2 management information system. Due to technical problems with this statistical system, the figures for the SPACE I 2012 return have been extracted from the PR2 system and differ slightly from figures extracted from the Scottish Government statistical system, primarily in terms of the amount of detail available and no recorded data on flows (receptions and liberations). The Scottish Prison Service population figures also do not include prisoners classified as unlawfully at large, for instance due to absconding, not returning from temporary leave as scheduled, or being subject to recall due to breach of home detention curfew conditions. 1. Changes in criminal law: No; 2. New legislation concerning certain categories of prisoners: No; 3. Amnesties: NA; 4. Individual pardons: NA; 5. Collective pardons: NA; 6. Other: NA.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 39
TABLE 1: SITUATION OF PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.1
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Population on 1st January 2012 2 815 749 78 115 3 274 285 8 408 121 9 235 085 11 094 850
Total number of inmates (including pre- trial detainees) 4 890 41 4 714 8 756 21 034 12 310
Prison population rate per 100,000 population 173.7 52.5 144.0 104.1 227.8 111.0
Total capacity of penal institutions 4 417 125 4 395 8 731 24 592 9 348
Prison density per 100 places 110.7 32.8 107.3 100.3 85.5 131.7
2 338 277 1 429 290 7 327 224 4 275 984 862 011 10 505 445 5 580 516 1 325 217 5 401 267 65 287 861 4 497 617 81 843 743 11 123 034 9 931 925 319 575 4 582 707 59 394 207 2 044 813 36 475 3 003 641 524 853 417 546 3 559 541 37 580 621 240 16 730 348 4 985 870 38 538 447 10 542 398 20 095 996 143 056 383 33 376 7 216 649 5 404 322 2 055 496 47 265 321 39 694 413 7 570 908 9 482 855 7 954 662 2 059 794 74 724 269 45 453 282 56 567 800 1 823 634 5 313 600
1 700 1 062 10 663 4 741 930 22 644 3 829 3 417 3 196 76 407 23 227 69 268 12 479 17 585 152 4 323 66 271 6 195 8 10 033 659 622 6 621 41 1 229 11 324 3 551 84 156 13 614 31 883 717 400 1 11 070 11 075 1 377 69 621 59 410 10 211 6 431 6 599 2 543 120 275 151 122 86 048 1 779 8 145
72.7 74.3 145.5 NA 110.9 107.9 215.5 68.6 257.8 59.2 117.0 516.4 84.6 112.2 177.1 47.6 94.3 111.6 303.0 21.9 334.0 125.6 149.0 186.0 109.1 197.8 67.7 71.2 218.4 129.1 158.7 501.5 3.0 153.4 204.9 67.0 147.3 149.7 134.9 67.8 83.0 123.5 161.0 332.5 152.1 97.6 153.3 149.9 125.6 3.0 516.4
1 738 1 373 NA 3 921 664 21 307 4 121 3 548 3 055 56 991 22 900 78 161 12 668 165 4 413 45 568 7 970 20 9 399 711 7 548 78 1 100 13 192 3 803 86 906 12 077 26 821 12 6 950 10 798 1 309 77 895 66 864 11 031 7 040 6 978 2 396 139 539 157 625 90 897 1 813 7 784
97.8 77.3 120.9 140.1 106.3 92.9 96.3 104.6 117.0 101.4 88.6 138.8 92.1 98.0 145.4 77.7 40.0 106.7 92.7 87.7 52.6 111.7 85.8 93.4 96.8 112.7 118.9 8.3 159.3 102.6 105.2 89.4 88.9 92.6 91.3 94.6 106.1 86.2 95.9 94.7 98.1 104.6 97.7 97.8 8.3 159.3
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40 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 1.1: CATEGORIES INCLUDED IN THE TOTAL NUMBER OF INMATES IN TABLE 1
Does the total number of inmates (Table 1) include the following categories? (1) Persons held in police stations (2) Persons held in custodial institutions/units for juvenile offenders (2.1) If the persons held in custodial institutions/units for juvenile offenders are counted, how many among them (point 2) are 18 years and over (3) Persons placed in educational institutions/units for juvenile offenders (4) Persons held in institutions for drug-addicted offenders outside penal institutions (5) Persons with psychiatric disorders in psychiatric institutions or hospitals outside penal institutions (e.g. persons considered as non-criminally liable by the court, persons under security measures, etc.) (6) Asylum seekers or illegal aliens held for administrative reasons (6.1) If asylum seekers or illegal aliens held for administrative reasons are counted, how many of them (point 6) are held in centres/sections especially design for this type of detention (7) Persons held in private facilities (e.g. private prisons, detention centres, centres for the application of certain penal measures [e.g. centres for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, centres for the treatment of addictions etc.]) (8) Persons under electronic surveillance/Electronic Monitoring Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.1.1
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland
(1) NAP NAP No No No No No NAP Yes No Yes NAP No No No No No No No
How many? *** *** *** *** *** ***
(2) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
***
Yes
***
Yes
1 170 Yes
***
Yes
244 Yes
***
Yes
***
No
***
Yes
***
NAP
***
Yes
***
Yes
***
Yes
***
NAP
How many? 138 0 29 136 24 72
(2.1)
(3)
0 NAP 0 NAP 15 NAP 0 No 0 No 19 No
25
21 No
10
3 NAP
73
10 No
84
16 No
28
24 NAP
172
89 NAP
***
***
NAP
170
117 No
***
***
No
233
5 No
7 006 6 067 No
NA
NA
No
***
***
NAP
How many? *** *** *** *** *** ***
(4) NAP NAP NAP No No No
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
No
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
How many? *** *** *** *** *** ***
(5) NAP NAP NAP Yes No Yes
***
Yes
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
No
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
How many? *** *** *** 211 *** 200
(6) NAP NAP NAP No No Yes
18 No
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
No
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
How many? *** *** *** *** *** 0
(6.1) *** *** *** *** *** 0
(7) NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP
***
NAP
NAP
***
***
NAP
***
***
NAP
***
NAP
NAP
***
***
NAP
***
***
NAP
***
***
No
***
***
NAP
***
***
NAP
***
***
NAP
***
***
Yes
***
NAP
No
***
***
No
How many? *** *** *** *** *** ***
(8) NAP No NAP Yes NAP Yes
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
No
***
NAP
***
No
***
NAP
***
No
***
No
***
Yes
***
Yes
1 506 No
***
NAP
***
No
How many? *** *** *** 202 *** 992 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 172 9 105 *** *** ***
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 41
Country Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
(1) NAP No NAP No No No No NAP No No No NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP Yes No No No No No No No NAP NAP No No No
How many? *** *** *** *** *** ***
(2) Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
***
Yes
***
NAP
***
No
***
No
***
NAP
***
No
***
Yes
***
Yes
***
NAP
***
Yes
63 Yes
***
Yes
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
Yes
***
Yes
***
Yes
***
NAP
***
Yes
***
Yes
***
Yes
How many? 50 *** 48 *** 202 1
(2.1) 1 *** 15 *** 83 0
(3) NAP NAP NAP No No NAP
44
24 No
***
***
NAP
***
***
No
***
***
No
***
***
NAP
***
***
No
231
134 No
1 990 1 770 Yes
***
***
NAP
27
27 Yes
108
0 No
0
0 Yes
***
***
No
***
***
No
***
***
No
***
***
No
69 NA
Yes
53
34 No
666
37 Yes
***
***
Yes
1 282
0 NAP
37
0 No
701
607 No
How many? *** *** *** *** *** ***
(4) NAP NAP NAP No No NAP
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
NAP
***
NAP
150 NAP
***
NAP
217 NAP
***
No
20 No
***
Yes
***
Yes
***
Yes
***
No
154 No
***
No
129 No
1 302 NAP
***
NAP
***
No
***
No
How many? *** *** *** *** *** ***
(5) Yes Yes NAP No No NAP
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
Yes
***
No
***
No
***
NAP
***
Yes
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
No
***
No
***
No
601 No
589 No
12 No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
No
***
No
How many? 34 1 167 *** *** *** ***
(6) Yes No No No No No
***
NAP
***
NAP
1 No
***
No
***
No
***
NAP
231 No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
Yes
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
Yes
***
No
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
Yes
***
Yes
***
No
How many? 9 *** *** *** *** ***
(6.1) NAP *** NAP *** *** ***
(7) NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP
***
***
NAP
***
***
NAP
***
***
NAP
***
***
NAP
***
NAP
NAP
***
NAP
NAP
***
***
No
***
NAP
NAP
***
***
No
***
***
NAP
22
2 NAP
***
***
NAP
***
***
No
***
***
No
***
***
NAP
***
***
NAP
427 NA
No
***
***
NAP
***
***
Yes
***
***
NAP
1 140
730 Yes
1
0 No
***
***
Yes
How many? *** *** *** *** *** ***
(8) Yes NAP NAP No NAP Yes
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
Yes
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
NAP
***
Yes
***
No
***
NAP
***
Yes
***
Yes
***
Yes
***
No
***
No
***
No
129 Yes
***
NAP
12 006 No
***
No
1 429 No
How many? 1 *** *** *** *** 33 *** *** *** 196 *** *** *** *** *** 287 *** *** 2 065 2 030 35 *** *** *** 56 *** *** *** ***
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42 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
NOTES ­ TABLES 1 AND 1.1 Table 1: Figures presented in this Table must be read taking into account that some countries were unable to provide data on 1st September 2012. In such cases, the relevant day of reference is indicated in the notes below. Moreover, statistical counting rules (i.e. the rules applied in each country to count the items that will be included in prison statistics) vary across Europe; therefore, such diversity influence the way in which the total number of inmates and the capacity of penal institutions are calculated in each country. Given this peculiarity, it is important to read the figures from Table 1 together with categories included in Table 1.1. Table 1.1 brings a more accurate distribution of what categories of persons are held in penal institutions (or institutions designed for detention of the persons managed by criminal justice system). ALBANIA Table 1.1: Point (2): are included juveniles from 14 to 18 years old. One special institution designed for detention of juvenile offenders was opened in October 2009. ANDORRA The Electronic Monitoring is managed directly by the Police Department. ARMENIA No special comment AUSTRIA Table 1.1: Point (2): In Austria there is only one prison specialised in detention of juvenile offenders. In this institution are de facto also detained convicts aged 18 year and over. As this specialised prison is located in Lower Austria, juvenile offenders only partly serve their sentences there. Hence, other juveniles are spread over the other Austrian prisons, where specialised departments for young offenders are established. Point (8): Electronic Monitoring surveillance was introduced in Austria on 1st September 2010. AZERBAIJAN Table 1: Warning: Total prison populations for 2010 and 2011 were amended. The number of inmates managed by the Prison Service was 21,904 inmates in 2010 and 23,191 inmates in 2011. This feature is due to the fact that inmates held in police stations were excluded from the calculation of the total number of prison population. Therefore, total number of inmates (21,034) in 2012 corresponds to the number of persons held in penal institutions of the Penitentiary Service of the Ministry of Justice and those in the pre-trail detention facility under the Ministry of National Security. Table 1.1: Point (4): there is no specialised detention institution for drug-addicted offenders. The drug- addicted inmates are detained in penal institutions of the Penitentiary Service and receive medical treatment there. If they need medical treatment after release, they can be compulsory treated in community medical institutions. BELGIUM Table 1.1: Point (5): Under this heading are counted only "interned" inmates held in social welfare establishment of Paifve which is under the direct responsibility of the Directorate General of Penitentiary institutions. "Interned" following the final judicial decision are: a.1 ­ those, who committed an act qualified as crime or misdemeanour punishable by imprisonment and a.2 ­ who at the moment of trial were suffering from a mental disorder which seriously affects or abolishes the capacity of discernment or control of the acts and a.3. ­ for whom there is a danger of recommitting new offenses because of their mental disorders. Persons sentenced for crimes or misdemeanours, and who ­during their detention­ were diagnosed by a prison psychiatrist mental having disorders that seriously affect or abolish their capacity of discernment or control of the acts and who are likely to reoffend because of their mental disorders. Point (8): Electronic ankle bracelets and voice recognition.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 43
BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (STATE LEVEL) BiH State level manages only one pre-trial detention institution. Pre-trial detainees are held in the State pre-trial detention unit. This unit has a capacity of 21 cells. If the State court has more detainees than the available capacity, the additional inmates should be referred to the entity penal institutions. besides the "state" pre-trial detainees, the penal institution of the State level may also host pre-trial detainees from the entities referred to custody by the entity courts. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (FEDERATION LEVEL) Table 1.1: Point (5): Under this heading are counted persons considered by courts as being not responsible for their criminal acts. They are held in the forensic department of the penal institutions in Zenica. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (REPUBLIKA SRPSKA) Table 1: In the total prison population are included remand detainees and convicted prisoners, as well as juveniles serving correctional and educational measures in correctional facilities designed for these inmates. BULGARIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 1.1: Point (1): The Bulgarian penitentiary system consists mainly of two sections: investigative detention facilities and prisons. Total number of inmates stated in Table 1 includes 1,170 inmates held in prisons (including pre-trial detainees) and persons held in investigative detention facilities [IDF]. The figure does not refer to those detained under police custody, but those detained under the custody of the General Directorate Execution of Sentences in separate investigative detention facilities (IDF). These are persons with custody measure (imposed by the court) are detained in the IDF in whose region the investigative proceeding or the court proceeding is ongoing. Besides this in the IDF may be detained persons sentenced to imprisonment, conveyed by the order of the court or the prosecutor in order to appear under court proceedings, to participate in investigative activities or other procedural actions; persons already sentenced and with custody measure imposed for being under investigation or trial for other offences; persons detained who have been declared for nation-wide search; persons detained by the prosecutor under the Penal Procedure Code; persons conveyed in stages, when in the respective police facility there are no conditions for their accommodation. Point (2): Custodial institutions provide education to juvenile offenders in one especially designed reformatory for young offenders. Point (3): Specialised educational institutions are not managed by the Prison Administration. Point (4): There are no specialised institutions for drug-addicted offenders outside prisons. Drug-addicted offenders could be treated in prison hospitals inside psychiatric units. Point (5): There are no inmates held in psychiatric institutions outside the penitentiary system. There is a psychiatric hospital within the penitentiary system, where inmates reside if necessary. Point (8): The concept of Electronic Monitoring is legislated in Bulgaria, but it is not applied. CROATIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. CYPRUS Table 1: Total number of inmates is 930, of which 694 were held in the Prison Institution and 236 in police stations. Table 1.1: Point (1): 244 persons, of which 8 held in a separate unit of prison institution and 236 held in police stations. CZECH REPUBLIC Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Note: There was a Presidential amnesty on 1st January 2013 (more than 6,000 inmates were released). Table 1.1: Point (2): 140 juvenile offenders were placed in special units for sentenced juveniles and 32 pre- trial juveniles were places in special cells in remand prisons.
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44 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
DENMARK Tables 1 and 1.1: The data do not cover persons held in halfway-houses. In Denmark eight half-houses exist with a capacity of about 180 places. These houses are designed for prisoners who are placed there during the last part of their sentence. "One of the halfway houses specializes in drug addicts, one accommodates mostly sex offenders, and in one a special family unit is established. During the stay in the halfway house supervision and probation activities are handled by the staff of the halfway house in close cooperation with the prison or the probation office that referred the client" (source: Heine L. (2008), Denmark, in: van Kalmthout A., Durnescu I. (Eds.), Probation in Europe, p.238). ESTONIA No special comment FINLAND Table 1.1: Point (8): the type of surveillance is GSM (Backdoor monitoring) FRANCE Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 1: Total number of inmates was retrieved from quarterly statistics on the persons under the responsibility of Prison Administration. 76,407 persons had the status "йcrouйs", of which 66,704 were de facto held in penal institutions ("йcrouйs dйtenus"). In the total of 76,407 inmates are included as well persons placed under Electronic Monitoring outside penal institutions (9,105) and those in external placement non- hosted by Prison Administration (598). For the calculation of the prison population rate per 100,000 inhabitants, the total number of 76,407 prisoners was used. When calculating the prison density per 100 places, the figure of 66,704 was used. Table 1.1: Point (8): 9,105 persons under Electronic Monitoring, which are part of the total number of inmates having the status "йcrouйs". The type of surveillance used is the electronic bracelet. GEORGIA Table 1: The total number of inmates has been provided by Mr Roy Walmsley, director of World Prison Brief, the International Centre for Prison Studies. Data relate to 31st August 2012. GERMANY Data relate to 31st March 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 1.1: Points (2) & (2.1): In these points are included figures on all juvenile offenders (including pre- trials). The number of pre-trial detainees among 939 juveniles is 358. GREECE Table 1: The total number of inmates has been provided by Mr Roy Walmsley, director of World Prison Brief, the International Centre for Prison Studies. Data relate to 1st January 2012. HUNGARY Table 1.1: Figure on juvenile offenders has not been validated; therefore the symbol "NA" is used. ICELAND Surface area per inmate varies from 6 to 13 m2 within the same unique penal institution. Table 1.1: Point (8): According to the Execution of Sentences Act (ESA) no. 49/2005 Article 24.a, enforcement outside prison is allowed under Electronic Monitoring since 1st October 2011. When an unconditional sentence is 12 months prison or longer the PPA may decide that a prisoner can complete serving his sentence outside prison provided he has a device so that it is possible to track his movements. When an unconditional sentence is 12 months, the electronic surveillance is 30 days and lengthens by 2.5 days per month, to the maximum of 240 days. According to ESA Article 24.b. the Requirements for the electronic monitoring are: The prisoner is eligible to serve under electronic monitoring. The prisoner has a fixed residence which has been approved by the PPA.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 45 The prisoners spouse, guardian, closest family member or a landlord consent that he is under electronic surveillance in their mutual whereabouts. The prisoner is engaged in work, study, is in training, treatment, or doing other tasks that PPA has adopted and is a part of his integration into society again. The prisoner has previously served a part of his sentence outside prison satisfactorily according to the 24th article of the ESA no. 49/2005. The prisoner has not violated the conditions of electronic monitoring in the last 3 years. The prisoner should not normally have a case with the police, prosecuting authorities or the courts, where he is charged with a criminal offense, given that the case is operated normally and a delay not caused by the prisoner. The first person to serve under electronic monitoring began 21st February 2012. IRELAND Table 1.1: Point (2.1): Children who attain the age of 18 in a children detention school (juvenile detention facility) are transferred to the prison system only if they are held on an indictable offence. Children detention schools take girls up to the age of 18 and boys up to the age of 17 on 1/09/12. Point (3): Juvenile offenders (boys up to the age of 17 and girls up to the age of 18) are placed in children detention schools i.e. places of detention with a care model. All children are obliged to attend school while in detention. Schools/education facilities are located on the site of the children detention schools. Education is a service given to children while in detention. Standalone educational institutions for juvenile offenders do not exist in the Republic of Ireland. Boys under the age of 17 and girls under the age of 18 who appear before the courts are detained on criminal charges in children detention schools only. Children detention schools are secure facilities with a care module where juveniles are held on remand awaiting a resolution to their charges or serving a sentence ordered by the courts. Point (8): Global Positioning Satellite Tracking System (Hospital Inpatient). ITALY Table 1.1: Point (2): Institutions for juvenile offenders are not under the authority of the Department of Penitentiary Administration. Point (5): Are included persons held in Judicial Psychiatric Hospitals, so-called "internees". LATVIA Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. LIECHTENSTEIN Table 1: Under the total capacity of penal institutions are included only places designed for detention in Liechtenstein. Nevertheless, there exist places which are part of the contract between Liechtenstein and Austria. This additional capacity allows adjustments of the detention to the suitable institution. Yet, this capacity in not included in Table 1. LITHUANIA Data relate to 1st July 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. LUXEMBOURG Table 1: Total number of prisoners concerns persons held in penitentiary centres (closed) in Luxembourg and Givenich (semi-detention). One male person of Luxembourg nationality aged 57 is excluded from the total prison population as admitted as a voluntary recluse. Table 1.1: Point (6): The special section for administrative aliens inside Luxembourg' Penitentiary Centre was closed in 2011 because a new centre for administrative detention was commissioned. Point (8): electronic bracelet MALTA Table 1: The total number of inmates has been provided by Mr Roy Walmsley, based on figures retrieved from the Country reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012 of the U.S. Department of State.
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46 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
MOLDOVA Table 1.1: Point (2.1): are included offenders having 18 years and over (between 18 and 24 years: according to the legislation these persons may keep the status of "juveniles" and continue to serve their sentences in a juvenile prison. MONACO Tables 1 and 1.1: The remand prison (Maison d'arrкt) is the only penal institution in the Principality. Juvenile offenders are placed in the wing which is especially designed for the detention of these persons inside this remand prison. Prisoners with grave psychological or psychiatric disorders are transferred to the hospital and are not any longer under the authority of the prison administration. MONTENEGRO No special comment THE NETHERLANDS Table 1.1: Point (2): in the total number of inmates are not included 567 juvenile offenders in facilities for juvenile offenders (of whom 353 persons are aged 18 years and over). Point (5): in the total number of inmates are not included 1,781 persons in custodial clinics (TBS) placed there under a hospital order. Point (6): in the total number of inmates are not included 960 illegal aliens held for administrative reasons. Point (8): electronic bracelet. NORWAY Table 1: There is no specific remand institution, although most remand detainees are placed in special wings or units or housed with convicted prisoners. Remand detainees are included in the total number of prisoners. Table 1.1: Point (6): most asylum seekers are placed in units not connected with the Correctional Service. Nevertheless, a few illegal aliens may be placed in a prison institution. POLAND Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 1.1: Point (8): 4,782 persons under EM (bracelet), which is 2.5 times more than in 2011. These persons are not included in the total prison population (Table 1). The number is known, but it is not in the records of the penitentiary facilities. PORTUGAL Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 1.1: Points (2) & (2.1): Leiria's Penitentiary Institution ­ institution for persons aged from 16 to 21 years, including remand detainees. Point (3): Persons in educational institutions for juvenile offenders are managed by the General Service of the Community Reintegration (Direcзгo General de Reinserзгo Social) Point (5): Under this point are included 231 inmates, of which 101 are held in custodial psychiatric institutions or hospitals, and 130 are held in non-custodial psychiatric institutions or hospitals. The 130 persons included under Point (5) of Table 1.1 are considered non-criminally liable by the court, and are not stricto sensu sentenced prisoners, but are held under security measures (which are rather therapeutic measures). These persons are under the authority of the Prison Administration and their files are managed by the Court of Execution of Sentences. Nevertheless, all decisions concerning this category of persons are taken on the advice of medical authorities. Point (8): Persons placed under electronic surveillance are managed by the General Service of the Community Reintegration (Direcзгo General de Reinserзгo Social). See: SPACE II 2012 report.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 47
ROMANIA Table 1.1: Point (2): According to law provisions, juvenile and young offenders are held under a special regime; their age ranges from 18 to 21 years. These persons are held in penitentiary institutions especially designed for juveniles and young adults. Point (3): Under this heading are included 150 persons held in re-education centres for juvenile offenders, of which 7 were over 18 years. RUSSIAN FEDERATION Table 1: The total number of inmates has been provided by Mr Roy Walmsley, director of World Prison Brief, the International Centre for Prison Studies. These official figures are rounding of the actual figures to the nearest 100 in each case. At 1.09.2012, the total prison population was 717,400 inmates. Of which: 58,900 were women 111,600 were in pre-trial institutions, 800 in prisons, 602,500 in corrective labour colonies, and 2,400 in educational labour colonies for juveniles. SAN MARINO There is only one prison. This penal institution is managed together by Prison Administration and local police forces (unique building). SERBIA Table 1.1: Points (2) & (2.1): this is a number of juvenile offenders who were sentenced to custody: all 27 persons were young adults aged 18 and over. Point (8): electronic bracelet. SLOVAK REPUBLIC Table 1.1: Points (2) & (2.1): In these points are included only sentenced juveniles. Those juveniles who are on pre-trial stage of their proceeding are not held in custody. SLOVENIA Living area per inmate: in a single bedroom, the surface area is of at least 9m2. In a multiple bedroom ­ at least 7m2/inmate. These standards are used in new buildings or when possibility of adaptation of existent facility enables this surface area (in: Rules concerning the enforcement of prison sentences). SPAIN (TOTAL) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) Tables 1 and 1.1: In Spain, the State Prison Administration has no competence concerning juvenile offenders, matter managed by autonomous communities. SPAIN (CATALONIA) Table 1.1: Point (5): Persons under security measures are persons considered non-criminally liable by the court and this category of persons is not managed by the Prison Administration. Point (8): electronic bracelet. SWEDEN Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. SWITZERLAND Data relate to 5th September 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 1.1: Point (2): There are 69 persons who were sentenced under special penal law for juvenile offenders (JSGB). These persons are held in centres for juveniles and adults, but in separate sections for juvenile offenders.
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48 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 Point (3): Persons held in institution for execution of penal measures (including special measures for young adult offenders). The majority of them are not juveniles but young adults. Point (7): There are special private institutions that manage the execution of measures for alcohol and drug-addicted offenders, psychiatric cases and other types of persons sentenced under articles 59 and 60 of the Criminal Code. Data from these institutions are not included in the total number of inmates (Table 1). THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA No special comment TURKEY Table 1.1: Point (2): There exist two types of institutions for juvenile and young offenders: reformatory houses (for sentenced juveniles) and juvenile and youth prisons. Under this point are included juveniles aged between 13 and 18 and youths aged between 18 and 21 years who are kept in the juvenile and youth prisons. Among 9,745 persons, 1,999 are juveniles aged less than 18 and 7,746 are youth prisoners that are 18-21 years old kept in the juvenile and youth prisons. Point (2.1): The number given is the population of the reformatory houses. Point (7): There is one prison where persons with psychiatric disorder are held under public prison administration. It is Metris R Type Closed Prison. 128 persons with disorders are held in this facility. "R Type Prison" corresponds to Rehabilitation Prison. In this type of institutions, prisoners with mental/ psychiatric disorder and those who are unable to self-care skills are held (physically disabled, cancer patients, people with paralysis etc.). UKRAINE Table 1.1: Point (3): 1,302 persons are held in penal institutions especially designed for this type of detention (educational establishments for juvenile offenders). These institutions de facto host all juvenile offenders. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Data relate to 30th June 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 1.1: Point (2): Juveniles in Youth Offending Institutions; Point (6): In Ministry of Justice (NOMs) administered establishments. UK: NORTHERN IRELAND Table 1.1: Point (2): Figures refer to juveniles in Woodlands Juvenile Justice Centre. The secure custody centre is also an educational establishment. There are only 37 children, but it is classed as both a school and custody centre. UK: SCOTLAND Warning: Previous SPACE returns were completed using the Scottish Government statistical system which is based on data from the Scottish Prison Service PR2 management information system. Due to technical problems with this statistical system, the figures for the SPACE I 2012 return have been extracted from the PR2 system and differ slightly from figures extracted from the Scottish Government statistical system, primarily in terms of the amount of detail available and no recorded data on flows (receptions and liberations). The Scottish Prison Service population figures also do not include prisoners classified as unlawfully at large, for instance due to absconding, not returning from temporary leave as scheduled, or being subject to recall due to breach of home detention curfew conditions. Table 1.1: Point (2): Some young (juvenile) offenders may be held in adult establishments under certain circumstances. Children under 16 are held in secure accommodation, which is not part of the prison establishment. Such cases are not included here. Children may be placed in secure accommodation for their own protection as well as for a criminal conviction.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 49
TABLE 1.2: CAPACITY OF PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (BY CATEGORIES)
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.1.2
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
Total capacity of penal institutions (2.0) 4 417 125 4 395 8 731 24 592 9 348
Capacity of remand institutions and those designed for serving custodial sentences (2.1) 4 417 89 4 395 NA 24 392 9 023
Of which:
Capacity of remand institutions/ sections (pre-trials) (2.1.a)
Capacity of institutions designed for serving a sentence (2.1.b)
1 044
3 038
40
49
903
3 492
NA
NA
4 342
20 050
9 023
Capacity of institutions for juvenile offenders (2.2) 40 12 NA 353 200 120
Capacity of other types of institutions (2.3) 295 24 *** NA *** 205
Surface area per inmate (m2/inmate) 5.4 10 4 10 4 NAP
1 738
1 695
324
1 371
1 373
1 337
250
1 087
NA
NA
NA
8 763
3 921
3 664
1 647
2 017
664
664
351
295
21 307
20 835
2 382
18 453
4 121
4 121
1 862
2 259 ***
3 548
3 298
3 298
3 055
3 055 NA
NA
NAP
56 991
56 643
33 955
22 688
43 NAP 36 NAP 296 *** 150 18 NAP 196 NAP 250 *** NAP 348 ***
4
4
4
107
4
6.4
276
4
From 7 to 12
11
78 161
78 161
70 296
7 865 ***
12 668 165 4 413 45 568 7 970 20 9 399 711
11 666 165 4 413 44 162 7 676 20 9 399 696
11 666
9 156
***
4 325
35 534
8 628 ***
2 089
5 587
20
***
1 396
7 690
271
425
1 002 88 194 313 15
NAP *** *** 1 406 100 *** NAP ***
3 From 6 to 13 From 2.5 to 3 9.2 11
7 548 78 1 100 13 192 3 803 86 906 12 077 26 821
7 548 78 1 080 13 192 3 803 NA 11 730 24 519
2 265 60 425 5 090 3 803 86 906 11 730 24 519
5 144
139 ***
18 ***
655
20 ***
6 242 ***
***
NAP
NAP
***
***
347 ***
2 302 ***
4 14 8 NAP 3 7 4
12
12
10
6 950
6 950
2 000
4 650
10 798
10 798
1 983
8 815
1 309
1 231
253
978
77 895 NA
NA
NA
***
66 864 NA
NA
NA
***
11 031 NA
NA
NA
***
7 040
7 040
2 057
4 983 ***
6 978 NA
NA
NA
2 396
2 353
440
1 913
139 539
139 539
138 111
157 625
156 263
37 593
118 670
90 897
87 538
87 538
1 813
1 813
1 765
7 784 NA
NA
NA
NA
2 NAP 300 *** 482 *** 78 *** *** *** *** *** 175 NA 43 *** 1 428 NAP 1 362 NAP 2 491 48 *** ***
3 4 3.5 9 From 10 to 13 4 From 4 to 11 4 868 NAP NAP NAP
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50 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 NOTES ­ TABLE 1.2 The indicator of prison density (generally used for the assessment of prison overcrowding) is calculated on the basis of the number of inmates and the available capacity for these inmates. In order to produce as reliable as possible indicator of prison density it is compulsory to take into account the detailed distribution of the capacity of different types of penal institutions. When comparing the indicators of prison density and prison overcrowding, we look for details in each country about the rules applied when calculating the capacity of penal institutions (e.g. surface area per prisoner, operational capacity, etc.)9. The following notes must also be taken into account. DISCLAIMER CONCERNING THE FIGURES OF SURFACE AREA PER INMATE (TABLE 1 AND TABLE 1.2): Some of the national correspondents were asked to clarify the procedures of calculation of the minimal surface area per inmate. In some countries these figures correspond to the legal standards that are compulsory to be respected. In other countries, these figures are estimates of the real individual living spaces inside cells. In view of the above methodological limitation, these data cannot be verified and cross-nationally validated. Therefore, they should be used as raw-data only. ALBANIA Point (2.2): The institution for juvenile offenders was opened in October 2009. The designed capacity of this institution is 40 places. Point (2.3) refers to the penal institutions for the elderly people as well for people with various health problems (e.g. persons treated in Prison Hospital). Surface area foreseen per inmate is calculated based upon the surface areas of the cells, not the actual population of the prisons. ANDORRA Point (2.3): are included places in the unit designed for female prisoners. 12 places are foreseen for pre-trial detention and 12 places for serving sentences. AUSTRIA Point (2.1): There is no exclusive remand institution in Austria, neither specific definition of capacity for pre-trials. Therefore, different institutions that accommodate remand detainees sentenced prisoners have to manage the total capacity of their prisons according to actual needs. Point (2.2): There is only one specialised prison for young offenders in Austria. The capacity of 353 places is the capacity in this specialised institution and the capacity foreseen in special departments in regular prisons. This capacity is used for the accommodation of the juvenile offenders up to 18 years and of the young adult offenders up to 21 years. Point (2.3): Other types of institutions are as well included in overall capacity (point 2.0), but the accurate number of places in each category of institutions is unknown. AZERBAIJAN Point (2.0): The total capacity (24,592 places) corresponds to the number of places in penal institutions of the Penitentiary Service of the Ministry of Justice and the pre-trail detention facility under the Ministry of National Security. The capacity of facilities/units managed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs is not included in the total capacity. Point (2.3): There is one hostel type Clarification Centre under the Chief Department of Passport registration and Migration of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Moreover, there are 6 asylum centres of the Migration Service under construction. Surface area foreseen per inmate in penal institutions under the authority of the Penitentiary Service is 4m2, in the unit of pre-trial detention of the Ministry of National Security it is 4.5 m2, and in specialised penitentiary hospitals the surface foreseen per person is 5 m2.
9 In Table 1.2, the symbol "***" corresponds to the answer "figure not included, but the institutions exist in the country". On the opposite, the abbreviation "NAP" gives the indication that such institutions (or specific capacities) do not exist.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 51
BELGIUM Point (2.3): It is the capacity of the social welfare establishment of Paifve which is under the direct responsibility of the Directorate General of Penitentiary institutions. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA ­ STATE LEVEL Figures refer to the capacity of the unique State Pre-trial detention unit. This unit is the only custodial facility at state level; there is no prison at state level. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA ­ FEDERATION LEVEL Point (2.2): There is one wing in Zenica and Tuzla prisons each, accommodating juveniles, but there is no special prison facility or educational facility (where educational measures are served) only intended for juveniles. Juveniles are kept physically separately from adults in Zenica and Tuzla but both these prisons are prisons for adults. Zenica is high security and Tuzla is medium security prison. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA ­ REPUBLIKA SRPSKA Surface area: According to the Law on execution of criminal sanctions of Republika Srpska ("Official Gazette of RS" no 12/10) one sentenced person is allocated a minimum of 4 mІ or 8 mі of surface. BULGARIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. The capacity is indicated as the living space rather than the total area of detention institutions. Point (2.1.b): includes the number of places reporter in the point 2.2. CROATIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (2.3): Prison hospital CYPRUS Point (2.0): 370 places in Prison institution and 294 places in Police stations. Point (2.1.a): 57 places in Prison institution and 294 places in Police stations. CZECH REPUBLIC Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (2.2): the number refers to the units for sentenced juveniles (not for pre-trial detainees). Point (2.3): Under this point are included 276 places, of which 66 places in the preventive detention facility and 210 places in two prison hospitals. DENMARK Point (2.1.a): Local prisons are primarily used for remand prisoners FINLAND There are no specific institutions for pre-trial detainees or juvenile offenders. FRANCE Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (2.1.a): are included the capacities of the remand institutions such as Maisons d'Arrкt [MA] and special wings (quartiers) for "pre-trails" of Maisons d'Arrкt [qMA]. Point (2.1.b): are included places from Detention centres, special wings in detention centres, central prisons (Maisons Centrales [MC]), special wings in central prisons, centres for serving adjusted/reduced sentences (Centres pour Peines Amйnagйes [CPA]), special wings in centres for serving adjusted/reduced sentences, centres for semi-liberty (Centres de Semi-Libertй [CSL]), and special wings in centres for semi-liberty. Point (2.2): Institutions for juvenile offenders (Etablissements Pour Mineurs [EPM]). Surface area per inmate is defined in the internal circular of the Prison Administration On the capacity of penitentiary institutions from 16 March 1988. The calculation methods foreseen in this circular are applied. GERMANY Data relate to 31st March 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Points (2.1.a) and (2.1.b): The number of places foreseen for pre-trial detention and the number of places in institutions designed for serving sentences are presented together. The main reason is that some of 16 Bundeslдnder are unable to provide separate statistics. Nevertheless, persons serving a sentence and those who are in pre-trial detention are detained separately.
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52 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
HUNGARY Surface area: The area which should be made available for an adult male inmate is 3m2. For juveniles and females it is 3.5m2. The Ministry of Justice and Public Administration Decree 12/2010 (XI.9) modified the §137 of the Ministry of Justice' Decree 6/1996 (VII.12.) "On the Rules of Execution of Incarceration and Pre- trial Detention". As a result of this modification the mentioned living space should be provided to the inmates "as far as possible", meaning that the Prison Service may differ from that depending on the circumstances. The decree defines the value of the surface area as a standard guide but the actual area depends on the number of inmates and the value of the overcrowding. ICELAND Point (2.2): There are no special institutions for juvenile offenders, but separate places are foreseen in the overall capacity. Surface area per inmate varies from 6 to 13 m2 within the same unique penal institution. IRELAND Point (2.1): Remand prisoners can be held in any "closed" prison. Having considered the above, the total capacity in remand (including juveniles) is 458. Total capacity designed for serving sentences (including juveniles) is 3,971.This figures include 16 places which relate to beds which can be used as required i.e. either remand or committal. Consequently, the total capacity is 4,413. Point (2.2): Refers to the Juvenile Unit in St. Patrick's Institution (44) and children detention schools (44). The overall capacity in the children detention schools was reduced from 52 to 44 for operational reasons. Only children detention schools are used for detaining juveniles - boys up to the age of 17 and girls up to the age of 18. Current operational capacity allows for remand and committal beds to be mixed in two out of the three facilities. ITALY Point (2.2): The Department of Penitentiary Administration does not process data concerning juvenile offenders as these institutions are under the responsibility of the Department of Juvenile Justice, under the Ministry of Justice. Therefore the capacity of these institutions is not included in the overall capacity (point 2.0). Point (2.3): Capacity of the institutions for "security measures". LATVIA Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (2.3): The total number of places designed for special needs of prisoners having health problems. The capacity of Prison hospital in Olaine prison is included in this point. 30 beds are for inmates serving prison sentences or those under investigation authorities, and who have mental health disorders. Another 70 beds are distributed in other Latvian Prison Hospital units. Surface area: In the Latvian Code of Execution of Punishment, the standard of 2.5 m2 for men and 3 m2 for women and juveniles is foreseen. These figures correspond to the real surface used per inmate. National authorities are working at the moment on the re-evaluation of the space with aim to introduce 4m2/inmate. LIECHTENSTEIN Point (2.0): Persons sentenced to two years and over, generally are brought to Austrian penal institutions in order to finish serving their custodial terms. There is a contract made with Austria in 1984 for all types of offenders. This additional capacity which is part of the contract between Liechtenstein and Austria allows adjustments of the detention in the appropriate institutions. A new contract with Switzerland became operational since 2012. This contract with Probation agencies allows the management of offenders sentenced to short custody terms. LITHUANIA Data relate to 1st July 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. LUXEMBOURG Point (2.1): Luxembourg has one high security prison for the whole country, the Centre Pйnitentiaire de Luxembourg (CPL) and one semi-open Penitentiary Centre of Givenich (CPG). Figures represent original capacity of CPL and CPG as built. Point (2.1.b): includes 35 beds in medical and psychiatric unit.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 53 MOLDOVA Point (2.3): Moldavian legislation does not contain a rule on special capacity for foreign citizens, persons with multiple citizenships who are arrested for administrative reasons. MONACO Point (2.0): There is only one institution. A separation is made between pre-trial detainees and persons serving custodial sentences for male adult inmates (2 sections). Such distinction is not made for female inmates (one section) and juvenile offenders (another one section). Point (2.2): There are 18 separate places foreseen for juvenile offenders. Point (2.3): There is no special centre for administrative detention of aliens. THE NETHERLANDS Point (2.0): Total capacity is for penal institutions of the adult prison system. Besides (2.1) and (2.2) capacities, there is additional capacity that can be used for remand and sentenced inmates, 1,860 places, of which 563 is reserve capacity (5,090+6,242+1,860=13,192). Point (2.2): In total capacity are not included 950 places for juvenile offenders (of which 150 reserve capacity). Point (2.3): In total capacity are not included 2,078 places of custodial clinics (of which 101 reserve). Moreover, 1,644 places for illegal aliens are not included (of which 325 reserve). NORWAY Point (2.1): Inmates on remand and those serving a sentence are held in the same institutions. Some penal institutions are almost exclusively designed for the use for convicted prisoners. Only exceptionally remand prisoners might be placed in open prisons. Some prisons have wings allocated to remand prisoners; yet, remand prisoners can also be held with convicted prisoners. Point (2.2): Juvenile offenders are usually placed accordingly to their special needs. No special custodial institution designed for juvenile offenders exist in Norway. POLAND Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (2.0): The capacities of remand institutions and institutions for serving a sentence are presented together. Separate wings in prisons are used for remand needs, and in remand institutions some units for sentenced inmates exist. The number of 86,906 places is the capacity of remand institutions and institutions designed for serving a sentence together. Surface area: The area of the cell shall be no less than 3m2 per detainee (art. 110 of the Code of Execution of Criminal Sentences (Kodeks karny wykonawczy). Moreover, "[i]n particularly justified cases a governor of a prison or remand centre may decide to place detainees, for a specified period of time, in conditions where the area of the cell is less than 3 square metres per person. Any such decision shall be promptly communicated to a penitentiary judge" (art. 248 of the Code of Execution of Criminal Sentences). PORTUGAL Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (2.2): Leiria's Penitentiary Institution designed for the detention of persons aged between 16 and 21 years. ROMANIA Surface area per prisoner in closed regime institutions, in maximum security institutions and in those designed for remand detention is 4m2. In the institutions with open regime, semi-liberty, in the education centres is 6m2/inmate. In special penitentiary hospitals the surface area rises to 7m2 per prisoner. Point (2.1.b): Are included the capacities of prisons as well as the capacities of prison hospitals. Point (2.2): Here are included capacities of the penitentiaries for juveniles and young adults, as well as educational centres capacities. SAN MARINO In the Republic of San Marino there is only one institution for all the categories of inmates. SERBIA Point (2.2): Two special institutions for juveniles of a capacity of 300 places are included: correctional facility for juveniles in Krusevac and prison for juveniles in Valjevo.
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54 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
SLOVAK REPUBLIC Surface area: Standard surface area per inmate is 3.5 m2. Surface area foreseen per female and juvenile inmates is 4 m2. Point (2.2): Regular capacity foreseen for juvenile offenders is 482 places. Yet, juveniles may be held in pre-trial detention in different prisons and, in some cases, they may serve prison sentence in prisons for adults. Therefore the figure of point 2.2 is also included in the breakdown of the points 2.1.a and 2.1.b. Point (2.4): There are two special police detention centres designated for the detention of asylum seekers or illegal aliens. One institution is situated in south-western part of Slovakia (Medveov: 152 places) and the second institution is situated in eastern part of Slovakia (Secovce: 176 places). These institutions are not under the competence of the Prison and Court Guard Administration; therefore they are not included in the total capacity of point 2.0. SLOVENIA Surface area: Each prisoner in a single bedroom should have an area of at least 9m2 and in a multiple bedroom at least an area of 7m2. These standards are used in new buildings or whenever possible to adapt the surface area in the existent facility (in: Rules concerning the enforcement of prison sentences). Irrespective of that, the same standard is used in all facilities as technical capacity. At the end of 2011, the total capacity of penal institutions was increased until 1,309 as two new facilities at central Dob prison were build. SPAIN (TOTAL) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) Point (2.0): The figure is calculated on the basis of the number of 47,622 cells in the penitentiary system. The major part of the cells has two places of capacity. The operational residential capacity is 66,864 places. Points (2.1.a) and (2.1.b): The penal institutions in Spain are designed to host both remand and convicted inmates. Separate figures are not available. SPAIN (CATALONIA) Point (2.0): Penal institutions in Catalonia are designed for remand detainees and sentenced prisoners. There is no difference made depending on the type of regime (pre-trial or serving sentences). All the custodial institutions have an infirmary wing. Several institutions might have special units for persons with health problems (mentally-ill offenders, drug-addicts, geriatric units etc.) where remand and sentenced inmates might be detained. Point (2.2): Juvenile offenders are managed under the authority of the General Direction of Juvenile Justice; therefore the places designed for this category of persons are not counted in the capacity of penal institutions. Point (2.3): The category of asylum seekers and illegal aliens is managed under the authority of State Police forces of Spain. SWEDEN Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. SWITZERLAND Data relate to 5th September 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (2.2): Capacity of institutions for execution of penal measures (including special measures for juvenile offenders). The majority of inmates held there are young adults. TURKEY Point (2.1): Total number of penal institutions is 369. Points (2.1.a) and (2.1.b): Generally, penal institutions are designed for remand detainees and sentenced prisoners. Therefore both categories are presented together. Yet, there are six prisons that are designed exclusively for remands and their capacity is 5,000. Point (2.2): Juvenile Reformatories: & Juvenile and Youth Closed Prisons. The number of this
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 55 type of institutions is 8. In Turkish Prison system there are 2 structures especially designed for juveniles: o In reformatory houses, sentenced juvenile offenders whose ages are between 12-18 years are held and they are allowed to continue their education in institution or outside. o In closed prisons, imprisoned (on remand) but not sentenced offenders whose age are between 15-21 years are held. This is the total capacity of all special places built for juvenile offenders. This figure includes the number of juvenile offenders who are held in 3 closed prisons (in Ankara, zmir and stanbul city) and 2 reformatory houses in Ankara and zmir. The rest of sentenced and on remand juveniles are held in separate units in adult prisons not in a specially built institution for juveniles. Surface area: 11m2 is the surface area foreseen for single room per person in adult prisons. For prison dormitories in adult prisons: 4m2/inmate. In some prisons this value increases to 8 m2 and more per one inmate. UKRAINE Point (2.2): Juveniles aged 18 years can be held in correctional institutions for juveniles or in penal institutions for adult male offenders. Surface area: for adults is 4 m2/inmate; for juvenile offenders it is 4 m2, for women with children or pregnant women it is 4.5 m2, in TB-hospitals and stationary medical facilities - 5 m2. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Data relate to 30th June 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (2.0): 90,897 is the total Useable Operational Capacity (Published Figure, 31 August 2012) Point (2.1): Prisons in England and Wales may perform a number of different functions, e.g. a local prison's predominant function will be to serve courts and receive remand prisoners but local prisons will also hold many short-term sentenced prisoners and sentenced prisoners who are waiting allocation to training prisons. NOMS does not record capacity data that is separated in to places assigned to hold remand and sentenced prisoners, this is because the prison estate remand/sentenced capacity split changes regularly. Point (2.2): 2,491 places (this comprised of 166 in Secure Children's Homes, 301 in Secure Training Centres and 2,024 in Young Offender Institutions). Board is committed to commissioning as many places in the secure estate as required. Point (2.3): 868 is the total Useable operational capacity of NOMS operated Removal Centres (Published Figure, 31 August 2012). UK: NORTHERN IRELAND Point (2.1): the Prison Establishments have capacity for 1,765 regardless of custodial category. Point (2.2): Woodlands Juvenile Justice Centre has capacity for 48 young people regardless of custodial category. Surface area: is not available for Prison Establishments but surface area for Woodlands Juvenile Justice Centre is 7,000m2 for the whole centre which includes custody units, the school classrooms and other facilities. UK: SCOTLAND Point (2.0): There is no separate accommodation for remand and sentenced prisoners. Female juvenile prisoners are held in separate accommodation within the adult female prison. The figure is the design capacity of the penal institutions. Point (2.2): There is one separate institution for young male offenders which has a design capacity of 760.
