Defining Spaces/Defining Times, K Sanderson

Tags: architecture, Benchmark, discussion, students, Michael Schissel, New York, the built environment, Performance, space, Art Museum, Michael Certo, University of New Mexico, Bart Prince, visual arts, Teacher's Guide, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, Sara Otto-Diniz, bell pepper, Houghton Mifflin, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Bell peppers, exterior elevation, Knowledge Students, environment, drawing paper, twentieth century architecture, Skills Students, New Mexico, University of New Mexico Art Museum, critical thinking skills, personal experiences, New Mexico Public Education Department Content Standards, Gothic cathedrals, Andy Goldsworthy Sculpture, works of art, Macaulay, D., Western Architecture, Boston
Content: ARCHITECTURE Defining Spaces/Defining Times A University of New Mexico Art Museum Multimedia Unit Curators Sara Otto-Diniz, Educational training and development Consultant Michele Penhall, Curator of Prints and Photographs Michael Schissel, Research Assistant Teacher's Guide by: Brooke Balliett, Research Assistant Sara Otto-Diniz, Educational Training and Development Consultant Kyrsten Sanderson, Student Assistant Emily Young, Graduate Student Intern The University of New Mexico Art Museum Linda W. Bahm, Director Michael Certo, Curator of Education & Public Programs This project was funded in part by the Institute for Museum and Library Services, a federal agency that fosters innovation, leadership, and a lifetime of learning. The University of New Mexico Art Museum MSC04 2570 1 University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (505) 277-4001 © Copyright 2006. The University of New Mexico. All Rights Reserved. You may print, reproduce and use the information in, and retrieve files containing publications or images from, The University of New Mexico Art Museum's WWW documents for non-commercial, personal, or educational purposes only, provided that you i. do not modify such information ii. include any copyright notice originally included with such information and this notice in all such copies.
ARCHITECTURE Defining Spaces/Defining Times Architecture is the will of the age conceived in spatial terms. Living. Changing. New. Not yesterday, not tomorrow, only today can be given form. Only this architecture creates. Create form out of the nature of the task with the means of our time. This is our work. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, 1923 Through representations of architecture--paintings, sculpture, drawings, prints, photographs, and scale models--this exhibition examines architectural space and the built environment in an attempt to articulate a sense of place and the physical experience of inhabiting a building. As literature offers a vehicle for transporting us to different times and places, so too images of real and imagined architecture allow us to wander in and out of Gothic cathedrals, ancient ruins and castles, and even Piranesi's fantastic colosseum. Through this wandering we experience a place or a building--be it a small, domestic dwelling or a large-scale monument--in a very personal way which in turn can facilitate a deeper understanding and appreciation of that space and its architecture. This exhibition juxtaposes work from Egypt's Old Kingdom pyramids, classical Greek and Roman temples, medieval castles, cathedrals, and mosques with twentieth century architecture, and contemporary work from students in the UNM School of Architecture and Planning. In all the images of all these places, we discover the lived realities of the world's peoples, their very existence. "Since remote times architecture has helped man in making his existence meaningful," Christian Norberg-Schultz writes in Meaning in Western Architecture (1973). "With the aid of architecture he has gained a foothold in space and time. Architecture is therefore concerned...with existential meanings." The UNM Art Museum extends special thanks to the following individuals for their support of this exhibition: Tim Castillo, Assistant Professor, UNM School of Architecture and Planning; E_VOC Interactive; Chuck Gibbon; Patrick Nagatani, Professor, UNM Department of Art and Art History; Bart Prince, Architect; and Michael Schissel. The Institute of Museum and Library Services, a federal agency that fosters innovation, leadership, and a lifetime of learning, supports the UNM Art Museum.
ARCHITECTURE Defining Spaces/Defining Times Introduction: This is one of a series of publications of the University of New Mexico Art Museum for educators to use in art, humanities, and social studies-oriented instruction. The series highlights artwork from the University Art Museum's permanent collection. Previous titles are: 1) Narration in Art 2) Art and Nature 3) Old Spain, New Spain, New Mexico: An Enduring Tradition 4) Georgia O'Keeffe and the Stieglitz Circle 5) Abstraction 6) Art, Culture, Place: Visual Traditions of the Southwest Each multi-media packet includes: 1) Background text 2) Teacher's Guide keyed to Elementary and Secondary grades 3) Appendix: Glossary, Bibliography for Students and Teachers 4) Images Program and Objectives: Art museums offer opportunities for learning during the school years and beyond. The materials in this binder are designed to introduce teachers to the unique educational potential of original artwork in museums. The Teacher's Guide provides instructional strategies designed to increase students' perceptual skills, to engage them in critical thinking, and to captivate them with creative problem solving. Use the discussion questions, writing assignments, and art studios to complement a museum visit or as a self-contained unit of study. Teaching materials support the National and State of New Mexico Standards and Benchmarks. A group of architects, artists, educators, museum staff, and consultants collaborated in a Teaching Institute at the University of New Mexico in September 2005, to infuse these materials with classroom reality. They grappled with the complex issues represented in the exhibition through
discussions, walking tours of the UNM campus, studio work, and through field trips to the exhibition with their students. Explorers included: Jim Caruso, Michael Certo, Cindy Churan, Elena Kayak, Paula Michel, Megan Murray, Sara Otto-Diniz, John Parish, Jill Preiser, Michael Schissel, and Susan Wing. We want to acknowledge the valuable assistance of spirit and inquiry that each participant brought to this project. And, to the thousands of children who showed us how to see from their perspective, mil gracias. Note to Educators: The following teaching materials on architecture, space, and time are divided into elementary and secondary sections. Each section includes: Subjects, Time Required, Lesson Overview, Learning Objectives, Vocabulary, References, Topics for Classroom Discussion, Writing Exercises, and Art Studios that are broken down into daily art classes. All students will need an Art Journal (easily made by students with copy paper covered by construction paper and stapled) at each class in which to sketch and write. Be sure to read the entire section thoroughly and adapt it to suit both the needs of your students and your time constraints. Because the grades 6-12 sections build on those developed for the elementary school, Middle and High School teachers are advised to read the elementary sections first. For instance, students in Grades 6-8 will be expected to know and use the vocabulary listed in K-5. Student use of `art language' encourages depth of understanding and fosters more precise communication. Teachers often discover that the art environment can be uniquely conducive to advancing motivation for language acquisition among ESL students. Please reproduce the Glossary in the Appendix for older students' use. The issues around the theme Architecture--Defining Spaces/Defining Times are complex, multi-layered, and interwoven. To facilitate creative discussions in the classroom, the art gallery and the painting studio, teachers and students may benefit from the playful use of SCAMPER (see Appendix). Please reproduce the SCAMPER sheet as needed. Trust yourself. With sharp eyes, an inquiring mind, and thoughtful discussions with students and colleagues, Architecture--Defining Spaces/Defining Times is a world to discover!
