Entrepreneurship education: A Panacea for unemployment, poverty reduction and national insecurity in developing and underdeveloped countries, AJ Efe

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Content: American International Journal of contemporary research
Vol. 4 No. 3; March 2014
Entrepreneurship Education: A Panacea for Unemployment, Poverty Reduction and National Insecurity in Developing and underdeveloped countries
Anho Josif Efe, Ph.D. Department of Educational Administration And Policy Studies Delta State University, Abraka
Abstract Education is very important in the training and development of human resources in any country through the impartation of appropriate skills, capacities, values, knowledge and attitudes which can be used in the transformation of individuals, communities, nations and the world at large. Entrepreneurship education can be used for wealth creation, poverty reduction, ensuring social-economic empowerment, sustained self and national development. The planning, management and administration of education should refocus on deliberate process of using formal and informal education to make it relevant, life-long and functional by embracing entrepreneurship education to address the challenges of unemployment and under-employment with its multivariant and national consequences of poverty, insecurity, social unrest, school dropout, indiscipline in the society and schools, destruction and vandalization of public and private properties. Economic wastage and acute reduction in nation's gross domestic product (GDP), arm robbery, arson, murder, cultism, hostage taking, human and drug trafficking, kidnapping among others. Educational policy making and implementation should be concern how to work out deliberate developmental strategies for individuals and nation's commitment to the realization of the specific objectives of actualizing basic, functional and entrepreneurship education to address unemployment, poverty, reduction and national insecurity in developing and under-developed countries of the world. Introduction This paper looked at entrepreneurship education as a functional education which can be used as a panacea for unemployment, and poverty eradication for national security, because education has remained the major instrument for national development for many countries of the world. That is the reason most nations of the world spend huge sums of money to provide education for their citizens. Thus education becomes a veritable platform for tackling socio-cultural, economic, political, scientific and technological challenges facing many nations. According to Agi and Yellowe (2013) education is important to the development of human resources, impartation of appropriate skills, knowledge and attitude. It is the basis for transformation, industrialization and a high way to global knowledge economy. Relating to security, Agi and Yellowe (2013) explained further that education is regarded as a means of achieving culture of peace, gender equality and positive African values. It is therefore the understanding of many that education leads to national transformation and development, through reduction in poverty with ensured peace and security. The National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (2004) document lends credence to the place of education by clearly explaining its role in self-reliance and development, Agi and Yellowe (2013) also supports this when they asserted that the goals of wealth creation or generation, poverty reduction and value re-orientation can only be attained and sustained through an efficient education system which impacts the relevant skills, knowledge, capacities, attitudes and values. In view of the benefits of education enumerated above, Nigeria has provided education for decades with abundant available manpower. However, what keeps agitating the nation endlessly borders on the slow and inefficient economy, near primitive democracy and violent social co-existence in society (NEEDS, 2004). 124
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Evidenced with many primary and secondary schools and tertiary institution's graduates not gainfully employed either by self or government. Supporting this Ochonma (2011) reported that about 2.8 million fresh graduates enter the labour market yearly and only 10% of these are gainfully employed. Analyzing the problem of education in Nigeria, Agi and Yellowe (2013) argued that the problem is not about curriculum or investment in education neither is it non-availability of manpower for the sector, but that many have tended to look in the direction of management of education which include lack of policy analysis to make students to fit into society, yet not relying on the government of the day but the managerial ingenuity of educational managers and administrators to make education a building block of socio-economic empowerment, prosperity, self-reliance, employment crime reduction and national security, through improved access to quality, functional eduction at all levels. Quoting Mills, Nwadiani (2011) noted that education embraces not only the deliberate processes of schooling but it includes even indirect and incidental influences. This concept of education discusses formal and informal education; seeing education as going beyond the formal school system and includes non-formal education which makes the whole process of learning a continuous one terminating at dearth. However, because of recent happenings ­ unemployment, underemployment, poverty and their re-occurring effects, many people have hitherto criticized formal education for lack of its relevance while some others also strongly looked down on informal education as being unable to promote the much needed development, scientific and technological breakthrough. According to Nwadiani (2011) there are misconceptions that non-formal education is cheap, designed and meant for the poor and it is only suitable to developing countries. It must therefore be noted that these fallacious misconceptions are forces against the acceptance and popularization of the entrepreneurship in Nigeria's educational policy making and implementation. It is the purpose of this paper therefore to looked at how