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56 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
FIGURE 1.A: COUNTRIES WITH MORE THAN 100 PRISONERS PER 100,000 I NHABITANTS (HIGHEST PRISON POPULATION RATES)
501.5 516.4
104.1 107.9 109.1 110.9 111.0 111.6 112.2 117.0 123.5 125.6 129.1 134.9 144.0 145.5 147.3 149.0 149.7 152.1 153.3 153.4 158.7 161.0 173.7 177.1 186.0 197.8 204.9 215.5 218.4 227.8 257.8 303.0 332.5 334.0
600
European Mean = 149.9
500
European Median = 125.6
400
300
200
100
0
Austria Cyprus Monaco Croatia Belgium Italy Greece France the FYRO Macedonia Luxembourg Portugal Spain (Catalonia) Armenia Bulgaria Spain (total) Malta Spain (State Adm.) UK: Engl. & Wales UK: Scotland Serbia Romania Turkey Albania Hungary Moldova Montenegro Slovak Rep. Czech Rep. Poland Azerbaijan Estonia Latvia Ukraine Lithuania Russian Fed. Georgia
In 2012, the European median Prison Population Rate [PPR] was of 125.6 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants. Compared to 2011, there can be observed an increase. The general rise across Member States of the Council of Europe became slightly more visible than for previous years. In 2010, the PPR was 122.6, in 2011 this indicator remained the same (122.2 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants), and reached the point of 125.6 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants in 2012. In 2012, there are 35 (69%) out of 51 analysed Prison Administrations that reported high PPR (more than 100 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants). FIGURE 1.B: COUNTRIES WITH PRISON POPULATION OVERCROWDING (MO RE THAN 100 PRISONERS PER 100 PLACES) 160 % 140 % 120 % 100 % 80 % 60 % 40 % 20 % 0%
100.3 101.4 102.6 104.6 104.6 105.2 106.1 106.3 106.7 107.3 110.7 111.7 112.7 117.0 118.9 120.9 131.7 138.8 140.1 145.4 159.3
Austria Georgia Slovak Rep. Finland UK: Scotland Slovenia the FYRO Macedonia Czech Rep. Lithuania Armenia Albania Montenegro Portugal France Romania Croatia Belgium Hungary Cyprus Italy Serbia
European Mean = 97.7 European Median = 97.8
In 2012, the median density in European penal institutions was of 97.8 inmates per 100 available places. We observe a very slight decrease of 1% compared to the previous year (in 2011, this same indicator was of 99.1). Nevertheless, it is compulsory to take into account that Greece (which in 2011 was the second country the most exposed to overcrowding) did not answer the SPACE I 2012 survey. Given this methodological limitation, we conclude that the problem of overcrowding is still as topical as ever. The number of countries with more than 130 inmates per 100 places remains relatively stable since 2008: 6 countries in 2008, 7 in 2009, 6 in 2010, 5 in 2011, and 5 in 2012). Comparisons of prison overcrowding should be conducted cautiously as the rules for establishing the capacity of penal institutions vary from country to country (e.g. some countries use the design capacity of their penal institutions and other used their operational capacity).
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 57
TABLE 1.3: SITUATION OF PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPT. 2012. ADJUSTED FIGURES
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.1.3
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Population on 1st January 2012 2 815 749 78 115 3 274 285 8 408 121 9 235 085 11 094 850
Total number of inmates (including pre-trial detainees) non-adjusted 4 890 41 4 714 8 756 21 034 12 310
Prison population rate per 100,000 inhabitants non-adjusted 173.7 52.5 144.0 104.1 227.8 111.0
2 338 277 1 429 290 7 327 224 4 275 984 862 011 10 505 445 5 580 516 1 325 217 5 401 267 65 287 861 4 497 617 81 843 743 11 123 034 9 931 925 319 575 4 582 707 59 394 207 2 044 813 36 475 3 003 641 524 853 417 546 3 559 541 37 580 621 240 16 730 348 4 985 870 38 538 447 10 542 398 20 095 996 143 056 383 33 376 7 216 649 5 404 322 2 055 496 47 265 321 39 694 413 7 570 908 9 482 855 7 954 662 2 059 794 74 724 269 45 453 282 56 567 800 1 823 634 5 313 600
1 700 1 062 10 663 4 741 930 22 644 3 829 3 417 3 196 76 407 23 227 69 268 12 479 17 585 152 4 323 66 271 6 195 8 10 033 659 622 6 621 41 1 229 11 324 3 551 84 156 13 614 31 883 717 400 1 11 070 11 075 1 377 69 621 59 410 10 211 6 431 6 599 2 543 120 275 151 122 86 048 1 779 8 145
72.7 74.3 145.5 110.9 107.9 215.5 68.6 257.8 59.2 117.0 516.4 84.6 112.2 177.1 47.6 94.3 111.6 303.0 21.9 334.0 125.6 149.0 186.0 109.1 197.8 67.7 71.2 218.4 129.1 158.7 501.5 3.0 153.4 204.9 67.0 147.3 149.7 134.9 67.8 83.0 123.5 161.0 332.5 152.1 97.6 153.3 149.9 125.6 3.0 516.4
Total number of inmates held in adult custody for criminal matters adjusted 4 752 41 4 685 8 207 21 010 11 046
Prison population rate per 100,000 inhabitants adjusted 168.8 52.5 143.1 97.6 227.5 99.6
1 657 1 052 9 420 4 657 658 22 472 3 829 3 247 3 024 66 704 [23 227] 62 262 [12 479] [17 585] 152 4 229 65 104 6 147 8 9 831 625 [622] 6 577 41 1 228 11 128 3 551 84 156 13 152 29 743 [717 400] 1 10 539 10 882 1 357 66 955 56 791 10 164 6 431 5 949 2 490 119 424 149 820 83 626 1 741 7 444
70.9 73.6 128.6 108.9 76.3 213.9 68.6 245.0 56.0 102.2 [516.4] 76.1 [112.2] 177.1 47.6 92.3 109.6 300.6 21.9 327.3 119.1 [149.0] 184.8 109.1 197.7 66.5 71.2 218.4 124.8 148.0 [501.5] 3.0 146.0 201.4 66.0 141.7 143.1 134.3 67.8 74.8 120.9 159.8 329.6 147.8 95.5 140.1 145.8 120.9 3.0 516.4
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58 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 1.4: SITUATION OF PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 BY DECREASING PRISON POPULATION RATES (NON-ADJUSTED AND ADJUSTED FIGURES)
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.1.4
Country 1 Georgia 2 Russian Fed. 3 Lithuania 4 Ukraine 5 Latvia 6 Estonia 7 Azerbaijan 8 Poland 9 Czech Rep. 10 Slovak Rep. 11 Montenegro 12 Moldova 13 Hungary 14 Albania 15 Turkey 16 Romania 17 Serbia 18 UK: Scotland 19 UK: Engl. & Wales 20 Spain (State Adm.) 21 Malta 22 Spain (total) 23 Bulgaria 24 Armenia 25 Spain (Catalonia) 26 Portugal 27 Luxembourg 28 The FYRO Macedonia 29 France 30 Greece 31 Italy 32 Belgium 33 Croatia 34 Monaco 35 Cyprus 36 Austria 37 UK: North. Ireland 38 Ireland 39 Germany 40 Switzerland 41 BH: Rep. Srpska 42 BH: Fed. BiH 43 Norway 44 Denmark 45 Sweden 46 Netherlands 47 Slovenia 48 Finland 49 Andorra 50 Iceland 51 Liechtenstein 52 San Marino 53 BH: BiH (st. level) Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Total number of prisoners non-adjusted 23 227 717 400 10 033 151 122 6 195 3 417 21 034 84 156 22 644 11 075 1 229 6 621 17 585 4 890 120 275 31 883 11 070 8 145 86 048 59 410 622 69 621 10 663 4 714 10 211 13 614 659 2 543 76 407 12 479 66 271 12 310 4 741 41 930 8 756 1 779 4 323 69 268 6 599 1 062 1 700 3 551 3 829 6 431 11 324 1 377 3 196 41 152 8 1
Prison population rate non- adjusted 516.4 501.5 334.0 332.5 303.0 257.8 227.8 218.4 215.5 204.9 197.8 186.0 177.1 173.7 161.0 158.7 153.4 153.3 152.1 149.7 149.0 147.3 145.5 144.0 134.9 129.1 125.6 123.5 117.0 112.2 111.6 111.0 110.9 109.1 107.9 104.1 97.6 94.3 84.6 83.0 74.3 72.7 71.2 68.6 67.8 67.7 67.0 59.2 52.5 47.6 21.9 3.0 149.9 125.6 3.0 516.4
Country 1 Georgia 2 Russian Fed. 3 Ukraine 4 Lithuania 5 Latvia 6 Estonia 7 Azerbaijan 8 Poland 9 Czech Rep. 10 Slovak Rep. 11 Montenegro 12 Moldova 13 Hungary 14 Albania 15 Turkey 16 Malta 17 Romania 18 UK: Engl. & Wales 19 Serbia 20 Armenia 21 Spain (State Adm.) 22 Spain (total) 23 UK: Scotland 24 Spain (Catalonia) 25 Bulgaria 26 Portugal 27 The FYRO Macedonia 28 Luxembourg 29 Greece 30 Italy 31 Monaco 32 Croatia 33 France 34 Belgium 35 Austria 36 UK: North. Ireland 37 Ireland 38 Cyprus 39 Germany 40 Switzerland 41 BH: Rep. Srpska 42 Norway 43 BH: Fed. BiH 44 Denmark 45 Sweden 46 Netherlands 47 Slovenia 48 Finland 49 Andorra 50 Iceland 51 Liechtenstein 52 San Marino 53 BH: BiH (st. level)
Total number of prisoners adjusted [23 227] [717 400] 149 820 9 831 6 147 3 247 21 010 84 156 22 472 10 882 1 228 6 577 [17 585] 4 752 119 424 [622] 29 743 83 626 10 539 4 685 56 791 66 955 7 444 10 164 9 420 13 152 2 490 625 [12 479] 65 104 41 4 657 66 704 11 046 8 207 1 741 4 229 658 62 262 5 949 1 052 3 551 1 657 3 829 6 431 11 128 1 357 3 024 41 152 8 1
Prison population rate ­ adjusted [516.4] [501.5] 329.6 327.3 300.6 245.0 227.5 218.4 213.9 201.4 197.7 184.8 [177.1] 168.8 159.8 [149.0] 148.0 147.8 146.0 143.1 143.1 141.7 140.1 134.3 128.6 124.8 120.9 119.1 [112.2] 109.6 109.1 108.9 102.2 99.6 97.6 95.5 92.3 76.3 76.1 74.8 73.6 71.2 70.9 68.6 67.8 66.5 66.0 56.0 52.5 47.6 21.9 3.0
Diff. (%) between total numbers [0.0] [0.0] 0.9 2.0 0.8 5.0 0.1 0.0 0.8 1.7 0.1 0.7 [0.0] 2.8 0.7 [0.0] 6.7 2.8 4.8 0.6 4.4 3.8 8.6 0.5 11.7 3.4 2.1 5.2 [0.0] 1.8 0.0 1.8 12.7 10.3 6.3 2.1 2.2 29.2 10.1 9.8 0.9 0.0 2.5 0.0 0.0 1.7 1.5 5.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
145.8 120.9 3.0 516.4
3.2 1.7 0.0 29.2
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 59
NOTES ­ TABLES 1.3 AND 1.4
In Tables 1.3 and 1.4, figures have been adjusted according to the information Private facilities
provided by the countries on the categories included and excluded in their total prison population (see Table 1.1). Indeed, in many countries, special institutions for the detention of juvenile offenders, drug-addicts, mentally ill persons, and administrative aliens are not under the authority of the Prison Administration.
·Persons held in private facilities were kept in the adjusted figures (Germany, Turkey, UK: England
As a consequence, persons held in these institutions do not appear in the total prison population. On the contrary, as can be seen in Table 1.1, other countries
and Wales, and UK: Scotland).
include all or some of these categories in their prison population. Thus, in order
to produce figures on prison populations that are comparable across Europe, in Table 1.3, all persons
under these special regimes were excluded from the total number of prisoners.
The total adjusted number of prisoners corresponds, in principle, to the number of inmates held in penal institutions for adult inmates which are under the authority of the Prison Administration. Nevertheless, these data must be considered with caution as the adjustments do not necessary take into account all the particularities of the statistical counting rules applied by each country.
METHODOLOGICAL REMARKS As some figures were missing (NA) in Table 1.1., it was not possible to adjust them in Table 1.3. Specifically, the following adjustments cannot be made visible: Category of "Persons held in custodial institutions/units for juvenile offenders": accurate figures are not available for Hungary. Therefore the adjusted figures are presented between square brackets []. For Georgia, Greece, Malta and Russian Federation only partial data (total figures) were available as these four countries did not participate in SPACE I 2012 survey. The lack of additional information made impossible any adjustment of these figures. Therefore, figures for these countries are presented between square brackets []. The results of the adjustments made on the raw data show that the average difference between the non- adjusted and the adjusted figures is less than 5% (Table 1.4). Only four countries showed a difference of more than 10% between both figures: Cyprus (29.2%), France (12.7%), Belgium (10.3%), and Germany (10.1%). In the special case of Cyprus, the difference is explained by a high number of persons held in police stations who are assimilated to pre-trial detainees. The adjustments made for the Netherlands in the reports before 2009 (until SPACE I 2009report) are not comparable to the ones shown in the present report. The reason is that, since 2010 year, the Netherlands include only adult inmates held in penal institutions, excluding thus juveniles, mentally-ill offenders and administrative aliens detained under special [custodial] regimes (see notes to Table 1.1), which were previously included in the total number of prisoners. In the present report, the adjustment is made by excluding only the category of persons under Electronic Monitoring (difference only 1.7%). In the SPACE I 2009 report the adjustment concerned also juveniles, persons held in custodial clinics and administrative aliens (which led to a difference of 28.6%). For France, the adjustment was made taking into account not only the figures provided in Table 1.1., but also the comments to that table. Therefore, the adjusted figure (66,704) shows the real number of persons held in penal institutions (йcrouйs dйtenus) and excludes all those who were not de facto held in custody. Figures in Table 1.3: according to the information provided on the age of persons held in custodial institutions/units for juvenile offenders, in many countries there are high proportions of that population which are actually young adults aged 18 and over (e.g. Germany, Romania, Serbia). Yet, since they are held in these special penal institutions, it is assumed that some particular regimes of detention are applied to them and they are not assimilated to adult inmates.
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60 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 1.5: EVOLUTION OF PRISON POPULATIONS BETWEEN 2003 AND 2012
(a) Total number of inmates (including pre-trial detainees) on 1st September of each year (source SPACE I)*; (b) Prison population rate per 100,000 inhabitants on 1st September of each year (source: SPACE I)*; (c) Change 2003-2012 = Evolution (in percentage) of prison population rates between 2003 and 2012; (d) Change 2011-2012 = Evolution (in percentage) of prison population rates between 2011 and 2012. *N.B. ­ For some countries, the accurate reference date may vary across years (see SPACE I 2003 to 2011 for details). National population figures have been updated for all years (see Notes)
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.1.5
Country
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012 (c)
(d)
Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland
(a) ... 61 3 429 7 816 16 345 8 688 ... 1 265 892 10 056 2 594 355 17 053 3 577 4 797 3 437 57 440 6 406 79 567 8 555 17 012 112 2 986
(b) ... 90.8 106.8 96.5 199.3 83.9 ... 44.6 63.7 128.2 58.4 49.6 167.1 66.4 353.7 66.0 92.8 147.2 96.4 77.7 167.7 38.8 75.3
(a) ... ... 2 727 ... 18 259 ... ... 1 247 977 11 782 2 846 546 ... 3 762 4 565 3 446 56 271 ... 79 676 ... 16 410 115 ...
(b) ... ... 84.9 ... 220.9 ... ... 43.8 69.8 151.0 64.1 74.8 ... 69.7 337.9 66.0 90.3 ... 96.5 ... 162.2 39.6 ...
(a) 3 425 ... 2 822 8 767 16 969 9 371 ... 1 344 1 029 12 240 3 485 529 19 052 4 132 4 410 3 823 57 582 8 668 78 992 9 589 16 394 119 ...
(b) 109.3 ... 87.8 106.9 203.3 89.7 ... 47.2 72.9 157.7 78.4 70.6 186.4 76.4 327.3 73.0 91.7 200.6 95.7 86.5 162.4 40.5 ...
(a) 3 884 30 5 682 8 780 17 809 9 971 18 ... 952 12 218 3 833 599 18 912 3 759 4 310 3 714 57 876 13 419 79 146 10 113 15 591 119 3 135
(b) 123.3 38.2 176.5 106.4 211.1 94.9 ... ... 65.9 158.3 86.3 78.2 184.5 69.3 320.5 70.7 91.5 304.9 96.0 90.9 154.7 39.7 74.5
(a) ... ... 3 462 8 887 ... 9 879 ... 1 557 928 11 032 4 127 834 18 901 3 624 3 456 3 624 63 500 18 384 77 868 10 700 14 892 115 3 305
(b) ... ... 107.4 107.3 ... 93.3 ... 54.7 64.5 143.7 92.9 107.1 183.7 66.5 257.4 68.7 99.8 418.3 94.6 95.8 147.9 37.4 76.6
(a) 5 041 60 3 825 7 899 20 986 10 234 19 ... 924 10 723 4 734 831 20 502 3 451 3 656 3 531 66 712 19 507 74 706 11 798 15 079 140 3 523
(b) 159.0 72.2 118.4 95.0 243.2 95.9 ... ... 64.3 140.3 106.7 105.3 197.5 63.0 272.6 66.6 104.2 445.2 90.9 105.2 150.1 44.4 80.0
(a) 4 482 68 3 989 8 423 20 470 10 901 ... 1 619 961 10 028 4 891 883 22 021 3 721 3 555 3 589 66 307 19 825 73 263 11 080 15 724 118 3 919
(b) 140.7 80.5 123.2 100.8 230.1 101.4 ... 56.8 67.0 131.8 110.3 110.8 210.4 67.5 265.2 67.4 103.0 452.1 89.3 98.4 156.8 36.9 88.1
(a) 4 750 36 4 918 8 597 21 904 11 382 20 1 736 1 046 10 470 5 165 900 21 955 3 944 3 470 3 316 66 925 23 684 71 634 11 934 16 459 165 4 352
(b) 148.2 42.8 151.3 102.6 243.4 105.0 ... 60.6 73.0 138.4 116.7 112.1 209.0 71.3 258.9 62.0 103.4 533.9 87.6 105.6 164.4 51.9 97.4
(a) 4 772 36 4 514 8 767 23 191 11 825 20 1 671 1 054 11 137 5 084 905 23 170 3 947 3 385 3 261 72 326 24 186 70 931 12 479 17 413 149 4 257
(b) 168.5 42.3 138.4 104.3 254.5 107.5 ... 58.3 73.7 151.1 115.2 107.8 220.9 71.0 252.6 60.7 111.3 541.2 86.8 110.3 174.4 46.8 93.1
(a) 4 890 41 4 714 8 756 21 034 12 310 ... 1 700 1 062 10 663 4 741 930 22 644 3 829 3 417 3 196 76 407 23 227 69 268 ... 17 585 152 4 323
(b) 173.7 52.5 144.0 104.1 227.8 111.0 ... 72.7 74.3 145.5 110.9 107.9 215.5 68.6 257.8 59.2 117.0 516.4 84.6 ... 177.1 47.6 94.3
... -42.2 34.8 7.9 14.3 32.3 ... 63.2 16.6 13.5 89.9 [117.3] 29.0 3.3 -27.1 -10.4 26.0 250.9 -12.2 ... 5.6 22.5 25.2
3.1 23.9 4.1 -0.2 -10.5 3.2 ... 24.7 0.8 -3.7 -3.8 0.1 -2.4 -3.3 2.1 -2.5 5.2 -4.6 -2.5 ... 1.5 1.7 1.3
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 61
Country
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012 (c)
(d)
Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (St. Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: E&W UK: NIR UK: SCO
(a) 57 238 8 135 18 9 958 498 278 10 729 ... ... 14 025 2 914 80 692 14 232 45 337 860 640 0 ... 8 829 1 099 55 244 ... ... 6 755 5 266 1 598 64 051 198 386 72 992 1 185 6 642
(b) 99.9 348.9 53.2 287.6 111.1 70.0 296.5 ... ... 86.6 64.0 211.1 136.7 208.2 592.9 ... ... 164.1 55.1 132.6 ... ... 75.6 72.0 79.0 91.8 414.8 138.3 69.6 131.3
(a) 56 090 7 731 7 7 827 548 ... 10 383 ... ... 16 173 2 975 79 344 ... 40 085 ... 0 ... 9 504 1 126 59 224 51 302 7 922 7 332 6 021 1 747 71 148 193 489 74 488 1 295 6 885
(b) 96.9 333.3 20.4 227.1 120.5 ... 287.8 ... ... 99.5 65.0 207.8 ... 184.6 ... 0.0 ... 176.7 56.4 137.1 141.0 116.3 81.7 81.8 86.1 100.6 407.8 140.4 75.7 135.6
(a) 59 649 7 228 10 7 993 693 298 8 990 34 ... 15 390 3 097 82 656 12 889 37 929 823 672 1 7 775 9 289 1 132 61 269 ... ... 7 054 6 111 2 132 54 296 179 519 76 190 1 337 6 795
(b) 102.0 313.4 28.9 233.4 150.3 74.0 249.7 102.8 ... 94.4 67.2 216.5 122.4 175.1 574.1 3.4 104.3 172.5 56.7 138.9 ... ... 78.3 82.4 104.8 75.8 381.1 142.6 77.5 133.4
(a) 38 309 6 531 10 8 078 755 343 8 817 37 ... 13 747 3 164 88 647 12 636 35 910 871 609 1 8 553 8 657 1 301 64 120 ... ... 7 175 5 888 2 038 67 795 165 408 77 982 1 502 7 192
(b) 65.2 284.6 28.6 237.4 161.0 84.7 245.6 113.5 ... 84.2 68.2 232.3 119.6 166.2 610.6 3.3 115.2 160.6 64.9 143.4 ... ... 79.3 78.9 100.0 93.5 353.8 145.1 86.2 140.6
(a) 45 612 6 452 6 7 842 744 ... 8 130 36 ... 12 919 3 280 90 199 11 587 31 290 871 609 1 8 978 8 235 1 336 66 467 57 072 9 395 6 770 5 715 2 050 85 865 154 055 79 734 1 445 7 453
(b) 77.1 282.8 17.1 231.7 156.2 ... 227.0 110.2 ... 79.0 70.1 236.6 109.3 145.1 612.9 3.3 121.4 152.7 66.5 147.0 150.2 130.3 74.3 76.1 100.4 123.2 331.5 147.4 82.1 144.9
(a) 55 831 6 544 10 7 744 673 577 7 252 34 ... 11 799 3 278 83 152 10 807 27 262 887 723 2 9 510 8 313 1 318 71 778 61 939 9 839 6 853 5 780 2 235 99 416 148 339 83 194 1 523 8 088
(b) 93.6 288.2 28.3 230.0 139.1 140.6 203.0 96.2 ... 71.9 69.2 218.2 101.8 126.6 625.1 6.2 129.1 153.9 65.6 155.5 159.7 133.6 74.6 76.1 109.3 140.8 321.1 152.8 85.8 156.5
(a) 63 981 6 999 7 8 295 679 494 6 769 23 986 11 629 3 285 84 003 11 099 27 028 880 671 2 10 262 9 170 1 365 78 342 67 986 10 356 7 147 6 084 2 461 115 540 146 394 83 454 1 456 8 113
(b) 106.6 309.5 19.7 247.6 137.6 119.4 189.7 64.5 156.5 70.5 68.4 220.3 104.4 125.7 620.6 6.4 139.9 169.4 67.2 167.6 173.1 138.5 77.2 79.0 120.1 161.6 318.5 152.3 81.4 156.2
(a) 68 345 6 778 14 8 887 690 583 6 415 12 1 438 11 737 3 636 80 728 11 613 28 191 838 500 0 11 197 10 068 1 351 75 859 65 098 10 761 6 922 6 181 2 516 120 391 152 169 85 002 1 475 7 890
(b) 113.3 301.5 39.0 267.0 137.4 140.7 180.0 33.4 233.3 70.8 74.8 211.5 109.2 131.4 590.8 0.0 153.2 185.6 66.0 161.3 164.8 143.2 74.1 79.4 122.6 165.9 332.4 153.9 82.0 151.1
(a) 67 104 6 556 13 9 504 644 599 6 337 32 1 328 11 579 3 535 81 382 12 681 29 823 780 100 2 10 955 10 713 1 273 71 995 61 279 10 716 6 742 6 065 2 515 126 725 158 532 85 374 1 703 8 267
(b) 110.7 316.0 36.0 311.3 125.8 144.1 178.0 90.3 214.2 69.5 71.8 211.2 119.9 139.3 546.1 6.3 150.6 198.7 62.1 156.0 158.3 144.1 71.6 77.1 122.2 171.9 347.7 152.0 94.3 157.3
(a) 66 271 6 195 8 10 033 659 622 6 621 41 1 229 11 324 3 551 84 156 13 614 31 883 717 400 1 11 070 11 075 1 377 69 621 59 410 10 211 6 431 6 599 2 543 120 275 151 122 86 048 1 779 8 145
(b) 111.6 303.0 21.9 334.0 125.6 149.0 186.0 109.1 197.8 67.7 71.2 218.4 129.1 158.7 501.5 3.0 153.4 204.9 67.0 147.3 149.7 134.9 67.8 83.0 123.5 161.0 332.5 152.1 97.6 153.3
11.7 -13.2 -58.7 16.1 13.0 112.9 -37.3 ... ... -21.9 11.3 3.4 -5.6 -23.8 -15.4 ... ... 24.9 21.6 11.1 ... ... -10.2 15.2 56.3 75.3 -19.9 10.0 40.2 16.7
0.8 -4.1 -39.0 7.3 -0.2 3.4 4.5 20.8 -7.7 -2.6 -0.9 3.4 7.7 13.9 -8.2 -52.3 1.9 3.2 7.9 -5.6 -5.4 -6.4 -5.3 7.6 1.0 -6.4 -4.4 0.1 3.5 -2.6
Source: SPACE I 2003 to SPACE I 2011
NB1: The Prison Population Rates for Azerbaijan are recalculated for 2010 and 2011 including only inmates managed by the Prison Service and the pre-trail detention facility under the Ministry of National Security.
NB2: The Prison Population Rates for the Netherlands are fully recalculated in the whole series on the basis of the figures available in 2012 (i.e. only adult inmates).
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62 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 1.6: YEAR-TO-YEAR PERCENTAGE CHANGE OF PRISON POPULATION RATES BETWEEN 2011 AND 2012
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.1.6
France Lithuania Switzerland Portugal Slovenia Romania Monaco Andorra BH: Fed. BiH Increase of more than 5%
5.2 7.3 7.6 7.7 7.9 13.9 [20.8] [23.9] 24.7
Georgia Ukraine Latvia Croatia Bulgaria Denmark Netherlands UK: Scotland Finland Germany Czech Republic Norway Luxembourg Austria UK: England and Wales Cyprus BH: Republika Srpska Italy FYRO Macedonia Ireland Hungary Iceland Serbia Estonia Albania Slovak Republic Belgium Poland Malta UK: Northern Ireland Armenia Moldova Between -5% and +5%
-4.6
-4.4
-4.1
-3.8
-3.7
-3.3
-2.6
-2.6
-2.5
-2.5
-2.4
-0.9
-0.2
-0.2
0.1
0.1
0.8
0.8
1.0
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.1 Liechtenstein
[-39.0]
3.1 Azerbaijan
-10.5
3.2 Russian Federation
-8.2
3.2 Montenegro
-7.7
3.4 Spain (Catalonia)
-6.4
3.4 Turkey
-6.4
3.5 Spain (total)
-5.6
4.1 Spain (State Adm.)
-5.4
4.5 Sweden
-5.3
Decrease of more than 5%
NOTES ­ TABLES 1.5 AND 1.6 Tables 1.5 and 1.6 are based on non-adjusted figures in order to ensure comparability with data from previous years. In order to increase accuracy, the percentages shown in in Table 1.6 were calculated on the basis of the raw data provided by the countries. In Table 1.5, all previous rates were recalculated. The recalculation took into account: (1) Modifications to previous figures provided by the countries, and (2) Updates to the national demographic data (total population) for each year made by Eurostat. Indeed, when producing annual SPACE reports, sometimes only estimates of the demographical situation in each country are available. This methodological limitation led to some distortions for countries where the calculations are based on estimates or provisional data. In that context, the first SPACE reports used data from the Council of Europe demographic reports, which are no longer produced. Consequently, we later revised the results for all these countries and increased the comparability by using the same data source for demographical data in almost all CoE Member States. Currently, the main source for national population data is the Eurostat database, which is updated constantly and includes figures for some of non-EU countries as well. Thus, in order to reduce as much as possible the effects of different estimation procedures and to use the latest available data, the majority of the recalculated rates were based on the Eurostat figures of national populations.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 63
Figures retrieved from the Eurostat database relate to 1st January of each reference year. However, the lack of information for some countries or national entities required the use of data from other sources (for more details, see Chapter Demographic Data). In Table 1.6, percentages for the two Prison Administrations of Spain (State Administration and Catalonia) were calculated separately. The figure for San Marino is not presented in Table 1.6 due to the very small total number of inmates held in the country (usually less than 10 persons) these variations are extreme. In the same perspective, for countries whose total number of inmates is lower than 50, the increase or decrease percentages are presented between brackets (Andorra, Liechtenstein, and Monaco). AZERBAIJAN Total prison populations for 2010 and 2011 were amended. The number of inmates managed by the Prison Service was 21,904 inmates in 2010 and 23,191 inmates in 2011. This feature is due to the fact that inmates held in police stations were excluded from the calculation of the total number of prison population. Therefore, total number of inmates (21,034) in 2012 corresponds only to the number of persons held in penal institutions of the Penitentiary Service of the Ministry of Justice and those in the pre-trail detention facility under the Ministry of National Security. BULGARIA Since 2004, all Bulgarian inputs include persons held in the Investigative Detention Facilities [IDF]. The corrected series for the period lasting from 2004 until 2012 are the following:
2004 PPR 151.0
2005 PPR 157.7
2006 PPR 158.3
2007 PPR 143.7
2008 PPR 140.3
2009 PPR 131.8
2010 PPR 138.4
2011 PPR 151.1
2012 PPR 145.5
Total 11 782 Total 12 240 Total 12 218 Total 11 032 Total 10 723 Total 10 028 Total 10 470 Total 11 137 Total 10 663
IDF
847
IDF
804
IDF 1160 IDF
761
IDF 1315 IDF 1022 IDF 1091 IDF 1252 IDF 1170
Prisons 10 935 Prisons 11 436 Prisons 11 058 Prisons 10 271 Prisons 9 408 Prisons 9 006 Prisons 9379 Prisons 9 885 Prisons 9493
CYPRUS For the calculations in Table 1.5 we used data including detainees held in police stations. Yet, this information has probably not been provided for 2003. Before 2005, the information on the distribution by categories of prisoners in different types of penal institutions is missing. Therefore, it was impossible to recalculate the rate per 100,000 inhabitants taking into account only the persons held in prisons (i.e. excluding those held in police stations). As a consequence, the percentage change between 2003 and 2013 should be interpreted cautiously. For the calculations in Table 1.6 we used the total number of prisoners including those held in police stations. The total number of prisoners in 2011 was 905 and 930 inmates in 2012 respectively. Thus, the increase observed in Table 1.6 is accurate. ITALY Data for 2004 are not comparable with data for previous years, because until 2003 the prison population included juveniles, while since 2004 they are no longer counted. Thus, data are comparable only from 2004 to 2012. THE NETHERLANDS All the figures for the Netherlands have been recalculated by excluding the data on all the available categories for: o Juvenile offenders in facilities for juvenile offenders o Persons held in custodial clinics (TBS) placed there under hospital orders, and o Illegal aliens held for administrative reasons The only additional category included as being managed by Prison Administration is the category
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64 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
SPAIN
of people under Electronic Monitoring. In the Table 1.6 we used the raw data which relate to the same categories included in the total number of prisoners in 2011 and in 2012. These categories include adult inmates held in regular penal institutions as well as persons under Electronic Monitoring. Table 1.5: In order to ensure the accuracy of the comparisons with the previous years' data, we added Catalonian data in the total number of prisoners (Spain (total) State Administration and Catalonia), and we recalculated the whole prison population rate for the country. Table 1.6: The trends for State Administration and for Catalonia are presented separately. Apart from that, we also recalculated the trend for the whole country.
BRIEF ANALYSIS In 2012, there were seven European Prison Administrations that experienced decrease of more than 5% in their prison population rates: Liechtenstein, Azerbaijan, Russia, Montenegro, Turkey, Spain, and Sweden. Indeed, these observations are relative as the total number of inmates in Lichtenstein was only 8 inmates on 1st September 2012 and 13 inmates in 2011 respectively. As a consequence, the variations observed on such low values should not be considered as being significant. In a longitudinal perspective, it may be relevant to observe the decreasing trend in Russia: -8.2% between 2011 and 2012 that already existed between 2010 and 2011 (-7.6%). Previous trends (between 2010 and 2011) for other countries in the group that decreased their PPR are as following: Montenegro -8.2%, Spain -3.3%, Sweden -3.4%, and Turkey +3.6%. All these countries started their decreasing trends during the period from 2010 to 2011. The number of countries that experienced decreasing trends between 2011 and 2012 remained relatively stable (8 countries) compared to the number in 2011, which was 7, in 2010 ­ 5, and in 2009 this number was equal to 9 countries. On the opposite, there are 9 countries that experienced an increase of more than 5% in 2012. Two out of nine concerned countries are Andorra and Monaco. The fluctuations in these countries should be interpreted in line with the warnings provided previously for Liechtenstein. In 2012, the list of the countries that increase their PPR was once again reduced compared to 2011. It must be emphasised that in 2011 there were 11 countries on this list and in 2010 their number was even higher (19). This observation brings us to suppose that a number of reforms are undergoing in European countries. These changes do probably reinforce the perception according to which the imprisonment should be used as ultima ratio by criminal justice systems. Some of the countries that experienced increase of their PPR between 2011 and 2012 had already the same problem during the previous period from 2010 to 2011. More specifically, during the latest concerned period of time, the increase was observed in: France (+7.6%), Lithuania (+16.6%), Portugal (+9.9%), and Romania (+6.0%). Countries that changed their trends from increasing between 2010/11 into decreasing (or stable) between 2011/12 are: Czech Republic (+5.7% for the 1st period to -2.4% for the 2nd one) and Bulgaria (+9.2% for the 1st period to -3.7% for the 2nd one). Finally, the calculated median value of the evolution trends between 2011 and 2012 was of +0.1%. Nevertheless, this change does not allow concluding to a European stability of prison population rates. One should pay attention to the fact that the evolution from the European median of 122.2 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants in 2011 to 125.6 in 2012 does actually represent an increase of +2.7%.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 65 MAP 1: PRISON POPULATION RATES PER 100,000 INHAB ITANTS Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.m.1
* ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes: The three-letter country codes are the ones published by ISO (International Organisation of Standardization). These country codes were used to identify Member States of the Council of Europe on the map presented above (excluding Bosnia and Herzegovina). For constituent countries of the United Kingdom we have used the three-letter codes from FIFA (International Federation of Association Football): ENG, WAL, NIR, and SCO.
ALB AND ARM AUT AZE BEL
Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium
BIH
Bosnia and Herzegovina
BGR Bulgaria
HRV Croatia
CYP Cyprus
CZE
Czech Republic
DNK Denmark
EST Estonia
FIN Finland
FRA France
GEO Georgia
DEU Germany
GRC Greece HUN Hungary ISL Iceland
IRL Ireland ITA Italy LVA Latvia LIE Liechtenstein LTU Lithuania LUX Luxembourg MLT Malta MDA Moldova MCO Monaco MNE Montenegro
NLD Netherlands
NOR Norway POL Poland
PRT Portugal
ROU Romania
RUS
Russian Federation
SMR San Marino
SRB Serbia SVK Slovakia SVN Slovenia
ESP Spain
SWE CHE MKD TUR
Sweden Switzerland The FYRO Macedonia Turkey
UKR Ukraine
UK: ENG& WAL UK: NIR UK: SCO BLR
UK: England and Wales UK: Northern Ireland UK: Scotland Belarus (Not CoE member)
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66 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 2: AGE STRUCTURE OF PRISON POPULATION ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.2
Total number of inmates (including pre-trial detainees) 4 890 41 4 714 8 756 21 034 12 310 20 1 700 1 062 9 493 4 741 [694] 22 644 3 829 3 417 3 196 76 407 24 186 69 268 12 479 17 585 152 4 323 66 271 6 195 8 10 033 659 599 6 621 41
Less than 14 years (a) NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 0
From 14 to less than 16 years
From 16 to less than 18 years
(b)
(c)
50
88
0
0
14
19
117
0
24
23
68
0 NAP NAP NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP 69 NAP NAP
2
2
0
7
0
63
25
50
0
4
4
79
0
7
9
44
0
6
599
133
36
545
NAP
163
NAP
0
1
1
7
41
NAP
NA
NA
NAP
33
NAP
0
0
NAP
1
88
NAP
NAP
1
NAP 2
3
13
1
2
From 18 to less than 21 years
From 21 to less than 25 years
(d)
(e)
405
996
3
1
597
461
1 155
NA
NA
477
1 386
From 25 to less than 30 years (f) 1 039 7 1 842 1 622 NA 2 268
55 12 315 93 24 709 354 167 78 5 351
203 212 1 005 131 63 2 505 679 445 292 13 565
400 208 1 570 508 210 4 047 680 629 592 15 552
2 916
7 353
11 078
1 480 7 286 1 127 223 0 678 29
1 606 19 674 5 283 604 0 3 235 70
2 688 34 971 9 528 938 1 110
261
1 760
5
4
7
From 30 to less than 40 years (g) 1 186 12 1 290 2 485 NA 4 047 529 282 3 076 1 787 151 8 024 1 103 1 159 1 115 20 310 16 858 5 872 50 1 390 21 876 1 359 4 2 571 214 1 719 9
From 40 to less than 50 years
From 50 to less than 60 years
(h)
(i)
689
299
10
8
893
1 704
847
NA
NA
2 498
1 097
286 211 1 634 1 065 156 4 964 698 628 680 12 361
155 104 663 648 66 1 853 245 245 321 5 902
11 443
5 295
3 870 25 609 16 730 744 2 1 428 153
1 559 11 228 8 290 310 1 603 66
856
431
6
4
From 60 to less than 70 years (j) 128 0 269 NA 364 51 17 200 205 19 426 53 80 102 1 710 2 92 2 797 0 15 1
From 70 to less than 80 years (k) 10 0 78 66 NA 72
80 and over (l) 0 0 3 NA 9
15
2
9
0
40
38
1
0
32
1
9
1
11
0
8
2
2 698
373
347
2
1
21
3
604
84
0
0
180
0
1
97
0
0
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 67
Country Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
Total number of inmates (including pre-trial detainees) 1 229 11 324 3 551 84 156 13 614 31 883 780 100 1 11 070 11 075 1 377 69 621 59 410 10 211 6 431 6 599 2 543 120 275 151 122 86 048 1 779 8 145
Less than 14 years (a) NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP 0 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 29 NAP 0 2
From 14 to less than 16 years (b) 0 0 0 6 NA 51 0 14 15 3 0 0 0 0 54 NA 384 83 73 14 97
From 16 to less than 18 years (c) 1 1 7 406 60 396
From 18 to less than 21 years (d) 46 781 163 4 106 292 1 686
From 21 to less than 25 years
From 25 to less than 30 years
(e)
(f)
150 1 756 499 8 649 1 328 11 237
333 2 012 624 19 631 2 385
From 30 to less than 40 years (g) 359 3 141 1 100 22 444 4 548 10 442
From 40 to less than 50 years (h) 224 2 431 744 14 213 3 080 5 264
From 50 to less than 60 years (i) 95 947 304 12 013 1 423 2 262
From 60 to less than 70 years (j) 20 216 93 1 740
From 70 to less than 80 years
80 and over
(k)
(l)
1
0
36
1
15
2
458
498
545
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
59
542
2 321
2 448
2 790
1 691
873
241
84
7
97
499
1 325
1 975
3 537
2 282
1 079
242
23
1
19
18
118
253
513
255
151
44
2
1
0
990
5 305
10 709
24 318
18 620
7 181
2 041
349
60
0
747
4 383
9 027
20 607
16 253
6 236
1 760
295
54
0
243
922
1 682
3 711
2 367
945
281
54
6
0
160
648
889
1 334
1 012
582
227
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
4
59
337
541
923
416
208
46
9
0
1 493
7 400
15 151
22 420
38 994
21 479
9 512
2 724
603
86
1 219
3 054
13 114
45 540
50 586
31 801
3 804
1 921
1 209
7 443
14 005
15 575
22 900
15 116
6 460
2 449
730
88
22
139
334
344
430
300
139
45
9
1
609 NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
General remark: The breakdown by categories of age does not always correspond to the total number of inmates as provided in Table 1. For more specific information by country, see the notes below.