Quotations ANCIENT Egypt On a Stupendous Leg of Granite We wonder,--and some Hunter may express Wonder like ours, when thro' the wilderness Where London stood, holding the Wolf in chace, He meets some fragment huge, and stops to guess What powerful but unrecorded race Once dwelt in that annihilated place. In Egypt's sandy silence, all alone, Stands a gigantic Leg, which far off throws The only shadow that the Desert knows:-- "I am great OZYMANDIAS," saith the stone, "The King of Kings; this mighty City shows "The wonders of my hand." -- The City's gone,-- Nought but the Leg remaining to disclose The site of this forgotten Babylon. --Horace (born Horatio) Smith (1779-1849) Greece The Greek temple is the perfect expression of the pure intellect illumined by the spirit. No other great buildings anywhere approach its simplicity. In the Parthenon straight columns rise to plain Doric capitals; a pediment is sculptured in bold relief; there is nothing more. And yet--here is the Greek miracle--this absolute simplicity of structure is alone in majesty of beauty among all the temples and cathedrals and palaces of the world. Majestic but human, truly Greek. No superhuman force as in Egypt; no strange supernatural shapes as in India; the Parthenon is the home of humanity at ease, calm, ordered, sure of itself and the world. --Edith Hamilton, The Greek Way, 1943
Rome When I realized that in Rome the majority of the ancient monuments were lying forsaken in fields or gardens, or even now serving as a quarry for new structures, I resolved to preserve their memory with the help of my engravings. I have therefore attempted to exercise the greatest possible exactitude. --Giovanni Battista Pirenesi (1720-1778), in Marguerite Yourcenar, The Dark Brain of Piranesi, 1984 MEDIEVAL Castles They arrived at Caerleon shortly before sunset. The castle stood on a hill, the site of an old Roman fort, and some of the old Roman stonework was still in place--it looked, Igraine thought, very much as it must have looked in Roman days. --Marian Zimmer Bradley, The Mists of Avalon, 1982 Cathedrals The building of a cathedral like Notre Dame of Chartres required an economic effort far greater than that demanded by any other public project of the Middle Ages. In our own time, no work of art, religious or otherwise, has an importance that is even remotely comparable to that which compelled an entire generation to pour its energies and resources into the construction of the cosmos of stone that, between 1194 and 1220, rose gradually and breathtakingly above the town of Chartres. --Otto von Simpson, The Gothic Cathedral, 1988 The architect knew that buttresses had to be built to relieve the pressure the vault would place on the piers. These buttresses, erected on foundations next to the piers, would later be connected to the piers themselves by stone arches known as flying buttresses. In Gothic cathedrals the arched vault tended to push the piers outward. This force was transferred through the flying buttress to the buttress itself and then down to the foundation. In this way the main piers could remain quite thin in proportion to their height, allowing more space for the windows between them. --David Macaulay, Cathedral, 1973 The aspects of the theology and cosmology of Chartres that interest us ... are, first, the emphasis on mathematics, particularly geometry; and second, the
aesthetic consequences of this thought. The masters of Chartres ... were obsessed with mathematics; it was considered the link between God and world, the magical tool that would unlock the secrets of both. --Otto von Simpson, The Gothic Cathedral, 1988
Mosques The traditional architectural forms reflect the Islamic cosmogony and its sacred texts. The garden courtyard is paradise, the thrones and wall towers reflect the sacred mountain, and gates are entrances to heaven. The axes between minarets show movement through the city and the hemispherical dome evokes the sky. The evocation is complete. --A. T. Mann, Sacred Architecture, 1966
Yes, modern architecture is young architecture--the joy of youth must bring it. The love of youth, eternal youth must develop and keep it. You must see this architecture as wise, but not so much wise as sensible and wistful--nor any more scientific than sentient, nor so much resembling a flying machine as a masterpiece of the imagination. --Frank Lloyd Wright, Lecture at the Art Institute of Chicago, 1931
The office building is a house of work of organization of clarity of economy. Bright, wide workrooms, easy to oversee, undivided except as the organism of the undertaking is divided. The maximum effect with the minimum expenditure of means. The materials are concrete iron glass. Reinforced concrete buildings are by nature skeletal buildings. No noodles nor armoured turrets. A construction of girders that carry the weight, and walls that carry no weight. That is to say, buildings of skin and bones. --Mies van der Rohe, Working Theses, 1923
PROCESS The architectural process begins with the crafting of a question, which depends on at least four key factors--the client, the site, the building's function, and the budget. It ends with the construction of a building. Between these points is an
infinite network of possible solutions. To find the answer to the question and resolve these issues, architects use both technical and basic tools--computers, pencils, rulers, paper--and such conceptual techniques as ideas of scale and perspective. They elaborate ideas by drawing plans and sectional views at various scales. They build three-dimensional models in order to determine the building's spatial organization and to judge the compatibility of different materials. It is through this creative and experimental process that a building is finally realized. Bart Prince Hugging the earth to the north against the prevailing winds, opening to the ocean views south and southwest, this structure runs walls and roof together in a single, continuously undulating profile. Without beginning or end, the house simply surges up from its site like an ocean swell, in which cylinders of space bob like pieces of flotsam. --Christopher Mead, The Architecture of Bart Prince, 1999 Video To fully engage our moment in history we need to develop speculative projects that will illuminate the context in which we produce our work. --Bruce Mau, An Incomplete Manifesto for Growth, 1998
ARCHITECTURE--Defining Spaces/Defining Times
Grades K-5: Making a Place
Language Arts, Mathematics, Social Studies, Visual Arts
Time Required-- Six-lesson unit to be explored during six one-hour classes (Note: Be sure to practice studio work prior to class presentations in order to organize preparation time.)
Lesson Overview-- Students will use their existing experiences, memories, and perceptions of space and the built environment as a basis for both academic and personal exploration and discovery.
Learning Objectives-- Knowledge Students will learn about architecture as it exists through history, and engage in a process of discovery using architecture as a vehicle through which to gain deeper understanding of themselves and how they interact with the built environment. Students will research historical and contemporary architecture to understand how the built environment both defines and sustains culture, and molds personal identity.
Students will develop vocabulary and hand/eye coordination, understanding of three-dimensional space, critical looking strategies, abstract reasoning, and visualization. They will solve problems both visually and verbally as they become the architects of their own spaces.
Students will increase awareness about how the process of investigating, creating, and organizing space adds meaning to their life experiences.
Instructional Strategies: DAY 1-- Introduction to Space We shape our buildings, therefore they shape us.
Winston Churchill
Vocabulary--Introduce words, write on board, and define. See Glossary in Appendix.
Architecture Investigation
Construction Landscape
Design Space
Learning Experiences-- Materials: Paper for writing or sketchbook/journal, writing utensils, 4" x 6" note cards for post cards, collage materials, glue, scissors, and photographs or copies of photographs from home
Discuss: Generate a definition of space through class discussion. The following questions may guide your inquiry: How do we inhabit space? What activities do we do and in what spaces? Why, when, and how do we do them? How do the activities we do in these spaces define our lives and give them meaning? How does this change over time?
Talk about the homes that animals build (bird nests, wolf dens, etc.). What recurring architectural themes (e.g. entryways, nests, burrows, passages), materials (mud, wood, stones), and structural elements (arches, bridges, columns, etc.) does human architecture borrow from the world of nature? Why do you think this is?
Have students write memories about friendly spaces from their
pasts, e.g. their first homes or schools, their grandparents' houses, or
playgrounds. Ask them to recall how it felt to be in these spaces by traveling
from room to room and floor to floor in their minds. "What did it look like?
How did it smell? What sounds, tastes and textures do you associate with
this place? Who is in this space with you? What did you do here?" Encourage
students to reflect on how their memories change as they move through
each area of the space. Remind them to describe details of their
experiences in their writing.
Students will create mixed-media Memory Place postcards using
drawing, painting, and/or collage. Invite them to bring photographs or copies
of photographs from home to use in the collages, and remind them to be sure
to have their parents' permission to use the photographs. On the back, have
each student write a message to a friend about what the location means to
him or her.
Additional Activities: Ask students to imagine how it might feel to visit a place in history, such as the coliseum in Rome or the pyramids in Egypt. Brainstorm additional historic sites. In small groups, students will discuss the following questions: "What might life have been like for people to live in this space and at this time? What did they do in the space? Who was with them?" Have students pretend that they are the people from the past. As they did above, students will design and create postcards of specific historical sites, and write messages to themselves in the present from these historical points of view.
References-- Macaulay, D. (1975). Pyramid. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Macaulay, D. (1974). City: A story of Roman planning and construction. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Milo, Francesco. (2001). The story of architecture. New York, NY: Peter Bedrick Press.
DAY 2--
Perception of Space looking at an object, we reach out for it. With an invisible finger we move through the space around us, go out to the distant places where things are found, touch them, catch them, scan their surfaces, trace their borders, explore their texture. Perceiving shapes is an eminently active occupation. ... What do we see when we see? --Rudolf Arnheim, Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye, 1974
Vocabulary--See above.
Balance Depth
Mass Scale
Learning Experiences-- Materials: Bell peppers in a variety of colors, plastic knives, 1" x 2" viewfinders (empty slide holders or 3" x 5" note cards with the opening cut out), drawing paper in 9" x 12" and 6" x 12" dimensions, notebook paper, oil pastels or crayons, pencils
Discuss: Facilitate a class discussion about perception. What is it? How does it differ from simply seeing? (Perception involves mental and experiential interpretation of sensory data). What senses are involved in it? Think of specific spaces, like the school or a grocery store. How do we "read" these spaces in order to determine what they are used for and to navigate them? How can looking at an object or a space from different perspectives enhance our understanding of it and enhance our problemsolving skills?
