Descriptors list for apple (Malus, R Watkins, RA Smith

Tags: descriptor, Granny Smith, Genetic Resources, Orange Pippin, Golden Delicious, Intermediate, International Board, Belle de Boskoop, descriptors, collection, Egremont Russet, Plant Gene, Smith CEC Secretariat, evaluation data, Programme Committee, CEC rue de la Loi, IBPGR SECRETARIAT, USA National Plant Germplasm System, Rome Beauty, Tydeman's Early Worcester, Intermediate Cox's Orange Pippin, Rome, Jonagold Glockenapfel Rome Beauty, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Gene Resources R. Loisellle, PI, genebank, ACCESSION DATA, SITE SPECIFIC, United States Plant Inventory, Plant Tissues, accession number, Genetic Research Scheme, Royal Horticultural Society, identification number, Agricultural Research, Consultative Group, Executive Secretariat, DISEASE RESISTANCE, Plant Genetic Resources, EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES, the Commission
Content: 2
3 16/10/2002 INTERNATIONAL BOARD FOR PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES COMMISSION OF European Communities: COMMITTEE ON DISEASE RESISTANCE BREEDING AND USE OF GENEBANKS DESCRIPTOR LIST FOR APPLE (MALUS) Editors: R. Watkins R.A. Smith CEC Secretariat, Brussels, 1982 IBPGR SECRETARIAT, Rome, 1982 Reprinted December 1997
4 Published for the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Information Market & Innovation, Luxembourg and for the IBPGR, Rome LEGAL NOTICE Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information. ISBN 92-9043-101-6 C 1982: ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels and Luxembourg; and International Board of Plant Genetic Resources, Rome
5 In 1974 the Council of Ministers of the European Communities established a Standing Committee on Agricultural Research to advise the Commission on a programme of Agricultural Research. The first programme started in 1975, while a second programme was launched in 1979 for the five year period 1979-1983. The Standing Committee on Agricultural Research has advised the Commission on both programmes. Within this framework a programme on resistance breeding and use of genebanks has been set-up as one of 10 subjects. This programme (with a limited budget) is managed by a programme committee in which the ten member countries are represented by their nominees, one per country. The programme committee started work in 1978 by selecting priorities for crops and subjects. Several working groups have been set-up to prepare descriptor lists as a basis for future work. CEC-Programme Committee on Disease Resistance Breeding and Use of Genebanks Second Programme on Agricultural Research of the CEC rue de la Loi 200 1040 Brussels, Belgium
6 The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) is an autonomous, international, scientific organization under the aegis of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The IBPGR, which was established by the CSIAR in 1974, is composed of its Chairman and 15 members; its Executive Secretariat is provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UNITED NATIONS. The basic function of the IBPGR, as defined by the Consultative Group, is to promote an international network of genetic resources contras to further the collection, conservations documentations evaluation and use of plant germplasm and thereby contribute to raising the standard of living and welfare of people throughout the world. The Consultative Group mobilizes financial support from its members to meet the budgetary requirements of the Board. IBPGR Executive Secretariat Crop Genetic Resources Centre Plant Production and Protection Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Via delle Terme di Caracalla 00100 Rome, Italy
7 CONTENTS
PREFACE DESCRIPTOR LIST FOR APPLE Passport data Accession data collection data Characterization/preliminary data Further characterization/evaluation data APPENDIX I SUMMARY OF BASIC CEC APPLE DESCRIPTORS APPENDIX II LIST OF THOSE CONSULTED
Page 6 7 9 9 13 16 18 41 43
8 PREFACE The apple descriptor list was initiated and developed with full support from the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Programme Committee for Plant Disease Resistance Breeding and the Use of Genebanks - Apple Genetic Resources Scheme by R. Watkins (Apple Co-ordinator) in collaboration with R.A. Smith following consultation involving representatives of the USA National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), the Canadian Plant Gene Resources Program, M. Iizuka for Japan, and the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR). The UPOV descriptor list for apples was studied and common systems were used where possible. This descriptor list has been prepared to the IBPGR standard format following advice on descriptors and descriptor states from the crop experts throughout the world (see Appendix I). The IBPGR encourages the collection of data on the first four categories of this list: 1. Accession; 2. Collection; 3. and 4. Characterization and preliminary evaluation. The IBPGR endorses the information in categories 1-4 as the minimum that ideally should be available for any one accession. Other descriptors are given in categories 5 onwards that will enable the simple encoding of further characterization and evaluation data and which can serve as examples for the creation of additional descriptors in the IBPGR form by any user. Although the suggested coding should not be regarded as the definitive scheme, this format has the full backing of the IBPGR and is promoted worldwide. The descriptor list given here provides an international format and thereby produces a universally understood 'language' for all plant genetic resources data. The adoption of this scheme for all data encoding, or at least the production of a transformation method to convert other schemes to the IBPGR format, will produce a rapid, reliable and efficient means for information storage, retrieval and communication. This will greatly assist the utilization of germplasm throughout the international plant genetic resources network. It is recommended, therefore, that information should be produced by closely following this descriptor list with regard to: ordering and numbering descriptors; using the descriptors specified; and using the descriptor states recommended. Errors and omissions are the responsibility of the editors. Any suggestions for modifications will be welcomed by the IBPGR Secretariat, Rome, and by editors, especially new descriptors. H.H. van der Borg, Chairman Genebank Programme Committee, CEC G. Jenkins, Chairman, Fruit Genetic Resources Expert Group, CEC J. Dehandtschutter, Secretary, Research Programme on Genebanks, CEC J.T. Williams, Executive Secretary, IBPGR D.H. van Sloten, Horticultural Crops, IBPGR S.L.A. Hobbs, Information Officer, IBPGR A.R. Bertrand, Chairman, National.Plant Genetic Resources Board, USA W.H. Foote, Chairman, National Plant Germplasm Committee, USA Q. Jones, Assistant to Deputy Administrator (Germplasm),USDA, USA C.J. Bishop, Chairman, Canada Expert Committee Plant Gene Resources R. Loisellle, Central Office, Plant Gene, Resources of Canada November 1982
9 DESCRIPTOR LIST FOR APPLE
The IBPGR now uses the following definitions in genetic resources documentation:
i)
passport data (accession identifiers and information recorded by collectors);
ii) characterization (consists of recording those characters which are highly heritable, can be easily seen by the eye and are expressed in all environments);
iii) preliminary evaluation (consists of recording a limited number of additional traits thought desirable by a consensus of users of the particular crop)
Characterization and preliminary evaluation will normally be the responsibility of the curators, while further characterization and evaluation should normally be carried out by the plant breeder. Data from further evaluation should be fed back to the crop co-ordinator who will maintain a data file.