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68 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
TABLE 2.1: AGE AND CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.2.1
Age of criminal responsibility NAP
Minimal age for the
application of custodial
sanctions and measures
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
16
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
15
14
14
15
15
13
16
14
14
14
14
13 NA
14
14
15
15
12
12
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
16
16
14
14
14
14
13
13
14
16
12
12
15
15
13
15
16
16
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
16
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
18
10
15
14
16
12
12
14
16
10
15
10
10
8
16
Age of criminal majority 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18/23 16 18 18 18 18/21 18 18 18/21 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 17 21 18 18/21 18 18 18 18/21 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18/21
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 69 NOTES ­ TABLES 2 AND 2.1 General remark: As the question on the age of criminal responsibility was interpreted by some national correspondents as corresponding to the age of majority, a few adjustments to this Table were introduced by the authors of this report. The latter also introduced the age of criminal responsibility for Georgia, Greece and Russian Federation on the basis of personal communications and literature research. ARMENIA Data on the age of prisoners include all inmates. Figures presented in this report are not comparable to those presented in SPACE I 2010 report as before 2011 in the total breakdown were included only sentenced prisoners without pre-trial detainees. For some articles of Criminal Code the age of criminal responsibility is 14. o Points (b) and (c) ­ persons aged up to 18; o Points (d) and (e) ­ persons aged from 18 to 25; o Point (f) ­ between 25 and 35 years; o Point (g) ­ between 35 and 45 years; o Points (h) and (i) ­ persons aged from 45 to 60; o Points (j), (k) and (l) ­ persons aged 60 years and over. AUSTRIA The sum of categories in Table 2 (8,748) is not identical to the total number of inmates (Table 1 = 8,756 inmates). The difference of 8 people is due to the presence of children (aged between 0 and 3 years), who live with their detained mothers and who are also included in the total prison population according to the national counting rules. Point (l) ­ the oldest person was aged 82. AZERBAIJAN Total number of inmates (21,034) corresponds only to the number of persons that are detained in penal institutions of the Penitentiary Service of the Ministry of Justice and those in the pre- trail detention facility under the Ministry of National Security. Persons held in police stations and other institutions not managed by the Prison Service are not included in the figures. Data are partially available only on sentenced prisoners: o From 16 to less than 18: 24 persons. o 60 years and over: 214 persons. The age of criminal responsibility is set at 16 years; nevertheless, in the cases of severe crimes, the responsibility may start from 14 years. BELGIUM The age is set up on the basis of the recorded elements in the file and/or stated by the prisoner himself. It could be contested by a judicial authority (e.g. the authorities consider that a person is adult while she stated to be juvenile). Points (b) and (c) ­ among 91 juveniles aged less than 18, there are 38 persons who are not held in institutions for juveniles. Indeed, these juvenile offenders are placed in adult prisons or are under Electronic Monitoring. It may include: o Persons for whom the judicial authorities contested their age, and/or o Persons that judges for juveniles withdraw themselves and transferred the case to the adult courts. o Consequently, not all persons considered as juveniles are detained in the Federal Centre for juvenile offenders. For 1 person the age is unknown. Table 2.1 (age of criminal responsibility): There is no minimum age for juveniles who are under the regime of Protection of Youth. Table 2.1 (age of criminal majority): Age of majority is 18. Persons who were aged 16 or over at the moment of committing the offence may ­under certain conditions­ be tried by an adult court and under the criminal law for adults.
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70 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (FEDERATION LEVEL) Table 2.1: The age of criminal responsibility in FBiH is 14. However, a juvenile must turn 16 to be imposed with a prison sentence. For juveniles from 14 to 16 years, only educational measures may be imposed. A juvenile at the age of 16 may be in a juvenile prison but persons at the age of 18 may be imprisoned with adults. The legislation considers persons at the age of 18 ''young adults''. Persons 18-21 years of age if possible (if there are available capacities) are kept with other juveniles to prevent as much as possible adult prisoners from corrupting their behaviour. BULGARIA Figures are on 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 2: are included sentenced prisoners. Data for 1,534 pre-trial detainees (of which 1,170 held in investigative detention facilities [IDF]) are not available. o Point (a) ­ Persons under 14 years of age do not enter the penitentiary system. o Point (c) ­ Less than 19; o Point (d) ­ From 19 to 21 years; o Point (e) ­ From 22 to 25 years; o Point (f) ­ From 26 to 30 years; o Point (g) ­ From 31 to 40 years; o Point (h) ­ From 41 to 50 years; o Point (i) ­ From 50 to 60 years; o Point (j) ­ From 61 to 70 years. o Points (k) and (l) ­70 years and over CROATIA Figures are on 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 2: data on prisoners sentenced on the basis of Misdemeanours Act (191 persons) are not available. o Point (e): From 21 to less than 23 years; o Point (f): From 23 to less than 27 years; o Point (g): From 27 to less than 40 years. CYPRUS Table 2: The breakdown is available for inmates held in the prison institution. Figures for those held in police stations are missing. Therefore, the total of 694 persons is provided in the first column of the table. Table 2.1: There is no express definition of the terms 'adult' and 'juvenile'. Under the Juvenile Offenders' Law (Chp. 157), the Juvenile Court hears charges against 'children' or 'young persons'. This law defines 'child' as a person under the age of 14 and 'young person' as a person who is 14 years of age or older and under the age of 16 years. Therefore a juvenile is a person falling within the above definition of 'child' or 'young person'. According to the Criminal Code, "a person under the age of 14 is not criminally responsible for any act or omission". CZECH REPUBLIC Figures are on 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (b) ­ As the age of criminal responsibility is 15, juveniles included her are 15 years old. DENMARK Between 1st July 2010 and 29th February 2012 the age of criminal responsibility was 14 years. After 1st March 2012 it is - again - 15 years. FRANCE Figures are on 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 2: Figures are on the total number of inmates managed by Prison Administration ("йcrouйs") and not only those who are de facto held in penal institutions ("йcrouйs dйtenus"). Points (a) and (b) ­From 13 to less than 16 years. Points (a) to (c): Total number of juvenile offenders is 668. 228 out of 668 juveniles are held in institutions for juvenile offenders (Etablissement Pour Mineurs [EPM]). The remaining 440 juveniles are held in special units for juveniles (Quartiers pour mineurs [QM]). Points (j), (k), and (l) ­60 years and over
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 71
GERMANY Figures are on 31st March 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 2: are included sentenced prisoners and prisoners under preventive measures. Points (k) and (l) ­70 years and over. Pre-trial detainees ­ the distribution available for this group of detainees is as follows: o From 14 to less than 18 years ­ 358 o From 18 to less than 21 years ­ 1,045 o From 21 years and over ­ 9,792. HUNGARY Points (b) and (c) ­From 14 to less than 18 years Point (d) ­From 18 to less than 22 years Point (e) ­From 22 to less than 25 Points (j), (k), and (l) ­60 years and over IRELAND Point (c) ­ only boys up to the age of 17 and girls up to the age of 18 are detained in children detention schools. Table 2.1: age of criminal responsibility is 10. Children from 10 years may be tried under the criminal justice system but only where charges of murder, rape or serious sexual assault arise. They must accept responsibility for their criminal behaviour and it must be proven that they understand that their actions were illegal. ITALY Points (a), (b), and (c) ­Data on persons less than 18 years of age are not available in these statistics. These categories are held in especially designed institutions for juvenile offenders, which are managed by the Department of Juvenile Justice, under the Ministry of Justice and not by the Italian Penitentiary Administration. Points (k) and (l) ­70 years and over Unknown ­36 persons for who the age has not been recorded. LATVIA Figures are on 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. In the Table 2 are included only sentenced prisoners. No data are available on the category of pre-trial detainees. Points (j), (k), and (l) ­60 years and over LITHUANIA Figures are on 1st July 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 2: are included only sentenced prisoners. Pre-trial detainees are not counted; insofar no special data are available. Points (b) and (c) ­There are 89 juveniles. 30 out of 89 are not included in the breakdown of Table 2 because, at the reference date, these 30 juvenile offenders had the status of pre-trial detainees without a final sentence. Points (e) and (f) ­from 21 to less than 30 years Points (j), (k), and (l) ­60 years and over Table 2.1: "Criminal responsibility may be applied to a person, who at the moment of the commitment of a criminal offence was aged 16. Nevertheless, a person who prior to committing a criminal offence has reached the age of 14 shall be responsible for murder (art. 129), causing heavy health disturbances ("grievous bodily harm", art. 135), rape (art. 149 and 150), theft (art. 178), robbery (art. 180), property extortion (art. 181), aggravated destruction or damage to property (art. 187, part 2), seizure of firearms, ammunition, explosives or explosive substances (art. 254), theft, extortion or other illegal seizure of drugs or psycho-tropic substances (art. 263), aggravated damage of means of transport, roads or equipment therein (art. 280, part 2)." [art. 13, parts 1 and 2 of the Penal Code of the Republic of Lithuania]. LUXEMBOURG Point (b): Minors who are under a decision taken with respect to the law on the protection of juveniles are as well hosted in the Penitentiary Centre of Luxembourg. Point (l) ­the oldest person was aged 87 years.
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72 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
MOLDOVA Figures are on 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Therefore the breakdown provided in Table 2 does not fit the total number of inmates presented in Table 1 (where figures are on 1st September 2012). Table 2: are included only sentenced prisoners. Pre-trial detainees are not counted; insofar no special data are available. Points (b) and (c): Are included only sentenced juveniles who were serving their sentences in prisons for adults. Points (j), (k), and (l) ­60 years and over. THE NETHERLANDS Table 2: included only inmates held in adult penal institutions and those under Electronic Monitoring, without juvenile offenders, people in custodial clinics and illegal aliens. Unknown ­2 persons for who the age has not been recorded. Table 2.1: The age of criminal responsibility is 12. From 12 until 18 years, people can be detained in special institutions for juveniles. NORWAY Table 2.1: There are no juvenile courts in Norway, nor is there special legislation for young offenders over the age of 15. The General Penal Code, however, makes some special provisions for those between the age of 15 and 18. POLAND Figures are on 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Breakdown by age for fine defaulters (490 persons) is not available. o Point (b) ­From 15 to less than 17 (6 person) o Point (c) ­From 17 to less than 19 (406 persons) o Point (d) ­From 19 to less than 22 (4,106 persons) o Point (e) ­From 22 to less than 25 years (8,649 persons) o Point (f) ­From 25 to less than 31 years (19,631 persons) o Point (g) ­From 31 to less than 40 years (22,444 persons). o Point (h) ­ From 40 to less than 49 years (14,213 persons). o Point (i) ­From 49 to less than 61 years (12,013 persons) o Points (j) ­From 61 to less than 67 years (1,740 persons) o Points (k) and (l) ­ 67 years and over (458 persons) PORTUGAL Figures are on 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Points (a) and (b) ­Juveniles held in educational institutions managed by the Direcзгo General de Reinserзгo Social are not included in this report. Point (c): 37out of 97 juvenile offenders are held in special units foreseen for them in adult prisons. 60 juveniles are held in special custodial institutions for juvenile offenders. Points (j), (k), and (l) ­60 years and over Table 2.1: Persons aged from 16 to less than 21 years are young adults and are tried under a special law which is specific to them. ROMANIA Points (b) and (c): 50 out of 447 juveniles are held in prisons for adults being at the disposal of judicial authorities (prosecution). Another 27 juveniles are serving their sentences in custody for adults, but separately from adult inmates. Points (e) and (f) ­From 21 to less than 30 years Points (j), (k), and (l) ­60 years and over SERBIA Points (b) and (c): 73 out of 217 persons held in educational institutions for juvenile offenders were aged less than 18. SLOVAK REPUBLIC Points (b) and (c): 4 out of 112 juvenile offenders (included in the general breakdown) are held in regular facilities for adult inmates.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 73 SLOVENIA Points (b) and (c): 20 out of 22 juveniles were held in educational institutions for juvenile offenders, the remaining 2 juveniles were placed in regular penal institutions for adults. SPAIN (TOTAL) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) On 1st January 2012 came into force the reform regarding the methodological changes that consist in the use of penitentiary information system as an official source of data for the General Secretariat of Penitentiary Institutions. This reform led to the unification of the data collection at the national level. There is no longer need to collect data separately from each detention centre. Point (l) ­ the oldest person was aged 90 years Unknown ­48 persons for who the age has not been recorded. SPAIN (CATALONIA) Point (l) ­ the oldest person was aged 89 years Table 2.1: The Criminal Code applies to persons aged 18 and over. Between 14 and 17 years the Law on the Juveniles' responsibility is applied. Persons under 14 years are not trialed under the criminal justice system. SWEDEN Figures are on 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. In this Table are included only sentenced prisoners. Points (j), (k) and (l) ­60 years and over SWITZERLAND Figures are on 5th September 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Points (a), (b) and (c): 54 persons aged less than 18. THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Points (b) and (c): There are 15 persons that are in pre-trial detention. These 15 juveniles are not included in Table 1.2, because there is no special institution for pre-trial detention for juveniles. They are held in adult prisons but separated from adults. TURKEY Points (b) and (c): 1,148 of sentenced and on-remand juveniles are held in separate units in adult prisons not in a specially built institution for juveniles. UKRAINE Points (b) and (c) ­Sometimes juveniles can be held in adult custodial institutions. The length of stay is relatively short, juveniles are held in pre-trial institutions for one-two days. Table 2.1: Criminal liability arises from 16 years, in special cases from 14 years (art. 22 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine). UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Figures are on 30th June 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (l) ­ 80 years and over (the oldest person was aged 93). UK: SCOTLAND Points (a), (b) and (c): A small number of young offenders aged less than 21 may be held on remand in adult prisons and are not counted in Table 1.2. The management data does not provide age breakdowns for some groups of prisoners (convicted awaiting sentence (257), recalled life prisoners (84) and persons awaiting deportation (10). Table 2: the only data available are: under 18: 97; 18-20: 609; 21 and over: 7,345. Table 2.1: The age of legal responsibility is 8. However, children between 8 and 12 cannot be prosecuted in criminal courts but must be referred to the children's hearing system. Children aged 12 or more can be prosecuted in the criminal courts for particularly serious cases. The majority of offenders under the age of 16 are dealt with through the children's hearings system. Offenders aged 18 and above are dealt with through the adult criminal justice system, but prisoners under 21 are held in separate accommodation. Offenders under 16 may be held in secure residential accommodation on offence grounds but are not included in these figures. More information is available at http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/10457/1/SB11-53.pdf
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74 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 2.2: MINORS AND PERSONS BETWEEN 18 AND 21 OF AGE ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (St. Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.2.2
Total number of inmates (incl. pre- trial detainees) 4 890 41 4 714 8 756 [18 017] 12 310
Custodial institutions/units for juvenile offenders
Incl. (Yes)/ Excl. (No) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
How many? 138 0 29 136 24 72
Of which aged 18 and over 0 0 15 0 0 19
Educational institutions/ units for juvenile offenders
Incl. (Yes)/ Excl. (No)
How many?
NAP
***
NAP
***
NAP
***
No
***
No
***
No
***
138
405
0
3
14 NA
136
461
24 NA
91
477
Number of inmates under 18 years old Number of inmates from 18 to less than 21 years ol d % of inmates under 18 years old % of inmates from 18 to less than 21 years ol d
2.8
8.3
0.0
7.3
0.3 NA
1.6
5.3
0.1 NA
0.7
3.9
1 700 Yes
25
21 No
***
1 062 Yes
10
3 NAP
***
[8 566] Yes
73
10 No
***
[4 550] Yes
84
16 No
***
[694] Yes
28
24 NAP
***
22 644 Yes
172
89 NAP
***
3 829 No
***
***
NAP
***
3 417 Yes
170
117 No
***
3 196 NAP
***
***
No
***
76 407 Yes
233
5 No
***
4
55
0.2
3.2
7
12
0.7
1.1
63
315
0.7
3.7
75
93
1.6
2.0
4
24
0.6
3.5
83
709
0.4
3.1
7
354
0.2
9.2
53
167
1.6
4.9
6
78
0.2
2.4
668
5 351
0.9
7.0
69 268 Yes
7 006 6 067 No
***
939
3 961
1.4
5.7
17 585 Yes
NA
NA
No
***
152 NAP
***
***
NAP
***
4 323 Yes
50
1 NAP
***
66 271 No
***
***
NAP
***
[4 277] Yes
48
15 NAP
***
8 No
***
***
No
***
[8 376] Yes
202
83 No
***
659 Yes
1
0 NAP
***
163
1 480
0.9
8.4
1
7
0.7
4.6
49
286
1.1
6.6
0
1 127
0.0
1.7
33
223
0.8
5.2
0
0
0.0
0.0
89
678
1.1
8.1
1
29
0.2
4.4
[5 140] Yes 41 NAP 1 229 No 11 324 No 3 551 NAP [83 666] No 13 614 Yes 31 883 Yes
44
24 No
***
***
NAP
***
***
No
***
***
No
***
***
NAP
***
***
No
231
134 No
1 990 1 770 Yes
*** *** *** *** *** *** *** 150
16
261
0.3
5.1
5
5
12.2
12.2
1
46
0.1
3.7
1
781
0.0
6.9
7
163
0.2
4.6
412
4 106
0.5
4.9
60
292
0.4
2.1
447
1 686
1.4
5.3
1 NAP 11 070 Yes 11 075 Yes 1 377 Yes 69 621 No 59 410 No 10 211 No [4 852] No 6 599 Yes 2 543 Yes 120 275 Yes 151 122 NAP 86 048 Yes 1 779 Yes 8 145 Yes
***
***
NAP
27
27 Yes
108
0 No
0
0 Yes
***
***
No
***
***
No
***
***
No
***
***
No
69 NA
Yes
53
34 No
666
37 Yes
***
***
Yes
1 282
0 NAP
37
0 No
701
607 No
*** 217 *** 20 *** *** *** *** 154 *** 129 1 302 *** *** ***
0 73 112 22 0 0 0 0 54 4 1 906 1 302 1 282 38 97
0 542 499 18 990 747 243 160 NA 59 7 400 3 054 7 443 139 609
0.0 0.7 1.0 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.2 1.6 0.9 1.5 2.1 1.2 1.0 0.7 0.0 12.2
0.0 4.9 4.5 1.3 1.4 1.3 2.4 3.3 NA 2.3 6.2 2.0 8.6 7.8 7.5 4.7 4.6 0.0 12.2
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 75 NOTES ­ TABLE 2.2 Data provided in Table 2.2 should be considered cautiously as the percentages could not always be calculated on the basis of the total number of prisoners. The following countries provided the age breakdown for sentenced prisoners only: Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova (figures for this country are on 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012), and Sweden. For these countries, figures used in the first column of Table 2.2 (Total number of inmates) correspond to sentenced prisoners only, and the percentages included in the Table are calculated on the basis of that figures. The calculation of the percentages of prisoners aged 18 to less than 21 was impossible for Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Switzerland because these countries did not provide the breakdown for this group of age (see notes to Table 2). For three countries (Bulgaria, Hungary & Poland) the age ranges are slightly different from the main category ("Prisoners from 18 to less than 21 years old"). For Hungary the range is from 18 to less than 22, and for Bulgaria and Poland the range is from 19 to less than 22. AZERBAIJAN Total prison populations for 2010 and 2011 were amended. The number of inmates managed by the Prison Service was 21,904 inmates in 2010 and 23,191 inmates in 2011. This feature is due to the fact that inmates held in police stations were excluded from the calculation of the total number of prison population. Therefore, total number of inmates (21,034) in 2012 corresponds only to the number of persons held in penal institutions of the Penitentiary Service of the Ministry of Justice and those in the pre-trail detention facility under the Ministry of National Security. Moreover, the breakdown by age is available only for sentenced inmates (18,017). CROATIA The breakdown by age does not include prisoners sentenced on the basis of Misdemeanours Act (191 persons). Therefore, these 191 persons were excluded from the total number of inmates in the first column of the table. CYPRUS As the breakdown is available for inmates held in the prison institution, figures for those held in police stations were excluded from the calculations for Table 2.2. Therefore, the total of 694 persons is provided in the first column of the table. POLAND Breakdown by age for fine defaulters (490 persons) is not available. Therefore, these 490 persons were excluded from the total number of inmates in the first column of the table. The age ranges are slightly different from the main category ("Prisoners from 18 to less than 21 years old"). For Poland, the range is from 19 to less than 22. GERMANY The total number of prisoners under 18 years is 939, of which 385 are pre-trial detainees, and 581 are sentenced prisoners. Consequentially, the percentage in Table 2.2 was calculated on the basis of the whole population in penal institutions (incl. pre-trials). The total number of prisoners between 18 and less than 21 years is 3,961, of which 1,045 are pre-trial detainees, and 2,916 are sentenced prisoners. Consequentially, the percentage in this table was calculated on the basis of the whole population in penal institutions (incl. pre-trials). THE NETHERLANDS Figures presented in Table 2.2 concern only the population held in penal institutions, without juvenile offenders, people in custodial clinics, and administrative aliens. As the number of persons aged less than 18 years and between 18 and less than 21 years is known for the institutions for juvenile offenders, the percentage can be recalculated at the level of the population held in penal institutions (11,324) and institutions for juvenile offenders (567). Nevertheless, this figure does not represent an official input and it is included here only for information. The recalculated percentages are as follows: o Percentage of inmates under 18 years (214+1)= 1.8% o Percentage of inmates from 18 to less than 21 years (353+781)= 9.5% In Italy, Portugal, and Spain juvenile offenders are managed by other authorities than the Prison Administration. In Cyprus, Norway, and Sweden, the definition of juvenile offender and the special regime applied to this category of offenders have some particularities which should be taken into account when doing cross-sectional comparisons (see previous notes).
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76 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 15 out of 47 entities presented in Table 2.3 do not include persons held in custodial institutions for juvenile offenders in the calculation of mean and median ages: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, San Marino, Spain (St. level), Spain (Catalonia), Sweden, and Ukraine. For 8 entities, the calculations of the mean and median were made by the authors of this report on the basis of raw data provided by national correspondents: BiH (Rep. Srpska), Montenegro, Portugal, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain (total), and Ukraine. For Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, and Sweden the mean and the median ages are calculated only for sentenced prisoners. Finally, mean and median values for Cyprus are based on population held in prison (without persons held in police stations). FIGURE 2: COUNTRIES WITH THE YOUNGEST (LESS THAN 34 YEARS) PRISON POPULATION CLASSIFIED BY DECREASING MEDIAN AGE
Montenegro Germany Turkey Norway Croatia Austria Ukraine Poland Netherlands Latvia Estonia Iceland France UK: NIR UK:E&W Denmark Lithuania Ireland Monaco Albania Romania 0
34 34 33 33 33 33 33 32 32 32 32 32 32 31 31 31 30 30 28 28 26 10 20 30 40
TABLE 2.3: MEDIAN AND A VERAGE AGES OF THE PRISON POPULA TION ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2 012
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.2.3
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Mea n (avera ge) age of the prison pop. 32 3 7.63 NA 35.2 NA 35.7
Median age of the prison population 28 37 NA 33 NA 34
3 6.99
3 5.16
NA
NA
38.5
34.8
3 5.53
33
32
37
34.4
40.29 35.73 33 35 34 31 32 35 31.5
35.6
33.5
NA
NA
34.5
31.5
33
30
39
37
34
32
40
38
33
30
37
35
NA
NA
31
28
34.4
33.9
34.5
32
35.2
33
34.2
32
37.3
34.86
33
26
60
33.6
3 5.71
3 6.86
37.4
3 7.97
3 6.82
37
NA
NA
31
35
3 3.79
34
34
NA
NA
35.7
35.1
31.0
60.0
60 35.5 35.04 34.24 36 37 35 35 35 33 32.97 31 31 34.0 33.7 26.0 60.0
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 77 MAP 2: AGE OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY AND PERCENTAGES OF INM ATES LESS THAN 18 YEARS OF AGE IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.m.2
On the Map 2, we presented the age of criminal responsibility which corresponds to the one included in the first column of Table 2.1. Generally, the age of criminal responsibility matches the minimal age for the application of custodial sanctions and measures (column two, Table 2.1). Yet, there are differences between these two ages in the following countries: Belgium, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, France, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ukraine, UK: England and Wales and UK: Scotland. For more details see the notes to Table 2.1. This map must be interpreted cautiously as the categories included in it are not always strictly comparable across countries. Thus, for countries that did not provide the age breakdown for the whole prison population, calculations are based on the available data (e.g. only on sentenced prisoners). Moreover, some of the countries included in the Map (e.g. Italy) do not count persons held in institutions for juvenile offenders in their prison population. As a consequence, their percentage of inmates aged less than 18 years is nil or close to zero. Since 2010 survey, the Netherlands exclude juveniles from the total prison population for SPACE I. Therefore their percentage on this map is nil. According to the additional information collected for this report (see the notes to Tables 1.1 and 2.2) there were 215 persons under 18 years old held in institutions for juvenile offenders. If persons held in institutions for juvenile offenders are added to the total adult prison population, then juveniles (i.e. persons under 18 years old) represent 1.8% of that calculated total. Finally, in France, the total number of prisoners corresponds to the number of "йcrouйs". However, 9,703 persons (12.7%) out of 76,407 "йcrouйs" are not de facto held inside penal institutions.
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78 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 3: FEMALE INMATES ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012
Country
Total number of inmates (including pre-trial detainees)
Number of female inmates
Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
4 890 41 4 714 8 756 21 034 12 310 1 700 1 062 (9 493) 4 741 694 22 644 3 829 3 417 3 196 76 407 23 227 69 268 17 585 152 4 323 66 271 6 195 8 10 033 659 622 6 621 41 1 229 11 324 3 551 84 156 13 614 31 883 717 400 1 11 070 11 075 1 377 69 621 59 410 10 211 6 431 6 599 2 543 120 275 151 122 86 048 1 779 8 145
90 7 202 578 515 572 49 18 307 207 53 1 457 149 177 229 2 706 1 180 3 945 1 260 13 159 2 826 423 0 461 29 40 410 9 37 611 189 2 695 758 1 474 58 900 0 433 680 70 5 321 4 640 681 389 324 60 4 548 9 566 4 123 59 469
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.3
% of females in the total number of inmates 1.8 17.1 4.3 6.6 2.4 4.6
Number of foreign females 2 5 NA 218 20 206
% of foreign females in the number of female inmates 2.2 71.4 NA 37.7 3.9 36.0
Number of female pre-trial detainees 37 3 44 131 105 212
% of pre- trial female detainees in the number of female inmates 41.1 42.9 21.8 22.7 20.4 37.1
Number of females aged less than 18 0 0 2 14 0 4
% of females aged < 18 in the number of female inmates 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.4 0.0 0.7
2.9
2
4.1
11
22.4
0
0.0
1.7
0
0.0
1
5.6
0
0.0
3.2
6
2.0
16
5.2
2
0.7
4.4
4
1.9
36
17.4
0
0.0
7.6
26
49.1
15
28.3
0
0.0
6.4
48
3.3
155
10.6
9
0.6
3.9
29
19.5
68
45.6
1
0.7
5.2
67
37.9
49
27.7
4
2.3
7.2
21
9.2
52
22.7
0
0.0
3.5
611
22.6
689
25.5
22
0.8
5.1 NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
5.7
979
24.8
637
16.1
29
0.7
7.2
42
3.3
384
30.5 NA
NA
8.6
7
53.8
8
61.5
0
0.0
3.7
37
4.3 1 133
23.3
35
40.1
1 198
22.0
4
2.5
42.4 NA
NA
6.8
2
0.5
118
27.9
0
0.0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
4.6
1
0.2
62
13.4
4
0.9
4.4
16
55.2
7
24.1
1
3.4
6.4 NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
6.2
5
1.2
120
29.3
4
1.0
22.0
9
100.0
7
77.8
2
22.2
3.0
5
13.5
10
27.0
0
0.0
5.4
125
20.5
316
51.7
0
0.0
5.3
58
30.7
59
31.2
0
0.0
3.2
17
0.6
6
0.2 NA
NA
5.6
175
23.1
204
26.9
1
0.1
4.6
7
0.5 NA
NA
0
0.0
8.2 NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
3.9
11
2.5
133
30.7
0
0.0
6.1
8
5.1
10
7.6 1 863
7.8 1 571
6.7
292
1.2
66
14.3
22
35.0
1 050
33.9
882
42.9
168
9.7
3
0.4
31.4
0
0.0
19.7
0
0.0
19.0 NAP
NAP
24.7
0
0.0
6.0 NA
NA
4.9 NA
NA
117
30.1
0
0.0
120
37.0
4
1.2
2.4
3
5.0
1
1.7
0
0.0
3.8
316
6.9
1 686
37.1
54
1.2
6.3
92
1.0
2 299
24.0
43
0.4
4.8
614
14.9
459
11.1
24
0.6
3.3
9
15.3
19
32.2
3
5.1
5.8
13
2.8
82
17.5
2
0.4
5.4 5.0 0.0 22.0
18.9 11.3 0.0 100.0
25.8 25.1 0.0 77.8
1.1 0.1 0.0 22.2
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 79
NOTES ­ TABLE 3 ARMENIA The number of female pre-trial detainees is 44 persons, of which 2 are aged less than 18. The number of juvenile females is based on the total number of all female inmates. There were no female sentenced prisoners aged less than 18. Both of them were in pre-trial detention. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (STATE LEVEL) In the unique facility for pre-trial detention which exists at the State level are held only male inmates. Therefore, the nil values are presented in the Table and are considered as reliable. BULGARIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 The breakdown for 1,170 inmates held in IDF is not available; therefore they are not included in Table 3. CROATIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 CYPRUS Figures presented in Table 3 are based on a total of 694 inmates held in Prison institution (for 236 persons held in police stations the breakdown by categories of sex is not available). CZECH REPUBLIC Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 ESTONIA Vast majority in "foreigner" category of inmates are legal inhabitants of Estonia who have either no citizenship or Russian citizenship. FRANCE Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 The breakdown of female inmates is to be carried forward to the total number of inmates which have the status of "йcrouйs" and not only those who are "йcrouйs dйtenus" (de facto held in penal institutions). GEORGIA Figure on female inmates: by Mr Roy Walmsley. Data relate to 31st August 2012. GERMANY Data relate to 31st March 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 LATVIA Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 LITHUANIA Data relate to 1st July 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 LUXEMBOURG Female inmates are held in a special section of the Penitentiary Centre of Luxembourg. MALTA Figure on female inmates by Mr Roy Walmsley. Data relate to November 2012. THE NETHERLANDS Figures included in Table 3 are part of the total number of inmates held in adult penal institutions and those who are under Electronic Monitoring. Are excluded from the breakdown juvenile offenders, persons held in custodial clinics and illegal aliens. POLAND Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 PORTUGAL Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 RUSSIAN FEDERATION Figure on female inmates were communicated by Mr Roy Walmsley. SWEDEN Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 117 females in pre-trial detention, of which 80 were foreigners. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Data relate to 30th June 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 UK: SCOTLAND The management data does not provide sex breakdowns for some groups of inmates (convicted awaiting sentence (257), recalled life prisoners (84) and persons awaiting deportation (10).
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80 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro
TABLE 4: FOREIGN INMATES ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012
Total number of inmates (including pre-trial detainees) 4 890 41 4 714 8 756 21 034 12 310
Total number of foreign inmates 90 32 125 4 087 625 5 213
Adjusted total of foreigners (including unknown) 90 32 125 4 097 625 5 232
% of foreigners in the total number of inmates 1.8 78.0 2.7 46.7 3.0 42.3
Adjusted % of foreigners (incl. unknown) in the total number of inmates 1.8 78.0 2.7 46.8 3.0 42.5
Number of foreign pre- trial detainees 66 9 NA 1 191 121 1 921
% of foreign pre- trial detainees in the number of foreign inmates 73.3 28.1 NA 29.1 19.4 36.9
Number of inmates citizens of Member States of the European Union 23 23 NA 1 625 0 1 538
% of the EU citizens in the number of foreign inmates 25.6 71.9 NA 39.8 0.0 29.5
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.4
Number of foreign detainees aged less than 18 0 0 0 65 0 57
% of foreign minors in the number of foreign inmates 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.0 1.1
Number of detainees for which the nationality is unknown 0 0 0 10 0 19
% of detainees for which the nationality is unknown in total prison population 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.2
1 700
44
44
2.6
2.6
18
40.9
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
1 062
64
64
6.0
6.0
46
71.9
1
1.6
0
0.0
0
0.0
(9 493)
180
180
1.9
1.9
19
10.6 NA
NA
0
0.0
0
0.0
4 741
276
285
5.8
6.0
141
51.1
43
15.6 NA
NA
9
0.2
694
367
367
52.9
52.9
84
22.9
143
39.0
4
1.1
0
0.0
22 644
1 709
1 715
7.5
7.6
552
32.3
795
46.5
4
0.2
6
0.0
3 829
943
979
24.6
25.6
552
58.5
314
33.3 NA
NA
36
0.9
3 417
239
1 301
7.0
38.1
64
26.8
49
20.5
2
0.8
1 062
31.1
3 196
474
482
14.8
15.1
224
47.3
266
56.1
1
0.2
8
0.3
76 407
13 707
13 925
17.9
18.2 NA
NA
3 330
24.3 NA
NA
218
0.3
69 268
19 303
19 303
27.9
27.9
5 171
26.8
6 580
34.1 NA
NA
NA
NA
17 585
645
648
3.7
3.7 NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
3
0.0
152
37
37
24.3
24.3
11
29.7
17
45.9
0
0.0
0
0.0
4 323
557
557
12.9
12.9
151
27.1
347
62.3
1
0.2
0
0.0
66 271
23 753
23 773
35.8
35.9
10 717
45.1
4 970
20.9 NA
NA
20
0.0
6 195
75
75
1.2
1.2
35
46.7
11
14.7
0
0.0
0
0.0
8
5
5
62.5
62.5
2
40.0
4
80.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
10 033
152
152
1.5
1.5
84
55.3
84
55.3
2
1.3 NA
NA
659
454
454
68.9
68.9
211
46.5
253
55.7
0
0.0
0
0.0
6 621
94
94
1.4
1.4 NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
41
39
39
95.1
95.1
21
53.8
27
69.2
5
12.8
1 229
177
183
14.4
14.9
100
56.5
11
6.2
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
6
0.5
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 81
Country Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (St. Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Total number of inmates (including pre-trial detainees) 11 324 3 551 84 156 13 614 31 883
Total number of foreign inmates 2 208 1 137 559 2 602 183
Adjusted total of foreigners (including unknown) 2 380 1 151 566 2 602 183
% of foreigners in the total number of inmates 19.5 32.0 0.7 19.1 0.6
Adjusted % of foreigners (incl. unknown) in the total number of inmates 21.0 32.4 0.7 19.1 0.6
Number of foreign pre- trial detainees 1 243 563 253 887 16
% of foreign pre- trial detainees in the number of foreign inmates 56.3 49.5 45.3 34.1 8.7
Number of inmates citizens of Member States of the European Union 903 558 219 607 63
% of the EU citizens in the number of foreign inmates 40.9 49.1 39.2 23.3 34.4
Number of foreign detainees aged less than 18 1 NA NA 15 0
% of foreign minors in the number of foreign inmates 0.0 NA NA 0.6 0.0
Number of detainees for which the nationality is unknown 172 14 7 0 0
% of detainees for which the nationality is unknown in total prison population 1.5 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0
1 11 070 11 075 1 377 69 621 59 410 10 211 4 852 6 599 2 543 120 275 151 122 86 048 1 779 8 145
0 224 218 158 23 423 18 816 4 607 1 479 4 896 69 2 098 2 497 10 861 126 293
0 224 218 162 23 423 18 816 4 607 1 530 4 896 69 2 161 2 497 12 810 131 293
0.0 2.0 2.0 11.5 33.6 31.7 45.1 30.5 74.2 2.7 1.7 1.7 12.6 7.1 3.6 20.5 11.5 0.0 95.1
0.0
0
2.0
108
2.0
94
11.8
77
33.6
5 920
31.7
4 791
45.1
1 129
31.5 NA
NA
74.2
1 667
2.7
22
1.8
1 016
1.7
308
14.9
1 555
7.4
68
3.6 NA
NA
21.3
12.9
0.0
95.1
0.0
0
48.2
57
43.1
99
48.7
41
25.3
4 875
25.5
4 230
24.5
645
521
34.0 NA
NA
31.9
0
48.4
324
12.3
68
14.3
3 808
54.0
72
133
37.9
40.0
0.0
73.3
0.0
0
0.0
0
25.4
0
0.0
0
45.4
1
0.5
0
25.9
0
0.0
4
20.8
0
0.0
0
22.5 NAP
NAP
0
14.0
0
0.0
0
35.2 NA
NA
51
36
0.7 NA
NA
0.0
0
0.0
0
15.4
7
0.3
63
2.7 NA
NA
0
35.1
124
1.1
1 949
57.1
0
0.0
5
45.4
5
1.7 NA
NA
32.4
0.7
33.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
80.0
12.8
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 2.3 0.3 0.9 0.0 0.0 31.1
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82 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 4.A: ASYLUM SEEKERS AND ILLEGAL ALIENS HELD FOR ADMINISTARTIVE REASONS AMONG FOREIGN INMATES ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012
Country Belgium Ireland Slovak Republic Switzerland UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Total number of inmates (including pre-trial detainees) 12 310 4 323 11 075 6 599 86 048 1 779
Total number of foreign inmates (incl. pre- trial detainees) 5 213 557 218 4 896 10 861 126
Adjusted number of foreigners (incl. unknown) 5 232 557 218 4 896 12 810 131
Asylum seekers or illegal aliens held for administrati ve reasons (Table 1.1) 0 9 22 427 1 140 1
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.4.a
Asylum seekers or illegal aliens held in centres especially design for this type of detention 0 NAP 2 NA 730 0
% Asylum seekers or illegal aliens held for administrati ve reasons in the total number of inmates 0.0 0.2 0.2 6.5 1.3 0.1 1.4 0.2 0.0 6.5
% Asylum seekers or illegal aliens held for administrati ve reasons in the number of foreign inmates 0.0 1.6 10.1 8.7 8.9 0.8 5.0 5.2 0.0 10.1
NOTES ­ TABLES 4 AND 4.A General remark: The questionnaire SPACE I 2012 included an item on the number of foreign inmates and a subsidiary question on the number of those inmates who were citizens of the European Union (EU). However, some EU countries took literally the mention of an EU citizenship and provided a figure on the total number of EU citizen inmates that includes their own nationals. This misunderstanding was solved during the data validation procedure. Figures on foreign inmates were sometimes adjusted accordingly to the number of inmates for whom the nationality was unrecorded or unknown. We assumed for comparative needs that all inmates with unknown nationality were non-nationals. Table 4.a: There are six countries that, as a rule, include asylum seekers or illegal aliens held for administrative reasons in the total number of foreign inmates: Belgium, Ireland, Slovak Republic, Switzerland, UK: England and Wales, and UK: Northern Ireland. For all these countries we calculated the percentage of asylum seekers and illegal aliens held for administrative reasons in the total number of foreign inmates and the percentage of these inmates in the total number of prison population. The raw data are presented and explained in Table 1.1. The asylum seekers represent in median 5.2% of the foreign inmates. Moreover, in these same countries the part of asylum seekers among the total prison population is in median of 0.2%. BULGARIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 The breakdown for 1,170 inmates held in investigative detention facilities [IDF] is not available. Therefore, these inmates were not been included in the calculations presented in Table 4. Number of prisoners citizens of Member States of the European Union: these figures are produced on the basis of residence registration rather than country of origin and/or nationality. Therefore, it is possible that some foreign citizens may have their registered residency in Bulgaria. CROATIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 CYPRUS Figures in Table 4 are based on a total of 694 inmates held in Prison institution (no breakdown by categories is available for 236 persons held in police stations). CZECH REPUBLIC Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 83
DENMARK Unknown: 23 persons are without any citizenship and for 13 persons there is no information rec. ESTONIA Persons with unknown/unrecorded nationality: Vast majority of inmates in this category are legal inhabitants of Estonia who have no citizenship. FRANCE Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 The breakdown of foreign inmates is to be carried forward to the total number of inmates which have the status of "йcrouйs" and not only those who are "йcrouйs dйtenus" (de facto held in penal institutions). GERMANY Data relate to 31st March 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Inmates with unknown/unrecorded nationality are included among foreign inmates. HUNGARY Inmates with unknown/unrecorded nationality were recorded as "stateless". LATVIA Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 LITHUANIA Data relate to 1st July 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 THE NETHERLANDS Foreign inmates included in Table 4 are part of the total number of inmates held in adult penal institutions and those who are under Electronic Monitoring. Are excluded from the breakdown juvenile offenders, persons held in custodial clinics and illegal aliens. Excluded from the total, the figure of illegal aliens held for administrative reasons is available: 960 persons. POLAND Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 PORTUGAL Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 SPAIN (TOTAL) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SWEDEN Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Table 4: Figures are only for sentenced prisoners. Data on pre-trail detainees are not available. Errata for SPACE I 2010: Swedish counting system for pre-trial detainees does not include information on the nationality. This information was not available in the SPACE I 2010 report and, therefore, the percentages on foreign inmates were calculated on the basis of the total prison population. Since 2011, the percentage is correctly calculated for sentenced prisoners. SWITZERLAND Data relate to 5th September 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Total number of foreign inmates: There are 4,896 foreign inmates, of which 1,330 with long- term resident permits (B, C, and I) in Switzerland, 716 with status of asylum seekers (permits N, F, and S), and 427 illegal aliens under preventive measures (Federal Act on Foreign Nationals). Foreign pre-trial detainees: 1,667 foreign detainees, of which 400 with long-term resident permits (B, C, and I), 166 with status of asylum seekers (permits N, F, and S), and 1,101 are other foreign inmates and people without any permit. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Data relate to 30th June 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 UK: NORTHERN IRELAND National prisoners include UK and Irish citizens.
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84 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 5: LEGAL STATUS OF PRISON POPULATIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS)
(a) Untried detainees (no court decision has been reached yet); (b) Detainees found guilty but who have not yet received a sentence yet; (c) Sentenced prisoners who have appealed or who are within the statutory limit for doing so; (d) Detainees who have not received a final sentence yet, but who started serving a prison sentence in advance; (e) Sentenced prisoners (final sentence), of which: (e).1: Persons detained for fine conversion reasons (fine defaulters); (e).2: Persons detained because of the revocation, suspension or annulment of the conditional release or probation; (f) Other cases; (g) Total number of prisoners (including pre-trial detainees)
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
259
19
6
1 166
1 829 NAP
2 770 NAP
2 685 NAP
153 3 NA 247 696
1 600 0 NAP NA NAP NAP
213 108 368 1 094 12 870
NAP
32
0
0
1 534
767
NAP
NA
2 183
293
831
650
NAP
4 045
13 0 NA NA NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NA
11 195 NA
NA
NA
4 072 19 506 12 911 401 0 1 249 233
NAP NAP NA NAP 450 2 92 NAP
868 7 NA 13 113 654 0 316 26
NAP 0 NA NAP 189 0 NA NAP
994 22 287 4 205 6 622 1 945 2 007
450
346
NAP
8
54
NA
1 286
934
NA
NA
NAP
716
1 421 NA
162 0 21 NAP 22 387 NAP NA
0 78 1 773 2 051 84 32 470 16 281 7 671 613 1 286
0 2 763 1 393 150 10 844 9 071 NAP 1 579 NA 112 NAP 4 693 3 653 NA 257
0 51 NA NA 62 15 772 7 766 NA 53 NA
0 NA NAP 50 NA NA NAP NA 669 12 NA 3 461 NAP NA NA
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.5
(e) 2 878 13 3 548 5 836 18 017 7 636
Of which:
(e).1
(e).2
9
285
0
1
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1 NA
(f) 0 0 NA 1 091 0 1 293
(g) 4 890 41 4 714 8 756 21 034 12 310
1 442
65
0
0
954
42
3
0
8 566 NAP
NA
563
3 974
54 NA
NA
562 NAP
NA
NAP
20 429 NA
NA
32
2 442
0 NA
0
2 586 NA
NA
NA
2 546
57 NA
NAP
59 492 NA
NA
NA
1 700 1 062 10 663 4 741 930 22 644 3 829 3 417 3 196 76 407
57 607 4 157 NA
466
69 268
12 514 126 3 808 38 906 4 277 5 8 376 399
NA 1 15 NAP 30 0 NA 0
NAP 16 NA NA NA 0 NA 30
131 0 9 1 341 224 1 NAP 1
17 585 152 4 323 66 271 6 195 8 10 033 659
4 669 11 867 5 658 2 595 77 147 10 722 28 455
NA 0 29 556 61 490 NA NAP
320 0 0 NA NA NA NA NA
0 0 0 175 0 NA 231 NA
6 621 41 1 229 11 324 3 551 84 156 13 614 31 883
1 8 307 9 682 1 003 58 777 50 339 8 438 4 852 3 349 2 273 72 033 118 921 73 562 1 113 6 592
0 NA NAP NA NA NA 112 NA 308 3 NA 341 127 19 NA
0 NA 0 NA NA NA 33 NA 132 0 NA NA 5 417 38 NA
0 0 0 45 0 0 0 NA 530 0 NA NA 1 162 0 10
1 11 070 11 075 1 377 69 621 59 410 10 211 6 431 6 599 2 543 120 275 151 122 86 048 1 779 8 145
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 85 NOTES ­ TABLE 5 AUSTRIA Point (f): 1,091 inmates, of which 865 inmates are under forensic psychiatric treatment and security measures. The 226 inmates left are different kinds of imprisonment supporting other administrative authorities, provisional arrest for foreign governments etc. AZERBAIJAN Total prison populations for 2010 and 2011 were amended. The number of inmates managed by the Prison Service was 21,904 inmates in 2010 and 23,191 inmates in 2011. This feature is due to the fact that inmates held in police stations were excluded from the calculation of the total number of prison population. Therefore, total number of inmates (21,034) in 2012 corresponds only to the number of persons in penal institutions of the Penitentiary Service of the Ministry of Justice and those in the pre-trail detention facility under the Ministry of National Security. BULGARIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Points (a) and (c): 1,534 persons have no final sentence. These persons remain categorised as "remanded in custody". Among these persons, there are 1,170 inmates held in Investigative Detention Facilities (IDF). Point (f): inmates who are under trial without specification of the status of their trial. CROATIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Point (b): This category does not exist in Croatian criminal justice system (NAP). CYPRUS Point (a): 368 persons included in this category, of which 132 persons detained in the prison institution and 236 persons in police stations. CZECH REPUBLIC Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Point (f): Preventive Detention Facility FRANCE Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 In this Table the breakdown is made on the basis of the whole population managed by the Prison Administration ("йcrouйs") which is 76,407 persons. There is no specific information available for persons placed under Electronic Monitoring outside penal institutions (9,105) and those in external placement non-hosted by Prison Administration (598). Point (c): in this point are included persons under summary trail procedures (comparution immйdiate) or those who have appealed. GERMANY Data relate to 31st March 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Point (f): "Preventive detention measures" ­ in this category are included detainees which have already served their sentence, but who are kept in penitentiary facilities for security reasons (Sicherungsverwahrung). HUNGARY Point (f): In this category are included persons under post-charge non-criminal detention. IRELAND Point (a): 612 persons that correspond to the sum of points (a), (b) and (d). There are no individual records for these categories. Records are only kept for remands (pre-trial) and committals (sentenced). Information regarding appeals etc. is not collected. Remands may include persons awaiting trial, awaiting sentence following a trial or awaiting an assessment. Juveniles may only be detained in a children detention school on foot of appearing in court on criminal charges and being remanded or sentenced by the court. Point (f): In this category are included 9 cases related to immigration issues.