Distribute a bell pepper (red, green, yellow, orange) to each
student. Discuss the shapes of the peppers, looking at them from different
perspectives. Ask students to predict what the interior of their peppers will
look like based on the exterior forms. Now cut each pepper in half either
lengthwise or widthwise. Were their predictions accurate? Were they
surprised by anything? Brainstorm imaginative uses of the bell pepper. Have
students write odes to their bell peppers. [You may want to read other odes
to the students, e.g. John Keats "Ode on a Grecian Urn," to introduce them
to the genre.]
Have students "draw" the cross-section of their peppers in the
air and describe the kinds of lines they used. Provide each student with a 9"
x 12" piece of paper and oil pastels or crayons to draw and color in their bell peppers. Next, pass out 1" x 2" viewfinders (see above), and invite students to select an interesting area of their drawing to enlarge. Give them time to look at their drawings through the viewfinders before they choose one area to enlarge. Ask them to tape the viewfinder onto the selected area. Give students 6" x 12" pieces of paper and ask them to enlarge the selected 1" x 2" area to fill the sheet. Explain that the enlarged drawing is to a scale of 1" = 6". Display cross-sections, enlargements, and odes together. Reflect: Facilitate a classroom discussion inviting students to reflect on the above experiences. What parts were most meaningful to them (discussing how we understand and navigate different spaces, predicting the interior space of the bell pepper, brainstorming imaginative uses for the bell pepper, writing the poem, drawing the pepper, or enlarging it)? Ask them to list how the interior spaces of the bell pepper are like the spaces of their homes. Invite students to play with the concept of scale and imagine the bell pepper maximized as a space they could live in. Assignment: Ask students to bring in vines, leaves, yucca stalks, grasses, rocks, raffia, and other natural materials for DAY 3. References--Children's stories and picture books with rich visual descriptions and images of spaces and places, such as Carroll, L. (1960). Alice's adventures in wonderland and Through the looking glass. John Tenniel, illus. New York, NY: New American Library. Cross, P. (1984). Trouble for Trumpets. New York, NY: Random House. Freymann, S. (2001). Gus and Button. New York, NY: Arthur A. Levine Books. Mendoza, G. (1981). Need a house? Call Ms. Mouse! New York, NY: Grosset & Dunlap. Miller, E. (1964). Mousekin's golden house. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, Inc.
DAY 3--
Creation of Space I go to nature everyday for inspiration in the day's work. I follow in building the principles which nature has used in its domain. --Frank Lloyd Wright
Vocabulary--See above.
Column Platform
Dome Spire
Learning Experiences-- Materials: vines, leaves, yucca stalks, grasses, rocks, raffia, etc., toothpicks, clay, bell peppers, plastic knives, previous work
Discuss: Review DAY 2's lesson. Collect students' natural materials and arrange with care on a supply table for all to share. You may supplement their collections with toothpicks, clay, raffia, etc.
Based on the DAY 2 lesson, students will create a model of a
living space for themselves. Have them revisit their drawings and
interpretative poems in preparation for doing quick-writes about their
personal spaces. Distribute the bisected bell peppers and plastic knives. Ask
students to cut each pepper half into two or three large pieces. Give them
time to observe, play with, and manipulate the organic forms before they
build their structures. Students will create a model of a living space using
only bell peppers and natural materials. Try it yourself so you may anticipate
challenges. For instance, how will they connect one piece with another? One
solution may be to thread raffia or strands pulled from yucca stalks through
holes poked through the pepper pieces with tooth picks. Or, roll fresh leaves
to make passageways between spaces.
Reflect: Have students present their structures to a partner. Encourage them to address the following questions: a) What type of space did they create and why? b) What problem(s) arose and how did they solve it/them? c) How did their choice of materials affect the structure?
References-- Goldsworthy, A. (1993). Hand to earth: Andy Goldsworthy Sculpture, 1976- 1990. New York, NY: H. N. Abrams.
DAY 4--
Architecture--Defining Time/Defining Space Since remote times, architecture has helped man in making his existence meaningful. --Christian Norberg-Schulz, Meaning in Western Architecture, 1981
Vocabulary--See above.
Greek Temple Pyramid
Hogan Skyscraper
Visuals-- See on-line or use Gallery Guide images.
Berenice Abbott b. 1898 Springfield, Ohio d. 1991 Monson, Maine Flatiron Building, Broadway and Fifth Avenue between 22nd and 23rd Streets, Manhattan, 1938 Gelatin silver print Purchase through Charles E. Merrill Trust 74.400 Constructed: 1902, New York, New York. Architect: Daniel Burnham.
Frederick H. Evans b. 1852 London, England d. 1943 London, England A Pillar of Chartres, c. 1905 Platinum print 73.207 Constructed: 1194-1220, Chartres, France. Architect: unknown. Francis Frith b. 1822 Chesterfield, England d. 1898 Cannes, France The Southern Stone Pyramid of Dashoor, c. 1857 Albumen silver print Gift of Eleanor and Van Deren Coke 72.370 Constructed: c. Mid-Twentieth Century BC, Dashoor, Egypt. Architect: unknown.
Michele Penhall b. 1953 Merced, California
Interior View of Living Area toward Kitchen, 1998 digital print from original transparency Lent by the artist Constructed: 1992-1996, near Mendocino, California. Architect: Bart Prince. Giovanni Battista Piranesi b. 1720 Mogliano, Italy d. 1778 Rome, Italy Veduta dell'Anfiteatro Flavio detto il Colosseo (View of the Flavian Amphitheater Called the Colosseum), 1776 Engraving Purchased with funds from the Friends of Art 67.102 Constructed: 70-82, Rome, Italy. Architect: unknown. Eliot Porter b. 1901 Winnetka, Illinois d. 1990 Santa Fe, New Mexico Sounion, Greece, 1970 Dye transfer print Gift of the artist 79.163 Temple of Poseidon constructed: 450-440 BC, Sounion, Greece. Architect: unknown. Unknown artist Caernarvon Castle, n.d. Albumen silver print UNM Art Museum Study Collection Constructed: 1283-1330, Caernarvon, Wales. Architect: Master James of St. George. Learning Experiences-- Materials: Notebook paper, pencils or pens, rulers, selected visuals Discuss: Choose an example of architecture like those listed above to explore in depth with your students. Where possible, connect to your social studies curricula. Read or have students read about pyramids, for instance, and then facilitate a classroom discussion. The following questions may guide you: "When and where was this building built? What materials were used, and
what is its size? What do we know about why it was built, how it was built, who built it, and how long it took to build? Who used the building and how was it used? What meaning does the scale of the building convey? What does this building tell us about the world view or values of the people who built it?"
Have students write a short paragraph from the point of view
of the building. How did it feel to be constructed? What happens within the
building? What do they silently observe happening around them? What might
they have seen over time? Who are they?
Encourage students to look inquisitively at photographs or
drawings of their architectural example. Note the lines, patterns, shapes or
forms, textures, and negative spaces, and be sure to use the vocabulary
introduced at the beginning of the lessons and from the previous lessons.
Make a front elevation (see Glossary for definition) drawing of the building,
and label its parts, e.g. note the capital, shaft and base of a column; indicate
the column drums; label the kind of capital (Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian).
Based on what you can see, imagine the plan view (see Glossary for
definition) and draw it. Again, label the parts.
Reflect: Ask students to reflect on how drawing the front elevation and plan view of the building helped them to understand the building better. How does "dissecting" the architectural space help the students better understand the structure of the building?
References-- Garaway, M. (1986). The old Hogan. Cortez, CO: Mesa Verde Press.
Macaulay, D. (1973). Cathedral: The story of its construction. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Macaulay, D. (1974). City: A story of Roman planning and construction. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Macaulay, D. (1975). Pyramid. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Macaulay, D. (1977). Castle. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Macaulay, D. (2003). Mosque. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Wilson, F. (1989). What it feels like to be a building. Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press. Woodford, S. (1983). The Parthenon. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications. Yue, C. and D. Yue. (1986). The Pueblo. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
DAY 5--
Imagining Spaces Space that has been seized upon by the imagination cannot remain indifferent space.... It has been lived in, not in its positivity, but with all the partiality of the imagination. --Gaston Bachelard, The Poetics of Space, 1969
Vocabulary--See above. Expand previous definitions where appropriate.