education generally and entrepreneurship (functional) education in particular can be used as a panacea for poverty alleviation, unemployment reduction and national insecurity. The Phenomenon of Poverty and National Security/Insecurity National security according to Wikipedia is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use of economic power, diplomacy, power projection and political power. Handley (2010) is of the opinion that the real reason for violence isn't ethnic or religious differences but scramble for scarce resources and joblessness. In the context of this study, national security refers to a situation, whereby the rate of crime, anti social vices, that result from high rate of unemployment and gross restiveness are arrested through job creation and acquisition of the right skills. Therefore, security can be simply implied to be peace of mind or the absence of fear or absence of threat to acquired value. Security can be defined from the levels of the state to connote measures in the protection and preservation of the state against external aggression with the aim of securing and safeguarding its sovereignty. At the individual level security is multidimensional. According to Atoyebi (2001) its most referent objects are job security, social security, food security, securing against natural disaster. While generally, from the state community and individual perspective, security is conceived as having to do with protection, preservation and safeguard of human life, health, justice and liberty. Security therefore can be said to imply safety from harm, it is the protection of individual, state or organization against criminal activities such as terrorism, kidnapping, stealing, robbery, gangterism, riot, killings, arson among others. From international concept, Ebeigbe and Nwaham (2013), wrote that in military sense and in international politics, security means protection against external attack or subversion or mutiny from within. Nationally, Imobighe (2003) asserted national security is an absence of those tendencies which could undermine internal cohesion and corporate existence of the state and its ability to maintain its vital institutions for the promotion of its core values, socio-political and economic objectives as well as meet the legitimate aspirations of the people. National security is a product of independence and sovereignty which for many African states. In human society according to Ekpe (2011) the growth of economy usually results in the alteration of the form of relationship that exists between a given group of people working together for their economic well being.
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Ekpe (2011) supported his points with reference to European history, that Karl Marx identified, in the 19th century, several stages at which such relationship could be discerned which include communalism, where property was owned in common; and goods where shared equally among members of the working group. According to Rodney, (1972), cited in Ekpe (2011) at that stage, the primary means of livelihood was agriculture; but land which was a major factor of production was monopolized by few individuals who exploited others for self-aggrandizement. Such exploitation by few always lead to agitation, protest and most times riot or total break down of law and order which becomes security problem. This can be said to be the phenomenon in most African and other developing countries. According to Ekpe (2011), Feudalism sort of gave birth to capitalism which is an economic system produced not from agricultural activities in which farmers engage, but from factories and mines in which the industrialists excel; similarly, capitalism always concentrated wealth in the hands of few individuals, and hence is always unequally distributed. From the above analysis, the present day life in African as a developing continent generally and Nigerian as a country could be said to be experiencing concentration of wealth in the hands of few. As Ekpe (2011) puts it, with the advent of Western culture, Nigeria economic system witnessed a fundamental revolutionalization which modeled it on that of Western system in which capitalism and individualism held sway. Lack of education leads to poverty, as the economy will be in the hands of the few educated elite. Therefore, poverty can be linked to insecurity. Poverty is a complex, multidimensional concept that affects several facets of lives of individuals and nations in the developing and underdeveloped countries including Nigeria. That is the reason it has been relatively, differently and variously defined and described. Ekhator (2003) wrote that poverty goes beyond lack but included defenselessness, insecurity, vulnerability and exposure to risks, hazards and stress. Muo (2007) giving a wider definition, said that poverty is vulnerability to social injustice, powerlessness and voicelessness, war, conflicts, natural disasters, political instability, macroeconomic crises and deprivation, intellectual, ethical and moral poverty. Odion (2009), sees poverty as people's inability to acquire the basic necessities of life such as food, clothing and shelter. It is the deprivation of basic capabilities rather than lowness of income as indicated by World Bank which defined poverty as those living on less than 1 dollar per day. Defining poverty from social perspective, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 2003), cited in Kor, Akaakohol and Mile (2013) stated that poverty is a multidimensional social phenomenon that can be analytically divided into two main dimensions; income poverty, which is the lack of income necessary to satisfy basic needs and human poverty which is the lack of human capabilities like life expectancy, material, health, education, nutrition, clean water and perceptions of well-being. Explaining further, Kor et al (2013) added that discrimination on the grounds of gender, disability, age or ill health increase vulnerability to poverty as do national or human caused shocks like drought, floods, market collapses or conflicts. Therefore, poverty goes beyond state of being poor, lack of money, resources, or low income. It involves lack of means of having income such as