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86 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 ITALY Point (f): Internees (Internati) and temporary internees, that are persons held in Judicial Psychiatric Hospitals (Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari), that are special penal institutions under the authority of the Penitentiary Administration, managed by psychiatrists from the Penitentiary Administration. These inmates may also be held in prison hospitals, as they execute a security detention measure. LATVIA Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 LIECHTENSTEIN In the breakdown presented in this Table are included only inmates detained in the penal institution of Liechtenstein. Persons who have been transferred to Austria under the provisions of the existing contract between these two countries are not included. Point (f): 1 person held for fraud was in extradition procedure to Germany. LITHUANIA Data relate to 1st July 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Point (b) ­ Following the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, sentenced prisoners after having submitted their written consent are able to start serving their term of imprisonment before the hearing of their case in order of appeal. LUXEMBOURG Point (e).2: 30 persons detained because their conditional release was revoked. MONACO Point (e) ­The only detention facility in the Principality of Monaco is a remand centre. Only nationals are intended to serve their entire sentence. Aliens who received their final sentence to over six months of imprisonment are usually transferred to the prison of Nice. These transfers are regulated by an agreement between Monaco and France (Article 14 of the Treaty of Cooperation "Convention de voisinage" from 1963). THE NETHERLANDS Data are available for the population held in penal institutions (see general notes). The total number of prisoners does not refer to persons held in institutions for juvenile offenders, custodial clinics and institutions for illegal aliens. Point (c): In this category are included persons appealing their sentence. The ones who are sentenced but who have not appealed yet, but still are within the statutory limit to do so, are part of the points (a) and (b). They cannot be made visible as a separate figure. NORWAY Points (a) and (c): An unknown number of persons have been sentenced (or found not guilty) but the sentence is not legally binding as an appeal has been lodged. These persons remain categorised as "remanded in custody". Points (c) and (d): A person who is sentenced to imprisonment while remanded in custody and appeals against the sentence may remain classified as "remanded in custody" until the appeal is decided by a higher court. Under the point (a) are included as well persons having such status. An exception occurs in cases when only the length of the sentence is appealed against. In such cases the offender may elect to start serving the sentence pending the outcome of the appeal. The latest category of persons is included in the point (d). Point (b): Sentence is given at same time as judgment of guilt. Point (e).2: In majority of cases, the breach of conditions is associated with a new conviction for a new offence. Therefore, it is the new offence that will be registered. Consequently, the figure on the persons detained because of the revocation stricto sensu is not available. POLAND Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 87 PORTUGAL Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Point (f): In this point are included 231 detainees who are under "security measures" (mentally ill offenders considered non-criminally liable by the court), of which 101 are placed in special psychiatric institutions or in penitentiary hospitals, and 130 in non-penitentiary hospitals. SPAIN (TOTAL) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) Point (e): There are as well included 583 inmates with security measures. SWEDEN Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 SWITZERLAND Data relate to 5th September 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Point (f) ­The category "Other cases" includes 247 illegal aliens under preventive measures (Federal Act on Foreign Nationals), as well as persons waiting transfer from one penal institution to another etc. TURKEY Point (d) is included in the point (a). The situations described in these points correspond to remands in Turkish system. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Data relate to 30th June 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Point (f): non-criminal prisoners UK: SCOTLAND Point (e): Sentenced figures include recalled life prisoners. Point (f): 10 inmates awaiting deportation
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88 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 5.1: DETAINEES NOT SERVING A FINAL SENTENCE ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES AND RATES)
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Percentage of detainees not serving a final sentence (1) (a.1) 41.1 68.3 24.7 (33.3) 14.3 38.0
Percentage of detainees not serving a final sentence (2) (a.2) 41.1 68.3 24.7 (20.9) 14.3 27.5
Rate of detainees not serving a final sentence per 100,000 inhabitants (1) (b.1) 71.5 35.8 35.6 (34.7) 32.7 42.1
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.5.1
Rate of detainees not serving a final sentence per 100,000 inhabitants (2) (b.2) 71.5 35.8 35.6 (21.8) 32.7 30.5
Percentage of untried detainees (no court decision yet reached) (c) [5.3] 46.3 [24.7] 20.9 13.2 21.8
Rate of untried detainees per 100,000 inhabitants (d) [9.2] 24.3 [35.6] 21.8 30.0 24.2
15.2 10.2 19.7 16.2 (39.6) 9.8 36.2 24.3 20.3 22.1
15.2 10.2 14.4 16.2 (39.6) 9.6 36.2 24.3 20.3 22.1
11.0 7.6 28.6 17.9 (42.7) 21.1 24.9 62.7 12.0 25.9
11.0 7.6 20.9 17.9 (42.7) 20.8 24.9 62.7 12.0 25.9
12.5 10.2 [14.4] [16.2] 39.6 [9.6] [28.6] [24.3] [20.3] 16.8
9.1 7.6 [20.9] [17.9] 42.7 [20.8] [19.6] [62.7] [12.0] 19.7
(16.8)
(16.2)
(14.2)
(13.7)
[16.2]
[13.7]
28.8
28.1
51.1
49.7
23.2
41.0
17.1
17.1
8.1
8.1
12.5
5.9
11.9
11.7
11.2
11.0
[11.7]
[11.0]
41.3
39.3
46.1
43.8
19.5
21.7
31.0
27.3
93.8
82.8
6.5
19.6
37.5
25.0
8.2
5.5
0.0
0.0
16.5
16.5
55.2
55.2
12.4
41.6
39.5
39.3
49.5
49.3
35.4
44.4
29.5 73.2 29.5 50.0 26.9 (8.3) 21.2 (10.8)
29.5 73.2 29.5 48.5 26.9 (8.3) 19.5 (10.8)
54.8 79.8 58.3 33.9 19.2 (18.2) 27.4 (17.1)
54.8 79.8 58.3 32.8 19.2 (18.2) 25.2 17.1
15.0 53.7 23.4 [37.1] [26.3] [7.9] 14.3 6.3
27.9 58.5 46.2 [25.1] [18.7] [17.2] 18.4 10.0
0.0 25.0 12.6 27.2 (15.6) 15.3 (17.4) 24.6 (49.2) 10.6 40.1 21.3 (14.5) (37.4) (19.1) 26.3 24.3 0.0 73.2
0.0 25.0 12.6 23.9 (15.6) 15.3 (17.4) 24.6 (41.2) 10.6 40.1 21.3 (13.2) (37.4) (18.9) 25.0 22.1 0.0 73.2
0.0 38.3 25.8 18.2 (22.9) 22.9 (23.4) 16.7 (40.9) 13.1 64.6 70.8 (22.1) (36.5) (29.2) 33.5 28.6 0.0 93.8
0.0 38.3 25.8 16.0 (22.9) 22.9 (23.4) 16.7 (34.2) 13.1 64.6 70.8 (20.0) (36.5) (29.0) 32.1 25.8 0.0 82.8
0.0 [25.0] [12.6] 5.7 [15.6] [15.3] 17.4 [24.6] [31.1] 3.3 27.0 10.8 8.9 [34.5] 15.8 18.7 16.2 0.0 53.7
0.0 [38.3] [25.8] 3.8 [22.9] [22.9] 23.4 [16.7] [25.8] 4.1 43.5 35.8 13.6 [33.6] 24.2 23.6 21.7 0.0 62.7
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 89 NOTES ­ TABLE 5.1 Table 5 includes two different types of calculation for the category of "detainees not serving a final sentence": in the first case [(a.1) and (b.1)], the heading (f) "Other cases" from Table 4 is included, in the second case [(a.2) and (b.2)], the heading (f) "Other cases" from Table 4 is excluded The second type of calculation has been introduced on the basis of additional information provided by the national correspondents, which can be found in the notes to Table 5. Indeed, it seems that a significant part of the persons included under the heading "Other cases" cannot be assimilated to persons waiting for a final sentence to be imposed (i.e. this category includes persons held for security reasons, persons held for civil reasons, etc.). Nevertheless, in order to ensure the comparability of the data with previous years' reports, we have also kept the first type of calculation (a.1 and b.1). IMPORTANT METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: In Table 5, when no data were available under heading (c) "Sentenced prisoners who have appealed or who are within the statutory limit for doing so" and no further information was provided, it is assumed that prisoners in that situation are included among those under heading (e) "SENTENCED PRISONERS (FINAL SENTENCE)". In that case, the results under headings "Percentage of prisoners not serving a final sentence" (a.1 and a.2, Table 5.1) and those under headings "Rate of prisoners not serving a final sentence per 100,000 inhabitants" (b.1 and b.2, Table 5.1) are presented between brackets and must be used with caution. In Table 5, when no data were available under heading (b) "Detainees found guilty but who have not yet received a sentence yet" and no further information was provided, it cannot be excluded that prisoners in that situation are included among those under heading (a) "UNTRIED DETAINEES (NO COURT DECISION YET REACHED)". In that case, the results under heading (c) "Percentage of untried detainees (not court decision yet reached)" and those under heading (d) "Rate of untried detainees (no court decision yet reached) per 100,000 inhabitants" of Table 5.1 are presented between square brackets and must be used with caution. Square brackets were as well used for "merged" categories (e.g. categories (a) and (b) or (a), (b) and (c) from Table 5). SPAIN (TOTAL) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values.
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90 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 5.2: DANGEROUS OFFENDERS UNDER SECURITY MEASURES ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES)
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2011.5.2
Total number of inmates (including pre- trial detainees) 4 890 41 4 714 8 756 21 034 12 310
Total number of persons under security measures/preven tive detention for dangerous offenders 104 0 NAP 865 NAP 78
% of persons under security measures in the total number of inmates 0.0 NAP 9.9 NAP 0.6
Persons held as not criminally responsible by the court 30 0 NAP 405 NAP NAP
Persons held as totally or partially criminally responsible by the court and who have been sentenced 74 0 NAP 460 NAP 78
(*) Are these persons included in the total number of prison population? No Yes NAP Yes NAP Yes
1 700 1 062 NAP 10 663 NAP 4 741 NA 930 NAP 22 644 3 829 3 417 NA 3 196 NAP 76 407 NA
18 NAP NAP NA NAP 32 44 NA NAP NA
1.1 NAP NAP NA NAP 0.1 1.1 NA NA NAP NA
18 NAP NAP NAP 9 NA NA NAP NA
0 Yes NAP NAP 183 Yes NAP 23 Yes Yes NA NAP No
69 268
10 742
0.7
10 276
466 No/Yes
17 585 152 4 323 66 271 6 195 NAP 8 10 033 NAP 659 NAP
184 2 926 1 341 NAP 0 NAP NAP
1.0 [21.4] NA 2.0 NA NAP 0.0 NAP NAP
184 NAP 2 NA NA NAP 0 NAP NAP
Yes 0 No No/Yes Yes NAP 0 Yes NAP NAP
6 621 NAP 41 1 229 11 324 3 551 84 156 13 614 31 883 NAP
NAP 0 0 91 83 201 6 NAP
NAP 0.0 0.0 2.3 NAP 0.2 0.0 NA NAP
NAP 0 0 91 NAP 45 NA NAP
NAP 0 Yes 0 Yes No 83 Yes 156 Yes Yes NAP
1 11 070 NA 11 075 NAP 1 377 NA 69 621 59 410 10 211 6 431 NAP 6 599 NA 2 543 NA 120 275 NAP 151 122 NAP 86 048 NA 1 779 NA 8 145 NA
0
0.0
NA
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
632
0.9
583
1.0 NA
49
0.5 NA
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NA
NA
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
2.2/1.1
0.6/0.6
0.0/0.0
21.4/9.9
0 242 NA NAP NA 0 NA NA NAP NA NA NAP NAP NA NA NA
0 Yes Yes NAP No 0 Yes Yes Yes NAP Yes No NAP NAP NA Yes No
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 91
NOTES ­ TABLE 5.2 In Table 5.2 are included two sets of results for central tendency values (mean, median, minimum and maximum). The first result include in the calculation the values provided by Ireland. The second result excludes Irish figures from the calculation. ALBANIA Persons under security measures are held in special sections within prisons. Yet, they are not included the total prison population, because the data provided by the penal institutions for this category of inmates were incomplete. There is no division of this category by age, type of crime, judicial status, etc. AUSTRIA 865 persons under forensic-psychiatric treatment and security measures BELGIUM Persons included in the Table 5.2 are inmates of whom sentences were coupled with requirement of placement at the disposal of the Government at the end of the sentence. According to this provision these persons should remain in custody. Non-criminally liable offenders sentenced to measures of indefinite incarceration (internement) are not under security measures stricto sensu and, therefore, are not included in Table 5.2. BH: FEDERATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA These persons were been placed in the Forensics department, located within Zenica Prison. Against them criminal proceedings cannot be initiated, i.e. they cannot be imposed with imprisonment having in mind that they have committed offences while mentally incapacitated. CROATIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Persons held as not criminally responsible by the court are not included in the total number of prison population (Table 1). They are accommodated in forensic psychiatric hospitals. Persons held as totally or partially criminally responsible by the court who have been sentenced are included in the total number of prison population (Table 1). CZECH REPUBLIC Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Persons included in the Table 5.2 are persons held in the Preventive Detention Facility DENMARK Preventive detention (in the Danish Criminal Code § 70) is called secure detention: "A person may be ordered to be placed in a secure detention if he/she is found guilty in a serious crime and he/she is considered dangerous". Found guilty means in this case also held responsible. Other persons (that may be criminally liable or not) are held in psychiatric institutions or hospitals. These categories are not included in the total number of prison population. The difference between the 1st and the 2nd categories is a matter of criminal responsibility. GERMANY Data relate to 31st March 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 Persons held as not criminally responsible by the court are not included in the total number of prison population from the Table 1; they are accommodated in forensic psychiatric hospitals; Persons held as totally or partially criminally responsible by the court and who have been sentenced are included in the total number of prison population from the Table 1; The percentage of the persons under security measures in calculated on the basis of the raw data for the persons held criminally responsible by the court. The figure on the non-criminally liable offenders is presented in Table 5.2 only for information. HUNGARY 184 persons under serving involuntary commitment. ICELAND Icelandic Penal Code No 19/1940 Chapter VII: On Security Measures, Deprivation of Civil Rights and Confiscation of Assets Art. 62. If a person is acquitted under the provisions of Art. 15 or a
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92 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 Court finds, in accordance with the provisions of Art. 16, that a penalty would not reap result, a Judgment may, if necessary with a view to judicial security, provide for measures to be taken in order to prevent danger ensuing from the person in question. If it may be assumed that more moderate measures, such as bail, prohibition against stay in particular places, or deprivation of legal rights will not be successful, it may be ordered that the person be committed to a suitable institution. Persons which are not criminally responsible are held at psychiatric hospital which is managed by the Ministry of Health. IRELAND Persons included in the Table 5.2 are normal prisoners held in protection for their safety and not persons solely detained for preventive reasons. This does not apply in the Juvenile Offenders Justice System. ITALY In the Table 5.1 are included internees (Internati) and temporary internees. These are persons held in Judicial Psychiatric Hospitals (Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari), which are special penal institutions under the authority of the Penitentiary Administration, managed by a psychiatrist of the Penitentiary Administration. These prisoners may also be held in prison hospitals, as they are executing a security detention measure. THE NETHERLANDS In the Table 5.2 are included 91 persons. This category consists of people that are not held criminally responsible for their crimes and they are placed in psychiatric clinics (outside the responsibility of prison service) by a judge for the duration of one year. This figure is presented only for information. 1,781 persons held in custodial clinics (TBS) placed there under a hospital order are not included in Table 5.2. POLAND Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 PORTUGAL Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012 In Table 5.2 are included persons detained in accordance with the Art. 202 al. 2 of the Criminal Procedure Code. These are mentally-ill offenders to whom a security measure was imposed held in psychiatric hospitals and similar institutions. SERBIA Persons under security measures in Prison Hospital are inmates held as not criminally responsible by the courts. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) Custodial security measures cannot be imposed instead of a prison term. Therefore, measures may be served in a special centre and they are applied to the inmates only after they served the main custodial sentence, but who are still considered as dangerous by court. Only security measures applied to prisoners declared as non-responsible or semi-responsible can be pronounced as alternatives to the sentence. SWITZERLAND Data included in Table 5.2 were retrieved from the survey on "interned" offenders (under measures of (in)definite imprisonment): art. 64 and art. 64a of the Criminal Code. UK: SCOTLAND There is no formal concept of preventive detention for dangerous offenders, apart from remand (pre-trial detention for those accused of committing a crime) for the purposes of public protection, or detention under mental health legislation (which may or may not be as result of a criminal act). Security measures may apply to the persons held as not criminally responsible, but statistics are not routinely collected on these particular categories.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 93
TABLE 6: MAIN OFFENCE OF SENTENCED PRISONERS (FINAL SENTENCE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS) Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.6
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
Homicide (incl. attempts) Assault and battery Rape Other types of sexual offences Robbery Other types of theft Economic and financial offences Drug offences Terrorism Organised crime Other cases
1 202 2 NA 360 2 153 838 297 167 981 395 54 NA 195 520 606 3 425 4 185 NA 15 407 6 244 535 0 2 000 64 1 246 0 92 809 163 5 728 1 065 5 814 0 894 NA 107 4 174 3 474 700 569 395 225 15 387 16 709 7 500 183 NA
84 1 NA NA 754 2 245 241 31 246 104 9 NA 440 195 492 16 089 7 469 NA 7 471 72 353 0 493 46 609 0 95 207 385 NA 164 536 0 562 NA 38 3 003 2 329 674 555 134 61 7 102 14 143 12 813 249 NA
75 2 NA 113 230 928
42 1 NA 159 NA 923
37
58
26
18
298
136
142
81
32
20
NA
NA
62
79
93
18
102
7 710
3 702
178
NA
NA
13
11
170
165
2 036
671
186
135
0
0
482
26
13
302
115
2
0
9
8
191
179
150
2 315 1 040
203
449
1 736
95
1 271 NA 24 2 130 1 719 411 213 130 41 529 2 422 5 245 43 NA
0 197 NA 71 1 044 881 163 208 171 99 3 283 NA 5 228 92 NA
349 1 NA 976 980 3 021
288 1 NA 1 628 3 332 3 371
115
283
135
20
4 102 1 560
436
681
30
139
NA
NA
327
277
501
351
164
258
11 480
7 180 12 371
NA 6 122 5 606 1 331 0 1 379 34
NA 17 677 2 126 903 4 1 828 53
428 0 29 875 201 13 668 1 587 5 039
1 291 9 274 704 226 19 326 1 362 8 786
0 1 191 NA 188 18 041 16 055 1 986 511 256 299 10 246 20 297 9 279 74 NA
0 2 208 NA 147 2 319 735 1 584 353 602 766 10 470 37 296 11 961 179 NA
28 0 89 NA NA NA 33 18 364 314 33 NA 64 8 185 NA 8 211 NA 21 56 205 55 0 74 12 14 0 19 221 154 172 NA 238 0 131 NA 48 1 668 1 374 294 214 NA 40 4 120 8 013 1 463 NA NA
538 5 NA 1 041 5 858 2 745 186 116 527 891 142 NA 540 567 440 8 269 8 125 NA 27 748 15 080 610 0 955 111 273 0 234 793 679 3 193 2 252 1 195 0 1 341 NA 133 15 166 13 378 1 788 1 001 754 299 7 309 17 699 10 688 62 NA
0 0 NA NA NA NA 3 1 0 0 0 NA NA 0 0 NA NA NA 0 45 67 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NA NAP NA 0 2 0 31 NA 0 254 254 0 NA NAP 11 3 717 NAP NA NA NA
10 0 NA NA NA NA 45 36 149 NA 0 NA NA 6 0 NA NA NA 0 0 255 5 0 16 0 9 0 16 19 NAP 886 NA 283 0 109 NA 56 0 NA 0 NA 1 149 647 NAP NA NA NA
262 0 NA NA 4 710 5 539 144 386 203 930 103 NA 458 327 242 12 519 6 186 NA 9 947 6 544 164 1 1 557 40 382 0 91 1 839 458 39 096 3 871 4 731 0 1 372 NA 191 10 978 10 140 838 1 228 906 283 9 223 2 342 9 385 231 NA
Number of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) 2 878 13 3 548 5 836 18 017 7 636 1 442 954 8 566 3 974 562 20 429 2 442 2 586 2 546 59 492 57 607 12 514 126 3 808 38 906 4 277 5 8 376 399 4 669 11 867 5 658 2 595 77 147 10 722 28 455 1 8 307 9 682 1 003 58 777 50 339 8 438 4 852 3 349 2 273 72 033 118 921 73 562 1 113 6 592
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94 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 TABLE 6.1: MAIN OFFENCE OF SENTENCED PRISONERS (FINAL SENTENCE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.6.1
Homicide (incl. attempts) Assault and battery Rape Other types of sexual offences Robbery Other types of theft Economic and financial offences Drug offences Terrorism Organised crime Other cases
Country
Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
41.8 15.4 NA 6.2 11.9 (11.0)
2.9 7.7 NA NA 4.2 (29.4)
2.6 15.4 NA 1.9 1.3 (12.2)
1.5 7.7 NA 2.7 NA (12.1)
12.1 7.7 NA 16.7 5.4 (39.6)
10.0 7.7 NA 27.9 18.5 (44.1)
20.6 16.7
17.5
3.2
11.5
2.9
9.9
2.6
9.6
1.6
NA
NA
8.0 18.0
20.1
7.5
23.8 19.3
5.8 27.0
2.6
4.0
2.7
1.9
3.5
1.6
3.6
2.0
5.7
3.6
NA
NA
2.5
3.2
3.6
0.7
4.0
13.0
8.0 19.6
14.2
2.1
47.9 18.2
11.0 17.1
5.3 24.7
NA
NA
13.4 11.3
19.4 13.6
6.4 10.1
19.3
7.3 13.0
6.4
0.3 12.5 21.5
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
11.9
5.6 10.3
8.7
4.8 13.5
10.7 12.4
4.5
4.3
3.2 17.8
16.0
0.2
5.2
1.7 14.4
5.5
12.5
8.3
4.3
3.2 31.1 21.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0 80.0
23.9
5.9
5.8
16.5 21.8
16.0 11.5
6.5
3.3
8.5 13.3
26.7 13.0
6.5
2.5
9.2 27.7
0.0
0.0 18.2
0.0
0.0 81.8
10.6 11.0
1.0
0.9
3.3 31.6
14.3
3.7
3.4
15.5 12.4
6.3 14.8
6.9
5.8
7.7
8.7
(7.4)
NA (3.0) (1.3) (17.7) (25.1)
9.7
1.5
1.9
4.1 14.5 12.4
20.4
1.9
6.1
0.3 17.7 30.9
0.0 10.8 NA 10.7 7.1 6.9 8.3 11.7 11.8 9.9 21.4 14.1 10.2 16.4 NA 13.0 11.6 0.0 41.8
0.0 6.8 NA 3.8 5.1 4.6 8.0 11.4 4.0 2.7 9.9 11.9 17.4 22.4 NA 8.2 6.8 0.0 27.0
100.0 3.3 NA 2.4 3.6 3.4 4.9 4.4 3.9 1.8 0.7 2.0 7.1 3.9 NA 7.2 3.9 0.0 100.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.4 14.3 26.6
NA
NA
NA
7.1 18.7 14.7
1.8 30.7
3.9
1.8 31.9
1.5
1.9 23.5 18.8
4.3 10.5
7.3
5.1
7.6 18.0
4.4 13.2 33.7
4.6 14.2 14.5
NA 17.1 31.4
7.1 12.6 16.3
8.3
6.6 16.1
NA
NA
NA
3.3 12.9 20.0
2.9 12.5 17.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.7 47.9 81.8
1.0 18.7
0.0 38.5
2.5
NA
NA 17.8
NA 32.5
NA (35.9)
2.3 12.9
1.9 12.2
4.2
6.2
7.9 22.4
5.9 25.3
NA
NA
2.6 22.1
0.3 21.9
7.3 17.3
NA 13.9
14.3 14.1
NA
NA
16.7 21.4
1.5 19.6
0.5 38.8
1.3 14.3
0.0
0.0
0.9 11.4
3.0 27.8
0.3 0.0 2.2 3.9 5.9 (0.2) NA 0.8
5.8 0.0 27.0 14.0 26.2 (4.1) 20.6 4.2
0.0 1.6 NA 4.8 2.8 2.7 3.5 4.4 NA 1.8 5.7 6.7 2.0 NA NA 3.4 2.3 0.0 16.7
0.0 16.1 NA 13.3 25.8 26.6 21.2 20.6 22.5 13.2 10.1 14.9 14.5 5.6 NA 17.1 16.7 0.0 38.8
0.0
0.3
9.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA 26.1
NA
NA (72.5)
0.2
3.1 10.0
0.1
3.8 40.5
0.0
1.7
2.4
0.0
NA 23.4
0.0
0.0 18.3
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA 18.8
0.0
0.2 12.6
0.0
0.0 11.7
NA
NA 21.0
NA
NA 10.7
NA
NA
NA
0.0
0.0
7.1
1.2
0.0 24.9
0.2
0.7 16.8
0.0
0.1
3.8
0.0
0.0 20.0
0.0
0.2 18.6
0.0
0.0 10.0
0.0
0.2
8.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.8 10.5
NA
0.3 32.5
NAP
NAP 17.6
NA
(1.1) (50.7)
0.0
NA 35.3
0.0
1.0 16.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
1.3 16.5
NA
NA
NA
0.0
5.6 19.0
0.4
NA 18.7
0.5
NA 20.1
0.0
0.0
9.9
NA
NA 25.3
NAP
0.0 27.1
0.5
6.6 12.5
5.2
0.9 12.8
NAP
NAP
2.0
NA
NA 12.8
NA
NA 20.8
NA
NA
NA
0.3
1.0 15.5
0.0
0.2 16.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
5.2
6.6 40.5
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 95
NOTES ­ TABLES 6 AND 6.1 ARMENIA National breakdown does not fit the categories included in the SPACE questionnaire for Table 6. Figures are available for the following categories of offences: o crimes against life and health: 975 o crimes against freedom and dignity: 75 o sexual offences: 63 o crimes against family and child interest: 10 o crimes against property: 1287 o economic crimes: 89 o crimes against public safety: 69 o crimes against safety of computer information: 8 o crimes against public order and morality: 85 o crimes against public health: 663 o crimes against environmental safety: 2 o crimes against state safety and constitutional order: 11 o crimes against state service: 26 o crimes against governmental order: 70 o crimes against justice: 11 o crimes against military: 104 AUSTRIA There is only a part of the breakdown available. Therefore the sum of the categories does not reach the total number of sentenced prisoners. AZERBAIJAN Terrorism: The number of prisoners sentenced for crimes against the state power. BELGIUM The main offence rule is not defined. Moreover, the custody might be applied for many sentences or other legal reasons, so several custodial orders can be cumulated. The figures in Table 6 refer to the number of prisoners who received final sentence to at least one offense in each category. Therefore, the total number exceeds the number of sentenced prisoners because a part of the inmates are counted several times on the basis of different offenses. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (STATE LEVEL) Only one pre-trial detention unit exists at State level; consequently figures on sentenced prisoners are not available for this administrative area. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (REPUBLIKA SRPSKA) Robbery: refers to the theft under aggravated circumstances and to the robbery definition according to the Criminal Code of Republika Srpska. BULGARIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Since this year report, the main offence rule is defined and applied on SPACE figures. Therefore, the comparability with previous years' data is not fully conceivable. The categories used in the Bulgarian penal system do not fit exactly the categories from Table 6: o Other types of sexual offences: include only direct sexual offences (excluding rape) and exclude human trafficking (included under other cases with socially dangerous offences). o Economic and financial offences: include fraud, financial embezzlement (traditionally grouped under crimes against possession in the Bulgarian penal code). CROATIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Table 6: also included those who have started serving prison sentence in advance, 84 juveniles with educational measure in correctional institutions, and 21 prisoners in juvenile prison. Organized criminal act is an aggravating circumstance and not a type of crime in its own. "Other cases": 191 inmates sentenced under the Law on Minor Offences are included.
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96 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
CZECH REPUBLIC The main offence rule is not defined. The distribution by main offence rule is not available at Prison Administration but may be found at the Ministry of Justice. FINLAND Categories of Rape and Other types of sexual offences cannot be separated in these statistics: are included all types of sexual offences. The type of main offence for fine defaulters (57 persons) is not available. Therefore, they are not included in Table 6. FRANCE Figures are on 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. The breakdown is to be carried forward to the total number of inmates which have the status of "йcrouйs" and not only those who are "йcrouйs dйtenus" (de facto held in penal institutions). Categories of Rape and Other types of sexual offences cannot be separated in these statistics: are included all types of sexual offences. Categories of Robbery and Other types of theft cannot be separated in these statistics: are included all types of sexual offences. GERMANY Data relate to 31st March 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. HUNGARY The internal registration system does not allow the collection of the retrospective data. Some figures may be made available as an operational management data only at the current date. IRELAND Homicide: o Offence group 1: Murder, Manslaughter and Dangerous Driving causing Death Offences, and o Offence group 3: Attempts/Threats to Murder, Assaults and Related Offences (Attempted Murder). Economic and Financial offences: o Offence group 9 - Fraud, Deception and Related Offences. Terrorism: o Offences from group 11 - Weapon and Explosives Offences, and o Group 15 - Offences against Government, Justice Procedures and Organisation of Crime. "Other cases": This category includes charges such as public order, criminal damage, and vehicle/motor offences. ITALY In the category of Terrorism are included all types of crimes supplied in the Criminal Code under the denomination of "crimes against the personality of the State". LATVIA Figures are on 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. LIECHTENSTEIN "Other cases": 1 person sentenced for fraud held for extradition. LITHUANIA Figures are on 1st July 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Provisions of the Penal Procedure Code: o Sentenced prisoners after having submitted their written consent may start serving their term of imprisonment before the hearing of their case in order of appeal. o Therefore, sentenced prisoners who have submitted an appeal, as well as prisoners whose sentences had come into force before their transfer to a penitentiary institution are included into the general number of prisoners whose sentence is in force and they are serving it. THE NETHERLANDS Data are available for the population held in penal institutions (see general notes). The total number of inmates does not include juvenile offenders, persons held in custodial clinics, and illegal aliens held for administrative reasons. Categories of Rape and Other types of sexual offences cannot be separated in these statistics: are included all types of sexual offences.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 97
Other cases: other laws and unknown: inmates with unregistered type of crime (e.g. inmates convicted to pay financial compensations to the victims and who are detained for not having done that, or people who are convicted to placement in custodial clinics under a hospital order). NORWAY Terrorism and organised crime are not in themselves classified as categories of offences but as aggravating elements that may result in longer sentences. Other cases: Included 61 fine defaulters even though these are not necessarily defined in law as "sentenced" nor it is possible to identify the category of offence that has resulted in the fine. POLAND Figures are on 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. The breakdown is available on the number of sentences not the number of persons (main offence rule not applied. This distribution is the result of a change introduced in the internal tool of public statistics. As a result, the number of enforced judgments is available, not the number of persons. Therefore, the figures from 2012 are not fully comparable with previous series. PORTUGAL Figures are on 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. In the breakdown of sentenced prisoners are not included 231 mentally-ill offenders, which are counted separately. SPAIN (TOTAL) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) Other types of sexual offences are included abuse, harassment, exhibition and prostitution. Other types of theft are included, among others, thefts of the vehicles and larceny. Economic and financial offences are included fraud, other socioeconomic crimes and crimes against treasury and social security. The 583 inmates under security measures are included in the different categories of offences. SWEDEN Figures are on 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. SWITZERLAND Figures are on 5th September 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. TURKEY Other cases: include crimes such as hold out to against officer, breach of the firearms law, informatics crime etc. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Figures are on 30th June 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Other types of theft: this category includes as well handling stolen goods Economic and financial offences: classified as Fraud and Forgery Terrorism and organised crime: figures are not recorded UK: NORTHERN IRELAND Assault and battery: Violence against the person offences Other types of theft: includes theft and burglary Other cases: 1 person with missing offence details
GENERAL REMARK TO TABLE 6.1:
Counties (Belgium & Poland) with the figures presented between brackets have been excluded from the calculation of mean, median, minimum and maximum values. Finland: In the category "other" we added 57 fine-defaulters. Portugal: Total number of sentenced was adjusted by adding 231 mentally-ill offenders.
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TABLE 7: LENGTH OF SENTENCE OF SENTENCED PRISONERS (FINAL SENTENCE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS)
(A) ­ LESS THAN 1 MONTH (B) ­ FROM 1 MONTH TO LESS THAN 3 MONTHS (C) ­ FROM 3 MONTHS TO LESS THAN 6 MONTHS (D) ­ FROM 6 MONTHS TO LESS THAN ONE YEAR (E) ­ FROM 1 YEAR TO LESS THAN 3 YEARS (F) ­ FROM 3 YEARS TO LESS THAN 5 YEARS (G) ­ FROM 5 YEARS TO LESS THAN 10 YEARS
(H) ­ FROM 10 YEARS TO LESS THAN 20 YEARS (I) ­ 20 YEARS AND OVER (J) ­ LIFE IMPRISONMENT (K) ­ SECURITY MEASURES (L) ­ PRISONERS SENTENCED TO DEATH (M) ­ OTHER SENTENCES
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.7
Less than 1 month (A) NAP 0 NAP 23 1
1 month to less than 3 months (B) 1 173 5
3 months to less than 6 months (C) 236 3 101 278 2 052 11
6 months to less than one year (D) 1 590 286
1 year to less than 3 years
3 years to less than 5 years
5 years to less than 10 years
(E) 291 1 587 1 973 1 272
(F) 547 2 998 1 176 8 896 2 189
(G) 1 035 3 1 395 1 071 5 053 2 465
10 years to less than 20 years
20 years and over
(H)
(I)
354
275
2
0
358
5
413
23
1 761
706
488
Life imprison- ment (J) 140 0 104 116 255 213
Security measures (K) NA 0 NAP Note NAP Note
Death sentence (L) NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP
Other (M) 0 0 NA NA NAP NAP
22
55
107
0
9
12
2 724
15
12
87
0
48
39
7
251
1 391
28
158
199
6
29
95
30
91
130
10 594
167 98 397 43 4 665 322 189 213 11 124
343 251 2 818 1 288 144 8 116 830 636 830 18 027
205 185 1 160 680 88 2 411 303 668 482 6 374
275 208 867 714 103 2 320 304 610 387 5 732
223 167 810 389 63 1 123 211 294 187 5 280
41 NAP 24 NAP 21 117 NAP 15 101 2 20 1 1 871
166 NAP NAP 19 NAP 44 25 39 NAP 195 NAP 490 NA
4 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP 32 NAP 44 NAP NAP NAP NAP
0 0 0 191 0 NAP 16 NAP NAP NA
819
5 033
7 285
11 895
11 379
14 301
4 107
757 NAP
2 031
466 NAP
NAP
42
147
362
1 383
4 652
2 213
2 577
844
26
0
12
11
16
32
21
17
17
0
241
27 NAP
NAP
0
0 NAP
0
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 99
Country Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
Less than 1 month (A) 5 71 4 0 25 0
1 month to less than 3 months (B) 17 114 11 0 118 1
3 months to less than 6 months (C) 106 457 67 0 88 8
6 months to less than one year (D) 354 1 876 184 0 311 26
1 year to less than 3 years
3 years to less than 5 years
5 years to less than 10 years
(E) 906 8 165 827 4 2 402 131
(F) 882 8 729 819 1 2 133 52
(G) 936 11 087 1 677 0 2 120 86
10 years to less than 20 years (H) 275 4 961 630 0 1 459 55
20 years Life imprison- Security
Death
and over
ment
measures sentence
(I) 19 1 883 6 0 18 26
(J) 308 1 563 52 0 110 14
(K) 0 1 341 NAP 0 NAP NAP
(L) NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP
Other (M) 0 0 NAP 0 NAP 0
NAP 0 27 813 69 NAP 8 142
NAP 0 28 536 269 774 105 12
NAP 2 76 403 207 5 260 212 69
50 7 80 707 406 15 124 441 558
551 1 422 1 435 722 32 660 1 526 6 537
874 0 121 559 346 9 148 2 054 8 234
1 812 0 51 622 295 5 250 3 945 7 316
1 484 1 45 366 202 2 831 1 567 4 509
281 0 17 NAP 32 12 NAP 1 645 325 NAP 928
94 NAP
NAP
0 NAP
NAP
0 NAP
30 NAP
NAP
Note
NAP
317
201 NAP
231 NAP
150 NAP
NAP
NAP 0 0 155 67 3 937 539 NAP
0 247 48 1 501 425 76 13 196 1 4 004 NAP 221 15
0
0
1 218
1 491
130
631
13
38
95
979
50
746
45
233
211
284
451
302
9
83
5 886
31 982
NAP
NAP
1 447
3 161
12
39
1 376
0 1 424 1 755 92 3 282 3 049 233 499 219 205 12 771 4 559 2 473 108
0 1 561 2 784 353 11 404 10 174 1 230 1 646 571 630 15 507 19 661 17 172 223 NA
1 985 1 276 177 14 325 12 159 2 166 801 547 560 7 178 40 758 11 968 188 NA
0 664 2 228 206 16 584 13 987 2 597 839 285 480 6 131 40 732 12 207 208 NA
0
0
381
94
661
129
98
25
8 833
2 725 NAP
7 331
2 418 NAP
1 502
307 NAP
391
13
177 NAP
276
0
3 773
2 860
11 343 NAP
3 898
358
113
8
248
0
0 NAP
0
242 NAP
40 NAP
NAP
0 NA
NAP
49 NAP
Note
NAP
49 NAP
155 NAP
NAP
36 NA
NAP
29 NAP
NAP
17 NAP
NAP
1 868 NAP
NAP
7 674
6 080 NAP
191 NA
NAP
960 NA
NAP
0 0 0 0 NA NA 0 NAP 565 NAP 0 NA 6 903 8 NA
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100 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
NOTES ­ TABLE 7 Some countries may have included persons sentenced to security measures (mentally-ill offenders and persons considered as dangerous offenders) under the category "life imprisonment", because in such cases the length of detention/imprisonment is not fixed. However, as a rule, such persons have been excluded from the distribution, and counted separately (see notes to Table 7). Several figures in Table 7 are presented between squared brackets and/or with a different background colour because they do not correspond to the categorisation of the length of sentences used in the SPACE questionnaire (i.e. the lower or upper limits are different, or two or more categories have been merged). ALBANIA Point (K) ­ At the given day of the year, no accurate figures for this category are available. ARMENIA Points (B), (C)and (D) ­ Less than one year; Point (H) ­ From 10 to less than 15 years (instead of 10 years to less than 20 years) Point (I) ­15 years and over (instead of 20 years and over). AUSTRIA Prisoners with a sentence in combination with security measure of indeterminate length are included in items according to the length of the main sentence. AZERBAIJAN Points (A), (B), (C), (D), and (E) ­Less than 2 years; Point (F) ­2 years to less than 7 years (instead of 3 years to less than 5 years); Point (G) ­7 years to less than 12 years (instead of 5 years to less than 10 years); Points (H) and (I) ­ 12 years and over (instead of 10 years to less than 20 years). BELGIUM Point (K) ­ Inmates in respect of which the sentence is accompanied by a decision to keep them available to the courts for enforcement of sentences (previously these decision were to keep available to the government) at the end of the sentence. These sentences are enforced in custody. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (STATE LEVEL) Just one pre-trial detention unit exists at State level; consequently figures on sentenced prisoners are nil for this administrative area. BH: FEDERATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Point (K) ­ If a mentally incapacitated person commits a criminal offence and the court finds him guilt, the court imposes a prison sentence with mandatory measure of psychiatric treatment. The person is not being referred to serve prison sentence until medical doctors in the forensic unit find him mentally fit to start serving imprisonment. Such persons are held in forensic units. They are classified according to the main custodial sentence. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (REPUBLIKA SRPSKA) Point (K) ­ There is a special unit for dangerous offenders under special regime of detention (but none sentenced to particular security measure). BULGARIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Points (A), (B), (C) and (D) ­ It is not possible to keep these groups separate in the statistics. In that category are included all prisoners with sentences under one year. Point (J) ­ Among 166 inmates are includes 59 persons sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. This sentence still exists in the Bulgarian penal code and is set to be removed from the new penal code which will be legalised in 2014. CROATIA Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (K) ­ Persons under security measure without length of sentence imposed are not managed within the prison system.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 101 Point (M) ­ Persons sentenced under the Law on Minor Offences (191) In Table 7 are included as well inmates who started serving prison sentence in advance. Minors do not have a specific length of sentence or educational measures; therefore they are not included in Table 7. At the end of 2012 there were 84 persons under special regime for juvenile offenders. CZECH REPUBLIC Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Figures in Table 7 correspond to the number of sentenced prisoners according the length of the sentence that inmates are currently serving. Point (K) ­ 32 persons held in the Preventive Detention Facility. DENMARK Point (K) ­Under this heading are counted persons under preventive detention measures, including 16 persons convicted according to Criminal Law of Greenland (special measures against mentally ill people and particularly dangerous people) and 28 inmates who are also serving an unlimited sentence in secure detention. These measures have no time limits; though, annually an evaluation is made in order to establish if these prisoners could be released on a trial basis. FRANCE Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Points (A), (B), and (C) ­ It is not possible to keep these groups separate in the statistics; Point (I) ­ From 20 to 30 years (instead of 20 years and over); Data relate to the whole penal population, and not only on those who are held in penal institutions. GERMANY Data relate to 31st March 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (D) ­ 6 moths to 1 year (instead of 6 months to less than 1 year); Point (E) ­ more than 1 year to 2 years (instead of 1 year to less than 3 years); Point (F) ­ more than 2 years to 5 years (instead of 3 year to less than 5 years); Point (G) ­ more than 5 years to 10 years (instead of 5 years to less than 10 years); Point (H) ­ more than 10 years to 15 years (instead of 10 years to less than 20 years); Point (K) ­ Persons under preventive measures are not included in the total number of sentenced prisoners, because they have already served their sentence. IRELAND Point (M) ­ Indefinite contempt of court. ITALY Point (K) ­From Italian judicial point of view, the "internees" are not considered as being sentenced persons. These persons who undergo "security measures of indeterminate length" cannot be included in the number of finally sentenced prisoners. LATVIA Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (L) ­ Until December 31st 2011 death penalty in Latvia was not applicable for the crimes which were committed in a peacetime. Criminal Law of Latvia provided possibility of application of the death sentence for the crimes committed in wartime. Death penalty was excluded from Criminal Law of Latvia since January 1st 2012. LITHUANIA Figures are on 1st July 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. According to the Penal Procedure Code, sentenced prisoners after having submitted their written consent may start serving prison sentence before the hearing of their case in order of appeal. Therefore, sentenced prisoners in appeal, as well as prisoners whose sentences had come into force before their transfer to a penitentiary institution are included into the general number of prisoners whose sentence is in force and they are serving it. In Table 7 are included additional 408 persons.
