Economic History, AJ Field

Tags: BIA, West Riding, census, farmers, Directory, West-Riding of Yorkshire, Common Side, woodland, the medieval period, Drax Cartulary, 18th centuries, Drax Priory, Barlow Hall, John Twisleton, Robert de Berlay, Woodlands, baptisms, farms, Monasticon Eborancense, Barlow Common, White House, permanent pasture, MAF, agricultural land, Francis Twisleton Thompson, Proprietor Thomas Twisleton, Wheat Oats Rye Barley Hay, Henry Thompson, Thomas Sawer, Wainwright John Sawry Morrit, Jeffrey D. Hass, Harrison Rich, Medieval Selby, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, Joseph Harrison, Stiff Close, Ox Close, Thomas Twisleton, Varley John Cambridge David Morley John Spofford John Jackson Wm, Lord Saye and Sele, House Close, inventories, York Minster Archives, William de Berlay, arable fields, Drax estate, Barley Wood, North Yorkshire Historic Environment Team, John Banks M.R., John Francis Carr, agricultural labourers, James Smith, George Hamilton Thompson, Barlow Hagg, Henry de Berlay, Richard Robinson, Michael David Riley, John Fisher Thos, Baron Saye and Sele, arable agriculture, Nottinghamshire Archives, mixed farming, open fields, early 20th century, probate inventories
Content: Economic History The settlement's economy was long dominated by mixed farming. It appears to have been characterised by open-field arable agriculture in the medieval period, by enclosed arable with small-scale dairying and stock-raising in the 17th and 18th centuries, and by substantial tenant farming in the 19th century. River fishing was also practiced until at least the late 18th century. In the early 20th century, a railway brought military industries including airship construction and later an ordnance depot. Much of the land is still devoted to agriculture, but most of the residents now work elsewhere.
Agriculture and Woodlands: The Middle Ages
In the late 11th century, the Drax estate ­ with its berewicks of Little Airmyn, Camblesforth and Barlow ­ had 3 ploughs. It also included woodland that was 5 leagues long and 3 furlongs broad. The estate was worth 40s in 1066, declining to 20s in 1086.1
Woods and wastes were being cleared from an early date. In fact, the settlement's name indicates that it was first established in a clearing created for arable farming.2 Several assarts ­ including one measuring at least 25 acres ­ are mentioned in grants of land made in the late 13th or early 14th centuries.3 There was also a place called the `Riddyng' recorded in 1505.4
Many of the cleared areas were ploughed and planted, becoming arable fields that were
probably farmed in common. Some of these plots were recorded in medieval grants. For
instance, John de Ackewrd gave Drax Priory a gift that included 2s. per annum out of six
[[Fig. 3: Evidence of Ridge and Furrow]]
acres in Barlow `field' (campo) at a place called `Mikellending'.5 Moreover, several
Map in preparation
substantial areas around current
settlement, from Braken House Farm in
the west to Barlow Hagg in the east,
showed evidence of the medieval ridge
and furrow cultivation characteristic of open-field systems (see Fig. 3).6 Some
mid-19th-century field names ­ `East
Field', `Moor Field', `New Field' and
simply `Field' ­ provide additional
indirect evidence of communally managed
arable, though only a few of these overlap with the areas with evidence ridge and furrow.7
1 Williams and Martin (eds), Domesday Book, p. 841. 2 Smith, PNWRY, IV, p. 23. 3 BIA, MFE 70 (Drax Cartulary), pp. 78, 81-82, 85-86; Burton, Monasticon Eborancense, p. 100; Clay, EYC, VI, pp. 115-117;Cal. Ch. Rolls, 1300-1326, pp. 176, 179-180. 4 Nottinghamshire Archives, DD/FJ/1/196/7. 5 BIA, MFE 70 (Drax Cartulary), pp. 81, 83; Burton, Monasticon Eborancense, p. 100. 6 Map supplied by North Yorkshire Historic Environment Team; NYHER, MNY10029; NMR, no. 1304141; no. 1304143. 7 BIA TA335.S
However, it is almost certain that any open fields that existed in the medieval period had been fenced or hedged by the 17th century as there is no mention of them in early modern testamentary and manorial records. As early as the 13th or early 14th century, `a ploughland' (una cultura) given by William de Berlay to Drax Priory was described as enclosed `with quickhedge and dike' (cum viua haya et fossato).8 Unlike most of its neighbours, Barlow's arable land was entirely enclosed long before Acts of Parliament began recording such events in the late 18th century.9 Some of the township's unwooded land would have been used for pasturing livestock, though little evidence of this has survived from the medieval period. Apart from a stray reference to common pasture `in the woodland, plain, meadow and field' of Barlow, the only information comes in the form of Robert de Berlay's grant of five acres of meadow to Selby Abbey.10 In 1441-42, the annual rent earned from this land had apparently declined by 13d, perhaps indicating the weakness of Barlow's 15th-century economy.11 Little is known about the waste or moor here, though it too was probably used for pasturage.12 It evidently provided a significant amount of fuel as a lease of the demesnes of the manor in 