The internationally accepted standards for the scoring or coding of descriptor states should be followed as indicated below:
a) measurements are made in metric units; b) many descriptors, which are continuously variable, are recorded on a 1-9 scale. The authors of this list have sometimes described only a selection of the states, e.g. 3, 5 and 7 for such descriptors. Where this has occurred the full range of codes is available for use by extension of the codes given or by interpolation between them - e.g. in 8 (Pest and disease susceptibility) 1 = extremely low susceptibility and 8 = high to extremely high susceptibility; c) presence/absence characters are scored as + (present) and 0 (absent); d) for descriptors which are not generally uniform throughout the accession (e.g. mixed collection, genetic segregation) mean and standard deviation could be reported where the descriptor is continuous or mean and `x'where the descriptor is discontinuous; e) when the descriptor is inapplicable, `0' is used as the descriptor value. For example, if an accession does not form flowers, a 10'would be scored for the following descriptor.
Flower colour
1
White
2
Yellow
3
Red
4
Purple
10
f)
blanks are used for information not yet available;
g) standard colour charts e.g. Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart Methuen Handbook of Colour, Munsell Color Charts for Plant Tissues are strongly recommended for all ungraded colour characters. The precise chart used should be specified in the NOTES descriptor, 11.
For the observations on the fruit, 10 typical fruits should be selected out of a minimum of 20 from two trees. The terminal fruits should be excluded. The fruits should be examined at peak maturity if necessary, after storage in air at the optimum commercial temperature.
11 PASSPORT 1. ACCESSION DATA INTRODUCTORY 1.1 ACCESSION NUMBER (at site) A site may choose to use a Genetic Research Scheme (GRS) ACCESSION NUMBER (see 1.4) as the only unique identifer; letters should occur before the number to identify the genebank or national system (e.g. PI indicates an accession within the USA system, and EC indicates an accession within the CEC Fruit Genetic Resources Scheme). If, however, a SITE ACCESSION NUMBER is also used, this number serves as a unique identifier for an accession at a given site and is assigned by the curator of a particular genebank site when an accession is entered into the site genebank. It must not be re-used even if the accession is lost 1.2 DONOR NAME (= Source of acquisition) The name and address of the person or institute responsible for donating the germplasm to the genebank collection at the site (see 1.13) at which the plants are held 1.3 DONOR IDENTIFICATION NUMBER The number (or name) assigned by the person or institute above (1.2) donating the accession to the site specified at 1.13 1.4 OTHER NUMBERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ACCESSION (see also 1.17 and 2.1) Any other identification number known to exist in other collections for this accession, e.g. CEC Genetic Resources Scheme *(EC) number or United States Plant Inventory (PI) number. EC and PI numbers serve as unique identifiers for an accession in a particular GRS, and must not be re-used; they are assigned by the EC or PI co-ordinator, and not by the site curator. 1.4.1 *EC number (CEC GRS accession number) 1.4.2 PI number (United States Plant Inventory accession number) 1.4.3 etc. Other code numbers allocated in consultation with the editors and IBPGR ___________________________ * Basic EC Apple Descriptors
12 1.5 scientific name (Use Malus pumila for the cultivated apple) 1.5.1 *Genus e.g. Malus 1.5.2 *Species e.g. sylvestris 1.5.3 *Subspecies (if applicable) e.g. paradisiaca (for Paradise or Doucin) 1.6 PEDIGREE OF ACCESSION 1.6.1 *Female parent (of the accession) 1.6.2 *Male parent 1.6.3 Mother of female parent 1.6.4 Father of female parent 1.6.5 Mother of male parent 1.6.6 Father of male parent 1.6.7 Nomenclature and designations Identities and additional pedigree assigned to breeder's material 1.7 ACQUISITION DATE The month and year in which the accession entered the collection, expressed numerically, e.g. June = 06, 1981 = 1981 1.7.1 Month 1.7.2 Year 1.8 DATE OF LAST REGENERATION OR MULTIPLICATION The month and year expressed numerically, e.g. October = 10, 1978 = 1978 1.8.1 Month 1.8.2 Year 1.9 ACCESSION SIZE Approximate number of seeds or plants of accession in collection 1.10 NUMBER OF TIMES ACCESSION REGENERATED Number of regenerations or multiplications since original collection
13 1.11 TYPE OF MAINTENANCE 1 Vegetative 2 Seed 3 Pollen 4 Tissue culture 5 More than one method (specify in NOTES descriptor, 11) SITE SPECIFIC 1.12 *COUNTRY WHERE MAINTAINED Code letters for country in which plants are grown. Use the three letter abbreviations supported by the Statistical Office of the United Nations. Copies of the abbreviations are available from the IBPGR Secretariat and have been published in the FAO/IBPGR Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter No. 49 e.g. CAN Canada DNK Denmark GRC Greece JPN Japan 1.13 *SITE WHERE MAINTAINED Code letters for institute at which genebank plants are grown. These must be unique for a particular country and, to avoid duplication, should be agreed by IBPGR e.g. ANG Station de Recherches d'Arboriculture Fruitiere, Angers EMRS East Malling Research Station, Kent FIR Istituto di Coltivazioni Arboree, Florence NFTB National Fruit Trials, Brogdale, Kent 1.14 CURATOR The officer responsible for maintaining the genetic resources material held at the site specified above 1.15 *LOCAL NAME The name by which the cultivar or species is listed at the above site. This may be either some combination of the Genetic Identifiers (1.20 and 1.21) or a synonym. 1.16 *LOCAL CLONE/MUTANT/VARIANT NAME The clone or mutant name of the cultivar or species (if any) by which it is identified at the above site. This may be either the internationally accepted name (1.21) or a synonym.