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102 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
MOLDOVA The sum of the breakdown in Table 7 is higher (additional 477 persons) than the total number of sentenced prisoners from Table 5, because the breakdown presented in Table 7 is available on 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September as in other Tables of this report. THE NETHERLANDS Point (M) ­155 inmates with unknown duration of imprisonment. NORWAY Breakdown of prisoners is based on calculated estimates according to length of sentences imposed. Point (K) ­persons sentenced to security measures (Forvaring) are included in items of Table 7 according to the length of the main sentence. Point (M) ­In this category are as well included 61 fine defaulters. POLAND Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. There is a different breakdown by the length of the sentences in Poland: o Less than one month - NAP o 1-3 months (including 3 months) - 774 o 3-6 months (including 6 months) - 5260 o 6 moths - 1 year - 15124 o 1-3 years - 32660 o 3-5 years - 9148 o 5-10 years - 5250 o 10-15 years - 2831 o 25 years - 1645 o Life imprisonment ­ 317 o Other ­ 3937 (that are fine-defaulters (substitution). PORTUGAL Data relate to 31st December 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (K) ­ 231 inmates under "security measures" (mentally-ill), of which 101 placed in psychiatric penitentiary hospitals, and 130 in non-penitentiary hospitals. Persons under security measures are not included in the total number of sentenced prisoners provided in Table 5. Therefore, the breakdown in Table 7 includes these 231 additional persons. Point (M) ­ 44 prisoners sentenced to the indeterminate length, and 486 with non-consecutive days of imprisonment, 5 in semi-liberty and 4 other. SERBIA Point (K) ­"Security measures" are special sentences for offenders with psychiatric disorders (not criminally responsible at the moment when the crime was committed). SPAIN (TOTAL) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) On 1st January 2012 came into force a methodological reform consisting in the use of the penitentiary information system as an official source of data for the general secretariat of penitentiary institutions. This adjustment made possible the collection of national data accordingly to the SPACE categories, which is referred in Table 7. Point (K) ­persons sentenced to security measures (583) are included in items of Table 7 according to the length of the main sentence. SWEDEN Data relate to 1st October 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. SWITZERLAND Data relate to 5th September 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (M) ­ In this category are included 565 persons detained for fine conversion reasons and
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 103 those who are under different types of conversion of the sentences into custodial sanctions, sentenced for misdemeanor offences. Moreover, there are persons for whom the length of the sentence is unknown. TURKEY If a person is convicted for more than one crime, the cumulative sentence (based on the most serious offence) was reported in Table 7. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Data relate to 30th June 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. Point (K) ­ Under this heading are included 6,080 persons who are under Indeterminate Public Protection sentence Point (M) ­ In this category are included: o 174 people with unrecorded sentences of less than 6 months o 1,185 people with unrecorded sentences of 12 months to less than indeterminate o 5,417 people who have been recalled to custody o 127 fine-defaulters UK: NORTHERN IRELAND Sentence length includes both the custodial element and the licence element (i.e. period on probation). UK: SCOTLAND Detail currently only available for the following sentence bands: o Less than 1 year:1376 o 1 to 2 years:1002 o 2 to 4 years: 1369. o 4 to 10 years: 1637 o 10 years and over: 248 o Life sentences: 960 Warning: These figures are calculated on a different basis from those provided in previous SPACE reports (see notes Table 1). The main difference is for prisoners recalled from license where the sentence length is the amount of time they have left to serve rather than the original sentence. This will result in a higher estimate of the number of short term prisoners recorded.
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104 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 7.1: LENGTH OF SENTENCE OF SENTENCED PRISONERS (FINAL SENTENCE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES)
(A) ­ LESS THAN 1 MONTH (B) ­ FROM 1 MONTH TO LESS THAN 3 MONTHS (C) ­ FROM 3 MONTHS TO LESS THAN 6 MONTHS (D) ­ FROM 6 MONTHS TO LESS THAN ONE YEAR (E) ­ FROM 1 YEAR TO LESS THAN 3 YEARS
(F) ­ FROM 3 YEARS TO LESS THAN 5 YEARS (G) ­ FROM 5 YEARS TO LESS THAN 10 YEARS (H) ­ FROM 10 YEARS TO LESS THAN 20 YEARS (I) ­ 20 YEARS AND OVER (J) ­ LIFE IMPRISONMENT
(K) ­SECURITY MEASURES OF INDETERMINATE LENGTH (L) ­ PRISONERS SENTENCED TO DEATH (M) ­ OTHER SENTENCES Total Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.7.1
Country
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L)
Albania
NAP
8.2
10.1
19.0 36.0 12.3
9.6
4.9 NAP NAP
Andorra
0.0 7.7 23.1 7.7 7.7
15.4 23.1 15.4 0.0 0.0
0.0 NAP
Armenia
NAP
2.8
16.5
28.1 39.3 10.1
0.1
2.9 NAP NAP
Austria
0.4
3.0
4.8 10.1 33.8
20.2 18.4
7.1
0.4
2.0 Note NAP
Azerbaijan
11.4
49.4 28.0
9.8
1.4 NAP NAP
Belgium
0.0
0.1
0.1
3.7 16.7
28.7 32.3
9.2
6.4
2.8 Note NAP
BH: BiH (st. level)
BH: Fed. BiH
1.5 3.8 7.4 11.6 23.8
14.2 19.1 15.5 2.8 NAP
0.3 NAP
BH: Rep. Srpska
0.0
0.9
1.3 10.3 26.3
19.4 21.8 17.5
2.5 NAP
0.0 NAP
Bulgaria
31.8
32.9
13.5 10.1
9.5
0.2
1.9 NAP NAP
Croatia
0.4
0.3
2.2 10.0 32.4
17.1 18.0
9.8
2.9 NAP NAP NAP
Cyprus
0.0
8.5
6.9
7.7 25.6
15.7 18.3 11.2
2.7
3.4 NAP NAP
Czech Rep.
0.0
1.2
6.8 22.8 39.7
11.8 11.4
5.5
0.5
0.2 Note NAP
Denmark
1.1 6.5 8.1 13.2 34.0
12.4 12.4 8.6 0.1 1.0
1.8 NAP
Estonia
0.2
1.1
3.7
7.3 24.6
25.8 23.6 11.4
0.8
1.5 NAP NAP
Finland
1.2
3.6
5.1
8.4 32.6
18.9 15.2
7.3
0.0
7.7 NAP NAP
France
17.8
18.7 30.3
10.7 9.6 8.9 3.1 0.8
NA NAP
Georgia
Germany
1.4
8.7 12.6 20.6 19.8
24.8
7.1
1.3 NAP
3.5 Note NAP
Greece
Hungary
0.3 1.2 2.9 11.1 37.2
17.7 20.6 6.7 0.2 1.9
0.2 NAP
Iceland
0.0 9.5 8.7 12.7 25.4
16.7 13.5 13.5 0.0 0.0
0.0 NAP
Ireland
0.1 0.4 2.8 9.3 23.8
23.2 24.6 7.2 0.5 8.1
0.0 NAP
Italy
0.2
0.3
1.2
4.8 21.0
22.4 28.5 12.8
4.8
4.0 Note NAP
Latvia
0.1
0.3
1.6
4.3 19.3
19.1 39.2 14.7
0.1
1.2 NAP NAP
Liechtenstein
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 80.0
20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 NAP
Lithuania
0.3
1.3
1.0
3.5 27.3
24.3 24.1 16.6
0.2
1.3 NAP NAP
Luxembourg
0.0
0.3
2.0
6.5 32.8
13.0 21.6 13.8
6.5
3.5 NAP NAP
Malta
Moldova
NAP
1.0 10.7
17.0 35.2 28.8
5.5
1.8 NAP NAP
Monaco
0.0 0.0 18.2 63.6 9.1
0.0 0.0 9.1 0.0 0.0 NAP NAP
Montenegro
3.1 3.2 8.8 9.2 48.7
14.0 5.9 5.2 2.0 NAP
0.0 NAP
Netherlands
14.4 9.5 7.1 12.5 25.4
9.9 11.0 6.5 0.6 0.5 NAP NAP
Norway
2.7 10.4
8.0 15.6 27.8
13.3 11.4
7.8
0.5 NAP Note NAP
Poland
NAP
1.0
6.8 19.6 42.3
11.9
6.8
3.7
2.1
0.4
0.3 NAP
Portugal
0.1 1.0 1.9 4.0 13.9
18.8 36.0 14.3 3.0 NAP
2.1 NAP
Romania
0.5
0.0
0.2
2.0 23.0
28.9 25.7 15.8
3.3
0.5 NAP NAP
Russian Fed.
San Marino
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 NAP
Serbia
3.0 14.7 17.9 17.1 18.8
11.9 8.0 4.6 1.1 0.0
2.9 NAP
Slovak Rep.
0.5
1.3
6.5 18.1 28.8
13.2 23.0
6.8
1.3
0.4 NAP NAP
Slovenia
0.1 1.3 3.8 9.2 35.2
17.6 20.5 9.8 2.5 0.0
NA NAP
Spain (total)
0.9
0.2
1.7 5.6 19.4
24.4 28.2 15.0
4.6 NAP
0.1 NAP
Spain (State Adm.)
0.8
0.1
1.5
6.1 20.2
24.2 27.8 14.6
4.8 NAP Note NAP
Spain (Catalonia)
0.9
0.5
2.8 2.8 14.6
25.7 30.8 17.8
3.6 NAP
0.6 NAP
Sweden
0.3
4.3
5.9 10.3 33.9
16.5 17.3
8.1
0.3
3.2 NAP NAP
Switzerland
5.9 13.5 9.0 6.5 17.0
16.3 8.5 5.3 NAP 1.1
NA NAP
the FYRO Macedonia
0.0
0.4
3.7
9.0 27.7
24.6 21.1 12.1
0.0
1.3 NAP NAP
Turkey
NA NA NA NA NA NA
NA NA NA NA NAP NAP
Ukraine
NAP NAP NAP
3.8 16.5
34.3 34.3
9.5 NAP
1.6 NAP NAP
UK: Engl. & Wales
0.3 2.0 4.3 3.4 23.3
16.3 16.6 5.3 0.5 10.4
8.3 NAP
UK: North. Ireland
1.3 1.1 3.5 9.7 20.0
16.9 18.7 10.2 0.7 17.2
NA NAP
UK: Scotland
20.9
NA
NA NA
3.8
14.6
NA NAP
Mean
3.0
3.4
5.6 10.4 25.7
20.7 19.4
9.9
1.9
2.8
1.1
Median
0.3
1.3
4.0
9.2 25.0
17.6 19.1
9.5
0.7
1.5
0.2
Minimum
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Maximum
31.8 14.7 23.1 63.6 80.0 100.0 39.3 28.8
9.6 17.2
8.3
(M) 0.0 0.0 NA NA NAP NAP 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.8 0.0 NAP 0.7 NAP NAP NA NAP NAP 0.0 0.0 0.0 NAP 0.0 NAP 0.0 NAP 0.0 0.0 2.7 2.6 5.1 4.9 NAP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 NA NA 0.0 NAP 16.9 NAP 0.0 NA 9.4 0.7 NA 1.7 0.0 0.0 16.9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (97.9) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (39.2)
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 105
TABLE 7.2: LENGTH OF SENTENCE OF SENTENCED PRISONERS (FINAL SENTENCE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGES)
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.7.2
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Less than 1 year 8.2 38.5 2.8 18.2 11.4 4.0
1 year and over (fixed- term sentence) 86.9 61.5 94.2 79.8 87.2 93.2
3 years and over (fixed- term sentence) 76.8 53.8 77.7 46.0 87.2 76.6
5 years and over (fixed- term sentence) 57.8 38.5 49.5 25.8 37.8 47.9
10 years and over (fixed- term sentence) 21.9 15.4 10.2 7.5 9.8 15.6
Total fixed-term sentences 95.1 100.0 97.1 98.0 98.6 97.2
Life imprisonm ent 4.9 0.0 2.9 2.0 1.4 2.8
Other & security measures 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
24.3
75.4
51.6
37.4
18.3
99.7 NAP
0.3
12.5
87.5
61.2
41.8
20.0
100.0 NAP
0.0
31.8
66.3
33.4
19.8
9.7
98.1
1.9
0.0
12.9
80.2
47.8
30.7
12.7
93.1 NAP
4.8
23.1
73.5
47.9
32.2
13.9
96.6
3.4
0.0
30.9
68.9
29.1
17.3
6.0
99.8
0.2 Note
29.0
67.6
33.6
21.2
8.7
96.5
1.0
2.5
12.3
86.2
61.6
35.7
12.1
98.5
1.5
0.0
18.2
74.1
41.5
22.6
7.4
92.3
7.7
0.0
36.5
62.7
32.4
21.7
12.0
99.2
0.8
0.0
43.5
53.0
33.3
8.4
1.3
96.5
3.5 Note
15.5
82.4
45.2
27.5
7.0
97.9
31.0
69.0
43.7
27.0
13.5
100.0
12.7
79.3
55.5
32.3
7.7
91.9
6.5
89.5
68.5
46.1
17.6
96.0
6.2
92.6
73.2
54.1
14.9
98.8
0.0
100.0
20.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
6.2
92.6
65.2
40.9
16.8
98.7
8.8
87.7
54.9
41.9
20.3
96.5
1.9
0.2
0.0
0.0
8.1
0.0
4.0 Note
1.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
0.0
3.5
0.0
1.0
97.2
86.5
69.5
34.3
98.2
1.8
0.0
81.8
18.2
9.1
9.1
9.1
100.0
0.0
0.0
24.3
75.7
27.0
13.0
7.2
100.0 NAP
0.0
43.5
53.3
27.9
18.0
7.0
96.7
0.5
2.7
36.6
60.8
32.9
19.6
8.2
97.4 NAP
2.6
27.4
66.8
24.5
12.6
5.8
94.2
0.4
5.4
7.0
86.0
72.0
53.3
17.3
93.0 NAP
7.0
2.7
96.7
73.8
44.8
19.1
99.5
0.5
0.0
0.0 52.7 26.5 14.4 8.3 8.5 7.0 20.8 34.9 13.1 NA 3.8 9.9 15.6 20.9 19.5 14.9 0.0 81.8
100.0 44.4 73.1 85.6 91.7 91.5 92.5 76.1 47.2 85.6 NA 94.6 62.0 66.5 3.8 75.4 79.5 3.8 100.0
100.0 25.6 44.4 50.4 72.3 71.3 77.9 42.1 30.1 57.9 NA 78.1 38.6 46.5 NA 51.9 47.9 9.1 100.0
0.0 13.7 31.2 32.8 47.9 47.2 52.2 25.6 13.8 33.3 NA 43.8 22.4 29.6 NA 31.1 31.2 0.0 69.5
0.0 5.7 8.2 12.3 19.7 19.4 21.4 8.3 5.3 12.1 NA 9.5 5.8 10.9 NA 11.7 10.2 0.0 34.3
100.0 97.1 99.6 100.0 99.9 100.0 99.4 96.8 82.1 98.7 NA 98.4 71.9 82.1 96.5 98.1 71.9 100.0
0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 NAP NAP NAP 3.2 1.1 1.3 NA 1.6 10.4 17.2 14.6 2.8 1.5 0.0 17.2
0.0 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.0 16.9 0.0 NA 0.0 17.6 0.7 NA 1.5 0.0 0.0 17.6
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (97.9) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
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106 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 7.3: LENGTH OF SENTENCE OF PRISONERS SENTENCED TO LESS THAN ONE YEAR (FINAL SENTENCE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES)
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.7.3
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Less than 1 month NAP 0.0 NAP 2.2 0.3
1 month to less 3 months to
than 3 months
less than
6 months
100.0
20.0
60.0
100.0
0.0
16.3
26.1
100.0
1.7
3.6
6.3
15.7
30.5
0.0
7.6
10.1
100.0
2.9
2.3
17.0
0.0
36.9
30.0
0.1
4.0
22.0
4.0
22.3
28.1
1.9
9.1
29.8
6.5
19.6
28.0
48.8
3.3
20.1
29.1
2.2
7.6
18.7
0.0
30.8
28.2
1.0
3.5
22.0
2.8
4.5
18.1
1.5
4.1
25.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.6
21.8
16.2
0.0
2.9
22.9
NAP
NAP
NAP
0.0
0.0
22.2
12.8
13.3
36.0
33.1
21.8
16.4
7.3
28.3
21.8
NAP
3.7
24.9
1.0
13.7
27.7
18.2
1.5
8.8
0.0
0.0
5.6
27.8
1.9
5.1
0.7
9.0
10.3
2.0
10.0
1.2
12.9
7.7
1.3
21.0
16.8
38.6
0.3
3.0
7.3
10.8
NAP
NAP
NAP
3.0
19.8
8.6
6.9
100.0
12.6
16.7
2.9
9.1
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0 34.0 24.6 26.4 20.2 17.5 39.7 28.2 25.9 27.9 58.5 43.3 22.4 24.3 25.0 0.0 60.0
6 months to less than 1 year 20.0 0.0 55.5 94.4
Total less than 1 year 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
47.6
100.0
82.4
100.0
100.0
77.7
100.0
33.1
100.0
73.9
100.0
45.5
100.0
59.2
100.0
45.9
100.0
51.2
100.0
47.5
100.0
71.5
100.0
41.0
100.0
73.4
100.0
74.5
100.0
69.2
100.0
0.0
0.0
57.4
100.0
74.3
100.0
100.0 77.8 37.9 28.8 42.7 71.5 57.6 71.4
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
0.0 32.5 68.4 63.9 67.6 71.4 39.7 49.6 18.8 68.8 23.4 100.0 33.9 62.1 53.8 57.4 0.0 100.0
0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 107 NOTES ­ TABLES 7.1, 7.2, AND 7.3 See notes to Tables 5 and 7. For Germany and Italy persons under preventive security measures were excluded from the calculation of the percentages as they are not considered strictu sensu as sentenced prisoners in these countries. All merged categories (e.g. categories (a) and (b) or other) were excluded from the calculation of mean, median, minimum and maximum indicators at the European level. For Lithuania the total number of sentenced prisoners was adjusted for Tables 7.1 to 7.3. The adjustment was made on the basis of comments on the additional category of inmates that start serving their sentences before the final sentence is pronounced. Consequently, there were added 408 inmates. Given that Moldavian figures on the categories of sentenced inmates do not correspond to the total figures used in Table 5, the adjustment was made in accordance with the comments on the available figure. Therefore, the total number of sentenced inmates used for Tables 7.1 to 7.3 corresponds to the figure on 1st October 2012 instead of the one on 1st September 2012 shown in Table 5.
FIGURE 3: COUNTRIES WITH HIGHEST PERCENTAGES OF PRISONERS S ENTENCED TO LESS THAN ONE YEAR
15.5 15.6 18.2 18.2 20.8 20.9 23.1 24.3 24.3 26.5 27.4 29.0 30.9 31.0 31.8 34.9 36.5 36.6 38.5 43.5 43.5 52.7 81.8
90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % 10 % 0%
European Mean = 19.5 European Median = 14.9
Hungary UK: North. Ireland Finland Austria Sweden UK: Scotland Cyprus Montenegro BH: Fed. BiH Slovak Rep. Poland Denmark Czech Rep. Iceland Bulgaria Switzerland France Norway Andorra Germany Netherlands Serbia Monaco
Figure 3 provides a classification of the countries with the highest percentages of prisoners serving short prison sentences (less than one year). This Figure includes 23 countries where the percentages of prisoners sentenced to less than 1 year were above the European median value (14.9%). Between 2008 and 2012 the evolution of the European median followed the curvilinear trend: 15.6% in 2008, 17.1% in 2009, 16.4% in 2010, 18.6% in 2011, and 14.9% in 2012. Once can observe that the latest available figure for 2012 is the lowest one since five last years. For more accurate comparisons, notes to Table 7 should be taken into account.
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108 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 B. Prison Movements during 2011
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 109
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110 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova
TABLE 8: FLOW OF ENTRIES TO PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.8
Total number of entries in 2011 3 528 114 NA 11 831 8 265 18 911
Rate of entries to penal institutions per 100 000 inhabitants 125.3 145.9 NA 140.7 89.5 170.4
Entries before final sentence
Number
% in the total number of entries
2 801
79.4
75
65.8
NA
NA
8 404
71.0
7 794
94.3
12 222
64.6
Entries after the revocation, suspension or annulment of the conditional release or probation
Number
% in the total number of entries
243
6.9
3
2.6
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Entries following transfer from a foreign country (TOTAL)
Number
% in the total number of entries
58
1.6
0
0.0
3 NA
NA
NA
76
0.9
NA
NA
Entries following transfer from a Member State of the EU
Number 50 0 NA NA 0 NA
% in the number of entries following transfer from a foreign country 86.2 0.0 NA NA 0.0 NA
2 424 1 364 (7 492) 12 596 (2 829) 16 583 13 946 2 788 6 436 88 058
103.7 95.4 (102.2) 294.6 NA (328.2) 157.9 249.9 NA 210.4 119.2 134.9
839 487 (3 105) NA (1 425) 6 178 NA 1 803 2 062 47 315
34.6 35.7 (41.4) NA NA (50.4) 37.3 NA 64.7 NA 32.0 NA 53.7 NA
0 3 NA NA (1 404) NA 45 NA NA NA
0.0 0.2 (49.6) 0.3 NA NA
7 26 82 18 0 170 NA 21 10 NA
0.3 1.9 1.1 NA 0.1 0.0 1.0 NA NA 0.8 0.2 NA
2
28.6
5
19.2
NA
14
77.8
0
0.0
NA
NA
16
76.2
9
90.0
NA
112 437
137.4
52 297
46.5 NA
NA
115
0.1
90
78.3
25 007 334 17 505 76 982 15 368 (71) 9 817 1 090
251.8 NA 104.5 382.0 129.6 751.6 (194.7) 326.8 207.7
NA 115 4 693 67 951 10 302 (47) 6 354 691
NA 34.4 26.8 NA 88.3 NA 67.0 NA (66.2) 64.7 NA 63.4
NA 12 NA NA NA (3) NA 272
3.6 NA (4.2) 25.0 NA
3 3 1 NA 25 0 64 NA
0.0 0.9 0.0 NA 0.2 0.0 0.7 NA
3 2 1 NA 17 0 38 NA
100.0 66.7 100.0 68.0 0.0 59.4
NA
NA
2 512 NA
NA
NA
81 NA
2 NA
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 111
Country Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Total number of entries in 2011 145 2 430 40 180 10 704 89 520 6 286 14 862
Rate of entries to penal institutions per 100 000 inhabitants 385.8 391.2 240.2 214.7 232.3 59.6 74.0
Entries before final sentence
Number
% in the total number of entries
105
72.4
643
26.5
18 037
44.9
3 630
33.9
21 334
23.8
2 677
42.6
NA
NA
Entries after the revocation, suspension or annulment of the conditional release or probation
Number
% in the total number of entries
0
0.0
0
0.0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Entries following transfer from a foreign country (TOTAL)
Number
% in the total number of entries
11
7.6
46
1.9
56
0.1
31
0.3
1 163
1.3
NA
NA
572
3.8
Entries following transfer from a Member State of the EU
Number 10 7 NA 27 NA NA 565
% in the number of entries following transfer from a foreign country 90.9 15.2 NA 87.1 NA NA 98.8
(11)
27 355
7 458
3 825
45 525
38 330
7 195
38 935
NA
NA
2 235
169 160
49 198
120 760
6 340
NA
NA
(33.0) 379.1 138.0 186.1 96.3 96.6 95.0 410.6 NA 108.5 226.4 108.2 NA 213.5 347.7 NA NA 206.8 170.4 33.0 751.6
(6) 8 745 2 975 1 008 24 990 21 101 3 889 29 472 NA 87 64 594 NA 94 228 NA NA
(54.5) 32.0 NA 39.9 NA 26.4 NA 54.9 NA 55.1 NA 54.1 75.7 NA NA 3.9 38.2 NA 78.0 NA NA NA 50.9 50.4 3.9 94.3
0 NA NA NA NA NA 40 NA NA 0 861 NA NA NA NA
0.0 NA NA 0.6 NA NA NA 0.0 0.5 NA NA NA NA NA 6.2 0.5 0.0 49.6
0 27 79 10 NA NA NA NA NA 21 NA NA NA NA NA
0.0 0.1 NA 1.1 NA 0.3 NA NA NA NA NA 0.9 NA NA NA NA NA 0.9 0.3 0.0 7.6
0 NA NA 5 NA NA NA NA NA 7 NA NA NA NA NA
0.0 50.0 33.3 53.3 66.7 0.0 100.0
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112 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
NOTES ­ TABLE 8 AZERBAIJAN Total number of entries is calculated on the basis of figures from the Penitentiary Service of the Ministry of Justice and those from the pre-trail detention facility under the Ministry of National Security (8,265). The big decrease of the number of entries between 2010 and 2011 is due to the change in the internal counting rules. Entries to the police stations are not any longer included in the calculation of the total number of entries. Consequently, only data of entries in penal institutions of the Penitentiary Service of the Ministry of Justice and in the pre-trail detention facility under the Ministry of National Security are available. Entries following transfer from a foreign country: In 2011, 76 nationals of Azerbaijan were extradited or transferred to Azerbaijan, mainly from Council of Europe Member States. BELGIUM Given that persons under Electronic Monitoring are included in the total number of inmates (see Table 1.1), the entries under this type of regime are included in the total number of entries. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (STATE LEVEL) At the State level there is only on pre-trial detention unit. Therefore, the number of entries is 100% related to the entries before final sentence. BULGARIA In Table 8 only the total number of entries in prisons is included. Figures do not relate to the entries into investigation detention facilities [IDF]. Only new entries in the penal system are included in the total number of entries. Movements such as transfers between prisons are not included in this Table. Transfers in 2011: 1,420. CYPRUS Total number of entries in penal institutions in 2011 was 12,152, of which 2,829 were entries in prison institution and 9,323 were entries in police stations. In the Table 8 the calculation is based only on the number of entries in prison. Information on the breakdown of entries in police stations is not available. There is only one prison in Cyprus. CZECH REPUBLIC Entries following transfer from a foreign country: The Prison Service of the Czech Republic provides escorts of inmates from foreign countries. Moreover, some escorts were provided from the borders (cross border escorts) but there are no figures available on this type of transfers. Other transfers were provided by the police. Yet, the Prison Service does not keep any specific data about such transfers. The data may be available at the Ministry of Interior or at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. HUNGARY Since 2010, Hungarian Prison Service uses a new Central Registration System. Figures on the entries before final sentence are not any longer available because of the new data protection regulation. IRELAND Entries following transfer from a foreign country: Transfer from member state of the EU (Italy). LIECHTENSTEIN According to a treaty between Liechtenstein and Austria, long-term prisoners usually serve their sentences in Austrian penal institutions. For this reason, rates are presented between brackets. MOLDOVA Entries following transfer from a foreign country: one transfer from Romania and one from Italy. THE NETHERLANDS Entries included in Table 8 are only entries in penal institutions. Entries in custodial clinics, institutions for juveniles and institutions for aliens are excluded. In the total number of entries are included entries from free society and those from police stations into penal institutions.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 113 Entries following transfer from a foreign country: These are inmates who were convicted outside the Netherlands, but they can serve their sentence in the Netherlands. Such procedures, based on a special law (WOTS), make the transference of the execution of criminal judgements possible. These prisoners do not have to be born in the Netherlands, but there should be some form of bond/tie with the Netherlands (e.g. because of having the Dutch nationality and living and working there). Since the 1st November 2012 a new law (WETS) is in force, which regulates this possibility too, but only for European countries. NORWAY Entries after the revocation, suspension or annulment of the conditional release or probation: Nearly all revocations are combined with a new sentence. Therefore no separate figures are available for this category of entries. Entries following transfer from a foreign country: 29 persons were extradited to Norway and 2 persons were transferred to continue serving a sentence imposed in another country. More specifically for EU member states, there are 26 persons extradited to Norway and 1 person transferred to continue serving the sentence imposed by the foreign judicial authority. SAN MARINO Under the Criminal Code (Art. 99), a person serving a sentence of at least six months imprisonment in San Marino may be transferred to a "foreign penal institution", if the competent judge decides so, and if there is a relevant international agreement. These prisoners are not included in the San Marino statistics. For this reason, rate and percentage in Table 8 are presented between brackets. SWITZERLAND In the total number of entries (52,541) are also included the transfers between prisons and entries after escapes with a length of more than 7 days. Given that this figure does not fit the definition used in SPACE questionnaire, it was excluded from Table 8 and is presented here only for information. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Entries after the revocation, suspension or annulment of the conditional release or probation: The new recording system does not allow any longer isolating recall receptions. UK: NORTHERN IRELAND These figures are based on initial admission to any of the Prison Establishments or the Woodlands Juvenile Justice Centre, and therefore do not include any changes of custodial status during time in custody.
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114 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 9: FLOW OF RELEASES FROM PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.9
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta
Total number of releases in 2011 (A) 3 182 103 2 711 11 781 5 080 17 990
Rate of releases from penal institutions per 100 000 inhabitants 113.0 131.9 82.8 140.1 55.0 162.1
Pre-trial detainees released
Number (B) 1 849 57 736 3 318 NA 7 952
% in the total number of releases 58.1 55.3 27.1 28.2 NA 44.2
Final sentenced prisoners released
Number (C) 1 320 46 1 975 7 450 4 892 8 492
% in the total number of releases 41.5 44.7 72.9 63.2 96.3 47.2
Of which
Releases as a result of a release
under condition (incl. conditional release and external placement under Electronic
Unconditional releases at the end of a custodial sentence
Monitoring or Probation)
% in the total
% in the total
Number (C.1)
number of final sentenced prisoners
Number (C.2)
number of final sentenced prisoners
released
released
273
20.7
1 047
79.3
5
10.9
41
89.1
320
16.2
980
49.6
3 167
42.5
3 573
48.0
1 467
30.0
3 425
70.0
NA
NA
NA
NA
Other
Number (D) 13 0 675 1 013 188 1 546
% in the total number of releases 0.4 0.0 24.9 8.6 3.7 8.6
2 420
103.5
676
27.9
1 643
115.0
575
35.0
(6 962)
(95.0)
(1 009)
(14.5)
11 814
276.3
4 420
37.4
2 149
249.3
738
34.3
15 313
145.8
1 920
12.5
NA
NA
NA
NA
2 625
198.1
264
10.1
6 427
119.0
1 125
17.5
81 213
124.4
10 690
13.2
1 587
65.6
491
30.9
1 096
69.1
1 068
65.0
577
54.0
491
46.0
5 902
84.8
894
15.1
5 008
84.9
3 033
25.7 NA
NA
NA
NA
1 411
65.7
1 392
98.7
7
0.5
12 571
82.1
4 109
32.7
8 462
67.3
8 442 NA
3 340
39.6
5 102
60.4
2 361
89.9
442
18.7
1 919
81.3
5 224
81.3
3 935
75.3
1 289
24.7
70 523
86.8
7 481
10.6
63 042
89.4
157
6.5
0
0.0
51
0.7
4 361
36.9
12
0.6
822
5.4
60 NA
0
0.0
78
1.2
0
0.0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
15 794
159.0
3 862
24.5
330
103.3
65
19.7
17 639
384.9
5 051
28.6
83 408
140.4
42 065
50.4
3 393
165.9
1 149
33.9
(63)
(172.7)
3
4.8
NA
NA
NA
NA
1 035
197.2
324
31.3
673
161.2
187
27.8
9 380 262 12 588 40 794 2 211 18 4 223 NA 417 486
59.4
3 319
79.4
162
71.4 NA
NA
48.9
16 504
65.2
533
28.6
15
1 125
40.3
395
72.2 NA
NA
35.4
6 061
61.8
100
NA
NA
40.5
24 290
24.1
1 678
83.3
3
26.6
3 057
94.7
22
NA
NA
64.6
2 552
16.2
38.2
3
0.9
NA
NA
59.5
549
0.7
75.9
33
1.0
16.7
51
81.0
72.4
41 NA
5.3
294
28.4
0
0.0
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 115
Country Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Total number of releases in 2011 (A) 1 408 141 3 360 40 837 10 567 88 887 5 218 12 280
Rate of releases from penal institutions per 100 000 inhabitants 39.6 375.2 540.9 244.1 211.9 230.6 49.5 61.1
Pre-trial detainees released
Number (B) 444 29 955 11 093 1 950 16 529 NA 1 632
% in the total number of releases 31.5 20.6 28.4 27.2 18.5 18.6 NA 13.3
Final sentenced prisoners released
Number (C) 964 102 2 405 28 676 7 153 65 331 NA 10 648
% in the total number of releases 68.5 72.3 71.6 70.2 67.7 73.5 NA 86.7
Of which
Releases as a result of a release
under condition (incl. conditional release and external placement under Electronic
Unconditional releases at the end of a custodial sentence
Monitoring or Probation)
Number (C.1)
% in the total number of final sentenced prisoners
Number (C.2)
% in the total number of final sentenced prisoners
released
released
582
60.4
382
39.6
NA
NA
NA
NA
1 113
46.3
1 292
53.7
496
1.7
28 180
98.3
2 556
35.7
4 597
64.3
25 193
38.6
40 138
61.4
NA
NA
2 375 NA
9 212
86.5
429
4.0
Other
Number (D) 0 10 0 1 068 1 464 7 027 1 344 1 007
% in the total number of releases 0.0 7.1 0.0 2.6 13.9 7.9 25.8 8.2
(11)
(33.0)
6
28 165
390.3
9 317
6 911
127.9
1 178
3 717
180.8
830
46 872
99.2
24 965
39 970
100.7
22 385
6 902
91.2
2 580
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
2 088
101.4
390
NA
NA
NA
NA
55 676
122.5
14 314
NA
NA
NA
NA
5 986
328.2
2 369
NA
NA
NA
NA
170.6
140.3
33.0
540.9
54.5
5
33.1
8 548
17.0
5 672
22.3
943
53.3
21 907
56.0
17 585
37.4
4 322
9 539 NA
NA
NA
18.7
1 695
101 212 NA
25.7
41 362
86 074 NA
39.6
3 605
NA
NA
28.9
27.9
4.8
58.1
45.5
0
30.3
591
82.1
2 414
25.4
610
46.7 NA
NA
44.0 NA
NA
62.6
867
7 505
NA
NA
81.2
1 277
43 101
74.3
28 774
12 727
60.2 NA
NA
NA
NA
63.9
67.7
25.4
96.3
0.0
5
6.9
7 957
42.6
3 258
64.7
333
NA
NA
NA
NA
20.1
3 455
78.7
1 906
NA
NA
75.3
418
42.6
58 111
69.6 NA
NA
14.8 NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
41.8
38.6
0.0
98.7
100.0
0
93.1
10 300
57.4
61
35.3
1 944
NA
NA
NA
NA
79.9
0
20.0
128 NA
NA
NA
24.7
3
57.4 NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
12
NA
NA
56.6
60.4
0.5
100.0
0.0 36.6 0.9 52.3 0.0 0.1 0.2 10.3 1.2 0.0 81.0
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NOTES ­ TABLE 9 ALBANIA Point (D): 4 prisoners that have not been returned into prison after the authorised short-term absence and other 9 are deaths. ARMENIA Other forms of releases: are included 608 persons released under amnesty decision, 32individual pardons, 3 persons released for health reasons, and 32 deaths. Point (D): Figure used in this point is included in the point (B). These other forms of releases represent 34.2% in the number of releases of the final sentenced prisoners. AUSTRIA Point (C): In this category are included additional 710 releases for another reason than the one stated in the title of the item, for example inmates have been extradited to another country, have reached an individual pardon or a reprieve was granted. The number of these persons cannot be made visible in the breakdown of points (c.1) and (c.2). Point (D): releases from financial sentences, releases from sentences of other authorities, administrative sentences, sentences imposed by foreign governments etc. AZERBAIJAN Total number of releases is calculated on the basis of figures from the Penitentiary Service of the Ministry of Justice and from the pre-trail detention facility under the Ministry of National Security (5,080). Releases from police stations are not included in the total number of releases. Point (D): 143 sentenced prisoners were pardoned; 4 prisoners released because of illnesses; 41 prisoners were released because the sentence was revoked. BELGIUM Point (C.1): The external placement under Electronic Monitoring is not considered in Belgium as a release but as a continued detention under a particular regime. Point (C.2): There is a difficulty to set up whether conditional measures are applicable at the end of custodial sentences. Indeed, sometimes probation measures are applied then or placements at the disposal of the Government (a sort of security measure) begin at the end of sentences. There is no codified information which would allow identifying such cases. Point (D): 1,546 inmates, of which: o Releases of "internees" (see point (5) of the Table 1.1, and notes to the table), o Illegal aliens held for administrative reasons (see point (6) of the Table 1.1), o Persons placed at the disposal of the Government (see Table 5.2), o Juveniles held in the Federal Centre for juvenile offenders (see point (2) of the Table 1.1), o Persons under arrest, o Those who were detained under temporary suspended conditional release or probation (without revocation), o Inmates with temporary legal status due to a transfer from a foreign country. Point (D-ADD): Deaths, escapes or other forms of releases when inmates are considered to continue serving their sentences (e.g. non-returns from penitentiary leave are not included in the total number of releases. These events are not considered as "releases" while Belgian internal counting rules are applied. BH: FEDERATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Point (D) includes pardons, financial compensation for the portion of prison sentence which has not been served (Criminal Code of FBiH foresees this possibility for sentences under 1 year). Are as well included here deaths and transfers. BULGARIA Point (B): includes only releases from the units for pre-trial detention in prisons without investigation detention facilities [IDF]. Point (D): Under this heading are accounted 43 deaths and 8 pardons. These events are not included in Point (b) of the Table 9. In 2011, there were 8 pardons granted (unconditional releases before the end of the sentence).
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 117 CROATIA Point (C.2): According to the law, only adult prisoners with final sentence based on provisions of the Penal code and final sentenced minors might be conditionally released. CYPRUS In this Table are presented only releases from prison without taking into account releases from police stations. Data on the latest category of releases in not available. Point (D): Here are included persons transferred to their countries. This figure is included in point (b). These other types of releases represent 0.9% of the number of releases of the final sentenced prisoners. CZECH REPUBLIC Point (D): pardons, releases ordered by the court, deaths, extraditions, sentence interruptions for health reasons or other reasons, transfers to psychiatric hospitals that not under the authority of the Prison Service. DENMARK Point (D): 47 pardons and 13 deaths.. FINLAND Point (D): Including deaths (14), expulsions to other countries (51), enforcement interrupted (fine defaulters 4), other reasons (9). NB: According to the Finnish legislation fine defaulters must serve their whole sentence in prison without a possibility to be conditionally released. Point (C.2): 1,289 releases included in this category, of which 1,249 (97%) were fine defaulters. FRANCE Point (C.1): Number of final sentenced prisoners released concerns only the conditional releases which allowed the lifting of the status of "йcrouй". GERMANY Releases are recorded nation-wide only in the months of March, August and November. Moreover, no data are collected on the releases of pre-trial detainees. Therefore, no data have been made available for Table 9. HUNGARY Point (D): releases of inmates who were under involuntary commitment (29) and defendants serving confinement (2,523). ICELAND Point (D): 3 prisoners transferred to their own home countries to complete their sentences. IRELAND Some juveniles will have received a detention/supervision order which is a period of post release supervision. Such releases are not recorded. ITALY Point (D): releases of the persons under "security measures". LATVIA Point (D): 33 releases, of which: o 10 releases due to serious diseases; o 6 releases due to change of sentence; o 17 pardons. LIECHTENSTEIN Point (C): A part of the sentenced prisoners are brought to the contract partner (Austria) and, in several cases when persons are European citizens, they are released in Austria. Point (D): Persons in extradition and persons held under the application of rules of the AUG (Administrative foreign inmates), as well as persons held for administrative reasons. 9 out of 51 of these releases are also included in point (c) of this Table.
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118 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
LITHUANIA Only the number of final sentenced prisoners released is presented in Table 9. Data on pre-trial detainees released is not available. Point (D): These releases are included in the point (c). This type of other forms of releases represents 1.0% in the total number of releases of the final sentenced prisoners. Other types of releases for sentenced prisoners: o Discharge from sentence due to illness (8) o Re-sentencing after the procedure of appeal (19) o Re-sentencing after the procedure of cassation (5) o Individual pardons (9) LUXEMBOURG Point (D): suspended sentences, releases from disciplinary unit, deaths, transfers to the Centre of Givenich, releases by the Department of Immigration, extraditions. MONACO Point (D): Of which 7 inmates extradited and 3 inmates transferred to the prison in Nice. THE NETHERLANDS Releases included in Table 9 are only releases from penal institutions. Releases from custodial clinics, institutions for juveniles and institutions for aliens were excluded. Number of final sentenced prisoners released: since a couple of years there is a more strict system of early release. Previously, early release was possible after 6 months of compulsory custody. Nowadays, there is a minimum of 1 year applied. In the old system only the general conditions (for instance not committing new offences during the period of early release) applied. In the new system special conditions can be attached to the early release. In the new system, people with a sentence of no longer than 1 year (the vast majority) are released without conditions, because they are not candidates for early release. But persons held in prison for longer than one year released early are under special conditions which might be applied to them. First releases under the new system were made in 2009. In total there were 818 people released early, of which 384 left prison with special conditions. Point (C.1): If someone is leaving prison under Electronic Monitoring, this is not considered as a "release" in Dutch system. Point (D): unknown whether released as a pre-trial or a sentenced prisoner. NORWAY Point (D): 970 fine defaulters, 13 deaths, 2 pardons, 2 sentences annulled, 66 person transferred to continue serving sentence in their home country, 390 expelled, 21 extradited. POLAND Point (D): Under this heading are as well included inmates from the category "punished" (a punished person serves a sentence of pre-trial detention or imprisonment for example for not paying a fine penalty or for misbehaviour in the court). PORTUGAL Point (D): acquittal, change of the way of enforcing the custodial sentence, decriminalisation of certain offences, definitive dismissing of the prosecution in accordance with limitation period of proceedings, death, extradition to the homeland countries of the prisoners. The reasons for other forms of releases generally applied are: Electronic Monitoring, terminal illness, death, expulsion or extradition. The above reasons might apply to the pre-trial detainees and to the final sentenced prisoners. ROMANIA Point (C.1): Are included only conditional releases (without external placement under Electronic Monitoring or probation). Point (D): Figure used in this point is included in the point (b). Here are included deaths, pardons, releases as result of break in sentence enforcement, suspended sentences, sentences conditionally suspended with the surveillance etc. These other forms of releases represents 9.5% in the number of releases of the final sentenced prisoners.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 119 SAN MARINO Under the Criminal Code (Art. 99), a person serving a sentence of at least six months imprisonment in San Marino may be transferred to a "foreign penal institution", if the competent judge decides so, and if there is a relevant international agreement. These prisoners are not included in the San Marino statistics. For this reason, rate and percentage in Table 9 are presented between brackets. SERBIA Point (D): releases of persons sentenced for minor offences. SLOVAK REPUBLIC Point (D): are included as well deaths. SLOVENIA Point (C.1): here are as well included 282 conditional releases and 328 early releases. SPAIN (TOTAL) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SWEDEN Only the number of final sentenced prisoners released is presented in Table 9. Data on the pre- trial detainees released is not available. Point (D): These 128 events are included in the category of the releases of final sentenced prisoners (point (b) of this Table). This type of "other forms of releases" represents 1.3% in the total number of releases of the final sentenced prisoners. THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Point (D): are included 3 re-opened procedures. UK: NORTHERN IRELAND General: All Juveniles released from the Juvenile Justice Centre contain an element of probation in the community beginning on discharge from custody, so all 46 juveniles released will be under condition. Information is not available on those released from the prison establishments.