1343 specified the leaseholder could take 20 cartloads from the turbary each year.13 Medieval Woodland The extensive woodland recorded in 1086 would have encompassed the area known in subsequent centuries as Barley Wood (bosca de Barley), which included the Hagg (le Hagg) and South Hurst (Suthyrst).14 These woodlands were situated east and south-east of the settlement. To the west of Barlow was another wooded area on its boundary with Selby. The lords of the manor were granted free warren here in 1290 and 1340.15 They also held common pasturage in the woods, but they granted limited use of it to the priors of Drax. In c.1204, Henry de Berlay gave the Priory pasture for 50 head of cattle and 10 sows with their young, and later one of his heirs expanded this grant to include pasture for all of the priory's hogs. In both cases, however, the lords of Barlow reserved the right of pannage in the woods from Michaelmas to the feast of St. Andrew.16 This common pasture was also mentioned in several disputes between the de Berlays and the Priors of Drax, including a case from 1300 in which Robert de Berlay and Geoffrey le Forester seized two of the prior's dogs in Berlay Wood, claiming that the dogs chased his pheasants and hares. In response, the prior claimed they were merely sheepdogs being used to take `his beasts to the common of pasture in 8 BIA, MFE 70 (Drax Cartulary), p. 84; Burton, Monasticon Eborancense, p. 100. 9 Drax, Camblesforth, Brayton and Selby all retained open-fields until they were enclosed by Acts of Parliament between 1775 and 1805. Burn's open-fields were already enclosed by this time. 10 BIA, MFE 70 (Drax Cartulary), p. 77; Fowler (ed.), Selby Coucher Book, I, p. 213. 11 J. H. Tillotson (ed.), Monastery and Society in the Late Middle Ages: Selected Account Rolls from Selby Abbey, Yorkshire, 1398-1537 (Woodbridge, 1989), p. 114. 12 Three acres of moor were included in a grant of 1333: Yorks. Fines, 1327-1347, p. 48. 13 TNA, DL 27/213. 14 BIA, MFE 70 (Drax Cartulary), p. 77. 15 Cal. Ch. Rolls, 1257-1300, p. 356; Cal. Ch. Rolls, 1327-1341, p. 471; ERYALSS, DDX195/4. 16 Brown (ed.), Feet of Fines, pp. 93-94 (no. 242); BIA, MFE 70 (Drax Cartulary), pp. 77, 80, 82; Burton, Monasticon Eborancense, p. 100.
Berlaye wood'.17 In 1343, a lease of the demesnes of Barlow to Henry de Clif included rights of herbage and pannage in the manor's woods for 13s. 4d.18 The woodland between Barlow and Selby ­ known as the East Wood ­ seems to have served a similar purpose. It was shared between the two settlements in the early 13th century and the inhabitants of Barlow reserved the right of common pannage there even after the property was quitclaimed to Selby Abbey in the 1250s.19 A dispute about the right to use this woodland was likely the cause of a violent attack on the Abbey's holdings in 1375, when 45 armed men destroyed dikes, enclosures and trees in and around the town. 20
Agriculture and Woodlands: The Early Modern Period
The agriCultural History of 16th-century Barlow suffers from profound lack of sources, but relative importance of different types of farming is indicated by the holdings of Christopher Twisleton, esq., lord of the manor, at his death in 1580: 40 messuages, 20 cottages, 40 gardens, 40 tofts, 40 orchards, 1 windmill, 40a. of land, 800a. of pasture, 200a. meadow, 40a. wood, 40a. moor, and free fishing in the Ouse.
This suggests that arable cultivation was significant, but also shows that nearly 900a. (around forty percent of the township's total acreage) was pasture, wood and moor.21
The situation becomes much clearer in the 17th and 18th centuries. During this period, the dominant farming practice in Barlow was mixed farming, involving the cultivation of cereals as well as animal husbandry. For the most part, the character of agriculture here was very similar to that found in the nearby parishes of Selby, Wistow, Cawood and Riccall.22
Wheat, oats, rye and hay were all very common, according to probate inventories from the 1630s to the 1790s.23 Barley was grown somewhat less frequently; beans and maslin were noted only occasionally. It was very rare for a farmer to have
Table 1: Proportion of Inventories with Particular Crops, 1638-1799 Wheat Oats Rye Barley Hay 56% 56% 51% 35% 49%
only one type of grain: normally two or three
appeared in each inventory. There were also some tenants who grew more specialised crops,
including hemp, flax, and ­ in at least one case ­ liquorice. A few inventories record
significant amounts of rapeseed, but it is not clear whether it were actually cultivated here.
1T7 aBbailledo2n:(Ledi.v),eMstooncakstiicnNIontevse, nI,tpo.r4i0e.s, 1638-1799 18 TNA, DL 27/213. 19 Fowler (ed.), Selby Coucher Book, I, pp. 168-171. 20 Jeffrey D. Hass, Medieval Selby: A New Study of the Abbey and Town, 1069-1408 (Leeds, 2006), p. 83. 21 TNA, WARD 7/20/126. 22 Michael David Riley, `Families and Their Property in Early Modern England: A Study of Four Communities on the Yorkshire Ouse, 1660-1760 (University of York, Unpublished PhD thesis, 1990), ch. 1. 23 BIA, SELBY/WILLS. This collection includes 63 probate inventories from Barlow for this period.