14 1.17 LOCAL PLANT NUMBER
This identifies a single plant within a population of plants having the same site accession number. It may be any combination of plot identity, row number, and tree position within the row
1.18 DISTRIBUTION LIMITED
0 = No + = Yes
-specify restrictions in the NOTES descriptor, 11
1.19 YEAR OF PROBABLE DISCARD
Enter year that the accession will probably be discarded, e.g. 1983
FURTHER IDENTIFIERS
1.20 *GENETIC NAME
The name of the cultivar or species as internationally accepted or defined by the Genetic Resources Scheme co-ordinator, e.g. Delicious
1.21 *GRS CLONE/MUTANT/VARIANT NAME
The internationally accepted name (if any) of the clone or mutant of the cultivar or species, e.g. Starking
1.22 PATENT NUMBER (or Plant Variety Rights number)
Patented cultivars
-record the patent number or, if the patent number is not known write `+'
Non-patented cultivars
- record as '0'
1.23 SYNONYMS
Other useful names (excluding those occurring above) in alphabetical order
15 2. COLLECTION OF DATA 2.1 COLLECTOR'S NUMBER Original number assigned by collector of the sample normally composed of the name or initials of the collector(s) followed by a number. This item is essential for identifying duplicates held in different collections and should always accompany sub-samples wherever they are sent. 2.2 COLLECTING INSTITUTE Institute or person collecting/sponsoring the original sample 2.3 DATE OF COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL SAMPLE Expressed numerically, e.g. March = 03, 1980 = 1980 2.3.1 Month 2.3.2 Year 2.4 *COUNTRY OF COLLECTION OR COUNTRY WHERE CULTIVAR / VARIETY BRED (=Origin) Use the three letter abbreviations supported by the Statistical Office of the United Nations (see 1.12). 2.5 PROVINCE / STATE Name of the administrative subdivision of the country in which the sample was collected 2.6 LOCATION OF COLLECTION SITE Number of kilometers and direction from nearest town, village or map grid reference (e.g. TIMBUKTU7S means 7km South of Timbuktu) 2.7 LATITUDE OF COLLECTION SITE Degrees and minutes followed by N (north) or S (south), e.g. 1030S 2.8 LONGITUDE OF COLLECTION SITE Degrees and minutes followed by E (east) or W (west), e.g. 7625W 2.9 ALTITUDE OF COLLECTION SITE Elevation above sea level in meters
16
2.10 COLLECTION SOURCE
1
Wild
2
Farm land
3
Farm store
4
Backyard
5
Village market
6
Commercial market
7
Institute
8
Other (specify in the NOTES descriptor, 11)
2.11 STATUS OF SAMPLE
1
Wild
2
Weedy
3
Breeder's line
4
Primitive cultivar / landrace
5
Advanced cultivar (bred)
6
Other (specify in the NOTES descriptor, 11)
2.12 LOCAL/VERNACULAR NAME
Name given by farmer to cultivar/landrace/weed
2.13 NUMBER OF PLANTS SAMPLED
Approximate number of plants collected (sampled) in the field to produce this accession
2.14 PHOTOGRAPH
Was a photograph taken of the accession or environment at collection?
0 = No + = Yes
2.15 TYPE OF SAMPLE
1 Vegetative 2 Seed 3 Both
2.16 NATURE OF VEGETATIVE SAMPLE 0 Not vegetative (seed) I Cuttings - for grafting 2 Cuttings - for rooting 3 Rooted plants 4 Tissue culture 5 Other (specify in the Notes, descriptor, 11)
17
2.17 *virus disease STATUS (including mycoplasma)
1 Virus disease free**
2
Virus disease tested (infected)**
3
Not tested
**Record results of virus tests in the NOTES descriptor, 11 (positive or negative)
2.18 *END USE
1 Scion cultivar - dessert 2 Scion cultivar - processing 3 Dual or multipurpose consumption 4 Clonal rootstock 5 Clonal interstock 6 Seedling rootstock 7 Ornamental/pollinator (pollinizor) 8 Botanical (wild) species 9 Other (specify in the NOTES descriptor, 11)
2.19 OTHER NOTES FROM COLLECTOR
Collectors will record ecological/climatic information. For cultivated crops, cultivation practices will be recorded
18
CHARACTERIZATION AND PRLIMANARY EVALUATION DATA
3.
SITE DATA
3.1
COUNTRY OF CHARACTERIZATION AND PRELIMINARY
EVALUATION See 1.12 for code
3.2
SITE (RESEARCH INSTITUTE)
See 1.13 for coding procedure
3.3
NAME OF PERSON IN CHARGE OF CHARACTERIZATION
3.4
ROOTSTOCK
Name of rootstock on which accession is grafted (if any)
3.5
CONDITION OF TREE
Choose the one condition that best fits the accession.