illiteracy/education, good health and sound mind. Poverty has to do with unstable economy, national or man made disasters and insecurity. Poverty is an indication of illiteracy, inequality and social injustice. Utim (2013) in supporting the use of entrepreneurial education as a panacea for poverty eradication noted that education is a main mechanism for social and economic development of the people, which contributes to economic growth by eradicating poverty through career training, job specification and wealth creation. The underdeveloped and developing countries' education system is thus expected to device appropriate strategies for equipping individuals with skills, knowledge, motivation, positive attitudes, innovation for self-reliance to cope with the prevalent problems of poverty, underemployment, unemployment, and its reoccurring problems of individual, community, national, regional, continental and world insecurity. Causes of Poverty Related Insecurity in Nigeria and Other Developing Nations There are various factors responsible for insecurity in African and Nigerian in particular, these include but not limited to; unemployment, corruption, lack of basic amenities, infrastructure, inadequate educational opportunities, and factors in the leaders and the led. However, this paper will look at poverty, unemployment and insecurity among the youth's and its effects among the teeming population of Nigerians.
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Unemployment Unemployment is a major economic virus militating against the economy and well being of many countries in recent times, has resulted in increasing agitation from citizens, therefore, increasing insecurity in such countries. Zakaria (2006) and Ajufo (2013) supports this by stating that the unavailability of job opportunities among youth, especially graduates have been identified as one of the major factors responsible for youth restiveness and other social vices including prostitution, arm robbery, destitution and political thuggery. Armed robbery and stealing are some of the most glaring manifestations of unemployment and poverty in Nigeria and other developing and underdeveloped nations today. The armed groups and conflict in Nigeria (AAPW) (2005) described robbery as being Nigerian's "fastest growing scourge". This negative phenomenon is mostely experienced in most country's commercial cities cutting across the West Africa sub-region and beyond. In Lagos, Delta, Balyesa, Edo and Rivers States in Nigeria, Kumasi and Temali in Ghana, Younde and Tokorandi in Cameron, to mention but a few. War/Presence of Militias Nigeria and most Africa countries had been be-deviled by insecurity in all facets of life by different insurgent groups/militia arising from mismanagement of the central economy and negligence of the youth through unemployment and generally wide spread poverty in cities and villages. Therefore, Coalition's and militia groups are formed along ethnic thinking to compete for economic resources and recognition. In many countries, individual and group's identities have profound consequences for physical safety, political status, economic sustainable and national security. Absences of these or deprivation of some groups has often lead to violent confrontation along ethnic lines; this has been seen in the Balkans, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Indonesia, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Congo, Nigeria, Liberia, Algeria, Chad, and many other underdeveloped and developing countries. Most conflicts occurring in Africa and other developing countries are as a result of educational, and socioeconomic deprivation, Stewart (2005) noted that most conflict occurring in Africa are mainly propelled by the impulse of the deprived group to resist the injustice and oppressive tendency of the dominant group or the ruling elite. Sierra Leone and Liberia have substantial earnings from export of mineral resources since the 1950's however this has rather inhibited than promote their economy. There were widespread rebellion engendered by the crave for iron ore and diamond. In Sierra Leone, as a result of bad governance, decades of corruption, and a patrimonial economic which is based in the capital city free town which benefitted only the elites and their families, was seen in the collapse of both infrastructure and the education system, leading to environmental degradation,. In Liberia, there was the failure of increased export earnings to speed up socio-economic development. This was exacerbated by socio-political and economic discrimination against the indigenous population by the affluent creole's descendants of black settlers who are in the minority. In 1980, with this negation of majority rule, and with the lots of the youths not improving under the new military regime of Samuel Doe, with a large army of literate but unemployed youths, riots and political violence broke out. With the worsening economic and political situation, a group headed by Charles Taylor took up arms against Samuel Doe which lasted for 14 years. Recently the central African Republic (CAR) and the Youngest Sovereign State-South Sudan. Thus, according to Encyclopedias Americana (2004) the emergence of rural slums in diamond-rich districts and fall in agricultural productivity were the consequences of an urban and mining-biased development policy. These various examples of mismanagement of national economy, the neglect of the youth in the scheme of things, leads to unemployment and poverty which have devastating impact on the socio-political and educational development of a nation as it bounders on security. The consequences of these various crises, wars, agitation and protests are enormous. Children and youths constitute those who suffer from such conflicts, which made them refugees. They become abused and easy prey to military and criminal recruitment and abduction. They miss out years of education. According to Aboribo and Umukoro (2008) 43 million children leaving in conflict-affected areas do not have a chance to go to school. without education victims of war, and crises (refugees) often lack funds for school fees, uniforms, books etc as they struggle to support themselves and families.