Proportion Median Mean
Cattle 98% 9 11.2
Horses 74% 4 5
Oxen 15% 4 5.0
Swine 57% 4 4.1
Poultry 38% 8 10.5
Sheep 26% 10 22.3
Almost all householders who left inventories died possessing livestock in addition to their crops.24 Amongst this group,
Mode
14
2
4
1
7
10 owning cattle was nearly
universal, with a herd normally consisting of five to ten beasts, primarily dairy cows but also
sometimes beef steers. The largest group recorded in the inventories were 56 cattle owned
Thomas Sawer (d. 1670). A few wealthy yeomen appear to have been breeding horses
commercially, having herds of a dozen or more on their farms. Most farmers also possessed a
few swine, but sheep were much less common. Those who did own sheep generally had less
than ten, though flocks of around fifty were recorded on rare occasions. Several individuals
also had a small number of beehives. It addition, John Twisleton, esq., reportedly held around
Ј1,000 in livestock here at his death in 1682, a substantial part of which was then sold to local farmers.25
All of the open-fields had apparently been enclosed by this time. Enclosed areas such as Stor Close, West Lane Close, Moslay Mouth Close, and Several Hills were recorded in the late 1630s.26 Later, in 1786, Thomas Twisleton, the 13th Baron Saye and Sele, sold to Richard Robinson of Barlow, yeoman, a farm here that included House Close (4a.), Little Stack Closes (5a.), the Garth (1a.), Swine Lane Closes (12a.), Nanpye Close (5a.), Stiff Close (3a.), Tazel Close (3a.), Wife Closes (3a.), Ox Close (6a.), and Spring Closes (10a.), among other lands.27
The number and size of farms in early modern Barlow is difficult to determine, but the land tax return of 1782 listed 20 `occupiers' (see Table 3). Fifteen men apparently tenanted farms, while five tenanted cottages.28 Together, the three largest properties accounted for over two thirds of the total assessment. None of the landowners were resident at this time, but Richard Robinson had become an owner-occupier by 1788.29
Proprietor Thomas Twisleton, Lord Saye and Sele, lord of the manor Francis Twisleton Thompson, esq.
Table 3: Land Tax Return, 1782
Occupier
Tax (Ј.s.d) Proportion
Edw. Hare Jos. Harrison Rich. Robinson Jam. Blanchard Tho. Mollit
16.17.6
21%
18.0.030
23%
11.2.6
14%
6.15.0
9%
6.0.6
8%
24 Ibid. 25 TNA, E 112/610/28; TNA, E 134/2Jas2/Mich36. 26 York Minster Archives (hereafter YMA), Hailstone BB13; HHC, DDLO/1/15. 27 ERYALSS, DDLO/Box12/PartC, unsorted (conveyance, Lord Saye and Sele to Henry Thompson, 5 Apr 1786). Land areas are rounded to the nearest acre. 28 WYAS-W, QE 13/3/1 (1782). The number of farms and cottages is only an estimate as it is calculated from the amount of taxes paid by each tenant, based on the fact that, in 1831, all `farms' were taxed at least 11s, and all `cottages' were taxed less. Note that these figures include several `occupiers' who seem to have merely sublet small parcels of land (Mr. Scissons), and exclude those with only tithes (Rev. Mr. Potter). 29 WYAS-W, QE 13/3/1 (1788). 30 Joseph Harrison also `occupied' tithes assessed for Ј10.2.6 from Lady Sturton.
John Fisher
Thos. Varley
John Cambridge
David Morley
John Spofford
John Jackson
Wm. Cockshaw
Wm. Fletcher
Tho. Leedom
Matt. Thresh
Lady Sturton
Rev. Mr. Potter (only tithes)
Mr. Ward
Rob. Hevenson
F.T. Thompson, esq. Wm. Fletcher, jr.
Mr. Cockshutt
Wm. Wainwright
John Sawry Morrit, esq. Mr. Scissons
Source: WYAS-W, QE 13/3/1 (1782).
5.6.11 3.18.10 2.6.2 1.16.0 1.2.6 0.13.6 0.12.5 0.12.5 0.12.5 0.2.3 0.18.0 0.9.0 0.6.9 0.3.5 0.2.10
7% 5% 3% 2% 1% < 1% < 1% < 1% < 1% < 1% n/a < 1% < 1% < 1% < 1%
In the north and north-east of the township, the meadows known as the Common Ings and the Bond Ings were primarily used as communal pastures when they were first recorded in the 1630s.31 However, an inventory described twelve-shillings-worth of oats growing `in the Ings' in September 1695.32 South-west of the settlement was Barlow Common or Moor, lying adjacent to Camblesforth and Carlton Common. In the 16th or 17th century, according to evidence presented in court case in 1800, the Moor contained nearly 395a., of which around 100a. was temporarily enclosed by the lord of the manor.33 The enclosures were known as `South Whins' and `West Whins', and `the latter was ploughed & sown, but the produce so trivial, & land at that period so very low, the inclosure in time became Common' once again. It is possible that this enclosure was the reason why Barlow's county rates were raised in 1655, just as Burn's were after common was `improved' there.34 Many residents of Barlow `kidded whins' and `cut turves' on the Common in the 18th century and probably had done so for many years as indicated by a will of 1668 in which Edward Hunsley granted his part of a cart for turves and whins to his son.35
Early Modern Woodland The main wooded area was probably the Hagg, recorded in a final concord in 1621 which included 100a. of pasture and 60a. of woods. 36 When, in 1638, the new lord of the manor leased the Hagg for 80 years, he reserved the right to cut down and carry away any wood on the land.37 In the 1670s, John Twisleton, esq., had his `troop mare' pastured in this wood.38 A `woodman' lived here in 1780.39 31 YMA, Hailstone BB13. 32 BIA, SELBY/WILLS (inventory of Richard Heminlay, 12 Sep 1695). 33 ERYALSS, DDCL/124. 34 Fairless Barber, `On the Book of Rates for the West Riding of the County of York', Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, vol. 1 (1870), p. 156. 35 ERYALSS, DDCL/124; BIA, SELBY/WILLS (will of Edward Hunsley, 26 Feb. 1667/8). 36 HHC, U DDCA/3/4. 37 WYAS-B, Tong/3/204
There also may have been other woodland where livestock was grazed. In 1638, for example, a presentment by the manor's jurors suggests that the Out Wood gate had to be kept closed to stop `our goods' from wandering.40 Later, after they had been cleared of trees, the two fields named `Out Woods' covered 26a.41 There is no evidence relating to South Hursts from the early modern period.