1 Dead 2 Dying 3 Old, declining 4 Mature, diseased 5 Mature, non-vigorous 6 Mature, vigorous 7 Non-bearing 8 Healthy - cropping poorly 9 Healthy - cropping well
4. PLANT DATA
4.1. VEGETATIVE
4.1.1 *Propagation method
4.1.2
Suitable method(s) employed for multiplication (0 = No, + = Yes) 4.1.1.1 Grafting (including budding) 4.1.1.2 Hardwood cuttings 4.1.1.3 Softwood cuttings 4.1.1.4 Stool beds 4.1.1.5 Layering 4.1.1.6 Micropropagation 4.1.1.7 Seed 4.1.1.8 Other (specify in NOTES descriptor, 11) *Chromosome number
19
4.2
INFLORESCENCE AND FRUIT
4.2.1 *Harvest maturity (Season mature to pick)
Reference
1 Extremely early 2 Very early
White Transparent, Jerseymac, Close Discovery
3 Early 4 Early/mid-season
Paulared, Tydeman's Early Worcester James Grieve
5 Mid-season
Cox's Orange Pippin
6 Mid-season/late
Delicious, Golden Delicious
7 Late
N. Spy, Blaxtayman, Jonagold
8 Very late
Glockenapfel
9 Extremely late
Rome Beauty, Granny Smith
4.2.2 *Maximum storage life
Information on best commercial storage conditions
4.2.2.1 Maximum number of days stores well under the conditions specified in 4.2.2.2 to 4.2.2.6
4.2.2.2 Air storage
0 = No + = Yes
4.2.2.3 Temperature C
4.2.2.4 Percentage oxygen
4.2.2.5 Percentage Carbon Dioxide
4.2.2.6 Percentage humidity
4.2.3 Number of locules
Typical number of locules in fruit
4.2.4 Persistency of calyx
+ = Persistent in mature fruit 0 = Absent in mature fruit
20 FURTHER CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION
5. SITE DATA
5.1 COUNTRY OF FURTHER CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION
5.2 SITE (RESEARCH INSTITUTE)
5.3 NAME OF PERSON IN CHARGE OF EVALUATION
5.4 ROOTSTOCK
Name of the rootstock on which the accession is grafted (if any)
6. PLANT DATA
6.1 VEGETATIVE
SCIONS GRAFTED ON ROOTSTOCKS OR TREES ON THEIR OWN ROOTS
6.1.1 Tree habit (of branches)
Natural habit of an untrained, non-juvenile tree
Reference
1 Extremely upright
de l'Estre, Wijcik McIntosh
2 Extremely upright/ upright
Gloster 69 upright
3 Upright
N. Spy, Spartan, Benoni
5 Spreading 6 Spreading/drooping
Idared, Belle de Boskoop, Bramley's Seedling, Jonagold Cox's Orange Pippin, Elstar
7 Drooping 9 Weeping
Golden Delicious Jonathan,Cortland Neild's Drooper, Exzellenz Thiel, Echtermeyer
21 6.1.2 Tree vigour
Based on height and spread measurements of adult trees on their own roots, or relative to reference cultivars on the same rootstock (use reference cultivars or species on a common rootstock for each site)
Reference
1 Extremely weak
Discovery, Courtavel
3 Weak
Beauty of Bath, Lobo
5 Intermediate 7 Vigorous 9 Extremely vigorous
Cox's Orange Pippin, Spartan, Golden Delicious Gloster 69, Jonagold, Belle de Boskoop Mutsu (Crispin), Northern Spy
6.1.3 Scion / rootstock compatibility
The compatibility of a scion accession on the rootstock named in 5.4 or on other standard rootstocks (such as M.9 or MM.106, which if used should be recorded in NOTES descriptor, 11)
Reference
3
Poor
5
Intermediate
7
Good
ROOTSTOCKS AND / OR INTERSTOCKS (restricted to Malus)
6.1.4 Suckering tendency
The tendency of the rootstock to produce suckers (adventitious shoots) under normal field conditions Reference
0 Absent
M.16
1 Extremely low
M.26, M.27, Bud.9
3 Low 5 Medium
MM.106, Novole (M. x sublobata 286613) MM.111
7 High
M.9
9 Extremely high
M.4, M.7, M.8
22 6.1.5 Burrknot tendency
References
0 No burrknots
Novole
1 Very few burrknots
M. robusta 5
3 Few burrknots
M.27, Bud.57-490
5 Intermediate
M.71, MM.106
7 Many burrknots
M.2, M.9, M.26, MM.111
9 Very many burrknots
Bud. 54-146
6.1.6 Efficiency of mineral uptake
Measured on trees of a non-grafted rootstock sampled in mid-August. Each sample consisting of 8 leaves, taken from the middle portion of the current years extension growth. (Elements expressed as % dry matter)
6.1.6.1 Potassium (K)
Reference
1 Extremely poor
M.26
3 Poor
M.8
5 Intermediate
M.9
7 Good
M.27
9 Extremely good
MM.104
6.1.6.2 *Calcium (Ca)
Reference
1 Extremely poor
M.111
3 Poor
Northern Spy
5 Intermediate
M.2
7 Good
M. robusta 5
9 Extremely good
M.9
23 6.1.6.3 Magnesium (Mg)
1 Extremely poor
Reference MM.111
3 Poor
Northern Spy
5 Intermediate
M.25
7 Good
3426
9 Extremely good
-
6.1.7 *Dwarfing
Direct growth controlling effect of the rootstock or interstock on the cultivar
Reference
1 Extremely invigorating
M.12
2 Very invigorating
most seedlings
3 Invigorating
M.25, A2
4 Fairly invigorating
MM.111
5 Intermediate
MM.106
6 Semi-dwarfing 7 Dwarfing
M.26, M.7, Ottawa 3 M.9, Bud.9
8 Very dwarfing 9 Extremely dwarfing
M.27, Bud.57-491 3426
24 6.1.8 Yield efficiency
A high yield efficiency is defined as the induction in the scion of a high yield of fruit relative to the cross sectional area of the trunk
Reference
1 Extremely poor
2 Very poor
most seedlings
3 Poor
M.16
4 Poor/intermediate
M.111
5 Intermediate
MM.106
6 Intermediate/good
M.26
7 Good
M.9
8 Very good
M.27
9 Extremely good
3426
6.1.9 Best method of propagation 1 Hardwood cuttings 2 Softwood cuttings 3 Stool beds 4 Layering 5 Micropropagation 6 Seed 7 Easily propagated by more than one method (specify in the NOTES descriptor, 11) 8 Other (specify in the NOTES descriptor, 11)