Function Interior
Learning Experiences-- Materials: Newsprint, pens, or markers
Discuss: Facilitate a classroom discussion about space. First, generate a definition of space with the students. Ask them to imagine a variety of spaces in both the natural and the built environment, and list them on the board. Do some natural spaces have analogies in the built environment? What types of spaces do they move through everyday (e.g., bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, classroom, playground, grocery store, or library)? How are these spaces designed differently? Which spaces did they most enjoy? Talk with the students about what makes their space special. Do they prefer the colors, shapes, size, materials, or lighting of the space, or do they prefer the space because of the activities they do in it?
Ask each student to imagine his/her own, special space. Provide
pens, markers, and a large sheet of newsprint for each student. On this
paper, students will brainstorm the space they would like to create. Will it
be a playhouse, a tree house, an art studio, a Lego dream world, an
underground tunnel? Have students create a mind-map or web diagram of
this space. If they have not done mind-maps or web diagrams before, model
how to do this with the entire class on the board. Make sure the students'
diagrams answer the following questions: How will they enter the space? How
will they move through the space? Which spaces are in relationship with
each other? Be sure to label how the spaces will be used.
Reflect: Let students share in a class discussion the kinds of spaces they will design. What problems did they encounter in creating a mind-map or web diagram, and how did they solve them? This exercise is designed to encourage students to better understand themselves and their preferences.
Ask them to identify something new they learned about themselves while working through this project. References-- Aldersley-Williams, H. (2003). Zoomorphic: New animal architecture. New York, NY: Harper Design International. Mead, C. (1999). The architecture of Bart Prince: A pragmatics of place. New York, NY: W. W. Norton. Nabhan, G. & Trimble, S. (1994). Geography of childhood: Why children need wild places. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Taylor, A. , Vlastos, G. & Marshall, A. (1991). Architecture and children: teacher's guide interdisciplinary learning activities. Seattle, WA: Architecture and Children Institute.
DAY 6--
Designing Spaces Think simple as my old master used to say--meaning reduce the whole to its parts into the simplest terms, getting back to the first principles. --Frank Lloyd Wright
Vocabulary--See above. Expand previous definitions where appropriate.
Blueprint Drawing
Elevation View
Plan View
Learning Experiences-- Materials: Examples of architectural drawings, blueprints, 30" x 40" black poster board, 9" x 12" drawing paper, pencils, rulers, glue. Optional: drafting tools such as rulers, t-squares, French curves, angles, triangles, protractors.
Discuss: After introducing the vocabulary to your class, facilitate a discussion that will help the students better understand these terms. Show your class examples of the process work of an architect. Examples can include preliminary sketches or bubble diagrams, plan, elevation and section drawings, or blueprints. Emphasize to the students that designing a space is a very thoughtful and time-consuming process. Optional: Invite an architect to your classroom to make a presentation about the profession and bring examples of his/her work. Be sure to allow students time to ask questions.
Distribute four pieces of drawing paper to each student. On
sheet #1, students will make a plan drawing of their space in which they will
refine their mind-maps or bubble diagrams. Be sure to indicate details such
as locations for painting studios, costume shops, music rooms, or
performance theaters. Label the drawing as architects do in all capital
letters, centered and at the bottom of the paper. Light guidelines in pencil
will help. They do not need to draw to scale, but remind them to think about
the sizes of spaces and their relationships to each other. Sheet #2 is an
exterior elevation drawing (front, back or side). Does the exterior reflect
the interior or mask it? Sheet #3 is a second elevation drawing. For
instance, if Sheet #2 shows a front elevation, Sheet #3 can be the back or
side elevation. The final sheet will be a writing activity. Students may either:
a) write a 500-word paragraph describing the space, b) write a 500-word
letter to a friend about what they learned in designing this space, or c)
write a poem which captures how they feel about the space. They should
word process their text and mount it on Sheet #4 with a glue stick.
To display the drawings and writing, mount all four sheets of paper to a 30" x 40" piece of poster board. Older students will benefit from planning their display, and measuring and marking borders. Students may use dots of glue along the edges or corners of each paper. Ask students to make a heading which names their structure or space, and identifies the architect. Exhibit: To celebrate student learning, exhibit the posters in the school library and invite other classes to visit. Let the student architects stand by their posters and tell interested viewers about them.
ARCHITECTURE--Defining Spaces/Defining Times
Grades 6-12: Remembering and Revealing Built Environments
Language Arts, Social Studies, Visual Arts
Time Required-- Six-lesson unit to be explored during weekly one-hour classes. Each lesson is designed to be flexible to the needs of the individual classroom and may be expanded into longer sessions, or used as a catalyst for a semester-long curriculum. (Note: Be sure to practice studio work prior to class presentations in order to organize preparation time.)
Lesson Overview-- Students will use their existing experiences, memories, and perceptions of space and the built environment as a basis for both academic and personal exploration and discovery.
Learning Objectives-- Knowledge Students will learn about architecture through history, and engage in a process of discovery using architecture as a vehicle through which to gain deeper understanding of themselves and how they interact with the built environment. Students will research historical and contemporary architecture to understand how the built environment both defines and sustains culture, and molds personal identity.
Students will develop vocabulary, understanding of threedimensional space, critical looking strategies, abstract reasoning, and visualization. They will solve problems both visually and verbally, and as individuals and in small groups.
Students will increase awareness about how the process of discovering, creating, and organizing space adds meaning to their life experiences. Understanding how the built environment "houses" their memories will facilitate further consideration of historical, contemporary, and personal architecture.
DAY 1--
Answering the Big Questions We shape our buildings, therefore they shape us.
­Winston Churchill
Vocabulary--As part of an introductory class discussion, define the following list of vocabulary words. The definitions should reflect the students' diverse experiences of and personal connections to architecture. The words, as defined by the students, will used throughout the unit so that meanings will be reinforced and/or will evolve.
Architecture Habitat Scale
Environment Interior Space
Exterior Investigation
Function Perception
Learning Experiences-- Materials Needed: List of vocabulary words, reference materials, handout (see below), pens or pencils,
Discuss: Generate a definition of architecture through class discussion. The following questions may guide your inquiry: What is architecture? How does it create space? What do we do in these created spaces? How does architecture interact with its environment? Be sure to guide the discussion to include the rest of the vocabulary words. Encourage students to reflect on their life experiences in the built environment, and demonstrate to them how they already "read" spaces, e.g., how they navigate a grocery store in contrast to how they navigate their school.
Students will apply the definitions they have generated as a
group to a particular structure, and complete Handout to Lesson #1. The
class may gather reference materials on a visit to the school library, or the
public library, on-line or from home. Also, see references at the end of this
lesson, and in the extended bibliography in the Appendix. Teachers, please
feel free to add to or adapt the Handout to suit your students' needs.
References-- Bingham, N. (2004). Fantasy architecture 1500-2036. London: Hayward Gallery.
Graf, B. & Richold, K. (2004). Buildings that changed the world. New York, NY: Prestel Press. Jackson, J. B. (1994). A sense of place, a sense of time. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Jodidio, P. (2001). Architecture now! Cologne: Taschen. Lehmann, S. & Raspe, C. (2002). Rethinking space, time, architecture: A dialogue between art and architecture. Berlin: Jovis. Mackertich, P. (2001). Architectural expressions: A photographic reassessment of fun in architecture. New York, NY: WileyAcademy. Milo, F. (2001). The story of architecture. New York, NY: Peter Bedrick Press. Moffet, M. (2004). A World History of architecture. Boston, MA: McGrawHill. Wright, F. L. (1994). Frank Lloyd Wright architect. Eds. Terence Riley and Peter Reed. New York, NY: Museum of Modern Art.
Handout Lesson 1
Select one piece of architecture to observe in detail, and complete the Architectural Survey below:
Name of Building:
Date(s) constructed:
Describe the setting for the building in detail.
Building: Describe the exterior of the building, and sketch it. Label parts and identify the construction materials. Comment on its scale or size in relation to its site.