Agriculture and Woodlands: The 19th and 20th Centuries Many aspects of the agricultural situation in Barlow remained relatively stable from the late 18th century until the Second World War. There were around 15 or 16 farms over these decades, all of which seem to have been mostly dedicated to arable crops and only secondarily to livestock. However, the amount of land held by individual tenants frequently changed and the agricultural workforce grew until the mid-19th century before declining thereafter. In 1811, there were 35 families employed in agriculture.42 This had increased slightly by 1831. By then there were 39 agricultural households, including 15 farmers, half of whom employed labourers.43 Ten years later, 16 farmers employed 50 agricultural labourers and nine farm servants.44 By 1851, there were 15 farmers, 30 agricultural labourers, 23 farm servants and live-in labourers, and one gardener.45 The landholding and tenancy situation in mid-19th century Barlow is summarised on Table 4. The largest holding, Barlow Hall, was over 400a. This was followed by five farms ranging in size from around 180a. to 250a., including the substantial property held `in hand' by the manorial lord. The rest were around 100a. or less, with four amounting to only around 15a. to 20a. each. The smaller farms included Botany Bay and Mill House, held by men who mixed farming with wheelwrighting and milling respectively. All of the cottages, apart from `Three Small Cottages [with] No Land', seem to have had gardens or garths.
Farm Barlow Hall [unnamed] White House Barlow Grange Huntingley Hall
Table 4: Farms and Tenancy in c.1850
Acreage 415a.46 254a.47
Landowner M.R. (415a.) J.F.C. (52a.) G.H.T.
Occupier Matt. Stables in hand
243a. 207a.
G.H.T. (236a.) John Banks
M.R. (7a.)
G.H.T.
James Smith
191a.
G.H.T.
Rich. Bramley
Lab'rs Serv'ts
12
7
[?2]
[?]
[?]
4
0
6
1
1
38 TNA, E 134/2Jas2/Mich36. 39 BIA PR/BRAY/6 (burials in 1780). 40 HHC, DDLO/1/15. 41 BIA, TA335.S. 42 Census, 1811-1831 (printed abstracts). 43 WYAS-W, QE 13/3/1 (1831); census, 1831 (printed abstracts). 44 TNA, HO 107/1280/6 (census, 1841). 45 TNA, HO 107/2351 (census, 1851). 46 Also 52a. of former common. 47 Also 90a. of former common, and 133a. of woods.
Hagg House
183a.
G.H.T.
John Fleeman
7
6
[unnamed]
109a.
G.H.T.
Tho. Simpson
1
0
Common Side
86a.
G.H.T.
Jos. Robinson
1
1
Braken House
66a.
G.H.T.
Geo. Howdale 0
1
[unnamed]
52a.
G.H.T.
Botany Bay
36a.
G.H.T.
Geo. Emanuel
0
0
Wm. Robinson48 0
2
[unnamed]
22a.
G.H.T.
John Morley
0
0
Barlow Lodge
17a.
in hand (12a.), John Fletcher
0
0
Mill House
G.H.T. (5a.)
15a.
G.H.T.
Geo. Phillips49
0
1
[unnamed]
15a.
G.H.T.
James Fletcher50 0
0
32 cottages, etc. under 15a. G.H.T. (except labourers, etc.
n/a
n/a
12a. of field)
Note: G.H.T. = George Hamilton Thompson, esq., lord of the manor; M.R. = The Devisees in trust of the late Mary Robinson; J.F.C. = John Francis Carr.
Sources: BIA, TA335.S; TNA, HO 107/1280/6; TNA, HO 107/2351; ERYALSS, DDLO/Box12/PartA, unsorted (indenture of Barlow manor, 1840); OS Map 6"/1:10,560 (1891 edn); OS Map 25"/1:2,500 (1892).
Whereas there was much pasture in the early modern period, this had been considerably reduced by the mid-19th century, when almost three quarters of the land was devoted to arable farming. In 1847, the 2,250a. of land in the township consisted of 1,679a. of arable, 367a. of meadow, 128a. of woodland, and 76a. of roads, `waste', and other non-agricultural land.51
Barlow Common included 247a. when it was enclosed in 1839. Of that, 193a. was allotted to George Hamilton Thompson, esq., the lord of the manor, and 52a. to Miss Robinson. Two other proprietors received less than 3a. between them.52
In the late 19th century, the number of farmers remained roughly the same while the agricultural workforce declined. The 15 or 16 farmers employed 53 workers (both agricultural labourers and servants) in 1851, but only 46 in 1871 and 39 in 1901.53 Barlow's agricultural land, according the return of 1876, was still overwhelming devoted to arable crops. It included 663a. of cereals (118a. wheat; 329a. barley; 203a. oats; 12a. rye); 60a. of pulses (55a. beans; 5a. peas); 424a. of tubers and other `green crops' (268a. potatoes; 144a. turnips; 5a. mangold; 7a. carrots; 14a. others); 659a. of grass and pasture (203a of clover and grasses `under rotation'; 35a. bare fallow; 421a. permanent pasture and meadow), and 29a. of other crops (26a. flax; 3a. orchards).54 In the same year, the township's livestock consisted of 287 cattle (79 of which were milk cows), 129 horses, 489 sheep and lambs, and 520 pigs.55
48 Recorded as `Wheelwright Farmer' in 1851. 49 Recorded as `Miller Farmer' in 1851. 50 Recorded as `Agricultural Labourer' in 1851. 51 BIA, TA335.S. 52 WYAS-W, WRRD, plan, vol2/3/1. 53 TNA, RG 10/4731 (census, 1871); TNA, RG 11/4706 (census, 1881); TNA, RG 13/4427 (census, 1901); Kelly's Directory of the West Riding (London, 1893), p. 258. The figure for farmers excludes two or three men listed as `farmers' who had very small holdings of less than 15a. 54 TNA, MAF 68/497. The incomplete return for 1866 was very similar: TNA, MAF 68/81. 55 TNA, MAF 68/497.