25 6.1.10 Ease of Propagation
Using the method indicated above: Reference in Table 1
6.1.10.1
Hardwood cuttings
6.1.10.2
Softwood cuttings
6.1.10.3
Stool beds
6.1.10.4
Layering
6.1.10.5
Micropropagation
Table 1Ease of propagation reference varieties
Propagation 1 Extremely poor 3 Poor 5 Medium 7 Good
6.1.10.1 Hardwood cuttings Ottawa 3, Bud.9 M. 9 M. 2, M. 7 M. 26, MM. 106
6.1.10.3 Softwood cuttings Ottawa 3, Bud.9, M. 9 much apple material -- MM. 106, M. robusta 5
6.1.10.3 Stool Beds M. 20 M.2, M. 9 M. 27 M. 7, M. 26
9 Extremely good
Novole, Bud. 57- 490, M. prunifolia (Maruba ­ Kaido)
Novole
MM.106
6.1.10.4 Layering -M. 2, M. 9 M. 27 M. 7 M.7, M.26
6.1.10.5 Micropropagation -- -- -M. 9, Cox, Bramely M. 7, M. 26 Greensleeves
6.1.11 Anchorage Reference
3
Poor
5
Intermediate
7
Good
26
6.1.12 *Induction of precocious bearing in scions
Reference
3
Poor
5
Intermediate
7
Good
most seedlings M.25 M.9, M.27
6.2 INFLORESCENCE AND FRUIT SCIONS 6.2.1 Season of flowering Date of full flower 1 Extremely early 2 Very early 3 Early 4 Early / intermediate 5 Intermediate 6 Intermediate / late 7 Late 8 Very late 9 Extremely late
Reference Anna Gravenstein Idared, Belle de Boskoop, Jerseymac Mutsu (Crispin) Cox's Orange Pippin, Spartan Delicious, Golden Delicious 'Malling' Suntan, Gloster 69, Northern Spy Crawley Beauty, de Jaune Spablunder Taffetapfel
6.2.2 Duration of flowering
In days (average of at least 4 years)
6.2.3 Regularity of Flowering
Reference
1
Extremely irregular
3
Irregular
Bancroft
5
Biennial
Most cultivars fall into one of these
7
Regular
categories
9
Extremely regular
27
6.2.4 Secondary flowering
Reference
1
Extremely rare
3
Rare
5
Intermediate
7
Frequent
9
Extremely frequent
6.2.5 Self compatibility of flowers
Reference
1
Incompatible
Delicious
2
Very poor
Cox's Orange Pippin, McIntosh
3
Poor
Golden Delicious, Grimes Golden
5
Intermediate
7
Good
'Malling' Greensleeves, James Golden Lord Lambourne
8
Very good
Crawley Beauty, Benoni
9
Extremely good.
Tetraploids (not chimaeras)
6.2.6 Bearing habit
Based on the system used by Lespinasse - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), France. See Figure 1.
Reference
1
Wijcik McIntosh
Wijcik mutant
3
INRA type.1
Starkrimson Delicious
5
INRA type II
King of the Pippins, Spartan, Cox's Orange Pippin
7
INRA type III
Golden Delicious
9
INRA type IV
Rome Beauty, Granny Smith, Tydeman's Early Worcester, Cortland, Winston
28 Type I, spur types, characterized by Starkrimson Delicious. Type I trees tend to be upright with narrow crotches and sparse branching. Fruiting occurs on numerous short spurs, which are long lived. The zone of fruiting tends to remain close to trunk. _______________________________________________________________________________ Type II, characterized by King of Pippins, This is a variation of type I in which branching is more frequent and there is a greater tendency for the fruiting zone to move away from the trunk Figure 1. Bearing habit, based on the INRA system used by Lespinasse
29
Type III, characterized by (" standard" ) Golden Delicious. Type III varieties tend to be spreading with wide crotches and frequent branching. They bear on spurs and shoots which are generally 1 to 3 years of age. The fruiting zone tends to move away from the trunk to the outside of the tree.
Figure 1 Bearing Habits
Type IV, the "tip bearers," characterised by Rome Beauty, Granny Smith and Tydeman's Early Worcester. Type IV varieties tend to have upright main scaffold limbs with narrow crotches and frequent branching. They bear much of the crop on the ends of the previous year's shoots. There is a strong tendency for the lower half of the shoots to be without leaves or fruit, that is, "bare" or "blind." There is a strong tendency for the fruiting wood to be located at the extremities of the branches, with the tree spreading as a result.
30 6.2.7 Precocity of bearing A precocious tree is defined as one of which starts to crop at an early age relative to other varieties on the same rootstock Reference
1
Extremely low precocity
Northern Spy
3
Low precocity
5
Intermediate
Cox's Orange Pippin
7
High precocity
Golden Delicious
9
Extremely high
precocity
'Malling' Greensleeves
6.2.8 Cropping efficiency (Productivity)
The yield per unit area of land relative to other cultivars on the same rootstock, under the same management system and at the same site
Reference
1
Extremely low
3
Low
Discovery
5
Intermediate
Cox's Orange Pippin
7
High
Golden Delicious
9
Extremely high
`Malling'Greensleeves
31 6.2.9 Fruit size
Average breadth after commercial grading of all fruits. Information on the uniformity of size can be recorded in the NOTES descriptor, 11
1
Extremely small
Reference Most Malus species
2
Very small
Api
3
Small
Pigeon, Beauty of Bath
4
Small / medium
5
Medium
Discovery, Cox's Orange Pippin Golden Delicious
6
Medium large
Holsteiner Cox, Lobo
7
Large
Belle de Boskoop
8
Very large
9
Extremely large
Bramley's Seedling, Mutsu(Crispin) Howgate Wonder
6.2.10 Fruit shape
Reference varieties will vary between sites and sometimes between years. See Figure 2.