Predict: Based on how you "read" the building, predict what its function is or was. How does the building fulfill its function? Speculate about the interior space of the building and describe it. Use the back of the sheet if needed.
Day 2--
Memory, Identity, and Space Throughout the length of the cathedral the viewer is led on a visual pilgrimage toward interior illumination. -Anne Hammond, Frederick Evans: Selected texts and Bibliographies, 1992
Learning Experiences-- Materials Needed: Writing journal or paper for free write, unlined paper for drawing, pencils, erasers, paper to mount drawing, and final copy of poem.
Remember: Places and the experiences we have in them form our memories. For students to connect personally to architecture, encourage them to explore spaces they have inhabited or still live that have contributed to who they are. Beginning with visualization, have the students remember, and relive in their minds a place which holds positive memories for them, like a home or other comforting place. Invite students to imagine how the place would remember them. How would the house remember the person inside?
Have students free write from the standpoint of the place. The
following probes may guide their writing: Describe the place in detail,
including colors, textures, lighting, materials. What smells do they associate
with it? How does it sound? As a way to stir up memories, students can make
a drawing or sketch of the place (interior or exterior), or include a
photograph. Be sure to allow students ample time to remember, write, and
sketch. Using these memories, descriptions, and images, students will
compose a poem from the point of view of the house's memory. Students will
mount their word-processed poem and sketch or photograph on a piece of
colored construction paper or poster board. They may complete the
assignment as homework.
Exhibit: To celebrate student learning, display poems in the classroom.
References-- Lyndon, D. & Moore, C. W. (1996). Chambers for a memory palace. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Bastea, E. (Ed.). (2004). Memory and architecture. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
Day 3--
The Space in Which We Learn Architecture is inhabited sculpture.
Learning Experiences-- Materials Needed: Paper or art journal for writing/sketching, Handout for Lesson #3, clipboard or notebook for a mobile writing surface, pencils, pens, marker, large flip chart
Discuss: Facilitate a class discussion (fifteen minutes suggested) on the function of school architecture. Begin by brainstorming adjectives students would choose to describe the ideal school. Continue the discussion by addressing the following questions: What activities take place within the school? How can they be organized spatially? What kind of environment is most conducive to learning? (inviting, comfortable, safe, easily navigable, open-minded to new ideas, fostering social interaction, expressive of the value of learning, a stage set for learning) How can architecture contribute to learning? What role does memory play in learning? How does school architecture contain or create memories? Encourage students to reflect on their positive and negative experiences in school buildings, and to propose ideal solutions.
Divide students into small groups of two or three, and
distribute copies of Handout for Lesson #3 and a clipboard. Each team will
complete an investigation about the school building. NOTE: Students will
need to travel through the school to complete the survey, but how they do
this is left to the teacher's discretion.
Present: Each team will present its findings to the larger group, and a class recorder will note each observation on a large flip chart. Summarize student findings.
Handout Lesson 3 Your school is an example of architecture. Five days a week, thirty-six weeks a year, you inhabit its spaces, and walk through its halls. But have you ever really looked at it or thought about how the space works? This handout invites you to observe and analyze the interior and the exterior of your school. What is the function of school architecture? Express your ideals. Describe your school's exterior, including colors, textures, forms, building materials, signage, and surrounding landscape. Does your school's exterior succeed in fulfilling its function as you described it above? Explain.
Describe a classroom in your school, including colors, shapes, scale (size in relation to a human being), materials, entry, and light sources. When you are in this classroom, how do you feel? Analyze the hallways, considering wall, floor, and ceiling colors, width, lighting, materials, and decoration. Do you feel comfortable inside your school? Why or why not? Do you feel comfortable and safe in your school? Why or why not? Does your school's interior succeed in fulfilling its function as you described it above? Explain. How does it contribute to or inhibit learning?
Day 4--
Buildings of Old The day and hour in a man's life upon which he first obtains a view of the Pyramids, is a time to date from for many a year to come; he is approaching, as it were, the presence of an immortality which has mingled vaguely with his thoughts from very childhood, and has been to him unconsciously an essential and beautiful form, and the most majestic mystery ever created by man. --Francis Frith, as quoted in Alain D'Hooghe and Marie-Cecile Bruwier, The Great Pyramids of Giza, 1996.
Cathedral Pyramid
Coliseum Temple
Learning Experiences-- Materials Needed: 4" x 6" in. note cards, collage materials, glue or gluesticks, scissors, pencils, writing journal or writing paper, reference materials of ancient (pyramids, Egyptian, Greek and Roman temples, Roman coliseum) and medieval (castles and cathedrals) architecture, Architecture-- Defining Spaces/Defining Times gallery guides
Research: Each student will choose an example of ancient or medieval architecture to research. See the Bibliography in the Appendix for information and images; and, print out images from the Internet. With a partner, ask students to discuss the functions of their architecture, who used it and why, how was it built, and by whom, etc. What other questions can they ask? Now, students will assume the role of someone who used the building or took part in its construction. Ask them to imagine how it might feel to be in this space by traveling room to room in their mind.
Students will draw and collage one side of the 4" x 6" postcard
with images of their building in its environment. They should include views
from a distance, close-ups of the faзade, and interiors. Allow ample time for
creativity to unfold. On the back, students will write to themselves from the
point of view of a person who interacted with the building during its time
period, e.g., the postcard could come from a pharaoh recently entombed in a
pyramid, or the sculptor who carved the gargoyles on the cathedral.
Students should write their rough drafts in their writing journals or on
paper, and copy the final draft on the postcard.
Display: Hang postcards from the classroom ceiling on string so both sides can be seen. References-- See Appendix for numerous suggestions.
DAY 5--
The big question: What building are you? Ah, to build, to build! That is the noblest of all the arts. --Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Learning Experiences-- Materials Needed: Paper for writing, pencils, pens, newsprint, watercolor paper, oil pastels, watercolors, brushes, water containers, paper towels, newspapers to protect their work surfaces, collage materials, colored papers and glue. Optional: book binding materials such as a three-hole punch and brass fasteners, or book rings.
Now that students have explored architecture historically and
in their own lives, they will choose what kind of building they are and write
an Architectural Autobiography. The architecture should reflect their
personalities, interests, and values. Possibilities include: tree house, hogan,
earthship made of recycled materials, skyscraper, hobbit cottage, rabbit
warren, castle, cabana, or boathouse. The following questions will guide the
students in their writing: What kind of architecture are you? With what
materials are you made? Where in the world will you be and why? Describe
your immediate environment. Who would come to your building and what
would they do there? Most importantly, how does this built environment
reflect who you are? Are you a castle because you are defensive? Are you a
tree house because you like to be in nature?
After students have a semi-final draft of their writing, they
will create an architectural self-portrait. First, ask students to draw four
thumbnail sketches of themselves on newsprint. Create the final image on
watercolor paper. Students may use oil pastels, watercolors, and collage in
this culminating project.
Display: Let students edit and word process their Architectural Autobiography and mount it on drawing paper. Mount Architectural Selfportrait on a similar piece of drawing paper, three-hole punch sheets so that they face each other and assemble into a book. Optional: Copy student work, bind it professionally. Students may create a dynamic title for the book and an eye-catching cover design.
References-- Rasmussen, S. E. (1964). Experiencing architecture. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press. Wilson, F. (1989). What it feels like to be a building. Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press, 1989.
DAY 6--
Reflection on Expression
Architecture is basically a container of something. I hope they will enjoy
not so much the teacup, but the tea.
--Yoshio Taniguchi
Vocabulary-- Revisit the vocabulary of previous lessons and invite students to share how their understanding of the words has changed based on these lessons.
Learning Experiences-- Materials needed: Writing journals or paper for writing, writing utensils, space for the group to gather for reflective conversations, camera.
Peer Review:
First, students should collect all of their work from this
unit. Next, divide students into small groups of four-five. Students will take
turns presenting their work to the group, being audience, as well as taking
photographs of the presentations. Presentations should address the
following: a) What I learned about architecture;
b) What I learned to do; and
c) What I learned about myself.
Audience members may take notes, ask questions, and make comments about student work. Students are encouraged to grade their own work and write a short paragraph of justification.
Discussion: To provide closure for this unit, choose one of the following quotations for a classroom seminar discussion:
a) "Develop your senses--especially learn how to see. Realize that everything connects to everything else." --Leonardo da Vinci
b) "Architecture is a cultural act and the material theater
of human activity."