The early 20th century witnessed the break-up of the manorial estate, but few other changes. In 1910, there were still 15 farmers, several of whom occupied more than one farm.56 For example, Thomas Almack, the largest farmer, had Barlow Hall (310a.), Hook's Farm (120a.), and some additional land (34a.).57 By the early 1940s, although the number of farmers was the same, the land was no longer overwhelming owned by an absentee lord.58 There also had been a further shift away from pasturing livestock and an increase in the acreage of cropland (see Table 5). Table 5: Farms, Acreages, Livestock and Workers, 1941
Farm Total Acre s Crops (a.) Pasture (a.) Cattle Pigs Poultry Horse s Workers
Barlow Hall
337
White House Farm
309
Common Side Farm
230
Barlow Grange
194
Botany Bay
180
Villa Farm
116
Park Farm
96
Orchard Farm
75
Braken House
73
Barlow Lodge
67
Oakwood Farm
53
Ash Leigh Farm
46
School Farm
42
Mill Farm
33
Lodge Farm
19
`part-time farmer'
6
Total
1,876
Source: TNA, MAF 32/113/159.
258 250 199 181 141 87 74 28 66 56 39 31 35 24 16 4 1,489
61 39 28 130 7 9
59
7 0 42 8 6
24 27 4 120 8 4
13
4 6 30 5 5
39
0 9 42 3 5
29 16 7 90 6 3
40
23 28 0
23
46
0 0 60 1 1
6
00
0
42
11 13 0 200 2 2
13 28 0 30 7 2
15 10 3 140 3 0
7
3 2 37 2 0
9
3 0 40 2 0
3
32
0
20
2
0 0 130 0 0
377 176 89 1,091 62 42
Agriculture became a less important part of Barlow's economy during the 20th century. Although there was roughly the same number of farmers in the 1940s as there had been in the 1780s, the post-war decades witnessed the amalgamation of several holdings resulting in only 13 farmers by the early 1960s.59 The agricultural workforce was also reduced, shrinking from 51 workers in 1933, to 42 in 1941, to 22 in 1963.60 There were 1,918 acres of agricultural land in Barlow in 1963. The proportions were similar to what they had been a century earlier,
56 NYCRO, MIC 300/1842-1868 (NG/V). This figure excludes those with less than 15a. of land as well as the North Eastern Railway (26a.) and the Earl of Londesborough (only woodlands). There were still 15 farms in 1917: Kelly's Directory of the West Riding (1917), pp. 128-129. 57 NYCRO, MIC 300/1866. 58 TNA, MAF 32/113/159. There were only 12 or 13 farmers noted in the directories of 1920s and 1930s: Kelly's Directory of the West Riding (1927), p. 154; ibid. (1936), p. 109. For the break-up of the manorial estate, see above: Landholding. 59 TNA, MAF 68/4856. 60 TNA, MAF 68/3701; MAF 32/113/159; MAF 68/4856. These figures are inflated by the inclusion of causal and seasonal workers, who were probably not included in the 19th-century figures (based on censuses) cited above.