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Violet conflict often affects individual, groups, the society, the nation and the world at large. Conflicts, war and protests make people ­ Those involved and those protested against, to be in a state of psychological and physiological injury or pain. It creates undue anxiety and stress manifesting in kidnapping, sexual assault, killing, robbering, stealing, sleeplessness, chronic fatigue syndrome, amnesia, motherless and fatherless babies, single parenthood, school drop-outs, nightmares and sleep-paralysis, depression, flashbacks, drug addiction, rejection, social isolation, uncontrolled anger among other numerous problems. From the above, you will agree that the above manifestations of crises are of great educational, security and social-economic problem to individual, the nation and the world at large. Effects of Unemployment and Poverty Mass unemployment and the resulting poverty have multi-variance consequences on youth, economic, social, political development of a nation leading to youth restiveness and personal society and national insecurity. As noted by Anho (2012) and Nwaosa, Ojohwoh and jegbefum (2013), some of the effects includes; Social unrest; School dropout; Destruction and vandalization of private and public properties; Creation of fear in citizens; Threat to life (individual and national); Economic wastage and acute reduction in the nation's Gross Domestic Products (GDP) and Personal/National Income; Lack of foreign investment in a country or in particular region; Committal of other crimes such as; Arm robbery; Arson; Bombing; Cultism; Youth exuberance; Hostage-taking; Human and drug trafficking; Ganstarism; Kidnapping; Thuggery; Rape; Vandalism of properties; Seizure of facilities; Occupation of industrial public and personal site; Inter and intra community strife; Work stoppage; Oil bunkering; Fake and illegal drug peddling; and Outright will from murder. Entrepreneurship Education: A Panacea to Unemployment, Poverty, War and National Insecurity What is Entrepreneurship Education? Entrepreneurship education is a form of education which makes humans to be responsive to their personal, families and national needs and aspirations. Entrepreneurship competencies carry with it, the concept of skills and mental awareness which are needed to understand the functioning of an already existing business. Entrepreneurship education is about developing attitudes, behaviours and capacities at the individual level. It is also about the application of those skills and attitudes that can take many forms during an individual's career, creating a range of long-term benefits to society and the economy. The concept of entrepreneurship education according to Anho (2011) is associated with various activities here in stated but not limited to the following: Innovation, creativity, risk taking, initiative, visionary, focus, determination, team sprit, resourcefulness, financial control, self confidence, versatility, knowledgeable, dynamic thinking, optimum disposition ,originality, people oriented, flexible in decision, responses to suggestions and criticism, need achievement driven, profit oriented, persistent and persevering , energy for hardwork, adjustment to challenges and future looking. Poverty is known to be responsible for the world's problem of war, crises, resistance and diseases and death. This had made it an indispensable part of life that necessitated many governments and people of many nations, charitable and non-governmental organizations, some individual donors and international agencies to be fighting to alleviate it. Policy making and implementation involve developmental strategies which is a conscious efforts of individuals and nations toward achieving specific objectives to bring about desirable changes in the structure of society and economy. Basic, functional and entrepreneur education has been used by many nations as a means of enhancing poverty eradication, self-reliance, national development and security. 128