--Spiro Kostof
c) "Architecture is basically a container of something. I hope they will enjoy not so much the teacup, but the tea." --Yoshio Taniguchi
ARCHITECTURE GLOSSARY ARCH ('дrch) n. a curved part of a structure that is over an opening and serves as a support; an architectural element shaped like an upside down U ARCHITECT (дr k -t kt ) n. a person who designs built spaces and supervises the building of the spaces
ARCHITECTURE (дr k -t k ch r) n. the integration of aesthetics, functions,
space, and materials to create a building; or v. the
of designing a building
BALANCE (b l ns) n. a principle of design; an artistically pleasing integration of elements (color, line, etc.) in order to attain equilibrium; symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial are three types of balance
BLUEPRINT (bl pr nt ) n. technical drawings of an architect's plans, usually white lines on a blue background
BRIDGE ('brij)
n. a structure built to span a river or space so that people, cars, trains can cross from one side to the other
CASTLE (k s l)
n. a large fortified building or group of buildings with thick walls, usually dominating the surrounding country, large ornate building similar to or resembling a fortified stronghold
CATHEDRAL (k -th dr l) n. A large, important church, massive, block-like, domed, and heavily vaulted structures based on the traditional Basilica form, reflecting the style dominant in Europe from c.1050 to c.1200
CLIENT (kl nt) n. a person who pays for professional advice or services
COLUMN ((k l m)) n. a supporting pillar consisting of a shaft, a capital, and a base
COMMISSION (k -m sh n) n. people officially authorized to perform certain duties or functions
COMMUNITY (k -my n -t ) n. a group of living things that belong to one or more species, interact ecologically, and are located in one place
CONSTRUCTION (k n-str k sh n) n. the art, trade, or work of building
CULTURE (k l ch r) n. the characteristic features of everyday life shared by people in a particular place or time DEPTH (d pth) n. distance from top to bottom or from front to back
DESIGN (d -z n ) n. a preliminary sketch, model, or plan; v. to plan a building, product, or structure
DRAWING ('dro(-)i[ng]) n. the art or technique of representing an object or outlining a figure, plan, or sketch by means of lines
DOME ('dOm)
n. a large rounded roof or ceiling shaped like half of a sphere
ELEVATION VIEW ( l -v sh n) technical drawing of a vertical side of a building; e.g. front elevation, side elevation
ENVIRONMENT ( n-v r n-m nt, -v rn-) n. the circumstances or conditions that surround one; surroundings, the totality of circumstances surrounding an organism or group of organisms
EXTERIOR ( k-stоr - r) adj. a part or a surface that is outside, outer, external
FAЗADE (f -sдd ) n. the face or front of a building
FLOOR PLAN ('flOr 'plan) n. a scale diagram of a room or building drawn as if seen from above
FORM ('form)
n. the shape and structure of an object
FUNCTION (f ngk sh n) n. the action for which a person or thing is particularly fitted, assigned duty, or activity
GREEK TEMPLE ('grEk t m p l) n. monumental building; regional style of Greek architecture solidified into what are now the classical orders of Greek architecture: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
HABITAT (h b -t t ) n. the place or type of place where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives or grows HOGAN ('hO-"gдn) n. a one-room Navajo structure traditionally built with the entrance facing east, used as a dwelling or for ceremonial purposes; early hogans were made of earthcovered poles, with later models often built of logs, stones, and other materials
INTERIOR ( n-tоr - r) adj. of, relating to, or located on the inside; inner, internal portion or area INVESTIGATION ( n-v s t -g sh n) n. the act or process of observation or study by close examination and systematic inquiry LANDSCAPE (l nd sk p ) n. a portion of territory that can be viewed at one time from one place
MASS (m s)
n. element of design; three-dimensional shape or structure
MOBILE HOME ('mO-bil 'hOm) n. a large house trailer that that can be connected to utilities and can be parked in one place and can be used as permanent housing
MODEL (m d l)
n. a small but proportionately accurate copy of something; v. to plan or shape after a pattern
MOSQUE ('mдsk) n. a Muslim place of worship
ORGANIC (or-'ga-nik) adj. forming an important part of a whole
PERCEPTION (p r-s p sh n) n. awareness of surrounding objects, conditions, or forces through sensation; capacity for understanding
PERSPECTIVE (pr-sp k t v) n. special relationships of objects as they appear to the eye, objects in respect to their relative distance and positions
PLACE ('plAs)
n. an area with definite or indefinite boundaries; a physical environment
PLAN VIEW ('plan 'vyь) n. in architecture, a technical drawing which delineates the arrangement of the building's parts; a horizontal section
PLATFORM ('plat-"form) n. a level, usually raised surface
PROCESS ('prд-"ses) n. a series of actions, changes, or functions bringing about a result, series of operations performed in the making or treatment of a product
PROFESSION (pr -'fe-sh n) n. an occupation or career
PUEBLO ('pwe-(")blO) n. a permanent community of any of the indigenous Pueblo peoples of New Mexico, typically consisting of contiguous, flat-roofed, and multi-level adobe or stone dwellings of terraced design clustered around a central plaza
SCALE (sk l)
n. the mathematical relationship between a technical drawing and a finished product
SCALE MODEL ('spAs 'mд-d l) n. replication of a three-dimensional object (bridge, building, car) according to an established scale
SKYSCRAPER ('skI-"skrA-p r) n. a tall building with many stories, usually higher than 150 metres (500 feet); most skyscrapers serve as office buildings or hotels
SPACE (sp s)
n. an element of design; an area in one, two, or three dimensions in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction
PYRAMID (p r -m d) n. an ancient massive structure found especially in Egypt having a square ground plan, outside walls in the form of four triangles that meet in a point at the top, and inner burial chambers
SPIRE ('spIr)
n. a pointed roof especially of a tower
VANTAGE POINT ('van-tij 'point) n. a position that affords a broad overall view or perspective, as of a place or situation
APPENDIX 2. Bibliography General Architecture Bachelard, G. (1969). The poetics of space. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Bastea, E. (2004). Memory and architecture. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. Bingham, N. (2004). Fantasy architecture 1500-2036. London: Hayward Gallery in association with the Royal Institute of British Architects. Ching, F. (1996). A visual dictionary of architecture. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing. . Jackson, J. B. (1994). A sense of place, a sense of time. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Lyndon, D. & Moore, C.W. (1996). Chambers for a memory palace. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Moffet, M. (2004). A world history of architecture. Boston, MA: McGrawHill. Norberg-Schulz, C. (1981). Meaning in western architecture. New York, NY: Rizzoli. Salvadori, M. (1980). Why buildings stand up: The strength of architecture. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co. Scully, V. (1991). Architecture: The natural, the manmade. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press. Egyptian Architecture Clarke, Somers & Engelbach. (1990). Ancient Egyptian construction and architecture. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
Lloyd, S. & Muller, H.W. (1980). Ancient architecture. New York, NY: Rizzoli. Macaulay, D. (1975). Pyramid. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Multimedia Aliki. (1980). Mummies made in Egypt. READING RAINBOW, #54. (video) Macaulay, D. (1988) Pyramid. Washington, D.C.: Unicorn Projects, Inc.(video) Greek Architecture Boardman, J. (1985). The Parthenon and its sculptures. Austin: The University of Texas Press. Bruno, V. J. (1974). The Parthenon. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Otto-Diniz, S. (1995). A Greek odyssey: Classical temple architecture. Albuquerque, NM: Art in the School, Inc. Porter, E. (1980). The Greek world. New York: E.P. Dutton. Robinson, C. A., Jr. (1984). Ancient Greece: A first book. New York: Franklin Watts. Scully, V. (1962). The Earth, the temple and the Gods: Greek sacred architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press. Unstead, R.J. (1979). See inside an ancient Greek town. New York: Warwick Press. Woodford, S. (1983). The Parthenon. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications. Roman Architecture Macaulay, D. (1974). City: A story of Roman planning and construction. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Packer, J. E. (1997). The forum of Trajan in Rome: A study of the monuments. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Stierlin, H. (2002). The Roman empire. New York: Taschen. Medieval Castles and Cathedrals Atarasso, F. (1993). The English castle. London: Cassel Publishing. Jones, M. (1991). Knights and castles: How it was. London: B. T. Batsford. Macaulay, D. (1973). Cathedral: The story of its construction.. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Macaulay, D. (1977). Castle. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. MacDonald, F. (1990). A medieval castle. New York: Peter Bedrick Books Otto-Diniz, S. (1994). Quest for the medieval castle. Albuquerque, NM: Art in the School, Inc. Parry, S. (2001). Great Gothic cathedrals of France. New York: Viking Studio. Petty, K. (1985). Build your own castle. New York: Franklin Watts. Simpson, O. von. (1974). The Gothic cathedral: Origins of Gothic architecture and the medieval concept of order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Smith, B. (1988). Castles. New York: Franklin Watts. Wilson, C. (1990). The Gothic cathedral: The architecture of the great church, 1130-1530. New York: Thames & Hudson. Wright, R. (1991). Castles: Facts, things to make, activities. New York: Franklin Watts. Multimedia LeComte, D. (2001). The great cathedral at Amiens. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
Macaulay, D. (1983). Castle. Washington, D.C.: Unicorn Projects, Inc. Macaulay, D. (1981). Cathedral. Washington, D.C.: Unicorn Projects, Inc. Islamic Architecture Clйvenot D. (2000). Splendors of Islam: Architecture, decoration and design. New York, NY: Vendome Press. Macaulay, David. (2003). Mosque. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Native American Buff, M. & Buff, C. (1956). Hah-Nee of the Cliff Dwellers. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Elting, M. & Folsom, M. (1963). The secret story of Pueblo Bonito. New York, NY: Harvey House, Inc. Garaway, M. (1986). The old hogan. Cortez, CO: Mesa Verde Press. Nabakov, P. (1988). Native American architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Yue, C. & Yue, D. (1988).The igloo. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Yue, C. & Yue, D. (1986). The pueblo. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Yue, C. & Yue, D. (1986).The tipi: a center of Native American life. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Yue, C. & Yue, D. (2000). The wigwam and the longhouse. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Contemporary Architecture Brown, D. (1992). How things were built. New York, NY: Random House. D'Alelio, J. (1989). I know that building. Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press.