though the amount devoted to cereals had grown whereas potato crops and permanent pasture had shrunk. There were 1,099a. of cereals; 16a. of pulses; 199a. of tubers and fodder crops; 481a. of grass and pasture; and 119a. of other crops (including 76a. of sugar beet for sugar).61 The township had fewer livestock by this time: 198 cattle (including merely 2 milk cows), 495 sheep, 84 pigs, and 1,028 poultry.62 Modern Woodland There were several woods and plantations recorded in 1847, but most were only one or two acres.63 The largest by far was the `Great Hagg' and its adjoining woods, together totalling 93a. The other woodland included 18a. on the boundary with Selby (called `Plantation' and `Half Acres Wood'), six acres near the Out Woods fields, and five acres near Common Side Farm (called Stillinghurst). South Hursts and Out Woods had been cleared by this time. A few residents earned their living from the woodlands during this period, including `timber merchants', woodmen and gamekeepers.64 Small areas of new woodland appeared in the late 19th century in the form of Roundhouse Plantation, Carr Plantation, Munby Belt, and a wind covert in the south-east.65 In the 20th century, the main change to the woodlands here was the destruction of the Hagg. This began during the building of the airship factory in the 1910s, continued with establishment of the Depot during the Second World War, and was completed in the 1980s or 90s due to the expansion of the Drax Power Station site.66 This was partly counter-balanced by the planting of new woodland on Barlow Common in the 1980s and the recent addition of trees to Barlow Mound, where the Hagg once stood.67 Trade and Industry Until the 20th century, only a few inhabitants did not earn their livelihoods directly through farming. Most non-agricultural work was probably undertaken as a secondary employment. Spinning wheels, for instance, appear in the probate inventories of several Barlow residents in the 17th century, despite the fact that the testators clearly received most of their income through crops or livestock.68 The earliest evidence of someone pursuing a trade or craft as their primary calling in Barlow comes from 1379, when a draper (drapour) named Richard Basy paid 6d. for the poll tax.69 Other craftsmen were recorded from the late 17th century onwards, including blacksmiths,70 61 TNA, MAF 68/4856. 62 Ibid. 63 BIA, TA335.S. 64 See below: Trade and Industry. 65 OS Map 6"/1:10560 (1891-93 edn). 66 OS Map 6"/1:10560 (1907 edn); ibid. (1953 edn). 67 OS OpenData (accessed 08/09/2010). Also, see above: Landscape. 68 For examples, see BIA, SELBY/WILLS (inventories of John Grubb, 21 Jul. 1638; Thomas Sawer, 24 Mar. 1670/71; Roger Sander, 22 Dec. 1674). 69 Fenwick (ed.), Poll Taxes, III, p. 373. 70 Hey (ed.), Hearth Tax, p. 321; BIA, SELBY/WILLS (inventory of Richard Ibbison, 29 Apr 1673); BIA, PR/BRAY/6-10 (baptisms in 1790, 1793, 1822, 1825, 1827; burials in 1792, 1806); Edward Baines, History, Directory & Gazetteer of the County of York: Vol. I ­ West Riding (1822), p. 454; White, History, Gazetteer,
shoemakers,71 tailors,72 and weavers.73 More skilled workers were first mentioned in the late 18th or early 19th centuries, such as carpenters,74 wheelwrights,75 joiners,76 brick and tile makers, 77 and at least one upholsterer.78 The first reliably comprehensive listing, the census of 1851, reveals further crafts and trades. At this time, there was a blacksmith, a wheelwrightfarmer, a shoemaker's binder, a joiner-carpenter, a tailor, a journeyman butcher, a draper, an agricultural machine maker, and two female dressmakers.79 Blacksmiths, joiners, wheelwrights and cordwainers continued to appear in later censuses and directories.80 A brickyard was built on Marsh Lane in the late 19th-century, though it was `disused' by 1908.81 There was little retailing here before the 19th century. Instead, villagers would have purchased non-essential goods from itinerant traders or from merchants in Selby and other nearby towns. A few also invested in commercial enterprises. For example, Thomas Sawer, a wealthy yeoman, held `the eighth part of a vessel' worth Ј60 in 1670.82 Later, in 1838, a pair of `timber merchants and vessel owners' named Banks and Massey lived here.83 However, it was not until 1841 that a grocer was recorded in Barlow.84 The village had a resident potato merchant and greengrocer in the 1880s and 90s, and a shopkeeper in the 1930s.85 There was a `drinkhouse', and brewhouse, recorded in the village in the 1720s.86 Maximilian Cocker kept an alehouse here in 1771 and John Garner ran one in 1803.87 The Botany Bay Inn, first listed in an 1809 directory, was established alongside the Selby-Snaith turnpike road.88 This was later the site of the Drivers' Inn (1820s and 30s) and then the Fox Inn and Directory of the West-Riding of Yorkshire (1838), II, p. 308; TNA, HO 107/1280/6 (census, 1841), p. 6; BIA TA335.S, p. 11, nos 140-141; `Smithy' at Barlow Green on OS Map 25"/1:2500 (1890-92). 71 BIA, SELBY/WILLS (inventory of Paul Inchbald, 10 Feb. 1657/8); BIA, PR/BRAY/3 (burials in 1701; baptisms in 1702); TNA, HO 107/1280/6 (census, 1841), p. 10. 72 BIA, SELBY/WILLS (inventory of Edward Fisher, 2 Feb. 1668/9); BIA, PR/BRAY/3 (baptisms in 1700); TNA, HO 107/1280/6 (census, 1841), p. 3. 73 BIA, SELBY/WILLS (administration of Thomas Messenger, 20 Aug. 1662); BIA, PR/BRAY/3, 7 (burials in 1700; burials in 1781). 74 BIA, PR/BRAY/7, 10 (burials in 1781; baptisms in 1827, 1833). 75 BIA, PR/BRAY/8, 10 (baptisms in 1807, 1816); TNA, HO 107/1280/6 (census, 1841), p. 1; BIA, TA335.S, p. 12, no. 5. 76 White, History, Gazetteer, and Directory of the West-Riding of Yorkshire (1838), II, p. 308; BIA, BIA, TA335.S, p. 12, no. 5. 77 BIA, PR/BRAY/11 (baptisms in 1844). 78 White, History, Gazetteer, and Directory of the West-Riding of Yorkshire (1838), II, p. 308. 79 TNA, HO 107/2351(census, 1851). 80 TNA, RG 10/4731 (census, 1871); TNA, RG 11/4706 (census, 1881); TNA, RG 13/4427 (census, 1901); Kelly's Directory of the West Riding (1893), p. 259; ibid. (1917), pp. 128-129; ibid. (1927), p. 154; ibid. (1936), p. 109. 81 OS Map 25"/1:2500 (1890-92); ibid. (1st revision, 1907). A plot of land called `Kiln Close', which abutted Hagg House in 1847, may have been the site of a brick-making operation at one time, but a furnace for limeburning is perhaps more likely: BIA TA335.S. 82 BIA, SELBY/WILLS (inventory of Thomas Sawer, 24 Mar. 1670/71). 83 White, History, Gazetteer, and Directory of the West-Riding of Yorkshire (1838), II, p. 308. 84 TNA, HO 107/1280/6 (census, 1841), p. 7. 85 TNA, RG 11/4706 (census, 1881); Kelly's Directory of the West Riding (1893), p. 259; idid. (1936), p. 109. 86 BIA, SELBY/WILLS (William Tomlinson, inventory, 1722; John Arnold of `Brecken Hill House', inventory, Dec. 1726). 87 NYCRO, QE32/17-21. There were no alehouse-keepers recorded in the returns of 1773, 1778 or 1781, but John Sims, innkeeper, was buried here in 1792: BIA PR/BRAY/7. 88 Langdale, Topographical Dictionary (1809), p. 159.