1.0 Globose
1.1 Globose-conical
1.2 Short-globose-conical
2.0 Flat
2.1 Flat-globose (oblate)
3.0 Conical
3.2 Intermediate ­ conical
4.0 Ellipsoid
4.1 Ellipsoid-conical (ovate)
5.0 Oblong
5.1 Oblong-conical
5.2 Oblong ­ waisted
32
33 6.2.11 Fruit Attractiveness
This is a subjective factor, varying between regions and between experts
Reference
1
Extremely poor
3
Poor
5
Intermediate
7
Good
9
Extremely good
Egremont Russet Cox's Orange Pippin Spartan, Golden Delicious Gloster 69 Discovery
6.2.12 Ground colour Ground colour of the skin of fully mature fruit
1
Red
2
Orange
3
Cream-white
4
Yellow
5
Green-yellow
6
Green
Reference Baskatong Golden Delicious Cox's Orange Pippin Granny Smith
6.2.13 Over colour
Over colour of the skin of fully mature fruit. Additional information can be recorded in the NOTES descriptor, 11
Reference
1
Orange
2
Pink
3
Red
4
Dark red
5
Purple
6
Brown
Egremont Russet, Alice Khoroshavka Alaya Jonathan Court Pendu Noir, Starking Spartan Lord Burghley
34 6.2.14 Type of over colour
1
Striped
2
Streaked
3
Mottled
4
Splashed
5
Slightly blushed
6
Washed-out (faded)
7
Complete over colour
8
Other, specify in NOTES descriptor, 11
Reference
6.2.15 Russet amount
Amount of russet expressed as the usual percentage of fruit surface russetted. Record high season-to-season variability in the NOTES descriptor, 11
Reference
1
0%
2
12%
3
25%
4
37%
5
50%
6
62%
7
75%
8
87%
9
100%
Lobo Golden Delicious Cox's Orange Pippin Belle de Boskoop Egremont Russet Zabergau Reinette Siddington Russet
6.2.16 Russet type
1
Extremely fine
2
Very fine
4
Intermediate
6
Coarse
8
Scaly
9
Cracked
Reference Landsberger Reinette Golden Delicious Cox's Orange Pippin Zabergau Reinette Paroquet
35 6.2.17 Harvest Maturity (Season of maturity for picking)
A repeat of 4.2.1 but at a further evaluation site
Reference
1
Extremely early
2
Very early
3
Early
4
Early/mid-season
5
Mid-season
6
Mid-season/late
7
Late
8
Very late
9
Extremely late
Close, White Transparent, Jerseymac Discovery Tydeman's Early Worcester, Paulared James Grieve Cox's Orange Pippin Delicious, Golden Delicious Northern Spy, Blaxtayman, Jonagold Glockenapfel Rome Beauty, Granny Smith
6.2.18 Maximum storage life
A repeat of 4.2.2. but at a further evaluation site
6.2.17.1
Maximum number of days stores satisfactorily under the conditions specified in 6.2.17.2 to 6.2.17.6
6.2.17.2
Air storage
0
= No
+
= Yes
6.2.17.3
Temperature o C
6.2.17.4
Parentage oxygen
6.2.17.5
Percentage carbon dioxide
6.2.17.6
Percentage humidity
36
6.2.19 *Eating maturity
Time fruit ripe for eating following storage in air at optimum commercial temperature and ripened for one week at 10 degrees centigrade
Reference
1
Extremely early
3
Early
5
Mid-season
7
Late
9
Extremely late
6.2.20 Eating quality (dessert)
Beauty of Bath, Tydeman's Early Worcester Cox's Orange Pippin, Egremont Russet Charles Ross Belle de Boskoop Glockenapfel
A combined assessment of flavour, acidity, sweetness, aroma and astringency at optimum eating time, if necessary following storage in air at best commercial storage temperature Reference
1
Extremely poor
2
Very poor
3
Poor
4
Poor/intermediate
5
Intermediate
6
Intermediate/good
7
Good
8
Very good
9
Extremely good
Bramley's Seedling Granny Smith Gloster 69 Red Delicious Golden Delicious McIntosh Cox's Orange Pippin Belchard
6.2.21 Eating quality (cooked)
A combined assessment of quality (see 6.2.20)
Reference
3
Poor
5
Intermediate
7
Good
Bramley `s seedling
37 6.2.22 Bitter pit susceptibility Amount of bitter pit in the field
0
None
1
Extremely slight
2
Very slight
3
Slight
4
Slight/intermediate
5
Intermediate
6
Intermediate / severe
7
Severe
8
Very severe
9
Extremely severe
Reference Spartan Golden Delicious Reine des Reinettes Cox's Orange Pippin Egremont Russet Merton Worcester
6.2.23 Bruising susceptibility
Susceptibility to bruising (fully mature fruit), condition of sample in storage tray
Reference
1
Extremely slight
2
Very slight
'Malling' Suntan, Spartan
3
Slight
4
Slight/intermediate
Pomme de Fer, Cox's Orange Pippin Mutsu (Crispin)
5
Intermediate
Golden Delicious
6
Intermediate/high
7
High
James Grieve
8
Very high
9
Extremely high
Melba, Mantet, McIntosh
38
6.2.24 Firmness without skin
Recorded in kg, on fruit which is just ripe, and on a part of the fruit from which the outer skin has been removed and using an 'Effegie' or equivalent penetrometer with an 8 mm probe. See technical note on page 8, last paragraph
Kg pressure
Firmness
Reference
1.0
Extremely soft
1.5
Very soft
Lobo
2.0
Soft
McIntosh
2.5
Soft/intermediate
3.0
Intermediate
Cox's Orange Pippin
3.5
Intermediate/firm
Golden Delicious
4.0
Firm
4.5
Very firm
Granny Smith
5.0
Extremely firm
6.2.25 Texture The texture of the flesh of the fruit when ripe
1
Extremely coarse
3
Coarse
5
Intermediate
7
Fine
9
Extremely fine
Reference
7. STREES SUSCETIBILITY
Based on the 1-9 scale, where
1
Extremely low susceptibility
3
Low susceptibility
5
Medium susceptibility
7
High susceptibility
9
Extremely high susceptibility
39 7.1 LOW TEMPERATURE
Additional information concerning type of susceptibility can be recorded in the NOTES descriptor 11, i.e. minimum temperature without damage, differences in bud and wood susceptibility etc.