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Education therefore serve as a means of behaviour modification, by individual and the society, it serves as a means of meeting the needs of individual and the society, it is a formalized and institutionalized medium of instruction to individual or people within any given society to enable them acquire useful skills and knowledge that will enable them to be useful to themselves and contribute to the cohesive, peaceful existence and development of his/her immediate society, and the world at large. On the relationship between education and national security and development, great philosophers like Aristotle, Socrates and Dewey all acknowledged that formal education is a prerequisite for peace and national development. Okpaga (2013) citing Buskirk (1976) stated that education can be used to attain self-reliance and poverty eradication in African, as the true source of power in the world has not been the armies and not certainly diplomacy, but rather productive and qualitative education. President Lyndon Johnson of America officially launched a war against poverty in 1964 using education as the main weapon which he referred to as a worthwhile investment to harness his country's natural resources and the skills or potentialities of the people. In his message to congress, Johnson stated that the young man and woman who grows up without a decent education is often trapped in a life of poverty. Ojebode (2004) highlighting the above points noted that: A person (young or old) without a decent education is trapped in life of poverty as he would not have the necessary skills for survival in a complex society. Lack of qualitative education is a severe handicap that cripples a person as it breeds poverty which, in turn breeds despair, anger or lack of interest in anything except ones own worries. Functional education is the only means through which people can develop their skills, capacities or potentialities. Education is an investment that enriches the lives of the citizens and has a very high long rate of returns to the national economy. Basic, Functioned and Entrepreneurship Education: Unemployment and Poverty Reduction Basic, functioned and entrepreneurship education could help to reduce the high rate of unemployment and poverty in both urban and rural areas of Nigeria, African and the world at large. Through equipping the recipients with the knowledge and skills for setting up and running small scale businesses. The biggest employer is the private sector, basic, functioned and entrepreneurship education has the capability of providing jobs for millions of people in factories, agriculture enterprises, other service industries and small-scale businesses. According to Anho (2013), basic, functional, and entrepreneurial education is capable of building good human and personal relations thereby addressing personal and social challenges. Vital to the prosperity of any enterprise, is an efficient, capable, trustworthy and social cohesive and considerate personality which is the hall mark of an educated citizen. This idea of personal and social challenges can be addressed with basic, functional and entrepreneurship education. Managers and administrators with such education will allow their personality to radiate joy and goodness in their endeavour . This comes with empathetic i.e. placing yourself in someone's shoes, thinking as the person dose. Sanbom (2003) also noted that the greatest success skill we ever develop in lives is the ability to build heathy relationship with other. If good human and personal relationship is built, personal, corporate and national security is guaranteed. Introduction of new technologies: Entrepreneurship according to Barika (2007), Thom-Otuya and ThomOtuya (2008) introduce new ideas, new goods, new methods and technology used in re-orgnising the enterprise in a country. This level of entrepreneurship is effecting and commensurate with developing economy form in underdeveloped or developing countries. The entrepreneur are called innovative entrepreneur. Reduces rural and urban migration by engading the rural population gainfully: This will check the overcrowding of the unemployed and underemployed experienced in the urban centres. Such overcrowding have coffin beer associated with agitations joblessness, robbery, stealing, gansterism, oil pipe vandalism/theft, rumour mongering among other vises, which breach a personal and society peace hence national security concern.