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120 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
REPORT Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
TABLE 10: TURNOVER RATIO OF INMATES IN 2011
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.10
Total number of inmates on 1st September 2010 4 750 36 4 918 8 597 36 891 11 382
Total number of entries in 2011 (Table 8) 3 528 114 NA 11 831 8 265 18 911
Total number of releases in 2011 (Table 9) 3 182 103 2 711 11 781 5 080 17 990
Turnover ratio (Estimated exit rate per 100 potential exits) 38.4 68.7 NA 57.7 11.2 59.4
1 736
2 424
2 420
58.2
1 046
1 364
1 643
68.2
9 379
7 492
6 962
41.3
5 165
12 596
11 814
66.5
637
2 829
2 149
62.0
21 955
16 583
15 313
39.7
3 944
13 946 NA
NA
3 470
2 788
2 625
41.9
3 316
6 436
6 427
65.9
61 142
88 058
81 213
54.4
71 634
112 437 NA
NA
16 459
25 007
15 794
38.1
165
334
330
66.1
4 352
17 505
17 639
80.7
68 345
76 982
83 408
57.4
6 778
15 368
3 393
15.3
14
71
63
74.1
8 887
9 817 NA
NA
690
1 090
1 035
58.1
6 415 NA
1 408 NA
12
145
141
89.8
1 438
2 430
3 360
86.9
11 737
40 180
40 837
78.7
3 636
10 704
10 567
73.7
80 728
89 520
88 887
52.2
11 613
6 286
5 218
29.2
28 191
14 862
12 280
28.5
0 11 197 10 068 1 351 75 859 65 098 10 761 6 922 6 181 NA 2 516 120 391 152 169 85 002 1 475 7 890 NA
11 27 355 7 458 3 825 45 525 38 330 7 195 38 935 NA NA 2 235 169 160 NA 49 198 120 760 NA 6 340 NA
11 28 165 6 911 3 717 46 872 39 970 6 902 NA NA 2 088 NA 55 676 NA 5 986 NA
100.0 73.1 39.4 71.8 38.6 38.6 38.4 43.9 27.6 76.6 56.0 58.1 11.2 100.0
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 121 NOTES ­ TABLE 10 Table 10 shows the estimated turnover ratio (per 100 inmates likely to be released) for each country. This ratio corresponds to the estimated exit rate per 100 potential exits. Raw data used for the calculations are the total prison populations on 1st September 2010 (stock) which was retrieved from the SPACE I 2010 report and the numbers of entries (flow of entries) and releases (flow of releases) in 2011 were taken from Tables 8 and 9 of the present report. The sum of the stock and the flow of entries provides an estimation of the total number of inmates likely to be released during the year (i.e. the potential exits). This number is then put in relation with the effective number of releases during 2011. We are fully aware that, from a theoretical point of view, it would have been necessary to use the prison population on 1st January 2011 (instead of 1st September 2010) for the calculation, but this figure is not available. One could note that for three countries (Azerbaijan and Latvia) the calculated turnover ratios are very low (less than 20%). Nevertheless, figures for these countries have been included in Table 10 and in Figure 4. Errata: The turnover ratio for Moldavia in SPACE I 2011 report (14%) was calculated on the basis of a wrong figure of entries. This year, these data are not available. AZERBAIJAN Total number of entries corresponds to the number of entries in penal institutions that are under the authority of the Penitentiary Service of the Ministry of Justice and the pre-trail detention facility under the Ministry of National Security without including entries in institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. CYPRUS The total number of entries into penal institutions in 2011 corresponds to the number of entries in prison institution (2,829) without including the entries to police stations. The number of releases is as well given from prison institution (2,149). This is due to the fact that data from police stations are not available. Consequently, the stock figure used for the calculation in Table 10 was adapted accordingly to the number of inmates only in prison without police stations. THE NETHERLANDS Entries and releases included in this Table are only entries into penal institutions. Entries and releases into/from custodial clinics, institutions for juveniles and institutions for aliens were excluded from these figures. FIGURE 4: COUNTRIES WITH LOWEST TURNOVER RATIOS IN 2011 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % 10 % 0%
11.2 15.3 27.6 28.5 29.2 38.1 38.4 38.4 38.6 38.6 39.4 39.7 41.3 41.9 43.9 52.2 54.4 57.4 57.7
Azerbaijan Latvia Ukraine Romania Portugal Hungary Spain (Catalonia) Albania Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Slovak Rep. Czech Rep. Bulgaria Estonia the FYROM Poland France Italy Austria
European Mean = 56.0% European Median = 58.1% Figure 4 provides a classification of the countries with the lowest turnover ratios per 100 inmates during the year 2011. This Figure includes the 18 countries where the ratios were above the European median value (58.1%). The very low values of turnover ratios might become an indicator of a potential overcrowding. Nevertheless, for more accurate comparisons, notes to Tables 8 and 9 should be taken into account.
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122 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 11.1: INDICATOR OF AVERAGE LENGTH OF IMPRISONMENT IN 2011, BASED ON THE TOTAL NUMBER OF DAYS SPENT IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.11.1
Total number of days spent in penal institutions in 2011
Average number of inmates in 2011
Total number of entries in 2011
Indicator of average length of imprison ment
Number of days spent in pre-trial detention in 2011
Average number of detainees in pre- trial detention in 2011
Number of entries before final sentence in 2011
Indicator of average length of pre-trial imprison ment
Number of days spent in inst. for juveniles in 2011
(a) 1 160 335 18 276 NA 3 215 560 NA 4 032 082
(b) 3 179 50 NA 8 810 NA 11 047
(c) 3 528 114 NA 11 831 8 265 18 911
(d) 10.8 5.3 NA 8.9 NA 7.0
(e) 674 885 7 541 NA 679 922 NA 1 366 866
(f) 1 849 21 NA 1 863 NA 3 745
(g) 2 801 75 NA 8 404 7 794 12 222
(h) 7.9 3.3 NA 2.7 NA 3.7
(i) 46 355 160 NA 54 677 NA 29 376
588 662 384 710 NA 1 902 015 236 520 8 369 324 1 473 615 NA 1 149 385 23 571 855
1 613 1 054 NA 5 211 648 22 930 4 037 NA 3 149 64 580
2 424
8.0
108 240
297
839
1 364
9.3
48 910
134
487
7 492 NA
NA
NA
3 105 NA
12 596
5.0
389 090
1 066 NA
NA
2 829
2.7
50 177
137
1 425
16 583
16.6
881 471
2 415
6 178
13 946
3.5
535 273
1 467 NA
NA
2 788 NA
NA
NA
1 803 NA
6 436
5.9
218 270
598
2 062
88 058
8.8 6 044 642
16 561
47 315
4.2
8 395
3.3
4 745
NA
29 930
1.2
7 006
4.7
56 582
NAP
NA
3.5 NAP
4.2
89 441
25 340 290
69 425
112 437
7.4 NA
NA
52 297 NA
2 111 416
6 870 987 55 347 1 612 772 24 476 510 NA 4 619 3 449 250 240 606
18 825 152 4 419 67 059 NA 13 9 450 659
25 007
9.0 NA
NA
NA
NA
334
5.4
5 454
15
115
17 505
3.0
231 712
635
4 693
76 982
10.5 10 274 568
28 150
67 951
15 368 NA
NA
NA
10 302 NA
71
2.1
726
2
47
9 817
11.6
701 530
1 922
6 354
1 090
7.3 NA
NA
691 NA
NA
1.6 NAP
1.6
28 343
5.0 NA
NA
0.5
0
3.6
70 445
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
2 512 NA
NA
7 955
22
145
1.8
2 498
7
105
0.8 NA
448 950
1 230
2 430
6.1
128 115
351
643
6.6 NA
4 321 235
11 839
40 180
3.5 2 133 790
5 846
18 037
3.9 NA
1 322 110
3 622
10 704
4.1
339 985
931
3 630
3.1 NAP
20 189 237
55 313
89 520
7.4 NA
NA
21 334 NA
NA
4 456 103
12 209
6 286
23.3
868 609
2 380
2 677
10.7 NA
12 809 358
35 094
14 862
28.3
342 764
939 NA
NA
706 170
389
1
11
1.2
389
1
6
2.1
0
4 500 000
12 329
27 355
5.4 1 100 000
3 014
8 745
4.1
85 000
NA
NA
7 458 NA
NA
NA
2 975 NA
NA
488 151
1 337
3 825
4.2
111 434
305
1 008
3.6
10 037
26 487 771
72 569
45 525
19.1 4 849 975
13 288
24 990
6.4 NA
22 575 615
61 851
38 330
19.4 4 135 085
11 329
21 101
6.4 NAP
3 912 156
10 718
7 195
17.9
714 890
1 959
3 889
6.0 NAP
2 285 487
6 262
38 935
1.9
642 012
1 759
29 472
0.7 NAP
2 205 814
6 043 NA
NA
630 037
1 726 NA
NA
NA
932 638
2 555
2 235
13.7
117 942
323
87
44.6
18 715
232 308 911
636 463
169 160
(45.1) 29 369 478
80 464
64 594
14.9 1 454 568
NA
NA
49 198 NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
120 760 NA
NA
NA
94 228 NA
NA
NA
NA
6 340 NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
9 784
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
9.5
5.7
7.3
3.7
1.2
0.5
45.1
44.6
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 123
NOTES ­ TABLE 11.1
The calculations made in Table 11.1 are based on the following inputs:
Total number of days spent in penal institutions in 2011
Average number of inmates in 2011
(a)
(b) = a / 365
Total number of entries in 2011 (Table 8)
Indicator of average length of imprisonment (in months)
Number of days spent in pre-trial detention in 2011
(c)
(d) = 12 (b/c)
(e)
Average number of detainees in pre-trial detention in 2011 (f) = e / 365
Number of entries before final sentence in 2011
Indicator of average length of pre-trial imprisonment
(Table 9) (g)
(in months) (h) = 12 (f/g)
Column (i) in Table 11.1 is presented only for information and was not used for any calculation.
AUSTRIA Point (i): shows the number of days spent in penal institutions by juvenile offenders (aged under 18) and not the number of days spent by all juvenile inmates in all penal institutions. BELGIUM Point (a): The total number of days spent in penal institutions does not include the placement under Electronic Monitoring (EM). The number of days spent under EM in 2011 was 359,127. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (REPUBLIKA SRPSKA) Point (a): The exact number of days spent in the penitentiary establishments is very difficult to ascertain as the maintenance of such records is not legally prescribed. o The total number of days spent in the penitentiary establishments is determined as following: the average daily number of sentenced (920) prisoners and pre-trail detainees (134) who were kept in the penitentiary establishments in Republika Srpska during 2011 was multiplied by the number of days in the year. The same pattern was used to get the number of days spent in the pre-trail establishments and those for juvenile offenders during 2011 (134 pre-trial detainees and 13 sentenced). CYPRUS Point (a): Total number of days spent in penal institutions in 2011 (incl. pre-trial detention): o 236,520 days in Prison and 113,782 in police stations; Number of days spent in pre-trial detention in 2011: o 50,177 days in Prison and 113,782 in police stations; Number of days spent in institutions for juvenile offenders in 2011: 7,006 (only prison institution is concerned by this type of detention). Indicator of average length of imprisonment was calculated only on for prison institution without police stations. FRANCE Point (a): The number of days corresponds to the days spent in custody without those days of supervision outside penal institutions. GERMANY Point (i): Number of days spent in institutions for juvenile offenders in 2011: mean (average) of persons held in custodial institutions for juvenile offenders multiplied by 365 days. HUNGARY Point (a): Calculations are based on the total number of inmates, who spent any number of nights in prisons (ranging from even 1 night up to life-sentence imprisonment). IRELAND Point (i): Of which 3,431 in the pre-trial detention (Irish Youth Justice Service). ITALY Points (a) & (e): Calculations are made on the basis of the amount of prisoners present each day of the year during 2011.
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124 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
LIECHTENSTEIN The indicator of average length of imprisonment should be used very cautiously, as certain prisoners from Liechtenstein serve their sentences in Austrian prisons (see general notes). THE NETHERLANDS Figures included in this Table are only of penal institutions. Figures for custodial clinics, institutions for juveniles and institutions for aliens were excluded. Point (a): 2,151,310 out of 4,321,235 days are for sentenced prisoners and of 36,135 days it is unknown whether they are spent by a pre-trial or sentenced prisoner. PORTUGAL Point (a): Calculations are based on the average total number of inmates (12,209) for 2011, multiplied by 365 days. Point (e): For pre-trial detention the same proceeding was applied based on the average of 2,380 detainees. SERBIA Warning: Figures regarding the number of days seem to be estimates. Therefore they should be used cautiously. SPAIN (TOTAL) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SWITZERLAND Errata for SPACE I 2010: Indicators of average length of imprisonment were based on the number of entries which included transfers between prisons. Given that the definition of the entries does not fit the categories requested in SPACE I questionnaire, all figures were excluded from 2011 & 2012 reports. TURKEY Point (d): The calculated indicator of average length of imprisonment seems to be unreliable. Yet, no explanation was provided on the total number of days spent in penal institutions in 2011. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES The average time served, in days, for determinate sentenced prisoners is 298 days. UK: NORTHERN IRELAND Point (i): Figure based on a roll call every day and therefore over-counts those who are only in the JJC for a matter of hours.
COMMENTS ON TABLE 11.2:
As some countries did not provide data on the total number of days spent in penal institutions in 2011 heading (a) of Table 11.1 and other countries provided figures that did not seem reliable (see notes below), in Table 11.2 we have calculated an alternative indicator of the average length of imprisonment (in months) based on the total number of prisoners on 1st September 2011, which is used as an estimate of the average number of inmates during that year (source: SPACE I 2011). AZERBAIJAN Only inmates held in penal institutions under responsibility of Prison Administration of the Ministry of Justice and those in the pre-trail detention facility under the Ministry of National Security were included in the calculations. CYPRUS Calculations are based on the figures for prison institution. This is due to the fact that data from police stations are not available. Consequently, the stock figure used for the calculation in Table 11.2 was adapted accordingly to the number of inmates only in prison without police stations. FRANCE Stock figure corresponds to the real number of those persons hosted inside penal institutions without those persons supervised in the community.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 125
TABLE 11.2: INDICATOR OF AVERAGE LENGTH OF IMPRISONMENT IN 2011, BASED ON THE TOTAL STOCK OF INMATES IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2011
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.11.2
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Total number of inmates on 1st September 2011 (SPACE I 2011) 4 772 36 4 514 8 767 20 602 11 825
Total number of entries to penal institutions in 2011 (Table 8) 3 528 114 NA 11 831 8 265 18 911
Indicator of average length of imprisonment (in months) 16.2 3.8 NA 8.9 29.9 7.5
1 671
2 424
8.3
1 054
1 364
9.3
11 137
7 492
17.8
5 084
12 596
4.8
688
2 829
2.9
23 170
16 583
16.8
3 947
13 946
3.4
3 385
2 788
14.6
3 261
6 436
6.1
64 147
88 058
8.7
70 931
112 437
7.6
17 413
25 007
8.4
149
334
5.4
4 257
17 505
2.9
67 104
76 982
10.5
6 556
15 368
5.1
13
71
2.2
9 504
9 817
11.6
644
1 090
7.1
6 337
3 627
21.0
32
145
2.6
1 328
2 430
6.6
11 579
40 180
3.5
3 535
10 704
4.0
81 382
89 520
10.9
12 681
6 286
24.2
29 823
14 862
24.1
2 10 955 10 713 1 273 71 995 61 279 10 716 6 742 6 065 NA 2 515 126 725 158 532 85 374 1 703 8 267 NA
11 27 355 7 458 3 825 45 525 38 330 7 195 38 935 NA 2 235 169 160 49 198 120 760 6 340 NA
2.2 4.8 17.2 4.0 19.0 19.2 17.9 2.1 13.5 9.0 38.7 8.5 3.2 10.4 8.3 2.1 38.7
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126 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 12: ESCAPES FROM PENAL INSTITUTIONS DURING 2011
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.12
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Number of escapes in 2011 (a) 0 0 0 30 0 28
Total number of inmates on 1st September 2011, SPACE I 2011 4 772 36 4 514 8 767 20 602 11 825
Rate of escapes per 10,000 prisoners 0.0 0.0 0.0 34.2 0.0 23.7
Other forms of escape in 2011 (b) 4 0 0 178 3 702
Rate of other forms of escapes per 10,000 inmates 8.4 0.0 0.0 203.0 1.5 593.7
0
1 671
0
1 054
17
11 137
1
5 084
4
688
0
23 170
9
3 947
3
3 385
10
3 261
29
64 147
0.0 0.0 15.3 NA 2.0 58.1 0.0 22.8 8.9 30.7 4.5
45 4 NA 56 0 18 94 0 330 888
269.3 38.0 110.1 0.0 7.8 238.2 0.0 1 012.0 138.4
4
70 931
0.6
359
50.6
1
17 413
0.6
0
149
0.0
5
4 257
11.7
5
67 104
0.7
0
6 556
0.0
0
13
0.0
0
9 504
0.0
0
644
0.0
10
5.7
2
134.2
94
220.8
148
22.1
3
4.6
0
0.0
4
4.2
21
326.1
3
6 337
4.7
0
32
0.0
0
1 328
0.0
1
11 579
0.9
10
3 535
28.3
18
81 382
2.2
9
12 681
7.1
3
29 823
1.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
514
443.9
151
427.2
220
27.0
79
62.3
4
1.3
0
2
7
10 955
3
10 713
2
1 273
9
71 995
9
61 279
0
10 716
3
6 742
33
6 065
6
2 515
24
126 725
1
158 532
17
85 374
1
1 703
24
8 267
0.0 6.4 2.8 15.7 1.3 1.5 0.0 4.4 54.4 NA 23.9 1.9 0.1 2.0 5.9 29.0 8.6 1.9 0.0 58.1
0 190 3 43 1510 1236 274 234 NA 141 286 84 386 20 13
0.0 173.4 2.8 337.8 209.7 201.7 255.7 347.1 560.6 22.6 5.3 45.2 117.4 15.7 143.0 38.0 0.0 1012.0
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 127
NOTES ­ TABLE 12 Escapes in 2011 by sentenced prisoners or pre-trial detainees under the supervision of the prison administration from a closed penal institution or during administrative transfer (e.g. to/from a court, another penal institution, a hospital) Other forms of escape (from an open penal institution ­agricultural colony or other­ from semi- detention, or during an authorised short-term absence or leave, etc.) in 2011. The SPACE I questionnaire specifies that the counting unit for Table 12 should be the escaped person. Therefore, when no explicit notes were provided by the national correspondents, we assumed that this counting unit has been respected (i.e. the Table refers to persons and not to cases of escape involving several prisoners). AZERBAIJAN Point (b): 3 persons escaped from station/settlement type of the penal institution (open form of the penal institution). BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (REPUBLIKA SRPSKA) Point (b): Total number of escapes in this category is 4, of which two prisoners did not return after authorized suspension of the prison sentence, one person did not return after a weekend leave and one person did not return after revocation of parole. BULGARIA The only figure available is the total number of escapes. This figure was included in the point (a), but actually it refers to both ((a) and (b)). There is no specified location of the escapes. CYPRUS Point (a): Two of the persons were pre-trial detainees who escaped from the Court. The other two escaped from the open prison. In open Prison in Cyprus, the prisoners are still locked up, however they have more rights than other prisoners (e.g. more visit time etc.). Therefore, these 2 cases are included in Point (a) and not in Point (b). DENMARK Point (a): 9 escapes, of which 3 escaped directly from prison and 6 during transfers; Point (b): 94 escapes provided in Table 14 do not include fail to appear from leave. Errata for SPACE I 2011: In point (b) there should be 97 escapes instead of 94 made visible previously. ESTONIA Point (a): All escapees have been apprehended. FRANCE The counting unit is the event (escape), which might imply many persons. In 2011, 8 escapes occurred from the penal institutions. 915 persons escaped from while they were outside the penal institutions (including sentencing adjustments). Escape under custodial guards: escapes from the detention, during medical removals or transfers, outdoor placement, sports' outings and all exits supervised by prison staff. Escape custodial guards off: escapes from the hospitals, granted temporary leaves, suspended or reduced custodial sentences, under police guard while medical or judicial removals are made. HUNGARY Point (b): Other forms of escape (disciplinary offence of escape): 10 persons, of which: o 8 person did not return in time from the interruption of the execution of imprisonment, o 1 person did not return in time from the short-term authorized absence, o 1 person did not return in time from leave. IRELAND Point (a): refers to escapes from children detention schools. LITHUANIA Point (b): Absence from any type of penal institution (including closed prisons) during authorized short-term absence is not considered as an escape. Therefore, these data are not included in figures presented in Table 12.
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128 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 THE NETHERLANDS Figures refer to the population in the closed prisons. Other categories of institutions (for juvenile offenders, for illegal aliens and custodial clinics) are not included in this Table. PORTUGAL Point (b): 79 prisoners failed to return from penitentiary leave without surveillance. In 2011, 9,999 authorised leaves without surveillance have been granted. SLOVENIA The counting unit is the case/event instead of the person. Point (b): Among 43 escapes are as well included 20 escapes from Correctional Institution for Juvenile offenders with educational measure. SPAIN (TOTAL) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) Point (b): Are include persons that do not return after programmed visits, stays in external institutions, leaves, etc. SWEDEN Point (a): Escapes from closed penal institutions UKRAINE Point (a): The figure includes escapes only from closed penal establishment and pre-trial institutions. Point (b): Escapes by inmates in open institutions (e.g. work farms) =10; semi-detention =71; during authorised short-term absence (or leave) from all types of institutions (including closed prisons) =3. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Figures provided are for 2011/12 financial year (1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012). Point (b): The number of other forms of escapes corresponds to the number of absconds and non-returns from Release on Temporary License. UK: SCOTLAND Figures are for financial rather calendar years (i.e. from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012). Point (a): includes 1 escape from closed prison.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 129
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro
TABLE 13.1: DEATHS IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011 (BY TYPE OF REGISTERED DEATH)
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.13.1
Total number of deaths in penal institutions in 2011 9 0 32 37 145 52
Homicides 0 0 0 0 0 NA
% homicides 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 NA
Accidents 0 0 0 0 1 NA
% accidents 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 NA
Of which
Drug/
%
alcohol
intoxications
intoxications
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
2
5.4
0
0.0
NA
NA
Suicides 2 0 6 13 12 12
% suicides 22.2 0.0 18.8 35.1 8.3 23.1
Other causes (incl. illness) 7 0 26 22 132 NA
% other 77.8 0.0 81.3 59.5 91.0 NA
Total number of inmates on 1st September 2011 4 772 36 4 514 8 767 20 602 11 825
Mortality rate per 10,000 inmates 18.9 0.0 70.9 42.2 70.4 44.0
2
0
0.0
0
0.0
4
0
0.0
0
0.0
52
0
0.0
1
1.9
13
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0
0.0
0
0.0
38
0
0.0
0
0.0
13
0
0.0
0
0.0
12
1
8.3
0
0.0
9
0
0.0
0
0.0
169
3
1.8 NA
NA
0
0.0
1
50.0
1
50.0
1 671
12.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
4
100.0
1 054
38.0
1
1.9
6
11.5
44
84.6
11 137
46.7
0
0.0
2
15.4
11
84.6
5 084
25.6
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
688
0.0
1
2.6
9
23.7
28
73.7
23 170
16.4
4
30.8
5
38.5
4
30.8
3 947
32.9
0
0.0
3
25.0
8
66.7
3 385
35.5
0
0.0
7
77.8
2
22.2
3 261
27.6
23
13.6
100
59.2
43
25.4
64 147
26.3
128 NA
NA
2
1.6 NA
NA
53
41.4
73
57.0
70 931
18.0
39
1
2.6
0
0.0
0
0.0
9
23.1
29
74.4
17 413
22.4
0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
149
0.0
6
0
0.0
0
0.0
3
50.0
0
0.0
3
50.0
4 257
14.1
165
0
0.0 NA
NA
NA
NA
63
38.2 NA
NA
67 104
24.6
27
0
0.0
1
3.7
1
3.7
7
25.9
18
66.7
6 556
41.2
0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
13
0.0
32
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
11
34.4
21
65.6
9 504
33.7
2
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
2
100.0
0
0.0
644
31.1
49
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0
0.0
0
0.0
5
0
0.0
0
0.0
2
4.1
7
14.3
40
81.6
6 337
77.3
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
32
0.0
0
0.0
3
60.0
2
40.0
1 328
37.7
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130 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
Country Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Total number of deaths in penal institutions in 2011 40 6 127 64 88 0 90 15 4 204 149 55 14 10 12 270 1009 192 4 24
Homicides 0 0 NA 1 1 0 0 0 0 4 4 0 0 NA 0 2 8 2 0 NA
% homicides 0.0 0.0 NA 1.6 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 2.7 0.0 0.0 NA 0.0 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.0 NA 0.5 0.0 0.0 8.3
Accidents NA 0 NA 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 2 1 0 NA 2 8 11 NA 0 NA
% accidents NA 0.0 NA 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 1.5 1.3 1.8 0.0 NA 16.7 3.0 1.1 NA 0.0 NA 1.5 0.0 0.0 25.0
Of which
Drug/
%
alcohol
intoxications
intoxications
NA
NA
0
0.0
NA
NA
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
1
1.1
0
0.0
0
0.0
48
23.5
39
26.2
9
16.4
1
7.1
NA
NA
2
16.7
0
0.0
4
0.4
NA
NA
0
0.0
NA
NA
4.6
0.0
0.0
50.0
Suicides 15 4 22 8 9 0 7 7 2 17 15 2 7 6 2 31 48 57 2 NA
% suicides 37.5 66.7 17.3 12.5 10.2 0.0 7.8 46.7 50.0 8.3 10.1 3.6 50.0 60.0 16.7 11.5 4.8 29.7 50.0 NA 26.8 22.6 0.0 100.0
Other causes (incl. illness) NA 2 NA 55 77 0 82 8 1 132 89 43 6 NA 6 229 938 133 2 NA
% other NA 33.3 NA 85.9 87.5 0.0 91.1 53.3 25.0 64.7 59.7 78.2 42.9 NA 50.0 84.8 93.0 69.3 50.0 NA 53.3 59.5 0.0 100.0
Total number of inmates on 1st September 2011 11 579 3 535 81 382 12 681 29 823 2 10 955 10 713 1 273 71 995 61 279 10 716 6 742 6 065 2 515 126 725 158 532 85 374 1 703 8 267
Mortality rate per 10,000 inmates 34.5 17.0 15.6 50.5 29.5 0.0 82.2 14.0 31.4 28.3 24.3 51.3 20.8 16.5 47.7 21.3 63.6 22.5 23.5 29.0 29.8 26.3 0.0 82.2
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 131
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
TABLE 13.2: SUICIDES IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.13.2
Total number of deaths in penal institutions in 2011 9 0 32 37 145 52
Suicides 2 0 6 13 12 12
% suicides 22.2 0.0 18.8 35.1 8.3 23.1
Of which: Number of females 0 0 0 2 2 1
% of female suicides in the total number of suicides 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.4 16.7 8.3
Total number of inmates on 1st September 2011 4 772 36 4 514 8 767 20 602 11 825
Suicide rate per 10,000 inmates 4.2 0.0 13.3 14.8 5.8 10.1
2
1
50.0
4
0
0.0
52
6
11.5
13
2
15.4
0
0
0.0
38
9
23.7
13
5
38.5
12
3
25.0
9
7
77.8
169
100
59.2
0
0.0
1 671
6.0
0
0.0
1 054
0.0
0
0.0
11 137
5.4
0
0.0
5 084
3.9
0
0.0
688
0.0
0
0.0
23 170
3.9
0
0.0
3 947
12.7
0
0.0
3 385
8.9
0
0.0
3 261
21.5
4
4.0
64 147
15.6
128
53
41.4
3
5.7
70 931
7.5
39
9
23.1
0
0
0.0
6
0
0.0
165
63
38.2
27
7
25.9
0
0
0.0
32
11
34.4
2
2
100.0
1
11.1
17 413
5.2
0
0.0
149
0.0
0
0.0
4 257
0.0
1
1.6
67 104
9.4
2
28.6
6 556
10.7
0
0.0
13
0.0
0
0.0
9 504
11.6
0
0.0
644
31.1
49
7
14.3
0
0.0
6 337
11.0
0
0
0.0
0
0.0
32
0.0
5
3
60.0 NA
NA
1 328
22.6
40
15
37.5
0
0.0
11 579
13.0
6
4
66.7
0
0.0
3 535
11.3
127
22
17.3 NA
NA
81 382
2.7
64
8
12.5
0
0.0
12 681
6.3
88
9
10.2
4
44.4
29 823
3.0
0
0
0.0
90
7
7.8
15
7
46.7
4
2
50.0
204
17
8.3
149
15
10.1
55
2
3.6
14
7
50.0
10
6
60.0 NA
12
2
16.7 NA
270
31
11.5 NA
1 009
48
4.8
192
57
29.7
4
2
50.0
24 NA
NA
NA
12.5
26.8
6.5
22.6
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 NA NA NA 0 2 1 NA
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.9 6.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.5 50.0 4.8 0.0 0.0 50.0
2 10 955 10 713 1 273 71 995 61 279 10 716 6 742 6 065 2 515 126 725 158 532 85 374 1 703 8 267 NA
0.0 6.4 6.5 15.7 2.4 2.4 1.9 10.4 9.9 8.0 2.4 3.0 6.7 11.7 7.7 6.5 0.0 31.1
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132 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 13.3: TYPES OF DEATHS AND SUICIDES IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.13.3
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
Does the data include persons who died or committed suicide inside prison hospitals? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
If yes, how many? 5 0 12 1 113 NA 0 0 15 6 0 12 NA 0 2 2 NA 20 *** *** NA 12 0 15 0 2 *** 5 2 *** NA 12 55 0 2 7 *** 7 7 *** NA NA 0 NA 663 NA 0 NA
Of which: Number of females 0 0 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 NA 1 *** *** NA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 *** NA 0 4 0 0 1 *** 1 1 *** NA NA 0 NA NA NA 0 NA
Does the data include persons who died or committed suicide in community hospitals? Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Non Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
If yes, how many? 2 0 8 5 *** 12 0 4 7 NA 0 25 *** 2 *** *** NA 2 0 4 NA 6 0 1 *** *** *** 0 7 *** NA 0 18 0 6 0 1 76 57 19 NA NA 0 NA 275 NA 0 NA
Of which: Number of females 0 0 0 0 *** 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 *** 0 *** *** NA 0 0 0 NA 0 0 1 *** *** 0 0 0 *** NA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NA NA 0 NA NA NA 0 NA
Does the data include persons who died outside prison (e.g. during a prison leave or period of absence by permission)? No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
If yes, how many? *** 0 *** 1 *** 1 1 2 12 NA 0 1 *** *** *** *** NA 0 0 *** *** *** 0 0 *** *** *** 0 6 *** *** *** *** 0 2 0 0 11 0 11 NA NA 1 NA *** *** 0 NA
Of which: Number of females *** 0 *** 0 *** 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 *** *** *** *** NA 0 0 *** *** *** 0 0 *** *** 0 0 0 *** *** *** *** 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 NA NA 0 NA *** *** 0 NA
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 133 NOTES ­ TABLES 13.1, 13.2 AND 13.3 AUSTRIA Since 2011 there is a special unit in the Austrian Prison Directorate, investigating and documenting every suicide in Austrian prisons. AZERBAIJAN Table 13.1 (Other causes): diseases BELGIUM Table 13.3: Deaths which occurred during the time served under Electronic Monitoring are included in the total number of deaths. Yet, those which occluded during the authorised leaves or permissions are not recorded. BH: FEDERATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Table 13.3: There is no special prison hospital. However within Zenica Prison perimeter, there is a sick bay for placing or holding ill prisoners who serve their sentences in Zenica Prison. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (REPUBLIKA SRPSKA) In the course of 2011, all four inmates died of illness in local hospitals. CZECH REPUBLIC Table 13.3: One person died during the transport to the community hospital. FRANCE Tables 13.1, 13.2 and 13.3: Are included deaths which occurred while in custody, of which: o 16 suicides while the act committed in custody but the death occurred outside in a community hospital; o 2 suicides while the act committed and the death occurred outside prison, in a community hospital; o 5 suicides of the persons with the status of "йcrouйs" but who were in external placement (not held in prisons); o 57 deaths occurred in hospitals and outside custody; Table 13.3 (deaths in prison hospitals): Figures relate to the deaths within the regional medical and psychiatric services. HUNGARY Table 13.1 & 13.3: Health institutions of the Hungarian Prison Service("Prison Hospitals"): o Forensic Psychiatric Mental Institution o Central Hospital of the Prison Service o Szeged Strict and Medium Regime Prison Unit III, Chronicle Medical after-care for prisoners ICELAND Table 13.3: There is no prison hospital in Iceland IRELAND Table 13.1 (Other): 1 other and 2 Inquests Pending; Table 13.3: The information on the persons considered as being inmates but who died outside prison was not collated in 2011. ITALY Except for cases of suicides and homicides, the information on the reasons of deaths is not collated for statistics. THE NETHERLANDS Table 13.2 (suicide in community hospitals): These deaths concern inmates who were inside prisons, but because of an acute situation were transferred to a community clinic. Table 13.2 (deaths outside prisons): These inmates at the time of their death were not staying inside a prison, but were: o on leave o following a penitentiary program outside prison o in a (non-forensic) psychiatric hospital
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134 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 NORWAY Suicide is defined in accordance with the Nordisk Statistisk registration rules. If an inmate injures himself in prison and later dies of these injuries outside of the prison (i.e. in or on the way to hospital) then the incident is registered as "in prison". Cases of overdose are not included unless there are clear indications that the act was intentional. Death in prison includes those who died in hospital as a result of an action taken whilst in prison. E.g. A suicide attempt in prison is recorded as "death in prison" if the person later dies after being transferred to a hospital. There are no prison hospitals in Norway. PORTUGAL Prisoners who died or committed suicide in community hospitals: are included the data from the hospitals under the authority of the National Health Service. Errata for SPACE I 2011: Figures made available in SPACE I 2011 report do actually correspond to 2011 and not to 2010 as requested in the questionnaire. SPAIN (TOTAL) (a) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) (b) There are not prison hospitals in Spanish Prison system, only 2 penitentiary psychiatric centers. SWEDEN Figures on the number of deaths are only for final sentenced prisoners. Data on pre-trial detainees are not available. UKRAINE Table 15.3 (deaths inside prison hospitals): 663 deaths, of which 415 in diverse prison hospitals and 218 in TB hospitals. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Total number of deaths in penal institutions includes all deaths in prison custody arising from incidents in prison custody irrespective of cause or eventual location of death. Similarly, the figure of suicides includes all suicides irrespective of final location of death. Moreover, figures for suicides are for self-inflicted deaths. These are deaths resulting from the deceased's own actions regardless of intent. UK: SCOTLAND The Scottish Prison Service does not have a dedicated hospital facility within the prison estate. Figures are for the reporting year 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 135 MAP 3: SUICIDE RATE PER 10,000 INMATES IN PENAL INSTITUT IONS IN 2011 Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.m.3
In 2011, the average (mean) rate of suicides in Europe was 7.7 per 10,000 inmates, which is higher than in 2010 (6.7 respectively). The median value in 2011 was 6.5 and, once again, this figure is higher than the one in 2010 (it was of 5.4 per 10,000 inmates). The highest suicide rates (of more than 15 suicides per 10,000 inmates) in 2011 were observed in Luxembourg, Montenegro, Finland, Slovenia, and France. In France and Luxembourg, the high suicide values were already revealed in 2010. Nevertheless, while interpreting the figures that correspond to the suicides in custody, it is necessary to take into account that some of the raw data used for Map 3 were very law. Therefore, when comparing the rates presented in the Map 3 one should pay attention to the notes to Tables 13.1, 13.2 and 13.3. The highest rates (of more than 5) are presented in the Figure below. Suicide Rate per 10,000 inmates, 2011 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
5.2 5.4 5.8 6.0 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.7 7.5 8.0 8.9 9.4 9.9 10.1 10.4 10.7 11.0 11.3 11.6 11.7 12.7 13.0 13.3 14.8 15.6 15.7 21.5 22.6 31.1
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136 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 14: EXPENSES IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011 (IN ) Row-data: (a) Average amount spent per day for the detention of one person in 2011; (b) -//- in pre-trial detention in 2011 (/day); (c) -//- in the correctional facility in 2011 (/day); (d) -//- in the special facility/section for persons with psychiatric disorders in 2011 (/day); (e) -//- in an institution for juvenile offenders in 2011 (/day); (f) Total number of days spent in penal institutions in 2011 (incl. pre-trial detention); (g) Number of days spent in pre-trial detention in 2011; (h) Number of days spent in institutions for juvenile offenders in 2011; Calculated: (i) General average amount per inmate = mean(b, c, d, e); (j) Average amount per inmate (pre-trial & sentenced) = mean(b, c); (k) Total amount likely to have been spent for all pre-trial detainees in 2011 = b*g; (l) Total amount likely to have been spent for all juvenile inmates in 2011 = e*h; (m) Total amount likely to have been spent for all categories of inmates in 2011 = (mean[b, c, d, e])*f.
(n) Total budget spent by Prison Administration in 2011 (raw data provided by the Prison Administrations)
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.14
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany
(a) 13.15 158.59 6.07 99.00 9.75 NA
(b) 14.5 158.6 5.8 NA 5.1 NA
Of which:
(c)
(d)
12.23
65.27
158.59 NAP
6.39 NAP
NA
179.00
10.25 NA
NA
NA
(e) 38.39 158.59 6.29 NA 43.84 NA
(f) 1 160 335 18 276 NA 3 215 560 NA 4 032 082
Of which:
(g)
(h)
674 885
46 355
7 541
160
NA
NA
679 922
54 677
NA
NA
1 366 866
29 376
(i) 32.61 158.59 6.15 99.00 19.72 NA
(j) 13.4 158.6 6.1 NA 7.7 NA
(k) 9 812 828 1 195 927 NA NA NA NA
(l) 1 779 568 25 374 NA NA NA NA
(m) 37 835 624 2 898 391 NA 318 340 440 NA NA
(n) 28 117 884 3 083 904 13 447 825 349 026 836 71 757 005 579 835 857
32.11 29.00 3.12 NA NA 22.00 183.00 31.45 162.00 96.03
32.1 29.0 NA 8.2 NA NA 179.0 NA 162.0 85.4
32.11 29.00 NA 13.60 NA NA 204.00 NA 162.00 108.48
32.11 NA NA 16.68 NAP NA NA NA 255.00 NA
32.11 29.00 NA 9.55 NA NA NAP NA NAP 496.05
588 662 384 710 NA 1 902 015 350 302 8 369 324 1 473 615 NA 1 149 385 23 571 855
108 240 48 910 NA 389 090 163 959 881 471 535 273 NA 218 270 6 044 642
8 395 4 745 NA 29 930 7 006 56 582 NAP NA NAP 89 441
32.11 29.00 NA 12.01 NA 22.00 191.50 31.45 193.00 229.99
32.1 29.0 NA 10.9 NA NA 191.5 NA 162.0 97.0
3 475 586 1 418 390 NA 3 186 647 NA NA 95 813 867 NA 35 359 740 516 454 212
269 563 137 605 NA 285 832 NA NA NAP NA NAP 44 367 208
18 901 937 11 156 590 NA 22 833 690 NA 184 125 128 282 197 273 NA 221 831 305 5 421 290 931
22 154 755 12 683 000 NA 71 857 178 NA 293 202 000 NA 39 833 596 192 691 000 2 263 746 691
110.70 NA
NA
NA
NA
25 340 290 NA
2 111 416 110.70 NA
NA
NA
2 805 170 103 2 805 188 561
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 137
Country Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
(a) 27.60 140.00 179.00 123.75 13.47 230.00 13.67 189.03 6.67 49.70 15.00 202.65 277.00 19.25 47.81 15.65 750.00 15.00 35.61 83.00 64.99 54.66 75.31 301.00 NA 10.00 15.27 3.06 110.00 NA 32.37 95 42 3 750
(b) 27.6 140.0 179.0 NA 13.5 230.0 14.4 189.0 5.1 NA 15.0 191.3 277.0 19.3 47.8 NA 750.0 15.0 35.6 83.0 65.0 54.7 75.3 332.0 187.0 10.0 15.3 3.1 NA NA 32.4 103 36 3 750
Of which:
(c)
(d)
27.60 140.00 179.00 NA NA 230.00 13.50 189.03
35.99 NAP 179.00 NA 17.90 325.00 NAP 189.03
8.28 NA 15.00 192.89 277.00 19.25 47.81 15.55
NAP NA NAP 363.93 NAP NA NA NA
750.00 10.00 35.61 83.00 64.99 54.66 75.31 NA 312.00 9.00 15.27 3.06 108.00 NA 32.37 102 36 3 750
NAP 35.00 84.36 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 137 84 17 364
(e) 39.62 NAP 967.00 NAP 63.35 NA 39.09 0.00 13.48 NA NA 543.00 NAP NAP NA 17.43 750.00 30.00 27.47 NA NAP NAP NAP NAP NA 14.00 15.27 NA 243.00 879.36 32.37 187 35 0 967
(f) 6 870 987 55 347 1 612 772 24 476 510 NA 4 619 3 449 250 240 606 NA 7 955 448 950 4 321 235 1 322 110 20 189 237 4 456 103 12 809 358 389 4 500 000 NA 488 151 26 487 771 22 575 615 3 912 156 2 285 487 2 205 814 932 638 232 308 911 NA NA NA NA
Of which:
(g)
(h)
NA 5 454 231 712 10 274 568 NA 726 701 530 NA
NA NAP 28 343 NA NA 0 70 445 NA
NA 2 498 128 115 2 133 790 339 985 NA 868 609 342 764
NA NA NA NA NAP NA NA 706 170
389 1 100 000 NA 111 434 4 849 975 4 135 085 714 890 642 012 630 037 117 942 29 369 478 NA NA NA NA
0 85 000 NA 10 037 NAP NAP NAP NAP NA 18 715 1 454 568 NA NA 9 784 NA
(i) 32.70 140.00 376.00 123.75 31.57 261.67 22.32 141.77 8.94 49.70 15.00 322.78 277.00 19.25 47.81 16.49 750.00 22.50 45.76 83.00 64.99 54.66 75.31 301.00 249.50 11.00 15.27 3.06 175.50 879.36 32.37 131 49 3 879
(j) 27.6 140.0 179.0 NA 13.5 230.0 13.9 189.0 6.7 NA 15.0 192.1 277.0 19.3 47.8 15.6 750.0 12.5 35.6 83.0 65.0 54.7 75.3 332.0 249.5 9.5 15.3 3.1 108.0 NA 32.4 104 36 3 750
(k) NA 763 560 41 476 448 NA NA 166 980 10 080 986 NA NA NA 1 921 725 408 172 689 94 175 845 NA 41 528 196 NA 291 750 16 500 000 NA 9 249 022 315 175 625 226 023 746 53 838 366 213 147 984 117 816 919 1 179 420 448 471 929 NA NA NA NA 94 060 911 16 500 000 166 980 516 454 212
(l) NA NAP 27 407 681 NAP NA NA 2 753 695 NA NA NA NA NA NAP NA NA 12 308 543 0 2 550 000 NA NA NAP NAP NAP NAP NA 262 010 22 211 253 NA NA 8 603 658 NA 8 782 999 2 164 784 0 44 367 208
(m) 224 698 452 7 748 580 606 402 272 3 028 968 113 NA 1 208 638 76 987 260 34 111 314 NA 395 364 6 734 250 875 698 273 366 224 470 388 642 812 213 046 284 211 226 313 291 750 101 250 000 NA 40 516 533 1 721 307 798 1 233 983 116 294 624 468 687 931 587 550 350 593 10 259 018 3 547 357 071 NA NA NA NA 642 212 881 212 136 299 291 750 5 421 290 931
(n) 173 665 871 7 885 000 348 400 000 NA NA NA 564 951 630 45 481 238 16 563 171 2 630 618 8 189 087 622 231 519 414 081 000 847 599 150 NA 200 447 595 NA 60 000 000 138 382 842 40 343 175 1 538 426 583 1 196 593 430 341 833 153 644 845 409 NA 9 500 000 674 434 883 NA 3 465 000 000 153 832 243 373 200 000 462 073 435 173 665 871 2 630 618 3 465 000 000
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138 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 14.A: CATEGORIES INCLUDED IN THE CALCULATION OF CUSTODIAL EXPENSES IN 2011, IN TABLE 14
14.1 Security 14.2 Health care (incl. medical care, psychiatric services, pharmaceuticals, dental care etc.) 14.3 Services (incl. maintenance, utilities, maintenance of inmate records, reception, assignment, transportation, etc.) 14.4 Administration (excl. extra-institutional expenditures) 14.5 Support (incl. food, inmate activities, inmate employment, clothing, etc.) 14.6 Rehabilitation programs (incl. academic education, vocational training, substance abuse programs, etc.) 14.7 Other Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.14.A
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
14.1 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14.2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes/No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
14.3 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14.4 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14.5 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14.6 Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
14.7 No No No Yes No No No No No No NA Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No No No NA Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes NA Yes No No No No Yes
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 139
NOTES ­ TABLES 14 AND 14.A Data included in Table 14 are not necessarily comparable across countries. In order to ensure more reliable comparisons, we present in Table 14.A the categories which are included in the calculation of the custodial expenses by each country. Nevertheless, these figures should be used cautiously not only because the definition of the categories may differ from one country to another, but also because the purchasing power varies widely across Europe. AUSTRIA Table 14.A (point 14.7): For example financial income support of prisoners to be released, clothes for prisoners to be released etc. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (FEDERATION) Table 14: the total budget spent includes all costs except capital investment. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (REPUBLIKA SRPSKA) Table 14 point (d): This category of inmates is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection of the Rep. Srpska. Therefore, there is no special budget foreseen in the budget of the Prison Administration for these people. BULGARIA Figures included in Table 14 do not include salaries of staff, including security staff and administration staff. There is no specific data available for the average amount per day for a person in the institutions for juvenile offenders, psychiatric prison hospital, pre-trial detention or correctional facility. CROATIA There is no separate breakdown of the costs for pre-trial detainees and convicted prisoners. CZECH REPUBLIC Figures in Table 14 include investments; the Prison Service of the Czech Republic provides all escorts (to the courts, to hospitals, to other prisons, escorts from abroad etc.) The amount is counted in each organisational unit (prison or remand prison) but it is not stated for each person (pre-trial detainee, juvenile or others). ESTONIA Table 14.A (point 14.7): different investments(sports equipment, kitchen equipment etc.), a lump-sum benefit if an inmate is released, etc. FINLAND Table 14.A (point 14.7): in this category of costs are also included rental costs. FRANCE Table 14 point (e): The expenses of institutions for juvenile offenders include the costs borne by the Judicial Youth Protection Directorate inherent in the functioning of this type of establishments (staff and operating). Table 16.A (point 16.7): Other expenses correspond to contributions to the central agency of social security (ACOSS). GERMANY The total costs of the prison service amounted to 2,805,188,561, of which: o 2,454,710,784 without construction costs o 350,477,777 constitutes construction costs For 25,340,290 days spent in penal institutions (point (f) Table 14), as result, there is in an amount of 110.70 per person per day: 96.87 per person per day without construction costs plus 13.83 add for construction costs. Table 14.A (point 14.7): the average amount includes all costs in connection with the penal system (such as staff, construction costs). ICELAND Table 14.A: The fees for education in custody are paid by the Ministry of Education who is responsible for that. Yet, the PPA is responsible for programs and training.