(1847).89 It had reverted to the name `Botany Bay PUBLIC HOUSE' by 1882, but it did not last long thereafter. 90 By 1890, it was apparently only a farmhouse.91 Barlow's second inn, the Brown Cow, enjoyed a riverside location at the end the lane of the same name. After being established sometime before 1838, it was recorded regularly for more than a century thereafter.92 By the 1970s, however, it had been turned into a dwelling called River View.93 Several decades later, in 1997, Sue and Keith Simpson founded the Brown Cow Brewery on the site of the former inn, and they were still operating there in 2010.94 Other residents earned their livings from absentee landholders and wealthy locals. For example, the Twislestons employed a groundskeeper as early as the 1670s.95 From at least the late 18th century to the First World War, the village's chief landlords were served by several gamekeepers and woodmen, as well as a farm bailiff.96 Early in century, the population of Barlow also included a gardener,97 a footman, 98 a governess, 99 and several grooms.100 There was a `Training Course', presumably for racehorses, on the common in c. 1850, and a highlyregarded trainer was based here in the 1920s.101 In addition, the livelihoods of a few inhabitants depended on travellers. These included the men who piloted riverboats and the toll-keepers at the bar house on the turnpike road.102 It was only in the 20th century that industry became a significant part of the local economy. This began with the building of the Selby-Goole railway, with a station at Barlow that opened in 1912. During the First World War, this link enabled the establishment of a large airship construction facility on the site of Hagg House. The 880-acre facility, which was operated by Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. from 1917 to 1920, had a 700-foot long shed, several workshops and offices, living quarters for the workers and managers, and eight huge mooring blocks for the airships.103 Although the airship factory had been disbanded by 1921, the site 89 Edward Baines, History, Directory & Gazetteer of the County of York: Vol. I ­ West Riding (1822), p. 454; White, History, Gazetteer, and Directory of the West-Riding of Yorkshire (1838), II, p. 308; TNA, HO 107/1280/6 (census, 1841), p. 6; BIA TA335.S, p. 14, no. 295a; OS Map 6"/1:10560 (1851-53). 90 Langdale, Topographical Dictionary (1882 edn.), p. 238. Confusingly, Langdale describes it as being `in the township of Cambleforth and the parish of Drax'. 91 OS Map 25"/1:2500 (1890-92). 92 White, History, Gazetteer, and Directory of the West-Riding of Yorkshire (1838), II, p. 308; TNA, HO 107/1280/6 (census, 1841), p. 10; Hobson, New Survey; OS Map 6"/1:10560 (1958 edn). 93 OS Map, National Grid, 1:10000 (1975 edn). 94 (accessed 08/09/2010). 95 TNA, E 134/3Jas2/Mich21; TNA, E 134/2Jas2/Mich36. 96 BIA PR/BRAY/6 (burials in 1780); BIA PR/BRAY/7 (burials in 1800; baptisms in 1806); BIA PR/BRAY/10 (baptisms in 1836); TNA, HO 107/1280/6 (census, 1841), p. 11; TNA, RG 10/4731 (census, 1871); TNA, RG 11/4706 (census, 1881); TNA, RG 13/4427 (census, 1901); White, History, Gazetteer, and Directory of the West-Riding of Yorkshire (1838); Kelly's Directory of the West Riding (1893), p. 259; ibid. (1917), p. 128. 97 BIA PR/BRAY/7 (baptisms in 1809, 1810). 98 BIA PR/BRAY/10 (baptisms in 1826). 99 TNA, HO 107/1280/6 (census, 1841), p. 10. 100 TNA, HO 107/1280/6 (census, 1841), p. 7; BIA PR/BRAY/10-11 (baptisms in 1843, 1847, 1848, 1850); TNA, RG 11/4706 (census, 1881) . 101 OS Map 6"/1:10560 (1851-53); Reg Frost, More Old Views of Selby and Neighbouring Villages (1986), p. 40. 102 For boatmen, see below: River Trades. For toll-keepers, see Edward Baines, History, Directory & Gazetteer of the County of York: Vol. I ­ West Riding (1822), p. 454; White, History, Gazetteer, and Directory of the West-Riding of Yorkshire (1838), II, p. 308 TNA, HO 107/1280/6 (census, 1841), p. 1; BIA PR/BRAY/10 (baptisms in 1843). 103 NMR, no. 1458926; copy of `Barlow Block Plan shewing Airship Shed etc.' (22 Sep. 1921) in author's possession. For photos, see TNA, AIR 1/2307/215/19.