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Entrepreneurship as a Supplier of Goods and Services Entrepreneurship serves as suppliers to other enterprises and bigger organization, factories or industries. These may include farm produce such as; cocoa for food and beverage manufacturing industries, rubber for plastic and applied product industries, cassava and yam for chips, flour and other allied products industries etc. The supply of such products to bigger factories and organization brings economic power to the entrepreneur, self fulfillment, it nurtures indigenous raw materials, it helps in resources utilization, it leads to creation of empowerment, reduces unemployment and eradicates poverty. Thus, entrepreneurial education enable recipients live a meaningful and fulfilling life and contribute to national development (Gibb, 2002, Agweda and Abumere, 2008). Entrepreneurship education aids the acquisition of team-building skills critical for both small-scale business and large-scale business. Entrepreneurship education is useful for national security by creating career opportunities as identified by Okekeani (2008) cited by Akiri (2011), Anho (2013): Agriculture crop production Animal husbandry Barbing Beauty care Coal production and sales Clothes dyeing and tire Driving career (cars, keke & okada) Iron and steel production Money collection (daily/monthly ususu) Paper and pulp Petroleum/petrochemical production Poultry Tobacco production Soap and detergent production Wood treatment Sewing and fashion design Petty trading Car wash Waste Management Technology Information Management Technology. Trends and Practices in Entrepreneurship Education in some Countries of the World Entrepreneurial education and training is becoming a global phenomenon due to world growing unemployment and poverty driven crimes and crises. This has made many countries of the world-developed, developing or underdeveloped to be interested and making progress though slow. A look at some of these countries will suffice to high light the trends. United Kingdom In England and Wales, at stage 4 of their education system, age 14 - 16, enterprise education is integrated as compulsory part of pupils work. In Scotland, every pupil from P1 through to S6 has an entitlement to enterprise activities on an annual basis and, in addition, pupils in S5 and S6 have an entitlement to case studies based on local and Scottish business. In England, according to Nwadiani (2011) the Department of Education drafted national guidance on enterprise learning; made that available to teachers and introduced it to all secondary schools making enterprise as part of the statutory work-related learning in all secondary education in England. France The countries promoting awareness of entrepreneurship among secondary school students. This is executed with initiative taken together with business associations. Entrepreneurship does not constitute part of their curriculum.
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Czech Republic The country is recently introducing entrepreneurship into its school curriculum through the General Educational Programmes (GEPS). The preparation for entrepreneurship and mastery the crucial entrepreneurial skills forms part of these new General Educational Programmes (GEPS). Though the implementation depends on educational programmes of individual schools, focus is on project like student's training firms promoted by business schools. Slovenia As part of developmental goal of introducing entrepreneurial education, promote business competitions into the official school system and create training for teachers, Slovenia's built into its development strategy from 2000 to 2006. To promote entrepreneurship and creativity of youth, Slovenia according to Nwadiani (2011) offered through different government resources, the programme in which every year 4000 young people aged from 12 to 30 participates. This is approximately 30 percent of the secondary education population. That some year 2006, Slovenia adopted a new strategy into the regular school system to involve all levels of education. it is projected from 2007 to 2013. China Education in the People's Republic of China is a state-run system of public education run by the Ministry of Education. There is compulsory school attendance for at least nine years. Since the end of the cultural Revolution (1966-76), the education system in China has been geared toward economic modernization and universal fostering of social equality. In the early 1980's ­ the post-mao zedona Chinese Communist Party leadership, science and technology education became an important focus of education policy. By 1986, training skilled personnel and expending scientific and technical knowledge was given priority. Although the humanities were considered important, vocational and technical skills were considered paramount for meeting China's modernization goals. Though there was no entrepreneurship education but the vocational and technical education have aspects of entrepreneurship ­ skill acquisition. There are; job-finding centers and other adult skill and social training institutes. For the purpose of better accommodating the demands of economic re-structuring and urbanization, the government remodeled vocational education orient to it towards obtaining employment, and focusing on meeting society's ever more acute demand for high quality, skilled workers in modern manufacture and service industries; and training rural laborers moving to urban areas. Spare-time education for workers and peasants and literacy classes for the entire adult population formed components of China's basic education to make the citizens relevant to themselves and the country. Tanzania Tanzania is located in East African with an estimated population of 30 million, its political capital is bo doma and main commercial city is Dar-es salaam. As reported by Mapima (2012) of Tanzania Education Authority, Tanzania education sector is challenged to cope with the socio-economic and technological advancement in general, as envisaged by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and the Tanzania vision 2025 which seeks to develop a well educated and learning society. According to Mapima, to answer to this demand the education sector has in place various legal and policy frameworks including.: the Educational Act No. 25 of 1978 as amended from time to time (now the Education Act, Cap. 353), the Education and Training Policy (ETP) of 1995, the Higher Education Policy of 1999, revised 2007, the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) of 1997 revised in 2001, the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) and other macro-level policies are working tools, administrative, strategies and policies to ensure enhancement of creativity, entrepreneurship, reduction of poverty and national development. Tanzania education has no entrepreneurship curriculum per-see-but its main objective of education ­ Arusha declaration is based on the policy of self-reliance releasable through the infusion of disciples in the sciences, arts, technology and other vocational subjects. However, entrepreneurship education is offered in some institutions if higher learning such as Institute of Development Management (IDM), Institution of Finance Management (IFM), in Dar as salaam.