Hoberman, M. A. (1982). A house is a house for me. New York, NY: Viking. Isaacson, P. M. (1988). Round buildings, square buildings, and buildings that wiggle like a fish. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Korab, B. (1985). Archabet: An architectural alphabet. Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press. Lehmann, S. & Raspe, C. (2002). Rethinking space, time, architecture: A dialogue between art and architecture. Berlin: Jovis. Mackertich, P. (2001). Architectural expressions: A photographic reassessment of fun in architecture. New York, NY: Wiley-Academy. Mead, Christopher Curtis. (1999). The architecture of Bart Prince: A pragmatics of place. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co. Mendoza, G. (1981). Need a house? Call Ms. Mouse! New York, NY: Grosset & Dunlap. Nelson, P. (1994). Tree houses: The art and craft of living out on a limb. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. Otto-Diniz, S. (1996). Starships, earthships and multi-family homes: An architecture for the future. Albuquerque, NM: Art in the School, Inc. Paschich, E. & Hendricks, P. (1995). The tire house book. Santa Fe: Sunstone Press. Pearson, D. (2001). Tree houses. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing Company. Reynolds, M. E. (1990). Earthship. Taos, NM: Solar Survival Architecture. Sandak, C. (1984). Skyscraper. New York, NY: Franklin Watts. Schaewen, D. (1999). Fantasy worlds. London: Taschen.
Steen, A., Steen, B., & Bainbridge, B. (1994). The straw bale house. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing Company. Thorne-Thomsen, K. (1994). Frank Lloyd Wright for kids. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press. Weiss, H. (1979). Model buildings and how to make them. New York, NY: Thomas Crowell. Wilson, F. (1989). What it feels like to be a building. Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press. Winters, N. (1986). Architecture is elementary. Salt Lake City, UT: Gibbs M. Smith. Wright, Frank Lloyd. (1994). Frank Lloyd Wright Architect. New York, NY: Museum of Modern Art. Multimedia Curtis, C. (1996). Earthships: Independent vessels to sail on the seas of tomorrow. Taos, NM: Solar Survival Architecture. Grigor, M. (1983). The architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright. Chicago, IL: Home Vision. Priess, B. (1994). The ultimate Frank Lloyd Wright: America's architect. New York, NY: Byron Preiss Multimedia Co., Inc. Mead, C. C. (1984). Bart Prince. Albuquerque, NM: KNME-TV. Robbins, J. (1986). Antoine Predock. Albuquerque, NM: KNME-TV. Toker, S. (1990). The house on the waterfall: The story of Frank Lloyd Wright's masterpiece. Pittsburgh, PA: WQED. Weaver, D. (1990). Dennis Weaver's earthship. Malibu, CA: Survival Habitat.
APPENDIX 3. VISUAL ARTS STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS New Mexico public education Department Content Standards and Benchmarks
Standard 1
Learn and develop the essential skills and technical demands
unique to the visual arts.
Participate in the process of making art to understand the elements
of art: line, shape, form, color, and texture.
Identify and/or make art using different materials.
Identify the elements of design (line, color, shape, texture,
pattern, space, value) as found in the environment and in art.
Demonstrate and explain steps used to create art (idea
gathering, sketches, diagrams, and additions to
Standard 2 Use visual arts to express ideas.
Explore and understand works of art based on self, family,
community, and the world.
Identify similarities and differences in the ideas, customs,
and art of others.
Participate in a variety of reflective processes (individual
tasks, group discussions, journaling, portfolio, and display).
Know and use art to interpret personal ideas, feelings, and
experiences through visual form.
Complete, discuss and display one's own original works of art.
Standard 3
Integrate understanding of visual and performing arts by
seeking connections and parallels among arts disciplines as well
as all other content areas.
Identify and apply connections between the visual arts and other
disciplines in the local curriculum.
Use the same piece of original art to produce both a creative
writing piece and an informative writing piece.
Compare the ways in which repetition, contrast, balance,
symmetry, and pattern occur in content areas other than art.
Talk about, practice, or show understanding of the
connection between visual art and the other content areas.
Standard 4
Demonstrate an understanding of the dynamics of the
creative process.
Understand that works of art come from diverse personal and
cultural experiences, and inspirations.
Discuss instances in which history and culture affected
specific public art in the local community.
Create and discuss works of art that express personal ideas,
feelings, interests, and values.
Develop appropriate methods of reflection and evaluation of art
Use correct vocabulary to describe and discuss works of art.
Describe at least two pieces of art in terms of similarities
and differences of color, subject matter, personal reaction,
and historical setting.
Show and tell what is meant by art and interpret meaning in
others' artwork.
Participate in a variety of reflective process (such as
individual tasks, group discussions, journaling, portfolio. and
Standard 5
Observe, discuss, analyze, and make critical judgments about
artistic works.
Understand how personal experiences influence the development of
specific artworks.
Discuss how the use of the elements of art can express
moods and feelings in one's own art and in the work of others.
Describe their own art and the work of others.
Understand that there are different responses to specific artworks
and respect those differences.
Discuss the various possible reasons for selecting a
particular media to convey messages in a piece of art.
Standard 6
Show increased awareness of diverse peoples and cultures
through visual arts.
Identify specific works of art as belonging to particular cultures,
times, and places.
Determine the function of various works of art and artifacts
within a specific culture.
Describe art from one's own culture and the culture of
Standard 7 Demonstrate knowledge about how technology and invention
have historically influenced artists and offered new
possibilities for expression.
Demonstrate an understanding of specific inventions that have
influenced change in artists' ability to create works of art.
Standard 8
Participate in the activities of cultural institutions.
Access museum, gallery, and public settings to increase awareness of
Attend a community art exhibit and describe the theme of
the exhibit and at least one piece of art.