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140 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 IRELAND Table 14 point (e): Irish Youth Justice Service (IYJS) calculations refer to reduced operational bed space capacity of 44 spaces. Additional transportation for certain children provided by Gardaн (police). Additional administrative support provided by the Department of Justice and Equality. Additional academic education provided by the Department of Education and Skills. Amount spent per day is applicable whether the child is remanded (pre-trial) or committed (sentenced). ITALY In 2011, the expenses are calculated on an average daily presence of 67,405 inmates. Breakdown of costs (the basis of calculation is the average daily cost): o Goods and services & IT service = 6.51 o Previous debts for goods and services = 4.74 o Staff = 99.42 o Maintenance, assistance, rehabilitation, prisoners' transport = 7.00 o Investments = 6.08 Total = 123.75 per inmate and per day Table 14.A (point 14.2): healthcare costs are covered by the Penitentiary Administration only in the Region with Special Statute. In the remaining Regions, the costs of prisoners' healthcare are covered by the National Healthcare Service. LATVIA Table 14 point (d): Prison Hospital of Latvia. Table 14.A (point 14.7): Taxes and duties, repairs and maintenance costs, capital repairs, construction, etc. LIECHTENSTEIN Table 14 point (d): any person with special treatment needs is to be held in. Austrian penal institutions. The fees are 325/day. Table 14.A: The only existing prison in Liechtenstein is too small and, therefore, the expenses are divided with other partner institutions (i.e. the police pay for security and transportations, the administrative tasks are shared with services from police as well). o All inmates are requested to have the health insurance; o Are calculated the food and the hygienic items; o The amount of the guards and staff is included (this amount can change, because it belongs to the number of inmates de facto present at the penal institutions); o The amortization amount of the building is not included; o The Transportations is handled by the police; o The administration is also shared in part with the police; o The rehabilitation programs by the "Verein fьr Bewдhrungshilfe" and some external institutions. LITHUANIA Table 14.A (point 14.6): Training category is included only partially: maintenance of education rooms and renovation expenses. LUXEMBOURG As the pre-trial detainees and sentenced prisoners are held in the same place, the costs applied to ensure the detention are the same for both categories. MOLDOVA The amounts include the cost of all services provided to inmates, as well as staff salaries. MONACO The Monaco's Arrest House, the only detention facility in the Principality of Monaco, is designed for pre-trial detention and for detention of persons serving short prison sentences. Exceptionally, it may be the place of detention of prisoners sentenced to long prison terms. This is an important element to be considered in comparisons; Table 14.A: The facility has a budget-line for work of inmates. Yet, the school and university level trainings (AUXILIA) are paid from the budget of social assistance.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 141
THE NETHERLANDS Figures included in Table 14 refer to the adult prison system. Table 14: o Point (a): There is no total figure because of different types of regime inside prisons. Therefore, this figure is a rough estimation on the basis of the figures given in points (b), (c) and (d). o Point (b): Price of a basic place in a House of Detention (including overhead costs). o Point (c): Price of a closed prison place (including overhead costs). o Point (d): Price of a place in one of the 5 Psychiatric Penitentiary Complexes which are meant for pre-trial as well as sentenced prisoners (including overhead costs made by the headquarters). o Point (e): The costs of regular education in these institutions are not included in this price. The Department of Education, Culture and Science pays for this. o Point (m): The calculation is based on the expenses made in custody (adult regular regime only). Juvenile inmates and people being treated in custodial clinics under hospital orders are excluded from this calculation. Juvenile prisoners and people being treated in custodial clinics under a hospital order are not included. Therefore all the amounts for these additional categories are presented in the Table 14 only for information. NORWAY Table 14 points (b) and (c): There are no special prisons for remand detainees. Therefore it is not possible to specify the expenditure on these groups separately. Table 14 points (d): This group of persons is not being held in prison establishments and is not under the responsibility of the Correctional Service. Table 14 points (e): There are no special institutions for juvenile offenders. POLAND Table 14 point (n): 847 599 150 is the total budget including pension payments. The total budget spent without pension payments is 585 659 740 . PORTUGAL Table 14: The average amount is provided for the pre-trial detainees and convicted prisoners altogether. ROMANIA Table 14.A (point 14.7): Other types of costs included are salaries of staff, heritage objects, services, current reparation works, internal displacements, as well as costs of capital improvements, maintenance and equipment of penal institutions. SLOVAK REPUBLIC Table 14 point (d): 84.36 /day ­ corresponds to the expenses for all categories of patients in Prison Hospital, not only persons with psychiatric disorders. Table 14.A (point 14.7): Wages of civil employees, salaries of prison officers, payments for insurance and contribution to insurance companies, common transfers- for sick benefits, severance pay, for compensation, remunerations for extra-work civil employees. SPAIN (TOTAL) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) Table 14.A (point 14.7): Cost generated by the functioning of the National Prison Administration (Head Office). SPAIN (CATALONIA) The averages amount of 75.31 /day is the same for all the categories of inmates. The average cost includes the security inside penal institutions, but not the outside one. The expenses of the inmates' transportations are covered by Catalonian police.
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142 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 SWEDEN There are no special prisons for remand detainees. Therefore it is not possible to specify the expenditure on this population separately. SWITZERLAND Table 14: All the available figures are generated by the Federal Ministry of Justice and they correspond to the functioning costs. THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Table 14.A (point 14.7): Expenses for conveying the prisoners to court or to other prison. TURKEY Table 14: o Point (a): 15.2720 /day (41 TL) o Point (b): Pre-trial detention costs for each offender are covered by court house services. o Point (c): The treatment costs of offenders are covered by Ministry of Justice budget. o Point (m): Total budget spent by the Prison Administration in 2011 was of 674,434,883.2160 (which is 1.832.703.487 TL) (1 = 2.7174 TL). UKRAINE Figure available for both prisoners and detainees of different categories. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES The figures shown are in Euros and have been converted from Ј sterling at the Yearly Average Exchange Rate for 2011 of 1.151701 to Ј1. All figures have been calculated from the 2011-12 prison costs, which were published on 25th October 2012. Table 14: The total resource expenditure for 2011/12 was 3.465 billion Euros: o Point (a): is the average daily cost per prisoner for all public and private sector prisons in England and Wales. o Point (c): The 108 per day relates to all other prisons, excluding those in the 15-17 age bracket. o Point (e): The 243 average cost per prisoner of a juvenile offender is calculated from prisons within the "Male YOI young people (ages 15-17)" function. Table 14.A: o These average costs comprise the prison establishments' overall resource expenditure, which is the direct local establishment cost, increased by an apportionment of relevant costs borne centrally by NOMS, including property costs (such as depreciation), major maintenance, headquarters costs, prisoner escort and custody services, and expenditure recharged to the Youth Justice Board. o Expenditure which is met by Other Government Departments, such as on health and education, and the cost of prisoners held in police cells under Operation Safeguard, is not included. o Expenditure not related to prisons (such as Probation), extraordinary expenditure (e.g. impairments) and costs relating to electronic monitoring are also not included in the costs. o Dover, Haslar and Morton Hall's expenditure are excluded as they are Immigration Removal Centres operating under Detention Centre Rules 2001. o Expenditure incurred directly by the Youth Justice Board on Secure Childrens' Homes and Secure Treatment centres is not included. UK: NORTHERN IRELAND Table 14: o Point (e): Ј763 converted in EUR (Rate 1.1525) o Point (m): Ј133,477,000 converted in EUR (Rate 1.1525) UK: SCOTLAND It is not directly possible to calculate the cost of pre-trail detention. Figures have been produced using the annual cost of holding one prisoner in custody. Escort services are included at 12,000,000 for total budget spend but are not included as part of the average cost of detaining one prisoner. Figures are for the reporting year 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 143 C. Prison Staff
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144 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 15: STAFF WORKING IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON THE BASIS OF FULL-TIME EQUIVALENTS (FTE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS)
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.15
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova
Total number of staff (a) 3 809 71 2 210 3 748.16 3 717 8 958.20
Staff at the national prison administration (Head Office) (b) 180 2 218 68.78 187 NA
Staff in regional prison administration offices (c) 431 0 364 NAP NAP NA
Other staff employed by the prison adm., but who work OUTSIDE penal institutions (d) NAP 0 NAP NAP 978 NA
Total number of staff working INSIDE penal institutions (e) 3 198 69 1 628 3 679.38 2 552 8 498.90
Executives (managers) of penal institutions (f) 22 2 95 89 40 225.40
Custodial staff
Medical and paramedical staff
(g) 2 837 57 1 299 3 044.51 1 404 7 033.74
(h) 218 9 106 117.18 NAP 243.45
Of which: Staff responsible for assessment and the psychologists (i) 60 0 46 74.91 23 337.30
Staff responsible for education activities (including social workers, teachers / educators, etc.) (j) 61 1 33 118.71 19 NA
Staff responsible for workshops or vocational training (k) 4 0 NAP NA NAP NA
Other staff working INSIDE penal institutions (l) 0 0 49 235.07 1 066 NA
983 NAP 836 4 391 2 652 450 NAP 10 879.8 4 801 1 721.25 2 694 34 690.7
NAP 7 NAP 111 62 NAP NAP 173.5 NAP 269 28 83 407.9
300 292 0 143 1 656.1
NAP NAP NA NAP NAP 3 065.4 771 1 140 3 959
983 829 3 980 2 590 450 7 640.9 3 470 1 692.25 2 328 28 667.7
19 6 13 195 14 109 48 15 98 341.1
682
28
471
15
3 461
125
1 576
120
408
0
1 987
423.1
2 564
149 NA
760
105.45
1 394
191
25 082.2 NA
NA
12 12 29 16 0 1 413.3 21 275 NA
23 70 314 NA 232 2 99 29
27 156 265 26 84 419 8 197 146.5
192 99 38 186 0 3 625 191 753.8 173 3 097.9
36 666 NAP
439
0
36 227
414
26 768
236
649
1 715
2 124
4 321
7 840 115 3 602.2 46 252 2 557 16 3 428 401.5
219 NAP 16 126.53 1 458 133 NAP 0 68 NAP 4
7 35 1 285 0 0
NA 0 143 2 649 NAP 0 267 0
7 621 92 3 297.67 40 860 2 424.5 16 3 093 397.5
431
4 419
611
3
76 NAP
74 2 833.7
138.97
206
36 794
72
37
1 747
119
1
15
0
34
1 976
273
5
294
1
211
476 NAP
1 473
2
2
11
2
19.6
1
168.5
61.84
2
926 NA
2 860
138
36
21
326.5
0
0
0
0
35
200
11
564
5.25
19.5
32
40.75
2 846
134 NAP
250
2 462
42
778
265.5
28
119
0
1 229.5
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 145
Country Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
Total number of staff (a) 45 504 12 533.8 3 745.6 29 497 5 688 12 141 8 4 248 5 183 893 29 975 25 061 4 914 6 799 3 812 758 40 018 54 067 42 345 2 063.09 4 123
Staff at the national prison administration (Head Office)
Staff in regional prison administration offices
(b) 0 0 309.9 33.5 423 359 273
(c) 0 0 646.8 173.7 509 NAP NAP
NAP
NAP
59 NAP
141 NAP
35 NAP
580 NA
388 NA
192 NAP
320
175
NA
NA
15 NAP
175
224
320
1 529
1 508
467
214
142
512
388
Other staff employed by the prison adm., but who work OUTSIDE penal institutions (d) 0 0 914.2 110.9 404 NAP 382 0 NAP 852 NAP NAP NAP NAP 339 NA NAP 11 5 667 0 42 0
Total number of staff working INSIDE penal institutions (e) 45 504 10 662.9 3 427.5 28 161 5 329 11 486 8 4 189 4 190 858 29 395 24 673 4 722 5 965 3 627 743 39 608 46 551 40 369 1 665.09 3 223
Executives (managers) of penal institutions (f) 2 4 176.0 74.4 1 704 49 755 1 37 60 53 454 393 61 265 336 32 911 675 1 797 176 91
Custodial staff (g) 32 417 7 032.3 2 351.6 15 768 4 239 4 076
Medical and paramedical staff (h) 2 15 317.6 0 1 563 NA 711
Of which: Staff responsible for assessment and the psychologists (i) 0 16 104.5 0 636 NA 90
Staff responsible for education activities (including social workers, teachers / educators, etc.) (j) 0 20 325.8 0 2 351 417 411
Staff responsible for workshops or vocational training (k) 0 32 920.3 554.9 NAP NA 29
7 2 552 719 533 18 620 15 469 3 151 4 198 1 830 515 33 788 13 622 28 892 1 271 3 074
0
0
0
0
287
24
262
518
236
86
275 NAP
15
7
79
91
1 182
982
1 704
749
957
645
1 466
659
225
337
238
90
113
24
249
312
208
518
23
30
30
35
138
215
439
1 278
3 531
304
173
905
236
624
795
0
13.54
25
39
64
0
54
0
4
Other staff working INSIDE penal institutions (l) 9 0 1 786.4 446.6 6 139 624 5 414 0 509 2 814 80 5 704 5 084 620 804 735 78 2 839 27 341 8 025 76.55 0
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146 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
NOTES ­ TABLE 15 ALBANIA Point (k): The number of staff responsible for workshops or vocational training is part of the personnel of the national prison administration, central office. Therefore they are also accounted under the point (b). AUSTRIA The accounting rules among categories were adjusted and there is no more double-counting among headings. Comparisons with 2011 data should be made cautiously. AZERBAIJAN Point (h): This category of staff is employed by the General Medical Directorate of the Ministry of Justice. Point (j): External teachers are not employed by the Prison Administration. Therefore, their number is not made visible in Table 15. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (REPUBLIKA SRPSKA) Point (b): The central prison administration in this case is the Sector for execution of criminal sanctions in the Ministry of Justice of Republika Srpska. CYPRUS All figures concern only the Prison institution. Points (h), (i), and (j): Medical staff, psychologists, social workers and educators are not employed by the Prison Department, but they work exclusively for the Prison Department. CZECH REPUBLIC National counting rules applied: All staff that is not in contact with inmates is considered as working OUTSIDE penal institutions. While INSIDE staff means: o Those who physically work in areas where prisoners are placed, or o Those who are responsible for penal activities, or o Those who are basically members of number of staff of the respective penal institutions. Point (d): Staff at the Institute for Prison Staff Education, judicial guards, administration, logistics etc. Point (g): Uniformed staff in touch with prisoners (wardens) Points (h) and (i): The same people are responsible for education and assessment. This category of staff includes teachers, educators, therapists, psychologists, social workers. Point (l): includes teachers in schools (59) and "leaders" of workshops in vocational schools (24,5)= 83,5 Point (l): Escort officers, guards at gates and perimeters, drivers, dog keepers, prevention officers TEMPORARY MISSING STAFF: The total number of staff includes 46 temporary missing people. The number consists of female uniformed staff on maternity leave (23) and staff on long-term sick leave (23). The total number of staff does not include 198 temporary missing people. The number consists of female uniformed staff who are at home with their children after maternity leave "family leave" (90) and female civilian staff on maternity leave and "family leave" (108). DENMARK Point (d): Under this heading are included staffs employed in probation services, halfway- houses and the Central Education Centre. The difference of 1 person between the breakdown and the total figure is due to the rounding. FINLAND Points (i) and (j): Counted all together. FRANCE Point (c): Students from the National School of Penitentiary Administration and the Penitentiary Employment Service are included as well under this heading. Points (h) and (i): Medical and paramedical staff working in the healthcare units inside penal institutions is exclusively employed by the Ministry of Health (since the Law of 1994). None of
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 147
the professionals of the above categories is employed by the Ministry of Justice. Point (j): There is no social worker employed in prisons. The only people allowed to work in the social field are probation and rehabilitation advisors and they are employed by the Prison Administration. GERMANY Point (c): staff of 15 out of the 16 prison administrations (Head Offices) in the 16 "Lдnder". Point (h): only medical staff; special data of paramedical staff is not available; insofar staff is included in the point (g). Point (l): Other staff working inside penal institutions-: o higher intermediate prison and administrative service: 1,446 o other administration staff (including secretary staff): 2,301 o pastors : 91 o others: 482 HUNGARY Point (e): Those who are working in the Prison Service Head Quarters are considered as working inside penal institutions. Yet, they were excluded from point (e) and counted only under heading (b). ICELAND Figures from points (i) and (j) are included as well in the point (b). Therefore there is a visible discrepancy of 4 persons. ITALY Point (h): The healthcare staff members working in prison are employed by - and their number is surveyed by - the National Healthcare Service. The 72 persons included in the point (h) are employed under special contracts paid by the Penitentiary Administration. These members of healthcare staff perform their duties in the regions with Special Statute (Sicily, Friuli Venezia Giulia and Sardinia). LATVIA Point (f): There are 12 prisons in Latvia. Data of this point includes prison chiefs and deputies of the prison chiefs. LIECHTENSTEIN Under points (b), (c) and (d) there are no staff presented. This is due to the fact that staff employed is shared between custodial and police duties. The detention units are located in the same building with the police station. Points from (h) to (l): these special services are given by different departments of the Government. There is a weekly request of staff if need be. LITHUANIA In Table 15 the breakdown is based on full and part-time employees of the Prison Administration. Staff working in penal institutions but not directly employed by the Prison Administration have not been included. All the figures of the Table are on 1st July 2012. MONACO Point (a): 44FTE + 2 PTE. Point (h): 1 doctor and 1 dentist, both part-time employed. PORTUGAL Data are the FTE equivalents calculated for the staff employed by the Penitentiary Administration on 31st December 2012. Points (h) and (i): In addition to medical and paramedical staff employed by Penitentiary Administration, some medical, nursing and psychological duties are also performed by private companies which are under contract made with the Penitentiary Administration. ROMANIA Point (c): Staff at the National Training School of Penitentiary Agents in Tвrgu Ocna, the Training Centre for Prison Officers in Arad, the Vocational Training and Recreation Centre for Prison Staff in
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148 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 Sovata, the Hotel staff in Eforie Sud, the Supply Management and Repair Centre - Bucharest Jilava and the Unit of surveillance and escorts for inmates to be transferred. Point (g): Figure relates only to personnel who have responsibilities of surveillance in prisons and responsibilities of escorting inmates outside prisons (to hospitals, to judicial authorities, external work units). Point (l): Among other categories of staff, there is a part of those working in the area of security detention and prison regime, there are units where staff provides activities having direct contact with inmates, e.g. reception and records of inmates in penal institutions, etc. On 1st September 2012, there were 3,028 people employed to perform such duties. SAN MARINO All categories of staff are foreseen by the criminal justice system. Only one person is effective. In case of need, policemen can be made available. SLOVAK REPUBLIC Point (d): Under this heading are accounted the prison officers who perform the duties related to the guard of the courts and prosecution offices. SPAIN (TOTAL) (c) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) Point (c): regarding staff in regional prison administration offices is included in the point (e) since regional administration staff works inside penal institutions. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES All data provided are as at 30th June 2012 instead of 1st September 2012. The difference of 1 person between the breakdown and the total figure is due to the rounding.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 149
TABLE 15.1: STAFF WORKING IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON THE BASIS OF FULL-TIME EQUIVALENTS (FTE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES)
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.15.1
Total number of staff 3 809 71 2 210 3 748 3 717 8 958
Total % (sum) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (94.9)
% of staff at the national prison administration 4.7 2.8 9.9 1.8 5.0 NA
% of staff in regional prison administration offices 11.3 0.0 16.5 NAP NAP NA
% of other staff employed by PA, working outside penal institutions NAP 0.0 NAP NAP 26.3 NA
% of staff working inside penal institutions 84.0 97.2 73.7 98.2 68.7 94.9
983 836 4 391 2 652 450 10 880 4 801 1 721 2 694 34 691
100.0 NAP 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 NAP 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
NAP 0.8 NAP 2.5 2.3 NAP NAP 1.6 NAP 5.6 1.6 3.1 1.2
NAP
NAP
6.8 NA
NAP
NAP
28.2
6.1
16.1
0.0
0.1
5.3
5.2
4.8
11.4
100.0 99.2 90.6 97.7 100.0 70.2 72.3 98.3 86.4 82.6
36 666
100.0 NAP
1.2
0.0
98.8
7 840 115 3 602 46 252 2 557 16 3 428 402
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
2.8 NAP
NA
13.9
6.1
0.0
3.5
1.0
4.0
3.2
2.8
5.7
5.2 NAP
NAP
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.0 NAP
7.8
1.0
0.0
0.0
97.2 80.0 91.5 88.3 94.8 100.0 90.2 99.0
2 846 45 504 12 534 3 746 29 497 5 688 12 141
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
4.7 NAP
8.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.5
5.2
7.3
0.9
4.6
3.0
1.4
1.7
1.4
6.3 NAP
NAP
2.2 NAP
3.1
86.5 100.0 100.0 85.1 91.5 95.5 93.7 94.6
8 4 248 5 183 893 29 975 25 061 4 914 6 799 3 812 758 40 018 54 067 42 345 2 063 4 123
100.0 NAP 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (95.1) NA 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
NAP 1.4 NAP 2.7 NAP 3.9 NAP 1.9 NA 1.5 NA 3.9 NAP 4.7 NA 2.0 NAP 0.4 0.6 3.6 10.4 12.4 3.4 2.5 0.0 13.9
NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 2.6 NA NAP 0.6 2.8 1.1 6.9 9.4 3.9 2.8 0.0 16.5
0.0 16.4 5.0 0.0 10.5 0.0 2.0 0.0 5.6 3.0 0.0 28.2
100.0 98.6 80.8 96.1 98.1 98.5 96.1 87.7 95.1 98.0 99.0 86.1 95.3 80.7 78.2 91.3 94.9 68.7 100.0
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150 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 TABLE 15.2: STAFF WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON THE BASIS OF FULL-TIME EQUIVALENTS (FTE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.15.2
Total number of staff working INSIDE penal institutions Total % (sum) % Executives (managers) of pena l institutions % Custodial staff % Medical and paramedical staff % Staff responsible for assessment and the psychologists % Staff responsible for education activities % Staff responsible for workshops or vocational training % Other staff
Country
Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
3 198 69 1 628 3 679 2 552 8 499 983 829 3 980 2 590 450 7 641 3 470 1 692 2 328 28 668 36 227 7 621 92 3 298 40 860 2 425 16 3 093 398 2 462 45 504 10 663 3 428 28 161 5 329 11 486 8 4 189 4 190 858 29 395 24 673 4 722 5 965 3 627 743 39 608 46 551 40 369 1 665 3 223
(100.1) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (92.2) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (104.3) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
0.7 2.9 5.8 2.4 1.6 2.7 1.9 0.7 0.3 7.5 3.1 1.4 1.4 0.9 4.2 1.2 1.1 5.7 3.3 2.2 0.5 1.5 6.3 1.1 1.3 1.7 4.4 0.8 1.7 2.2 6.1 0.9 6.6 12.5 0.9 1.4 6.2 1.5 1.6 1.3 4.4 9.3 4.3 2.3 1.5 4.5 10.6 2.8 3.2 2.2 0.3 12.5
88.7
6.8
82.6
13.0
79.8
6.5
82.7
3.2
55.0 NAP
82.8
2.9
1.9
1.9
0.1
0.0
0.0
1.4
0.0
0.0
2.8
2.0 NAP
3.0
2.0
3.2 NA
6.4
0.9
0.7 NAP
41.8
4.0 NA
NA
NA
69.4
2.8
1.2
2.3
2.7
19.5
56.8
1.8
1.4
8.4
18.8
11.9
87.0
3.1
0.7
7.9 NA
1.0
60.8
4.6
0.6
9.0
10.2
7.2
90.7
0.0
0.0
0.4
5.8
0.0
26.0
5.5
18.5
1.1
47.4
73.9
4.3 NA
2.9
12.1
5.5
44.9
6.2
1.2
1.7
0.5
44.5
59.9
8.2
11.8
8.5
7.4
87.5 NA
NA
NA
0.5
10.8
73.9
0.7
1.8
4.7
5.9
11.9
58.0
8.0
2.8
6.2 NAP
19.3
82.6 NAP
2.2
2.2
12.0
2.2
85.9
4.2
0.6
0.0
5.1
1.9
90.0
0.2
0.0
2.3 NA
7.0
72.1
4.9
5.7
1.5
0.9
13.5
93.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
63.9
8.8
1.1
6.5
0.4
18.2
74.0
0.3
1.3
4.9
8.1
10.3
31.6
10.8
1.1
4.8
0.0
49.9
71.1
4.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
20.0
82.7
3.0
3.2
4.0
6.3
0.0
66.0
3.0
1.0
3.1
8.6
16.8
68.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
16.2
13.0
56.0
5.6
2.3
8.3 NAP
21.8
79.5 NA
NA
7.8 NA
11.7
35.5
6.2
0.8
3.6
0.3
47.1
87.5 60.9 17.2 62.1 63.3 62.7 66.7 70.4 50.5 69.3 85.3 29.3 71.6 76.3 95.4 68.5 71.1 17.2 95.4
0.0 6.9 5.6 1.7 4.0 3.9 4.8 1.9 5.7 3.1 0.3 7.6 0.6 0.8 0.0 4.0 3.9 0.0 13.0
0.0 0.6 2.1 0.8 3.3 2.6 7.1 0.4 4.0 0.5 0.7 1.5 1.5 1.7 2.2 1.2 0.0 18.5
0.0
0.0
6.3
12.4
6.6 NAP
9.2
10.6
5.8
2.5
5.9
2.7
5.0
1.9
4.2
5.2
14.3
4.0
4.7
1.1
3.2
0.4
1.9
2.0
0.0
2.3
3.8
0.0
0.1
3.8
4.7
3.1
3.0
0.0
0.0
14.3
18.8
0.0 12.2 67.2 9.3 19.4 20.6 13.1 13.5 20.3 10.5 7.2 58.7 19.9 4.6 0.0 15.8 11.8 0.0 67.2
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 151 NOTES ­ TABLES 15.1 AND 15.2 In Table 15.1 the total percentage of staff employed by Prison Administration is lower than 100% in Belgium and Switzerland. These figures are presented between brackets. For more details, see notes to Table 15. In Table 15.2, there are two countries (Albania and Iceland) in which the total percentage of staff working inside penal institutions is higher than 100 and one other country where the total does not reach 100% (Belgium). These data are presented between brackets. FIGURE 5: STAFF WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012, PERCENTAGES 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%
17.2 26.0 29.3 31.6 35.5 44.9 50.5 55.0 56.0 56.8 58.0 59.9 60.8 60.9 62.1 62.7 63.3 63.9 66.0 66.7 68.6 69.3 69.4 70.4 71.1 71.6 72.1 73.9 73.9 74.0 76.3 79.5 79.8 82.6 82.6 82.7 82.7 82.8 85.3 85.9 87.0 87.5 87.5 88.7 90.0 90.7 93.8 95.4
Slovak Rep. Czech Rep. Ukraine Moldova Romania Estonia Switzerland Azerbaijan Poland BH: Rep. Srpska Hungary Finland Croatia Serbia Slovenia Spain (State Adm.) Spain (total) Lithuania Netherlands Spain (Catalonia) Norway the FYRO Macedonia BH: Fed. BiH Sweden Monaco UK: Engl. & Wales Latvia Germany Denmark Luxembourg UK: North. Ireland Portugal Armenia Andorra Iceland Montenegro Austria Belgium Turkey Ireland Bulgaria France San Marino Albania Italy Cyprus Liechtenstein UK: Scotland
% custodial staff % medical and paramedical staff % staff responsible for education activities % other staff
% executives (managers) of penal institutions % staff responsible for assessment and the psychologists % staff responsible for workshops or vocational training
On Figure 5 all data are sorted according to the percentage of "custodial staff". The median value of custodial staff employed in all examined countries is 71.1% in the total of staff working inside penal institutions. Yet, it is important to keep in mind, while performing cross-national comparisons, that in many countries custodial staff is in charge of multiple institutions duties, such as vocational training and education activities. The part of custodial staff goes from 17% in Slovak Republic until 95% in UK: Scotland. Given this observation, one may state that the diversity of breakdowns led to a very large definition of what should be considered as duty of custodial staff. It is very likely that among personnel there could be people performing much more activities than just activities directly related to institutional security issues.
Methodological limitation: For the following three countries only merged categories are available: In Czech Republic & Finland: merged categories are staff responsible for assessment and psychologists + staff responsible for education activities; In Switzerland in the same category are included staffs responsible for education activities and those responsible for assessment and psychologists.
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152 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 16: STAFF (FTE) WORKING IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS BUT NOT EMPLOYED BY THE PRISON ADMINISTRATION ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES)
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.16
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta
Total number of staff (a) NAP 9 59 150.19 2371 NA
Total % (sum) (a.1) NAP 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 NA
Teachers and educators (b) NAP 1 10 2 200 NA
% Teachers and educators (b.1) NAP 11.1 16.9 1.3 8.4 NA
Doctors and healthcare staff (c) NAP 7 12 129.5 285 NA
% Doctors and healthcare staff (c.1) NAP 77.8 20.3 86.2 12.0 NA
Security staff and perimeter guards (d) NAP 0 NAP 0 1886 NA
% Security staff and perimeter guards (d.1) NAP 0.0 NAP 0.0 79.5 NA
Probation staff and social workers (e) NAP 1 NAP 13.7 NAP NA
% Probation staff and social workers (e.1) NAP 11.1 NAP 9.1 NAP NA
Others (f) NAP 0 37 4.99 NAP NA
% Others (f.1) NAP 0.0 62.7 3.3 NAP NA
94
100.0
52
55.3
4
100.0 NAP
NAP
110
100.0
110
100.0 NAP
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
22
100.0
1
4.5
2
100.0 NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
700 NA
NA
30
31.9
4
100.0 NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
19
86.4 NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NA
NAP
NA
NA
0 NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NA
0.0 NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NA NAP NA
2 NAP NAP NA 2 NAP NAP NA NAP NA
2.1 NAP NAP NA 9.1 NAP NA NA NAP
10
10.6
NAP
NAP
NA
NAP
2
100.0
NA
NA
NAP
63 NA
1873
100.0
444
23.7
231
12.3
147
7.8
227
12.1
824
44.0
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
9.2
100.0
7
289.53
100.0
232.53
17
100.0 NA
NA
265
100.0
236
5
100.0
1
429
100.0
200
138
100.0
12
NAP 76.1 80.3 NA 89.1 20.0 46.6 8.7
NAP 2.2 19 NA 0 2 4 60
NAP 23.9 6.6 NAP 0.0 40.0 0.9 NAP 43.5
NAP 0 0 NAP 0 0 NAP 0
NAP 0.0 0.0 NA 0.0 0.0 0.0
NAP 0 38 NA 29 2 0 6
NAP 0.0 13.1 10.9 40.0 0.0 4.3
NAP
0
0.0
0
0.0
17
100.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
225
52.4
60
43.5
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 153
Country Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Total number of staff (a) NAP 26 17 NAP 395 NAP NA 498
Total % (sum) (a.1) NAP 100.0 100.0 NAP 100.0 NAP NA 100.0
Teachers and educators (b) NAP 16 2 NAP 275 NAP NA 363
% Teachers and educators (b.1) NAP 61.5 11.8 NAP 69.6 NAP NA 72.9
Doctors and healthcare staff (c) NAP 3 8 NAP 120 NAP NA NAP
% Doctors and healthcare staff (c.1) NAP 11.5 47.1 NAP 30.4 NAP NA NAP
Security staff and perimeter guards (d) NAP NAP 6 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP
% Security staff and perimeter guards (d.1) NAP NAP 35.3 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP
Probation staff and social workers (e) NAP 1 0 NAP NA NAP NA 69
% Probation staff and social workers (e.1) NAP 3.8 0.0 NAP NA NAP NA 13.9
Others (f) NAP 6 1 NAP 0 NAP NA 66
% Others (f.1) NAP 23.1 5.9 NAP 0.0 NAP NA 13.3
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
2504
100.0
1601
63.9 NAP
1461
100.0
1461
100.0 NAP
1043
100.0
140
13.4 NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
747 NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
43.6
35.2
1.3
100.0
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NAP
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NAP
37.1
30.4
0.0
100.0
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
703
28.1 NAP
NAP
NAP
703
67.4 NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NAP
NA
15.8
0.0
0.0
79.5
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
200
8.0
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
200
19.2
NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NA
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
9.3
26.6
9.1
11.9
0.0
0.0
40.0
100.0
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154 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
NOTES ­ TABLE 16
AUSTRIA Point (f): Under this heading are included only social workers. AZERBAIJAN Point (e): Probation Service does not exist in Azerbaijan. BH: FEDERATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA General: These persons are part-time employed staff working in penal institutions. They are contracted associates performing duties in line with individual needs of each institution. Point (f): Under this heading are counted psychologists, work instructors, hair dressers, lawyers etc. BH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (REPUBLIKA SRPSKA) Point (c): Out of the total of six penitentiary establishments in Republika Srpska: o two establishments employ full time doctors, and o four establishments hire doctors from the local health care establishments for a certain number of hours on a daily basis or a certain number of days per week based on the part time contract. BULGARIA The number of educational staff not employed by the prison administration but working within the penitentiary system is 110. The number of educational staff employed by the prison administration would be very low since they can only be employed by the Ministry of Education. CYPRUS All figures concern only Prison institution without police stations. Point (b): One teacher of the prison department who was employed since 1st September 2010. Point (e): 2 employees of the Welfare Services are working at the Prison Institution. There are no independent probation services. Welfare Officers act as Probation Officers (staff employed by Social Welfare Services, Ministry of Justice and Social Insurance) for a specified period (minimum one year and maximum three years) providing the convicted person with necessary support and social network which will prevent recurrent deviant behaviour. CZECH REPUBLIC Point (f): IT specialists. DENMARK Point (f): Import model is used when a private company provides and delivers substance misuse treatment in the prison. The import model is regulated on a contractual basis between the provider (private company) and the Prison and Probation Service. The therapists, who deliver the treatment and work directly with inmates, are employed by the private company. They are therefore not directly employed by the prison. FRANCE General: in Table 16 are included persons working in penal institutions, but who do not depend on the Prison Administration. Are concerned: o Teachers (staff employed by the Ministry of National Education): on 1st September 2012, there were 466.5 FTE teachers and individual contractors working on 4,306 hours overtime year (representing 233.5 FTE). On 1st September 2012, 700 FTE teachers worked in penal institutions. Point (f): Correspondents dealing with employment matters (Pфle Emploi): on 1st September 2012 there were 63 FTE advisors. GERMANY Point (f): Under this heading are included: o 60 psychologists and psychological staff, o 193 pastors, o 224 staff responsible for workshops and vocational training, o 49 staff for kitchen service and temporary workers in housekeeping, o 63 staff in charge of cleaning, and o 235 others.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 155
IRELAND Point (b): Teachers are paid by the Department of Education. Point (c): Doctors and healthcare staff working in penal institutions are agency people. Point (e): 31 Probation Officers and 7 Senior Probation Officers. ITALY Point (c): The healthcare staff members working in prison are employed by - and their number is surveyed by - the National Healthcare Service. These staffs are employed under special contracts paid by the Penitentiary Administration. Point (f): Staff from other Administrations seconded to the structures of the Penitentiary Administration. LIECHTENSTEIN Point (d): Staff included under this heading is shared between the penitentiary institution and the local police service. LITHUANIA Point (f): 225 persons, of which: o 48 technicians (engineers in charge of the maintenance of medical equipment, employees working in prison cafeterias and stores, and o 177 specialists involved in offender workforce development. All the figures of the Table are on 1st July 2012. LUXEMBOURG Point (f): Cleaning staff, IT, maintenance of electronic and technical equipment, laundry, etc. MONACO Point (f): Under this heading are included: o 1 hairdresser, o 2 chaplains, o 1 rabbi, o 1 deacon and o 1 nun. MONTENEGRO Point (f): Assistance in accounting. NORWAY Point (e): There are no fixed allotments regarding visits by the probation service and no reliable estimate can be made. Point (f): Employees from Social Security make a sizable contribution but their work is not at present formalised. Estimates would be unreliable. Their tasks: advising and helping with applications for benefits, housing, employment etc. PORTUGAL Point (b): Under this heading are included staffs made available by the Ministry of Education. These persons are teachers and school educators. Point (e): Probation staff and welfare workers are managed by the Direcзгo General de Reinserзгo Social. Therefore, no data on this staff is available at the Prison Administration. ROMANIA Point (f): Designated judges' services exist in each prison. Staff employed by these services manages appeals made by any person held in penal institutions against administrative decisions. Under this heading are included 38 appointed judges and 28 appointed registrars. SAN MARINO There is no Prison Administration in San Marino. All the staff employed is part of the Corpo della Gendarmeria. Only one person is effective. Other staff might be employed if need. SLOVENIA There are doctors and health care staff employed by health authorities. They carry out healthcare for all inmates. There are surgery hours when they give medical advice and care in outpatients' departments in prisons and but no figures are available.
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156 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 SPAIN (TOTAL) (d) Figures are calculated by the authors of this report on the basis of the data provided by national correspondents. Therefore, these figures should not be considered as official inputs. Figures presented as totals were not used for the calculations of mean and median European values. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) Point (b): Teachers are not employed by National Prison administration. They are managed by autonomous communities. Point (c): Doctors are contracted as civil servants by the Spanish Penitentiary Administration. They are not managed by National Prison administration. SPAIN (CATALONIA) Point (b): Are included only teachers managed by the Department of Education. Point (d): Catalonian police is in charge of the transfers from one penal institution to another. Moreover, they also manage the perimeter security of the penal institutions. These staffs are cumulating prison charges with other police activities. Point (f): Staff employed by the Centre of Initiatives for Rehabilitation (CIRE), which is a public company in charge with the management of the production workshops. Moreover, these staffs are involved in the work of the Labour scholarship for rehabilitation of the persons preparing the exit from prison. UKRAINE Point (b): are included teachers managed by Ministry of Education. Point (c): security staff only under State Penitentiary Service, Point (d): social workers are employed on a voluntary basis. NOTES ­ TABLE 17 The total number of inmates used in this Table is based on the non-adjusted figures provided in Table 1. For Cyprus the total number of inmates corresponds to the number of those held in prison (without police stations). This is due to the fact that the number of staff is available only for prison institution. The number of inmates for France is based on the number of those who are de facto held in penal institutions excluding all those who have the status of "йcrouйs" but who are not held in custody. Many figures calculated in Table 17 are estimates, and therefore they must be used with caution. For more details on the figures used in this Table, see notes to Tables 15 to 16. FIGURE 6: HIGHEST RATIOS OF INMATES PER ONE CUSTODIAN ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 16 % 14 % 12 % 10 % 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% European Mean = 3.8% European Median = 2.7%
2.7 2.7 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.9 5.1 5.3 7.8 8.5 11.1 11.4 15.0 15.4
France Bulgaria Austria Montenegro UK: Engl. & Wales Croatia Portugal Spain (Catalonia) Latvia Turkey Switzerland Armenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Hungary Serbia Estonia the FYRO Macedonia Lithuania Poland Romania Moldova Ukraine Czech Rep. Azerbaijan Slovak Rep.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 157
TABLE 17: RATIO OF INMATES PER CATEGORIES OF STAFF ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.17
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium BH: BiH (st. level) BH: Fed. BiH BH: Rep. Srpska Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Fed. San Marino Serbia Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden Switzerland the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Total number of inmates (incl. pre- trial detainees) 4 890 41 4 714 8 756 21 034 12 310
Custodial staff (a) (a) 2 837 57 1 299 3 045 1 404 7 034
Ratio inmates per custodian 1.7 0.7 3.6 2.9 15.0 1.8
Medical and paramedic al staff (b) (b) 218 9 106 117 NAP 243
Staff responsibl e for assessmen t and the psychologi sts (c) (c) 60 0 46 75 23 337
Staff responsibl e for education activities (d) (d) 61 1 33 119 19 NA
Staff responsibl e for workshops or vocational training (e) (e) 4 0 NAP NA NAP NA
Sum "other" (sum from (a) to (e) 343 10 185 311 42 581
Ratio inmates per other staff 14.3 4.1 25.5 28.2 500.8 21.2
1 700 1 062 9 493 4 741 694 22 644 3 829 3 417 3 196 66 704
682 471 3 461 1 576 408 1 987 2 564 760 1 394 25 082
2.5
28
12
23
27
2.3
15
12
70
156
2.7
125
29
314 NA
3.0
120
16
232
265
1.7
0
0
2
26
11.4
423
1 413
84
1.5
149 NA
99
419
4.5
105
21
29
8
2.3
191
275
197
2.7 NA
NA
NA
147
90 253 468 633 28 1 920 667 163 663 147
18.9 4.2 20.3 7.5 24.8 11.8 5.7 20.9 4.8 455.3
69 268 26 768
2.6
236
649
1 715
2 124
4 724
14.7
17 585 152 4 323 66 271 6 195 8 10 033 659
4 419 76 2 834 36 794 1 747 15 1 976 294
4.0
611
211
476 NAP
1 298
13.5
2.0 NAP
2
2
11
15
10.1
1.5
139
20
1
169
328
13.2
1.8
72
2
926 NA
1 000
66.3
3.5
119
138
36
21
314
19.7
0.5
0
0
0
0
0
0.0
5.1
273
35
200
11
519
19.3
2.2
1
5
20
32
58
11.4
6 621 41 1 229 11 324 3 551 84 156 13 614 31 883
778 32 417 7 032 2 352 15 768 4 239 4 076
8.5
266
28
119
0
413
16.1
1.3
2
0
0
0
2
20.5
2.9
15
16
20
32
83
14.8
1.6
318
105
326
920
1 668
6.8
1.5
0
0
0
555
555
6.4
5.3
1 563
636
2 351 NAP
4 550
18.5
3.2 NA
NA
417 NA
417
32.6
7.8
711
90
411
29
1 241
25.7
1 11 070 11 075 1 377 69 621 59 410 10 211 6 431 6 599 2 543 120 275 151 122 86 048 1 779 8 145
7 2 552 719 533 18 620 15 469 3 151 4 198 1 830 515 33 788 13 622 28 892 1 271 3 074
0.1
0
0
0
0
0
0.0
4.3
287
24
262
518
1 091
10.1
15.4
236
86
275 NAP
597
18.6
2.6
15
7
79
91
192
7.2
3.7
1 182
982
1 704
749
4 617
15.1
3.8
957
645
1 466
659
3 727
15.9
3.2
225
337
238
90
890
11.5
1.5
113
24
249
312
698
9.2
3.6
208
518
726
9.1
4.9
23
30
30
35
118
21.6
3.6
138
215
439
1 278
2 070
58.1
11.1
3 531
304
173
905
4 913
30.8
3.0
236
624
795
0
1 655
52.0
1.4
14
25
39
64
142
12.6
2.6
0
54
0
4
58
140.4
3.8
39.9
2.7
15.9
0.1
0.0
15.4
500.8
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158 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 C.1. Annual Module
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 159
TABLE AM1: SPECIAL CATEGORIES INCLUDED IN THE TOTAL NUMBER OF STAFF ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS) (a) Total number of staff on 1st September 2012. (b) Temporary missing staff (maternity leaves, long sick leaves, long-term trainings, inter-sectorial exchanges, etc.). (c) Staff who work inside penal institutions but who are not employed by the Prison Administration (e.g. employed by Probation agencies, other State / Governmental bodies). (d) Staff employed under contracts made between Prison Administrations and private companies, groups, associations, etc. (e) Staff employed by the Prison Administration but who do not perform duties inside penal institutions (e.g. escorts from/to the courts, guards in the courts, etc.). (f) Persons under temporary contracts (e.g. trainees, researchers, interim staff). (g) Staff working inside penal institutions but who do not perform "penal duties" (e.g. civil engineers on the construction sites, local auditors). (h) Other.