7.1.1 Low temperature - late autumn/early winter
Reference
1
Extremely hardy
3
Hardy
5
Intermediate
7
Tender
9
Extremely tender
7.1.2 Low temperature - mid-winter
Reference
1
Extremely hardy
3
Hardy
5
Intermediate
7
Tender
9
Extremely tender
M.robusta 5, Heyer 12 Antonovka clones, Hibernal McIntosh Delicious
7.1.3 Low temperature- spring
Especially at critical stages in relation to flowering
1
Extremely hardy
3
Hardy
5
Intermediate
7
Tender
9
Extremely tender
Reference K14, K18 M.26 M. robusta 5
7.2 HIGH TEMPERATURE 7.3 DROUGHT 7.4 HIGH SOIL MOSITURE 7.5 CHLOROSIS
40
8. PEST AND DESEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY Based on a 1-9 scale of general field susceptibility, where
3
Low susceptibility
5
Medium susceptibility
7
High susceptibility
If the race is known, record in NOTES descriptor, 11
8.1 PESTS 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4
Eriosoma lanigerum Cydia pomonella Dysaphis plantagea etc.
woolly aphid codling moth rosy apple aphid
8.2 FUNGI 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5
Podosphera laucotricha Venturia inaequalis Nectria galligena Phytophthora cactorum etc.
8.3 BACTERIA
8.3.1
Erwinia amylovora
8.3.2
etc.
mildew scab canker collar rot, root rot fireblight
8.4 VIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA
8.4.1
etc.
________________________________________________________________________________
1/ The 1-9 scale corresponds to the Van der Zwet scale and the portion of the tree blighted
as follows:
Van der Zwet scale
Portion of tree blighted
1
10+9
0-3%
2
8
4-6%
3
7
7-12%
4
6
13-25%
5
5
26-50%
6
4
51-75%
7
3
76-88%
8
2
89-99%
9
1
100%
41 9. ALLOENZYME COMPOSITION This may prove to be a useful tool for identifying duplicate accessions 10. CYTOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND IDENTIFIED GENES 11. *NOTES Give additional information where descriptor state is noted as 'Other' as might appear in descriptors (e.g. 2.10 and 4.1.1.8). Also include here any further relevant information (where necessary)
42
43 Appendix I
SUMMARY OF BASIC CEC APPLE DESCRIPTORS
PASSPORT
1. ACCESSION DATA
1.4 OTHER NUMBERS
page 9
1.4.1 *EC number
9
1.5 SCENTIFIC NAME
9
1.5.1 *Genus
10
1.5.2 *Species
10
1.5.3 *Subspecies
10
1.6 PEDIGREE OF ACCESSION
10
1.6.1 *Female parent
10
1.6.2 *Male parent
10
1.12 *COUNTRY WHERE MAINTAINED
11
1.13 *SITE WHERE MAINTAINED
11
1.15 *LOCAL NAME
11
1.16 *LOCAL CLONE/MUTANT/VARIANT NAME
11
1.20 *GENETIC NAME
12
1.21 *GRS CLONE/MUTANT/VARIENT NAME
12
2. COLLECTION DATA
13
2.4 *COUNTRY OF COLLECTION OR COUNTRY
13
WHERE CULTIVAR/VARIETY BRED
2.17 *VIRUS DISEASE STATUS
15
2.18 *END USE
15
CHARACTERIZATION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATI.ON DATA
3. SITE DATA
16
4. PLANT DATA
16
4.1 VEGETATIVE
16
44
4.1.1 *Propagation method
16
4.1.2 *Chromosome number
16
4.2 INFLORESENCE AND FRUIT
17
4.2.1 *Harvest maturity
17
4.2.2 *Maximum storage life
17
FURTHER CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION
5. SITE DATA
18
6. PLANT DATA
18
6.1 VEGETATIVE
18
ROOTSTOCKS AND/OR INTERSTOCKS
6.1.6 Efficiency of Mineral uptake
20
6.1.6.2*Calcium (Ca)
20
6.1.7 *Dwarfing
21
6.1.12 *Induction of precocious bearing in scions
24
6.2 INFLORESENCE AND FRUIT
24
SCIONS
24
6.2.19 *Eating Maturity
34
7. STRESS SUSCEPTIBILITY
36
8. PEST AND DESEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY
38
9. ALLOENZYME COMPOSITION
39
10. CYTOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND IDENTIFIED GENES
39
11. NOTES
39
LIST OF THOSE CONSULTED North American Plant Genetic Resource Contacts Dr. A.R. Bertrand Chairman, National Plant Genetic Resources Board Director, Science and Education 307-A Administration Building Washington, D.C. 202509 USA Dr. W.H. Foote Chairman, National Plant Germplasm Committee Associate Director, SAES Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331; USA Dr. Q. Jones Co-ordinator, National Plant Germplasm Scheme Assistant to Deputy Administrator for Germplasm Agricultural Research National Program Staff Room 332-B, Building 005, BARC-West Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA Dr. C.J. Bishop Chairman, Expert Committee on Plant Gene Resources Research Co-ordination (Production) Research Branch, Agriculture Canada Ottawa, Ontario, K1A OC5. Canada Dr. R. Loiselle Plant Gene Resources of Canada Ottawa Research Station Research Branch, Canada Agriculture Ottawa, Ontario, KlA OC5. Canada also E. Anderson, A.D. Crowe, D.C. Elfving, W.D. Lane, J.T. Proctor, W.G. Ronald, G. Rousselle Dr. M. Faust Chief, Fruit Laboratary Horticultural Science Institute Room 119, Building 004 Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA (301) 344-3567 Gilbert Hersh Director, Laboratory for Information Science in Agriculture (LISA) College of Agricultural Sciences Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA also Pam Johannsen, Mary April
APPENDIX II