APPENDIX 4. LANGUAGE ARTS STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS New Mexico Public Education Department Content Standards and Benchmarks
Standard I: Benchmark I-A Grades K-4 Benchmark I-A Grades 5-8 Benchmark I-A Grades 9-12
Students will apply strategies and skills to comprehend information that is read, heard, and viewed. Listen to, read, react to, and retell information. Performance Standards 1. Retell, reenact, or dramatize stories or parts of stories, including personal events. 2. Increase vocabulary through reading, listening, and interacting. 3. Interact with text (artwork) before, during, and after reading, listening or viewing by: - setting a purpose - making predictions asking questions - making connections - using story structure and text organization to comprehend Listen to, read, react to, and interpret information. Performance Standards 1. Viewing actively and critically by: - delving deeper into the topic - making inferences and drawing conclusions - making judgments 2. Explore expressive materials that are read, heard or viewed 3. Interpret how personal circumstances and background shape interaction. 4. Narrate an account that creates a coherent organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context and that orients and engages the reader. Listen to, read, react to, and analyze information. Performance Standards 1. Narrate experiences that offer: - scenes and incidents located effectively in time and place - a sense of narrator's personal voice - impressions of being in a setting and a sense of engagement in the events occurring
Benchmark I-C Grades K-4 Benchmark I-C Grades 5-8 Benchmark I-C Grades 9-12 Benchmark I-D Standard II: Benchmark II-B Grades K-4 Benchmark II-B
2. Produce reminiscences (about a person, event, object, place, animal) that engage the audience. 3. Respond reflectively to written and visual texts. 4. Demonstrate increasing insight and reflection to print and nonprint text through personal expression and reflection. Demonstrate critical thinking skills to comprehend written, spoken, and visual information. Performance Standards 1. Understand oral and graphic instructions. 2. Relate experiences and observations. 3. Sequence a story to describe the beginning, middle, and end. 4. Differentiate between non-fiction and fiction stories. 5. Analyze how language and visuals bring characters to life, enhance plot development, and produce a response. Apply critical thinking skills to analyze information. Performance Standards 1. Evaluate the usefulness and quality of information and ideas based on purpose, experiences, text. 2. Develop and apply appropriate criteria to evaluate the quality of communication by: - drawing conclusions based on evidence, reasons, and relevant information - considering the implications, consequences, or impact of those conclusions 3. Use the problem solving process to refine understanding. Demonstrate critical thinking skills to evaluate information and solve problems. Performance Standards 1. Represent abstract information as explicit mental pictures. 2. Critically interpret and evaluate experiences and ideas. Apply knowledge of reading process to evaluate print, non-print, and technology-based information. Students will communicate effectively through speaking and writing. Apply language conventions to communicate. Performance Standards 1. Share information and ideas using complete sentences. 2. Use complete sentences to write simple text. Apply language conventions to communicate.
Grades 5-8 Benchmark II-C Grades K-4 Benchmark II-C Grades 5-8 Benchmark II-C Grades 9-12 Standard III: Benchmark III-A Grades K-4
Performance Standards 1. Choose language that is precise, engaging, and well suited to the topic and audience in a variety of oral presentations. 2. Use figurative language and varying speech patterns to convey meaning. Demonstrate competence in the skills and strategies of the writing process. Performance Standards 1. Dictate a story based on one's own experience with a beginning, middle, and an end. 2. Compose a variety of products (e.g., short stories, letters, simple poems, descriptions). 3. Write descriptions of familiar persons, places, or objects. 4. Compose a variety of fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and drama selections using self-selected topics and multimedia forms. 5. Use planning strategies that generate topics and organize ideas (e.g., brainstorming, mapping, webbing, reading, discussion). Demonstrate competence in the skills and strategies of the writing process. Performance Standards 1. Express individual perspectives in written response to personal, social, cultural, and historical issues. Demonstrate competence in the skills and strategies of the writing process to inform and persuade. Performance Standards 1. Use jargon and/or lingo appropriate for a specific audience. 2. Write to stimulate the emotions of the reader. 3. Use and apply grammatical, metaphorical, or rhetorical devices to inform and persuade others. Students will communicate effectively through speaking and writing. Use language, literature, and media to gain and demonstrate awareness of cultures around the world. Performance Standards 1. Relate characters and events to their own life experiences. 2. Use language and media to make connections between own experiences and the experiences of others. 3. Create and participate in responses to a variety of literature and media.
Benchmark III-A Grades 5-8 Benchmark III-A Grades 9-12
Use language, literature, and media to understand various social and cultural perspectives. Performance Standards 1. Identify social/cultural values and beliefs reflected in literature and media. 2. Identify archetypal patterns and symbols depicted through literature and media of various cultures. 3. Identify and analyze recurring themes. 4. Analyze themes and central ideas in literature and media in relation to personal issues and experiences. 5. Analyze a range of responses to (visual arts) works and determine the extent to which the visual arts characteristics of a society/culture shaped those responses. 6. Use literature and media to reflect on learning experiences by: - evaluating personal perspectives and how they are influenced by society, cultural differences, and historical issues - appraising learning as change in perspective - evaluating personal circumstances and background that shape interaction with literature and media 7. Analyze a work of (visual art) showing how it reflects the heritage, traditions, attitudes, and beliefs of its artist. Use language, literature, and media to understand the role of the individual as a member of many cultures. Performance Standards 1. Compare words and symbols that express a universal theme and reflect upon personal perspective and response. 2. Describe the significance of selected works on societies and cultures. 3. Demonstrate how concepts and perspectives depicted in literature and media relate to the life experiences of the student.
New Mexico Public Education Department Content Standards and Benchmarks
Standard I: Benchmark I-C Grades 5-9 Benchmark I-C Grades 9-12 Benchmark I-D Grades K-4 Benchmark I-D Grades 5-9 Benchmark I-D Grades 9-12
Students will identify people and events to analyze significant patterns, relationships, themes, ideas and beliefs in history in order to understand the complexity of the human experience. Compare and contrast major historical eras, events, and figures from ancient civilizations to the Age of Exploration. Performance Standards 1. Describe the characteristics of early societies or ancient civilizations by delving deeper into ancient civilizations by analyzing ancient architecture 5. Compare and contrast characteristics of Ancient Greece and Rome 6. Compare and contrast characteristics of Medieval Europe Analyze and interpret the major eras in world history from the Age of Enlightenment to the present to develop an understanding of the complexity of human experience. Performance Standards 1. Describe and explain how the Renaissance and Reformation influenced art in Europe Understand time passage and chronology. Performance Standards 1. Understand chronology of time and how Social Scientists provide information about people of the past Research historical events and people from a variety of perspectives. Performance Standards 1. Gather, organize and interpret information from primary and secondary sources of a variety of media. 2. Identify different points of view about an issue or topic. 3. Use the problem solving process to refine understanding. Use critical thinking skills to understand and communicate perspectives of individuals, groups and societies from multiple contexts. Performance Standards 2. Critically interpret and evaluate experiences, (artwork), and ideas. 3. Describe primary and secondary sources and their uses in research.
Standard II: Benchmark II-B Grades K-4 Benchmark II-B Grades 5-8 Benchmark II-B Grades 9-12 Benchmark II-C Grades K-4 Benchmark II-C
4. Explain how to use a variety of historical methods and documents to interpret and understand social issues. 6. Interpret events and issues based upon the historical, economic, political, and geographic context of the participants. Students understand how physical, natural, and cultural processes influence where people live, the ways in which people live, and how societies interact with one another and their environments. Distinguish between natural and human characteristics of place and use this knowledge to define regions and their relationships with other regions. Performance Standards 1. Describe how humans shape the appearance of places 2. Identify ways in which different individuals and groups of people view and relate to places. Explain the physical and human characteristics of places and use this knowledge to define regions and change. Performance Standards 1. Explain how places change due to human activity and technology, using global examples. 2. Describe how individual and cultural characteristics affect perceptions of locales and change. Analyze natural and man-made characteristics of worldwide locales; describe regions, their interrelationships, and patterns of change. Performance Standards 1. Analyze how the character and meaning of a place is related to its economic, social, and cultural characteristics. 4. Analyze and evaluate why places and regions are important to human identity. Be familiar with aspects of human behavior and man-made and natural environments in order to recognize their impact on the past and present. Performance Standards 1. Identify ways in which people have modified their environments and how they change over time. Understand how human behavior impacts man-made and natural environments, recognizes past and present results, and predicts potential change.
Grades 5-8
Performance Standards 1. Compare and contrast influences of man-made and natural environments upon ancient civilizations.

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