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Bulgaria Croatia Czech Rep. Estonia Finland Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Romania San Marino Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.AM1
(a) 3 809 71 2 210 3 748.16 3 717 4 391 2 652 10 879.8 1 721.25 2 694 36 666 7 840 3 602.2 46 252 2 557 16 3 428 2 846 45 504 12 533.9 3 745.6 29 497 12 141 8 5 183 893 29 975 25 061 4 914 6 799 758 40 018 54 067 42 345 2 063.09 4 123
(b) 108 3 36 53.9 4 No Yes/NA 46 122 No Yes/NA 452 85 Yes/NA 55 No Yes/NA 64 No 6 438.8 77.8 Yes/NA 155 No No 23 378 Yes/NA 378 No No 186 No 832 117 146
(c) NAP 9 No 150.18 No NAP NAP No No No Yes/NA NAP No 17 2 No No No 1 No No No No No No No No 0 No No No No NAP 903 No No No
(d) NAP 2 No 7 No NAP NAP No No No Yes/NA NAP No NAP NAP No No No No No 185.5 No No NAP No No No 0 No No 339 No NAP NAP No No No
(e) 113 No No No 978 No No 3 238.9 No No Yes/NA NAP 287 97 No No No 384 No No 503.6 No Yes/NA 645 No 852 No 0 No No No No NAP No 1 975 185 No
(f) No No No No No No No No No No Yes/NA NAP No No 4 No Yes/NA No No 254 Yes/NA No No NAP No No No 1 212 479 733 No No 5 705 No 728 5 36
(g) No No No No No 111 No Note No No Yes/NA 903 No 2 891 410 No No 333 No No No No 29 NAP No No No 87 No 87 No No 3 205 9 002 4 891 No 55
(h) No No No No No No No No No No No 686 No No No No No No No No 132.3 No 313 NAP No No No 0 No No No No 2 839 No No No No
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160 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE AM2: SPECIAL CATEGORIES INCLUDED IN THE TOTAL NUMBER OF STAFF ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) (a) Total number of staff on 1st September 2012. (b) Temporary missing staff (maternity leaves, long sick leaves, long-term trainings, inter-sectorial exchanges, etc.). (c) Staff who work inside penal institutions but who are not employed by the Prison Administration (e.g. employed by Probation agencies, other State / Governmental bodies). (d) Staff employed under contracts made between Prison Administrations and private companies, groups, associations, etc. (e) Staff employed by the Prison Administration but who do not perform duties inside penal institutions (e.g. escorts from/to the courts, guards in the courts, etc.). (f) Persons under temporary contracts (e.g. trainees, researchers, interim staff). (g) Staff working inside penal institutions but who do not perform "penal duties" (e.g. civil engineers on the construction sites, local auditors). (h) Other.
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Bulgaria Croatia Czech Rep. Estonia Finland Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Romania San Marino Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.AM2
(a) 3 809 71 2 210 3 748.16 3 717 4 391 2 652 10 879.8 1 721.25 2 694 36 666 7 840 3 602.2 46 252 2 557 16 3 428 2 846 45 504 12 533.9 3 745.6 29 497 12 141 8 5 183 893 29 975 25 061 4 914 6 799 758 40 018 54 067 42 345 2 063.09 4 123
(b) 2.8 4.2 1.6 1.4 0.1 No NA 0.4 7.1 No NA 5.8 2.4 NA 2.2 No NA 2.2 No 1.2 3.5 2.1 NA 1.3 No No 2.6 1.3 NA 7.7 No No 0.5 No 2.0 5.7 3.5 2.9 2.2 0.1 7.7
(c) NAP 12.7 No 4.0 No NAP NAP No No No NA NAP No 0.0 0.1 No No No 2.2 No No No No No No No No 0.0 No No No No NAP 1.7 No No No 3.4 1.9 0.0 12.7
(d) NAP 2.8 No 0.2 No NAP NAP No No No NA NAP No NAP NAP No No No No No 1.5 No No NAP No No No 0.0 No No 5.0 No NAP NAP No No No 2.4 2.1 0.2 5.0
(e) 3.0 No No No 26.3 No No 29.8 No No NA NAP 8.0 0.2 No No No 13.5 No No 4.0 No NA 5.3 No 16.4 No 0.0 No No No No NAP No 4.7 9.0 No 10.9 8.0 0.2 29.8
(f) No No No No No No No No No No NA NAP No No 0.2 No NA No No 50.4 NA No No NAP No No No 4.0 1.9 14.9 No No 14.3 No 1.7 0.2 0.9 10.6 1.8 0.2 50.4
(g) No No No No No 2.5 No NA No No NA 11.5 No 6.3 16.0 No No 11.7 No No No No 0.1 NAP No No No 0.3 No 1.8 No No 8.0 16.6 11.6 No 1.3 7.9 8.0 0.1 16.6
(h) No No No No No No No No No No No 8.8 No No No No No No No No 1.1 No 1.1 NAP No No No 0.0 No No No No 7.1 No No No No 4.5 4.1 1.1 8.8
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 161 NOTES ­ TABLES AM1 & AM2 In 2012, 36 out of 52 Prison Administrations answered the questionnaire related to the topic of staff in the new SPACE Annual Module. AUSTRIA Point (b): The figure includes only maternity leaves. Further information is not available. CZECH REPUBLIC Point (b): in the total number of staff are not included 198 temporary missing people. They are female uniformed staff on "family leave" (90) and staff on long-term sick leave (108). Point (f): Persons under temporary contracts (113.1 FTE) are not included in the calculation of the total number of staff. Point (g): Staff included in in the calculations (even if the accurate number is unknown) as it is considered as part of the staff that is not in contact with prisoners. These people are mainly working "outside" penal institutions. HUNGARY Point (b): Under this heading are included persons who are on maternity leave, on child care leave (217), on long-term sick leave and on sick leave (177), as well as persons detached to the Prison Service Training (58). In total, there are 452 persons. Point (g): Functional tasks related statuses. Point (h): Persons working for the limited companies providing work for the inmates. LIECHTENSTEIN General: There is only one small prison. Therefore, any special services if they should be needed are contracted upon request from outside. THE NETHERLANDS Point (h): Are included staff performing duties related to spiritual care. NORWAY Point (b): Includes maternity leaves (male and female) and employees on disability pension. POLAND Point (h): Other: IT specialists and communication officers. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Point (g): Only includes Administration staff. All other grades have been assumed to be involved in penal work. UK: SCOTLAND Point (b): There were 146 members of staff who would be categorised as on long-term leave: 114 on long-term illness (absent through illness for greater than 28 days), 30 on maternity leave and 2 on long-term leaves without pay. Point (d): There are no staff included in the total who are private sector employees however there are two privately run prisons in Scotland. The number of staff at these two prisons is 581. (FTE). They are not employees of the Scottish Prison Service.
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162 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE AM3: UNIFORMED STAFF (FTE) WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS) Total number of uniformed staff on 1st September 2012, of which: (a) Custodians (guards) (b) Security staff (other than custodians) (c) Management staff (d) Doctors (e) Other medical staff (e.g. nurses, occupational therapists) (f) Teachers (g) Educators (h) Psychologists and other staff involved in the assessment of the inmates (dangerousness, individual plans of the execution of sentences etc.) (i) Other
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.AM3
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Bulgaria Croatia Czech Rep. Estonia Finland Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Romania San Marino Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
Total uniformed 2 837 59 1 992 3 116.51 2 309 NA 1 599 5 664.6 1 079.5 NA NA 6 663 2 903.5 36 794 1 969 16 2 434 2 092 33.5 370 NAP 2 921.8 27 556 11 229 6 3 687 547 20 533 17 062 3 471 5 309 527 33 788 35 209 28 892 1 279 3 105
(1)
(2)
1 608
1 229
57
0
584
620
3 044.51
0
1 130
0
3 461 NAP
1 576
0
1 987
2 309.5
760
42
NA
NA
NA
NA
4 419
0
2 723
0
36 794
1 067
714
15
0
1 974 NAP
736
847
32
0
370 NAP
NAP
NAP
2 261.5 NAP
14 184
1 692
4 076
0
6
0
1 160
1 217
533
0
18 319
1 114
15 469
1 114
2 850 NAP
4 198 NAP
515 NAP
33 788 NAP
16 314
8 854
22 080
6 812
1 115
0
2 123
982
(3) 0 2 459 72 300 NAP 23 73 15 NA NAP 403 48 NAP 37 1 34 42 NAP NAP NAP 207.8 1 730 747 1 51 14 393 393 0 265 12 NAP 675 NAP 155 0
Of which
(4)
(5)
0
0
0
0
40
66
0
0
NAP NAP
NAP NAP
NAP NAP
NAP NAP
NAP NAP
0
0
NAP NA
16
383
0 131.5
NAP NAP
2
0
NAP NAP
4
3
75
49
NAP
1.5
NAP NAP
NAP NAP
NAP NAP
135 1 115
104
578
0
0
58
146
NAP NAP
83
193
NAP NAP
83
193
NAP NAP
NAP NAP
NAP NAP
478
417
NAP NAP
0
9
NAP NAP
(6) 0 0 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NA 23 0 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 0 0 0 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP
(7) 0 0 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NA 0 0 NAP 0 NAP NAP 80 NAP NAP NAP NAP 2 099 313 0 259 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP
(8) 0 0 79 0 23 NAP NAP NAP 102 NA NA 180 0 NAP 149 NAP 221 28 NAP NAP NAP NAP 489 90 0 102 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 130 NAP NAP NAP
(9) 0 0 144 0 856 NA NAP 1 295.1 160.5 NA NAP 1 239 1 NAP NAP NAP 198 235 NAP NAP NAP 452.5 6 112 5 321 NAP 694 NAP 431 86 345 846 NAP NAP 8 341 NAP NAP NAP
The part of uniformed staff performing their duties inside penal institutions represents in average 75% of the total staff employed by Prison Administrations. The lowest observed value is in Czech Republic where half (52%) of all staff employed by the Prison Administration is uniformed. The highest percentage of such staff can be located in Liechtenstein (100%). There are another three countries with relatively high percentages: Armenia (90%), Poland (93%), and Romania (93%).
As a rule, the great majority of uniformed personnel perform their duties inside penal institutions.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 163
TABLE AM4: UNIFORMED STAFF (FTE) WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) Total number of uniformed staff on 1st September 2012, of which: (a) Custodians (guards) (b) Security staff (other than custodians) (c) Management staff (d) Doctors (e) Other medical staff (e.g. nurses, occupational therapists) (f) Teachers (g) Educators (h) Psychologists and other staff involved in the assessment of the inmates (dangerousness, individual plans of the execution of sentences etc.) (i) Other
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.AM4
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Bulgaria Croatia Czech Rep. Estonia Finland Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Romania San Marino Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Total uniformed 2 837 59 1 992 3 116.51 2 309 NA 1 599 5 664.6 1 079.5 NA NA 6 663 2 903.5 36 794 1 969 16 2 434 2 092 33.5 370 NAP 2 921.8 27 556 11 229 6 3 687 547 20 533 17 062 3 471 5 309 527 33 788 35 209 28 892 1 279 3 105
(1) 56.7 96.6 29.3 97.7 48.9 NAP 98.6 35.1 70.4 NA NA 66.3 93.8 100.0 54.2 93.8 81.1 35.2 95.5 100.0 NAP 77.4 51.5 36.3 100.0 31.5 97.4 89.2 90.7 82.1 79.1 97.7 100.0 46.3 76.4 87.2 68.4 74.2 80.1 29.3 100.0
(2) 43.3 0.0 31.1 0.0 0.0 NAP 0.0 40.8 3.9 NA NA 0.0 0.0 36.3 0.0 NAP 40.5 0.0 NAP NAP NAP 6.1 0.0 0.0 33.0 0.0 5.4 6.5 NAP NAP NAP NAP 25.1 23.6 0.0 31.6 13.4 1.9 0.0 43.3
(3) 0.0 3.4 23.0 2.3 13.0 NAP 1.4 1.3 1.4 NA NA 6.0 1.7 NAP 1.9 6.3 1.4 2.0 NAP NAP NAP 7.1 6.3 6.7 16.7 1.4 2.6 1.9 2.3 0.0 5.0 2.3 NAP 1.9 NAP 12.1 0.0 4.8 2.3 0.0 23.0
(4) 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NA 0.2 0.0 NAP 0.1 NAP 0.2 3.6 NAP NAP NAP NAP 0.5 0.9 0.0 1.6 NAP 0.4 NAP 2.4 NAP NAP NAP 1.4 NAP 0.0 NAP 0.8 0.2 0.0 3.6
Of which (5) 0.0 0.0 3.3 0.0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NA 5.7 4.5 NAP 0.0 NAP 0.1 2.3 4.5 NAP NAP NAP 4.0 5.1 0.0 4.0 NAP 0.9 NAP 5.6 NAP NAP NAP 1.2 NAP 0.7 NAP 2.4 2.3 0.0 5.7
(6) 0.0 0.0 NAP 0.0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NA 0.3 0.0 NAP 0.0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 0.0 0.0 0.0 NAP 0.0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3
(7) 0.0 0.0 NAP 0.0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NA 0.0 0.0 NAP 0.0 NAP NAP 3.8 NAP NAP NAP NAP 7.6 2.8 0.0 7.0 NAP 0.0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 1.9 0.0 0.0 7.6
(8) 0.0 0.0 4.0 0.0 1.0 NAP NAP NAP 9.4 NA NA 2.7 0.0 NAP 7.6 NAP 9.1 1.3 NAP NAP NAP NAP 1.8 0.8 0.0 2.8 NAP 0.0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 0.4 NAP NAP NAP 2.6 1.2 0.0 9.4
(9) 0.0 0.0 7.2 0.0 37.1 NA NAP 22.9 14.9 NA NA 18.6 0.0 NAP NAP NAP 8.1 11.2 NAP NAP NAP 15.5 22.2 47.4 NAP 18.8 NAP 2.1 0.5 9.9 15.9 NAP NAP 23.7 NAP NAP NAP 14.4 14.9 0.0 47.4
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164 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
NOTES ­ TABLES AM3 & AM4 ARMENIA Point (9): Under this heading are included: o Operating officers: 35 FTE, and o Economic staff: 109 FTE. AZERBAIJAN Point (9): Under this heading are included 856 administrative and supporting positions, drivers etc. CROATIA Point (3): Management staff is accounted separately, but de facto it is considered as part of custodial staff. CZECH REPUBLIC All staff that works INSIDE penal institutions is in contact with inmates. On the opposite, all staff working OUTSIDE ­excluding escorts and judicial guards­ are not in contact with inmates. Point (3): management staff outside PI = management at headquarters (23) and management of Vocational school (2) and management of Academy of PS CR (training school for staff) (2). Point (9): Under this heading are included: o 9.1: control and complain departments "internal police": 145 members in prisons. o 9.2: other: 1150.1 FTE that are lower management personnel in prisons, security staff working with dogs, drivers etc. FINLAND Point (9): The accurate figure is not available, but in this category are included domestic care and real estate maintenance. GERMANY Total uniformed staff: 27,891 FTE is the number of staff that wears a uniform but there are no accurate figures available whether the staff is working inside or outside penal institutions. Nevertheless, nearly all custodial staff and staff responsible for workshops or vocational training wear a uniform. HUNGARY Point (9): Under this heading are included: o 9.1: Social educator, assistant social worker (431) o 9.2: Other (808) IRELAND Total uniformed staff: Staff working in children detention schools do not wear uniforms. They are not a penal institution. ITALY Points (1) & (2): In the Italian penitentiary system, all the tasks relevant to security and to surveillance are performed by the staff belonging to the Corps of Penitentiary Police working in the prisons. Therefore, it is impossible to separate these categories. LIECHTENSTEIN Total uniformed staff: There is only one small prison. Therefore, any special services if they should be needed are contracted upon request from outside. Point (1): There is a regular contact established with the Police. They are serving as well in transportations. These same personnel deal with the security problems inside the house. LITHUANIA Point (9): Under this heading are included: o 9.1: Staff responsible for workshops or vocational training (2 FTE); o 9.2: Other staff Inner Investigation, Registration, Administrative and Accounting divisions (196). MOLDOVA Point (9): Staff working in Legal, Human resources, Special evidence, Secretariat, Financial and Logistics directorates (235 FTE).
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 165 ROMANIA Point (9): Under this heading are included: o 9.1: Other staff performing security duties in custody excluding those already counted under headings (1) and (2) (3,028 FTE); o 9.2: Other staff from the social reintegration offices excluding those already counted under headings (6), (7) and (8), e.g. priests, social workers, sport instructors, TV operators, librarians and other (82 FTE); o 9.3: Administrative staff, e.g. secretariat, economic, human resources, informatics, crime prevention, management of the records/files (2,211 FTE). SAN MARINO General: The visible discrepancy of one FTE between the total and the sum of the distribution in Table AM3 is due to the fact that the person included in Point (3) is already included in Point (1). SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) Point (9): 86 FTE are staff with different statutes within the administration (civil servants) in workshops, administration and management. SWEDEN Point (9): Under this heading are included: o 9.1: Other (534) o 9.2: Production (312) FIGURE AM1: RATIOS OF UNIFORMED STAFF WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS PER 100 INMATES ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 Ratio of uniformed staff working inside penal institutions per 100 inmates 100 80 60 40 20 0
0.0 11.0 20.7 23.3 24.3 25.0 28.1 28.7 29.5 30.1 31.6 31.6 31.8 32.7 33.3 33.6 33.7 34.0 35.2 35.6 37.9 38.1 39.7 42.3 55.5 58.0 67.2 71.9 81.7 82.3 82.6
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166 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE AM5: CIVILIAN STAFF (FTE) WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS) Total number of civil servants on 1st September 2012, of which: (1) Custodians (guards) (2) Security staff (other than custodians) (3) Management staff (4) Doctors (5) Other medical staff (e.g. nurses, occupational therapists) (6) Teachers (7) Educators (8) Psychologists and other staff involved in the assessment of the inmates (dangerousness, individual plans of the execution of sentences etc.) (9) Other
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.AM5
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Bulgaria Croatia Czech Rep. Estonia Finland Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Romania San Marino Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
Total civilians 792 10 NAP 562.87 243 NA 1 053 1 976.3 612.75 NA NA 1 177 247.17 4 081 220.5 NAP 659 297 11.5 134 10 662.9 505.6 1 941 257 NAP 645 311 8 867 7 616 1 251 656 216 6 044 11 342 11 477 383.09 144
(1) 0 0 NAP 0 NAP NAP 0 NAP NAP NA NA 0 138.2 NAP 5 NAP 2 NAP NAP NAP 4 147 NAP NAP 0 NAP 2 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 471 NAP NAP 0
(2) 0 0 NAP 0 NAP NAP 16 NAP NAP NA NA 0 4.77 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP 0 47 2 885.2 NAP NAP 0 NAP 18 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 91 0
(3) 22 0 NAP 17 NAP 13 172 36 NAP NA 414 28 23 248 0 NAP 0 NAP 2 NAP 176 11.0 86 8 NAP 0 39 61 NAP 61 NAP 20 911 NAP 1 797 46 90
(4) 58 2 NAP 10.95 NAP NA 34 107.25 36.2 16 236 57 7.47 NAP 86 NAP 73 31 0.5 NAP 19.7 NAP 368 6 NAP 9 0 364 364 0 NAP 12 18 914 20 0 NAP
Of which (5) 160 5 NAP 106.23 NAP NA 86 315.85 67.5 175 NA 155 1 72 74.5 NAP 193 95.5 NAP 15 297.9 NAP 154 23 NAP 12 15 593 593 0 113 11 139 1 722 216 4.54 NAP
(6) 0 1 NAP 10.69 NAP 110 11 59 NAP NA NA 0 0 NA 0 NAP NAP NAP 4 20 79.1 NAP 189 7 NAP 0 0 Note Note 140 117 0 311 99 NAP 37 NAP
(7) 61 1 NAP 0 NAP 314 265 858.9 NAP NA NA 0 0 926 12 NAP NAP NAP 0 2 982 NAP 49 24 NAP 0 79 962 711 251 132 30 2 74 795 12 NAP
(8) 60 1 NAP 74.91 NAP 30 16 554.4 47 NA NA 31 19.6 2 43 NAP 14 NAP 1 14 696.7 90.0 23 0 NAP 0 7 1 034 645 389 24 65 357 174 624 25 54
(9) 431 NAP NAP 343.09 243 NA 453 44.9 462.05 NA NA 906 53.07 2 833 NAP NAP 377 170.5 4 36 1 379.3 404.6 1 072 189 NAP 604 171 5 713 5 303 410 270 78 4 306 7 888 8 025 167.55 NAP
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 167
TABLE AM6: CIVILIAN STAFF (FTE) WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) Total number of civil servants on 1st September 2012, of which: (1) Custodians (guards) (2) Security staff (other than custodians) (3) Management staff (4) Doctors (5) Other medical staff (e.g. nurses, occupational therapists) (6) Teachers (7) Educators (8) Psychologists and other staff involved in the assessment of the inmates (dangerousness, individual plans of the execution of sentences etc.) (9) Other
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.AM6
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Bulgaria Croatia Czech Rep. Estonia Finland Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Romania San Marino Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland Mean Median Minimum Maximum
Total civilians 792 10 NAP 562.87 243 NA 1 053 1 976.3 612.75 NA NA 1 177 247.17 4 081 220.5 NAP 659 297 11.5 134 10 662.9 505.6 1 941 257 NAP 645 311 8 867 7 616 1 251 656 216 6 044 11 342 11 477 383.09 144
(1) 0.0 0.0 NAP 0.0 NAP NAP 0.0 NAP NAP NA NA 0.0 55.9 NAP 2.3 NAP 0.3 NAP NAP NAP 38.9 NAP NAP 0.0 NAP 0.3 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 4.2 NAP NAP 0.0 7.8 0.0 0.0 55.9
(2) 0.0 0.0 NAP 0.0 NAP NAP 1.5 NAP NAP NA NA 0.0 1.9 NAP 0.0 NAP NAP NAP 0.0 35.1 27.1 NAP NAP 0.0 NAP 2.8 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 23.8 0.0 6.6 0.0 0.0 35.1
(3) 2.8 0.0 NAP 3.0 NAP NA 16.3 1.8 NAP NA NA 2.4 9.3 6.1 0.0 NAP 0.0 NAP 17.4 NAP 1.7 2.2 4.4 3.1 NAP 0.0 12.5 0.7 NAP 4.9 NAP 9.3 15.1 NAP 15.7 12.0 62.5 8.8 4.4 0.0 62.5
(4) 7.3 20.0 NAP 1.9 NAP NA 3.2 5.4 5.9 NA NA 4.8 3.0 NAP 39.0 NAP 11.1 10.4 4.3 NAP 0.2 NAP 19.0 2.3 NAP 1.4 0.0 4.1 4.8 0.0 NAP 5.6 0.3 8.1 0.2 0.0 NAP 6.6 4.6 0.0 39.0
Of which (5) 20.2 50.0 NAP 18.9 NAP NA 8.2 16.0 11.0 NA NA 13.2 0.4 1.8 33.8 NAP 29.3 32.2 NAP 11.2 2.8 NAP 7.9 8.9 NAP 1.9 4.8 6.7 7.8 0.0 17.2 5.1 2.3 15.2 1.9 1.2 NAP 12.4 8.6 0.0 50.0
(6) 0.0 10.0 NAP 1.9 NAP NA 1.0 3.0 NAP NA NA 0.0 0.0 NA 0.0 NAP NAP NAP 34.8 14.9 0.7 NAP 9.7 2.7 NAP 0.0 0.0 Note Note 11.2 17.8 0.0 5.1 0.9 NAP 9.7 NAP 5.9 1.9 0.0 34.8
(7) 7.7 10.0 NAP 0.0 NAP NA 25.2 43.5 NAP NA NA 0.0 0.0 22.7 5.4 NAP NAP NAP 0.0 1.5 9.2 NAP 2.5 9.3 NAP 0.0 25.4 10.8 9.3 20.1 20.1 13.9 0.0 0.7 6.9 3.1 NAP 9.9 7.3 0.0 43.5
(8) 7.6 10.0 NAP 13.3 NAP NA 1.5 28.1 7.7 NA NA 2.6 7.9 0.0 19.5 NAP 2.1 NAP 8.7 10.4 6.5 17.8 1.2 0.0 NAP 0.0 2.3 11.7 8.5 31.1 3.7 30.1 5.9 1.5 5.4 6.5 37.5 9.9 7.1 0.0 37.5
(9) 54.4 NAP NAP 61.0 100.0 NA 43.0 2.3 75.4 NA NA 77.0 21.5 69.4 NAP NAP 57.2 57.4 34.8 26.9 12.9 80.0 55.2 73.5 NAP 93.6 55.0 64.4 69.6 32.8 41.2 36.1 71.2 69.5 69.9 43.7 NAP 55.0 57.2 2.3 100.0
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168 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 NOTES ­ TABLES AM5 & AM6 ALBANIA Point (9): Under this heading are included: o Legal, judicial and cards/index staff: 49 o Administration, investment, procurement, HR, IT staff: 360 o Audit and Finance: 22 AUSTRIA Point (5): Other medical staff: 106.23 (nurses, occupational therapists). Point (9): Others 343.09 (include social workers, staff that gives spiritual guidance, trainers and administration staff) AZERBAIJAN Point (9): Under this heading are included administrative and supporting positions, drivers etc. CROATIA Point (9): Under this heading are included: o Treatment staff: 232 o Head office: 62 o Administrative staff: 152 CZECH REPUBLIC All staff that works INSIDE penal institutions is in contact with inmates. Point (9): Under this heading are included "leaders" in vocational workshops (24.5) and chaplains (20.4). FINLAND Point (9): The accurate figure is not available, but in this category are included domestic care and real estate maintenance. HUNGARY Point (9): Under this heading are included: o Social educator, assistant social worker: 22 o Other: 884 IRELAND Civilian staff: Staff working in children detention schools do not wear uniforms. They are not a penal institution. ITALY Point (5): Professional nurses on duty in the prisons situated in the Regions with Special Statute (Friuli Venezia Giulia, Sicily and Valle d'Aosta), where the penitentiary healthcare services are still provided by the Penitentiary Administration, waiting for the shift to the Ministry of Health, in terms of the Decree dated 1 April 2008. Point (9): Under this heading are included: o Administrative staff and accountants: 2,405 o Technicians, IT Staff, etc.: 428 LITHUANIA Point (9): Under this heading are included: o Staff responsible for workshops or vocational training: 9 o Other staff Inner Investigation, Registration, Administrative and Accounting divisions: 368 MOLDOVA Point (9): Staff working in Legal, Human resources, Special evidence, Secretariat, Financial and Logistics directorates (170.5 FTE). MONTENEGRO Point (9): Under this heading are included: o Staff for workshops and professional trainings: 32 o Managers: 4
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 169 THE NETHERLANDS Point (9): Under this heading are included: o Administration: 687.6 o Facility services: 462.6 o Other: 229.1 ROMANIA Point (9): Under this heading are included: o Administrative staff, e.g. secretariat, economic, human resources, informatics, crime prevention, management of the records/files (189 FTE). SLOVENIA Point (9): Under this heading are included: o Staff responsible for workshops or vocational training: 91 o Other staff: 80 SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) Point (6): 1,461 teachers do not belong to staff working for the Central Administration. They belong to the Autonomous Communities Administration. SPAIN (CATALONIA) Point (9): Under this heading are included 11 librarians. THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Point (9): Under this heading are included78 administrative staff. UK: ENGLAND AND WALES Point (9): Under this heading are included: o Administrative staff: 4,312 o Chaplaincy: 290 o Others industrial staff and other grades including Catering Managers and Technical Officer: 3,423.
NOTES ­ TABLE AM7 AZERBAIJAN Point (9): Under this heading are included: o 9.1: Administrative and supporting positions, drivers etc.: 155 o 9.2: Convoy: 200 CZECH REPUBLIC Point (9): Under this heading are included: o 9.1: staff working at headquarters excluding management staff (23). o 9.2: control and complain departments "internal police": 16 people at headquarters. LITHUANIA Point (9): Under this heading are included: o 9.1. Staff of the Prison Department: 48 o 9.2. Staff of the Training Centre of the Prison Department: 18 o 9.3. Staff of probation services: 208 MOLDOVA Point (9): Staff working in Legal, Human resources, Special evidence, Secretariat, Financial and Logistics directorates (170.5 FTE). NORWAY Point (9): Under this heading are included 14 handlers, drugs' detection dogs. SLOVENIA Point (3): Under this heading are included staff at the National prison administration. SWEDEN Point (9): Under this heading are included 339 transports
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170 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE AM7: UNIFORMED STAFF (FTE) WORKING OUTSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS) Total number of uniformed staff on 1st September 2012, of which: (1) Custodians (guards) (2) Security staff (other than custodians) (3) Management staff (4) Doctors (5) Other medical staff (e.g. nurses, occupational therapists) (6) Teachers (7) Educators (8) Psychologists and other staff involved in the assessment of the inmates (dangerousness, individual plans of the execution of sentences etc.) (9) Other
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.AM7
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Bulgaria Croatia Czech Rep. Estonia Finland Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Romania San Marino Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
Total uniformed 113 NAP NAP NAP 1 014 NAP NAP 1 250.6 NAP NAP NA NAP 325.5 2 870 34 NAP 286 421 NAP NAP NAP 14 NAP 591 NAP 741 35 NAP NAP NAP 339 NAP NA 6 176 206 185 55
(1) 10 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP 320 2 870 18 NAP NAP 32 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 47 NAP 683 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP 195 129 55
(2) 102 NAP NAP NAP 582 NAP NAP 1 161.6 NAP NAP NA NAP 0 NAP 3 NAP NAP 73 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 0 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP 11 0 NAP
(3) 1 NAP NAP NAP 56 NAP NAP 15 NAP NAP 0 NAP 3 NAP 4 NAP 8 10 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 68 NAP 9 35 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP 56 NAP
(4) 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP 0 NAP 0 NAP NAP 10 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 6 NAP 1 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP NAP
Of which (5) 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP 0 NAP 0 NAP NAP 5 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 9 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP NAP
(6) 0 NAP NAP NAP 17 NAP NAP 13 NAP NAP NA NAP 0 NAP 0 NAP NAP 7 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 0 NAP 12 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP NAP
(7) 0 NAP NAP NAP 2 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP 0 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 5 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP NAP
(8) 0 NAP NAP NAP 2 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP 0 NAP 9 NAP 4 4 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP 14 NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP NAP
(9) 0 NAP NAP NAP 355 NAP NAP 61 NAP NAP NA NAP 2.5 NAP NAP NAP 274 280 NAP NAP NAP 14 NAP 442 NAP 36 NAP NAP NAP NAP 339 NAP NA 6 176 NAP NAP NAP
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 171
TABLE AM8: CIVILIAN STAFF (FTE) WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS) Total number of civil servants on 1st September 2012, of which: (1) Custodians (guards) (2) Security staff (other than custodians) (3) Management staff (4) Doctors (5) Other medical staff (e.g. nurses, occupational therapists) (6) Teachers (7) Educators (8) Psychologists and other staff involved in the assessment of the inmates (dangerousness, individual plans of the execution of sentences etc.) (9) Other
Reference: Council of Europe, SPACE I 2012.AM8
Country Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Bulgaria Croatia Czech Rep. Estonia Finland Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Romania San Marino Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain (total) Spain (State Adm.) Spain (Catalonia) Sweden the FYRO Macedonia Turkey Ukraine UK: Engl. & Wales UK: North. Ireland UK: Scotland
Total civilians 67 NAP NAP NAP 151 111 NAP 1 988.3 NAP 366 NA NAP 126.03 2 495 NAP NAP 49 36 12 NAP 1 871 159.7 NAP 64 2 110 NAP 575 383 192 495 15 186 1 340 1 769 216 819
(1) 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP 0
(2) 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP 13 NAP NAP NAP 10 NA NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP 27 NAP NA NAP NAP NAP 0
(3) 4 NAP NAP NAP NAP 1 NAP 12 NAP 11 0 NAP 34 171 NAP NAP 1 NAP NAP NAP NA 29.8 NAP 1 NAP 0 NAP NA NAP 5 41 15 NA NAP 959 131 25
(4) 2 NAP NAP NAP NAP 1 NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP 1 0 NAP NA NAP NA NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP NAP
Of which
(5)
(6)
3
0
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
1 NA
NAP
NAP
NAP
6
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NAP
NAP
2
0
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
1
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
10
1
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NA
NA
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
NAP
(7) 3 NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP 0 108 NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP 0 NAP NA NAP NA NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP NAP
(8) 2 NAP NAP NAP NAP 3 NAP NAP NAP NA NA NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP 0 NAP NAP NAP NA NAP NAP NAP 1 0 NAP NA NAP NA NAP NAP NA NAP 291 NAP NAP
(9) 53 NAP NAP NAP 151 NA NAP 1 970.3 NAP NA NA NAP 90.03 2 216 NAP NAP 48 36 11 NAP NA 129.9 NAP 63 NAP 99 NAP NA 383 NA 427 NAP NA 1 340 519 85 794
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172 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 NOTES ­ TABLE AM8 ALBANIA Point (9): Under this heading are included: o Legal, judicial and cards/index staff: 13 o Administration, investment, procurement, HR, IT staff: 34 o Audit and Finance: 6 AZERBAIJAN Point (9): Under this heading are included administrative and supporting positions, drivers etc. CZECH REPUBLIC Point (9): Under this heading are included: o 9.1: staff working at headquarters excluding management staff (105.5). o 9.2: 1864.8 civilian staff who are not working with prisoners (administration staff and such). FINLAND Point (9): The accurate figure is not available, but in this category are included domestic care and real estate maintenance. ITALY Point (9): Under this heading are included: o 9.1: Social Workers of Justice (Probation Officers): 1,070 o 9.2: Administrative staff and accountants: 945 o 9.3: Technicians, IT Staff, etc.: 201 LITHUANIA Point (9): Under this heading are included: o 9.1. Staff of the Prison Department: 17 o 9.2. Staff of the Training Centre of the Prison Department: 8 o 9.3. Staff of probation services: 23 MOLDOVA Point (9): Staff working in Legal, Human resources, Special evidence, Secretariat, Financial and Logistics directorates (36 FTE). MONACO Point (9): Under this heading are included 11 prison visitors, but they are not included in the total number of staff employed by Prison Administration. SPAIN (STATE ADMINISTRATION) Point (9): Under this heading are included persons that contribute to the administrative tasks (civil servants) in workshops, administration and management. SWEDEN Point (9): Under this heading are included 427 other civilians in national and regional prison administration. THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Point (3): Under this heading: staff at the national prison administration (Head Office). UK: SCOTLAND Point (9): Under this heading are included 794 non-operational staff.
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 173
OTHER STAFF (NOT INCLUDED IN TABLES AM3 TO AM8) IRELAND 251.53 additional civilian staff working inside penal institutions: o Teachers: 232.53 o Agency Nurses: 19 ITALY 12 additional civilian staff working outside penal institutions: o Staff from other Administrations seconded to the structures of the Penitentiary Administration LATVIA 62 additional uniformed staff working inside penal institutions: o Provision service: 33 o Financial control (accountancy): 7 o Lawyers: 11 o Administrative and personnel work: 11 171.5 additional civilian staff working inside penal institutions: o Provision service: 126.5 o Financial control (accountancy): 27 o Administrative and personnel work: 18 59 additional uniformed staff working outside penal institutions: o Provision service: 10 o Financial control (accountancy): 13 o Lawyers: 12 o Administrative and personnel work: 21 o Project division: 3 41 additional civilian staff working outside penal institutions: o Provision service: 5 o Financial control (accountancy): 28 o Administrative and personnel work: 8 NORWAY 10.4 additional uniformed staff working outside penal institutions 134 additional civilian staff working outside penal institutions: Correctional services of Norway Staff Academy: i. Management staff: 3 ii. Administrative staff: 34.8 iii. Teachers, educators: 21.5 Correctional services of Norway IT- centre: i. Management staff: 3 ii. Administrative staff: 7 iii. IT- developers/advisors/consultants: 31.2 iv. Staff at the National Prison administration: 33.5 ROMANIA 50 additional civilian staff working outside penal institutions: o Temporary employed staff in the region of Eforie Sud. SLOVAK REPUBLIC 694 additional uniformed staff working inside penal institutions: o Spiritual services=22 o Economic services =46 o IT services=43 o Logistic services=391 o Administrative services=71 o Human resources=44 o Inmates employment, production and sales=77 604 additional civilian staff working inside penal institutions: o Economic services =142 o IT services=5
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174 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012 o Logistic services=268 o Administrative services=129 o Human resources=23 o Inmates employment, production and sales=37 36 additional uniformed staff working outside penal institutions: o Staff for divers tasks related to facilities: 36 99 additional civilian staff working outside penal institutions: o Staff for divers tasks related to facilities: 99 SPAIN (CATALONIA) NA additional civilian staff working inside penal institutions: o Instructors: 90 o Administrative staff: 440 UK: SCOTLAND NA additional civilian staff working inside penal institutions: o Teachers: 90
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 175
List of Tables and Figures CONVENTIONS USED............................................................................................................................................... 23
MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY ....................................................................................................................... 23
A.1. LEGISLATIVE OR OTHER MEASURES WHICH DIRECTLY INFLUENCE TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF PRISONERS .... 28 TABLE 1: SITUATION OF PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 ................................................................. 39
TABLE 1.1: CATEGORIES INCLUDED IN THE TOTAL NUMBER OF INMATES IN TABLE 1............................................. 40
TABLE 1.2: CAPACITY OF PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (BY CATEGORIES) .................................. 49
FIGURE 1.A: COUNTRIES WITH MORE THAN 100 PRISONERS PER 100,000 INHABITANTS (HIGHEST PRISON POPULATION RATES) ..................................................................................................................................... 56
FIGURE 1.B: COUNTRIES WITH PRISON POPULATION OVERCROWDING (MORE THAN 100 PRISONERS PER 100 PLACES) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 56
TABLE 1.3: SITUATION OF PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPT. 2012. ADJUSTED FIGURES ....................................... 57
TABLE 1.4: SITUATION OF PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 BY DECREASING PRISON POPULATION RATES (NON-ADJUSTED AND ADJUSTED FIGURES) ......................................................................................... 58
TABLE 1.5: EVOLUTION OF PRISON POPULATIONS BETWEEN 2003 AND 2012 ......................................................... 60
TABLE 1.6: YEAR-TO-YEAR PERCENTAGE CHANGE OF PRISON POPULATION RATES BETWEEN 2011 AND 2012....... 62
MAP 1: PRISON POPULATION RATES PER 100,000 INHABITANTS............................................................................. 65 TABLE 2: AGE STRUCTURE OF PRISON POPULATION ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 ........................................................ 66
TABLE 2.1: AGE AND CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY ................................................................................................... 68
TABLE 2.2: MINORS AND PERSONS BETWEEN 18 AND 21 OF AGE ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 ..................................... 74
FIGURE 2: COUNTRIES WITH THE YOUNGEST (LESS THAN 34 YEARS) PRISON POPULATION CLASSIFIED BY DECREASING MEDIAN AGE ............................................................................................................................ 76
TABLE 2.3: MEDIAN AND AVERAGE AGES OF THE PRISON POPULATION ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 .......................... 76
MAP 2: AGE OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY AND PERCENTAGES OF INMATES LESS THAN 18 YEARS OF AGE IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ................................................................................................................................. 77 TABLE 3: FEMALE INMATES ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012............................................................................................. 78 TABLE 4: FOREIGN INMATES ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 ........................................................................................... 80
TABLE 4.A: ASYLUM SEEKERS AND ILLEGAL ALIENS HELD FOR ADMINISTARTIVE REASONS AMONG FOREIGN INMATES ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 ................................................................................................................ 82 TABLE 5: LEGAL STATUS OF PRISON POPULATIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS)....................................... 84 TABLE 5.1: DETAINEES NOT SERVING A FINAL SENTENCE ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES AND RATES) ... 88
TABLE 5.2: DANGEROUS OFFENDERS UNDER SECURITY MEASURES ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES).............................................................................................................................................. 90
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176 Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: SPACE I ­ 2012
TABLE 6: MAIN OFFENCE OF SENTENCED PRISONERS (FINAL SENTENCE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS) ....... 93 TABLE 6.1: MAIN OFFENCE OF SENTENCED PRISONERS (FINAL SENTENCE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 94 TABLE 7: LENGTH OF SENTENCE OF SENTENCED PRISONERS (FINAL SENTENCE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 98 TABLE 7.1: LENGTH OF SENTENCE OF SENTENCED PRISONERS (FINAL SENTENCE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) ........................................................................................................................................... 104 TABLE 7.2: LENGTH OF SENTENCE OF SENTENCED PRISONERS (FINAL SENTENCE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGES).......................................................................................................................105 TABLE 7.3: LENGTH OF SENTENCE OF PRISONERS SENTENCED TO LESS THAN ONE YEAR (FINAL SENTENCE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) ............................................................................................................... 106 FIGURE 3: COUNTRIES WITH HIGHEST PERCENTAGES OF PRISONERS SENTENCED TO LESS THAN ONE YEAR .......... 107 TABLE 8: FLOW OF ENTRIES TO PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011 ............................................................................. 110 TABLE 9: FLOW OF RELEASES FROM PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011 ..................................................................... 114 TABLE 10: TURNOVER RATIO OF INMATES IN 2011 ............................................................................................. 120 FIGURE 4: COUNTRIES WITH LOWEST TURNOVER RATIOS IN 2011 ........................................................................ 121 TABLE 11.1: INDICATOR OF AVERAGE LENGTH OF IMPRISONMENT IN 2011, BASED ON THE TOTAL NUMBER OF DAYS SPENT IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS...........................................................................................................122 TABLE 11.2: INDICATOR OF AVERAGE LENGTH OF IMPRISONMENT IN 2011, BASED ON THE TOTAL STOCK OF INMATES IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2011 ......................................................................... 125 TABLE 12: ESCAPES FROM PENAL INSTITUTIONS DURING 2011 ............................................................................ 126 TABLE 13.1: DEATHS IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011 (BY TYPE OF REGISTERED DEATH) ................................... 129 TABLE 13.2: SUICIDES IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011.......................................................................................131 TABLE 13.3: TYPES OF DEATHS AND SUICIDES IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011 .................................................. 132 MAP 3: SUICIDE RATE PER 10,000 INMATES IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011 ...................................................... 135 TABLE 14: EXPENSES IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS IN 2011 (IN ) ............................................................................... 136 TABLE 14.A: CATEGORIES INCLUDED IN THE CALCULATION OF CUSTODIAL EXPENSES IN 2011, IN TABLE 14......138 TABLE 15: STAFF WORKING IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON THE BASIS OF FULL-TIME EQUIVALENTS (FTE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS) ...................................................................................................................... 144 TABLE 15.1: STAFF WORKING IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON THE BASIS OF FULL-TIME EQUIVALENTS (FTE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) ............................................................................................................... 149 TABLE 15.2: STAFF WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON THE BASIS OF FULL-TIME EQUIVALENTS (FTE) ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) .......................................................................................................... 150 FIGURE 5: STAFF WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012, PERCENTAGES ...................... 151 TABLE 16: STAFF (FTE) WORKING IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS BUT NOT EMPLOYED BY THE PRISON ADMINISTRATION ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES)....................................................................................152
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Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics ­ SPACE I ­ 2012 177 FIGURE 6: HIGHEST RATIOS OF INMATES PER ONE CUSTODIAN ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012...................................... 156 TABLE 17: RATIO OF INMATES PER CATEGORIES OF STAFF ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 ............................................ 157 TABLE AM1: SPECIAL CATEGORIES INCLUDED IN THE TOTAL NUMBER OF STAFF ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS) .................................................................................................................................................. 159 TABLE AM2: SPECIAL CATEGORIES INCLUDED IN THE TOTAL NUMBER OF STAFF ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) ........................................................................................................................................... 160 TABLE AM3: UNIFORMED STAFF (FTE) WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS) ................................................................................................................................................................... 162 TABLE AM4: UNIFORMED STAFF (FTE) WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) ........................................................................................................................................... 163 FIGURE AM1: RATIOS OF UNIFORMED STAFF WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS PER 100 INMATES ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012........................................................................................................................................ 165 TABLE AM5: CIVILIAN STAFF (FTE) WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS)166 TABLE AM6: CIVILIAN STAFF (FTE) WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (PERCENTAGES) ........................................................................................................................................... 167 TABLE AM7: UNIFORMED STAFF (FTE) WORKING OUTSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS) .................................................................................................................................................. 170 TABLE AM8: CIVILIAN STAFF (FTE) WORKING INSIDE PENAL INSTITUTIONS ON 1ST SEPTEMBER 2012 (NUMBERS)171
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MF Aebi, N Delgrande

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