was used as a prisoner of war camp ­ called Camp 564 ­ during the Second World War.104 In the 1940s, it became a Northern Command Ordnance Depot, with four separate rail spurs for loading supplies, which operated until the 1960s.105 However, it was the energy industry that had the largest impact on this area in the late 20th century. The opening of Drax Power Station and of the Selby Coalfield Mining Complex provided a major source of nearby employment for residents of Barlow from the 1970s. Although the most of the mines in this district had closed by the early 2000s, the power station at Drax remained important in 2010. These decades have seen an increasing proportion of Barlow's residents commuting to work outside of the township. Mills A mill on the Ouse was recorded in c. 1394, likely situated just east of Brown Cow Lane at a place later known as `Mill Flatts'.106 This medieval mill was later abandoned, but a windmill had been established to the south of the settlement by 1770.107 A miller named John Richardson was presented at the manor court for not keeping scales and weights in 1638, and various other millers were recorded here in the late 18th and 19th centuries.108 The corn mill remained until at least the 1870s.109 It was, however, gone by c. 1890, perhaps due to the expansion of large-scale industrial milling in Selby.110 River Trades Residents of Barlow have used the River Ouse for a variety of economic purposes, though it become considerably less important in the 19th and 20th centuries. Fishing is in evidence from the 14th century. In 1301, Robert de Berley paid a 40s fine to restore or build a fifty-foot weir in his fee here and his successor Richard de Berlay received a royal licence for the weir four year later.111 However, such fishing may have risked exhausting the supply as the king granted a commission to preserve the salmon of the Ouse in 1338 to several local notables including William Basset who was probably the lord of Barlow.112 It also caused interfered with river transportation. Hence, six men were presented in c.1348 for placing nets on the water between Barlow and Newhay which they leased from William de Bracebrigge and the prior of Drax.113 William de Bracebrigge, the lord of Barlow, 104 NMR, no. 1475574. 105 OS Map 6"/1:10560 (1953 edn); OS Map, National Grid, 1:10000 (1974 edn); copy of `Barlow: Retraced from Print of Defence Land Agent's DWG No. Y/YORKS WR 137' (19 Feb. 1972) in authors possession; Hansard Parliamentary Debates: 5th Series (1000 vols.; London, 1909-1984), vol. 728, col. 256W (Written Answers, Commons, 18 May 1966. For photos, see Royal Logistic Corps Museum, RAO/60-65. 106 C. T. Flower (ed.), Public Works in Medieval Law (2 vols; Selden Society, vol. 32, 40; London, 1915, 1923), II, pp. 255, 265; BIA TA335.S. 107 Jeffreys, County of York Survey'd. 108 HHC, DDLO/1/15; BIA PR/BRAY/6&10 (baptisms in 1778, 1786, 1790, 1792, 1794, 1797, 1827, 1834, 1836, 1838); White, History, Gazettee, and Directory of the West-Riding of Yorkshire (1838), II, p. 308; BIA TA335.S, p. 11, no. 288. 109 OS Map 6"/1:10560 (1851-53); TNA, RG 10/4731 (census, 1871). 110 OS Map 25"/1:2500 (1890-92). 111 TNA, C 143/34/6; Yorks. Inq., IV, p. 8; Cal. Pat., 1301-1307, p. 313. 112 Cal. Pat., 1338-1340, p. 132. 113 Flower (ed.), Public Works, II, p. 252.
was himself presented for a fishing weir and stakes in the river in 1362 and c.1394, but in the first case he asserted that he was within his rights and that was no weir there anyway.114 Almost a century later, in 1484, the manor of Barlow reportedly had 3 fishgarths on the Ouse according to a complaint by the Corporation of York.115 When John Twisleton bought the manor in 1519-20, it included `free fishing in the Ouse at Fyshe Garth in Barley'.116 The same right was recorded in 1537, 1578 and 1580.117 Although there is minimal evidence for fishing here in later centuries, it was apparently still significant in the late 18th century, when Francis Twisleton Thompson, esq., was assessed 0.11.3ѕ (1789) and 0.3.2Ѕ (1790) for the `Fishery' in Barlow.118 The settlement also made use of the river in other ways. The medieval watermill was situated at or near the banks, and a place known as `Berlaywaterhous' was recorded here in the 14th century. 119 The Ouse served as an important transportation link for Barlow ­ riverboats called here in middle ages and a ferry connected the township to its neighbours in the East Riding from at least the early 16th century.120 There was a waterman working here by the end of the 18th century and several sailors were recorded in the 1830s.121 They must have provided transport along or across the Ouse, perhaps at the Newhay ferry crossing, at the landing near White House, or from the mooring posts near the Brown Cow Inn.122 In the 20th century, the ferry seems to have been the only river-based enterprise in Barlow and by the 1930s it too had ceased operation. 114 Flower (ed.), Public Works, II, pp. 248, 255. 115 Baron F. Duckham, The Yorkshire Ouse: The History of River Navigation (Newton Abbot, 1967), p. 36. 116 Yorks. Fines, 1486-1571, p. 34, 37. 117 Yorks. Fines, 1486-1571, p. 78; Yorks. Fines, 1571-1583, p. 123; TNA, WARD 7/20/126. 118 WYAS-W, QE 13/3/1 (1789, 1790). There was also fishing at neighbouring riverside locations such as Newland (now in Cliffe, but described as part of Brayton parish in the 17th century) and Drax: BIA, SELBY/WILLS (inventory of John Harland, 5 Jun. 1666); HHC, U DDEV/31/245-254. 119 Cal. Pat., 1321-1324, p. 256; BIA, MFE 70 (Drax Cartulary); Burton, Monasticon Eborancense, p. 100. 120 See above: Communications. 121 BIA, PR/BRAY/7, 10 (burials in 1800; baptisms in 1831, 1833, 1834). 122 See above: Communications.

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