46 APPENDIX II (continued) Dr. 0. Jahn Curator, Northwest Plant Germplasm Repository 33447 Peoria Road. Corvallis. Oregon 97330. USA Dr. M. Thompson Chairman, Technical Committee Northwest Plant Germplasm Respository Department of Horticulture Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA Dr. D. Parfitt Curator, National Fruit and Nut Germplasm Repository Wolfskill Department of Pomology, AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION College of Agriculture, University of California Davis, California 95616, USA Dr. A.C. Goheen Wolfskill Fruit and Nut Germplasm Repository Committee - Davis Department of Plant Pathology University of California Davis, California 95616, USA Dr. R. BelI Pear Fruit Breeding and Genetics Appalachian Fruit Research Station Kearneysville, West Virginia 25430, USA Dr. T. van der Zwet Pome Fruit Pathology Appalachian Fruit Research Station Kearneysville, West Virginia 25430, USA Dr. Desmond D. Dolan NorthEast Regional Plant Introduction New York State Agricultural Experiment Station Sturtebant Hall, Room 201, P.D. Box 461 Geneva, New York 14456, USA Dr. A.A. Piringer Acting Coordinator, Fruit and Nut Research Chairman, Horticulture Science Institute Room 130, Building 003,BARC-West Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA Dr. D.W. Barton Director New York State Agricultural Experiment Station Geneva, New York 14456, USA also W.J. Kender, H.S. Aldwinklei J.N. Cummins, R.C. Lamb, R.D. Way
47 APPENDIX II (continued) IBPGR Contacts in Japan M. Iizuka Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University 648, Matsudo, Matsudo-City, Chiba 271, Japan also Y. Yoshida, M. Yamada Participants in CEC Fruit Genetic Resources Scheme (APPLES) Commission Secretariat J. Dehandtschutter CEC, General Directorate for Agriculture Co-ordination of Agricultural Research 200 rue de la Roi, B 1049, Brussels, Belgium also A. Piavaux Chairman of the Programme Committee Ir. H.H. van der Borg Directorate of Agricultural Research Co-ordinator international collaboration Ministerie van Landbouw en Visserij Mansholtlaan 4, Postbus 59 6700 AB Wageningen, Netherlands Members of the Expert group of Fruit G. Jenkins (Chairman) Agricultural Research Council 160 Great Portland Street London, W1N 6DT, United kingdom Dr. R. Watkins (also Apple Co-ordinator, U.K.) East Malling Research Station, East Malling Maidstone, Kent, ME19 6Bj, United Kingdom Dr. C. Populer (also Apple Contact, Belgium) Station de Phytopathologie Avenue Marechal Juin 13 B-5800 Gembloux, Belgium Dr. J. Vittrup Christensen (Denmark) Research Centre for Horticulture Institute for Pomology, Blangstedgaardsvej 133 DK-5220 Odense SO, Denmark Professor J. Hugard (France) Centre de Recherches Agronomiques, ENSAM 9 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier, Cedex, France
48 APPENDIX II (continued) Dr. H. Schmidt (also Apple Contact, FDR) Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Gartenbauliche Pflanzenzuchtung, Bornkampsweg D 2070 Ahrensburg/Holst, Federal Republic of Germany Dr. N.D. O'Kennedy (also Apple Contact, Ireland) Pomology Research Centre, Ballygagin Dungarvan, County Waterford, Ireland Dr. P. Fiorino (Italy) Centro Propagazione Specie Lignose/Instituto Via Donizetti 6, Florence, Italy Dr. S.J. Wertheim (Netherlands) Research Station for Fruit Growing Brugstraat 51, 4475 AN Wilhelminadorp, Netherlands Other Apple Contacts P. Hansen (Denmark) Research Station, Blangstedgard 5220 Odense SO, Denmark Y. Lespinasse (France) Station de Recherches d'Arboriculture Fruitiere d'Angers ­ INRA Centre de Recherches Agronomiques de Beaucouze 49000 Angers, France also M. LeLezec, B. Lantin Dr. R. Silbereisen (Federal Republic of Germany) Universitat Hohenheim (LH) Versuchsstation fur Intensivkulturen und Agrarokologie Bavendorf, D-7980 Ravensburg 1, Federal Republic of Germany Professor S. Sansavini (Italy) Instituto di Coltivazioni Arboree Via Filippo Re 6 Facolta di Agraria, Bologna, Italy Ing. P.D. Goddrie (Netherlands) Research Station for Fruit Growing Brugstraat 51, 4475 AN, Wilhelminadorp, Netherlands Technical Assistance R.A. Smith East Malling Research Station Maidstone, Kent, ME19 6BJ, United Kingdom also F.H. Alston, H. Longbottom
49 J. Ingram Director National Fruit Trials Brogdale Experimental Horticulture Station Faversham, Kent ME13 8XZ, United Kingdom C.D Brickell Director The Royal Horticultural Societys' Garden Wisley, Woking Surrey GU23 6QB. United Kingdom Dr. T. Visser Institute for Horticultural Plant Breeding (IVT) Mansholtlaan 15, Postbus 16 G 700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands also J.J. Verhaegh
APPENDIX II (continued)

R Watkins, RA Smith

File: descriptors-list-for-apple-malus.pdf
Title: Apple descriptors
Author: R Watkins, RA Smith
Author: International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, (IBPGR), Rome, (Italy)
Keywords: APPLE * CHARACTERIZATION * COLLECTIONS * BIODIVERSITY * PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES * STANDARDS * TAXONOMIES
Published: Wed Jan 1 00:00:00 14
Pages: 49
File size: 0.37 Mb


Woman hating, 5 pages, 0.18 Mb

THE ASSOCIATION, 1 pages, 1.45 Mb
Copyright © 2018 doc.uments.com