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Cameroun The Republic of Cameroun is located east of the Gulf of Guinea and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Africa nations of Nigeria, Chad, Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guianese and the Central African Republic. Cameroun covers an area of 475,000 kmz and according to a census done in 1986, has a population of 10,446,400. Long before the Cameroonians are reported to be versed in the trades or skills necessary to survive and help the family and community (African Encyclopedia, 1974). Thus, Cameroun has traditional form of informal education that met the needs of the people and prepared the individuals to be productive members of society. There is a form of entrepreneurship education and during the early missionary education, the citizens learn construction and manual tasks like farming, carpentry and brick-making along reading, writing and mathematics. Graduates of the missionary schools were prepared to work in evangelical, clerical, administrative, educational and commercial settings. There are emerging number of higher institutions of learning like the Nacho University, Fonab Polythenic, and many others such as Bamenda University of Science and Technology, the University of Younde which Faculty are re-shaping the education in Cameroun to include technical, vocational and entrepreneurship education. Law and economic sciences, and the school of business administration have some elements of entrepreneurship education. Kenyan The provision of educational opportunities has been of great priority since Kenyan's independence in 1963. Kenya introduced the 7-4-2-3 system of education after independence. However, the system was criticized as lacking the capacity and flexibility to respond to the changing aspirations of individual. Kenyan's and the labour market needs, in terms of new skills, new technologies and the attitude to work. According to Owaino, (1997) cited in Simuyo (2001). The policy was being too academic and therefore not suitable for direct employment. Thus the policy lacked orientation to employment which entrepreneurship education advocates. The Gachatthi Report (Gok, 1976), also raised the issue of unemployment. The International Labour Organization (ILO) also called for a change to the education system in order to help reduce unemployment in Kenya. These and many other criticism of the 7-4-2-3 education, gave birth to the 8-4-4- system introduced by the then country's president Moi's regime in 1985 which emphasized vocational subjects with the assumption that this new structure would enable school dropouts at all levels to be self-employed or get employment in the non formal sector. The 8-4-4 system was also criticized that the curriculum does not help students to rise to current challenges and meet the requirements of vision 2030. Moreover, that the 8-4-4- failed to produce all rounded individuals for the workforce required for a rapidly developing economy. Kiyapi (2012) noted that the new education system, the 26-6-3 is expected to accommodate other disciplines such as technical work, self-employment and wealth creation (entrepreneurship). Nigeria The Federal Republic of Nigeria Government has been making various efforts to enhance skill acquisition of youths and unemployment. However, Education For All (EFA) reported by Babalola (2011) showed that sufficient attention is not give to skill training for youth and adults. This form the basis of the then President Obasanjo to mandate all university students in Nigeria, regardless of which major, to be exposed to entrepreneurship development study. However, as Babalola (2011) reported, efforts at integrating entrepreneurship into the curriculum of Nigeria public university seen to be inadequate. As at 2010, the most coordinated entrepreneurship education in Nigerian public universities is reported to be at the University of Ibadan which commenced in the 2003/2004 academic session. The programme is reported to be integrated into the curriculum and only concentrated on few students who are interested in developing their entrepreneurial skills. At the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, in 2010 the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Development Research (CEDR) was set up to promote entrepreneurial culture and mind-set, skill acquisition, self employment economic independence and self actualization. The University of Ilorin was reported to have agreed since 2005 to create a directorate to handle entrepreneurship training however it was only in 2008/2009 the University established the directorate of Technical and Entrepreneurship Centre (TEC).
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University of Benin also established an entrepreneurship development centre to; develop and offer courses, seminars, workshops and conferences to advance and propagate entrepreneurship.
Offer a 2 credit course to penultimate analyzed student. Provide clinics in entrepreneurship to students, staff and members of the public. Serve as a national centre for the training and development of experts in entrepreneurship. Promote research and experimentation in entrepreneurship. and Commercialize innovation and inventions.
Considering the importance of entrepreneurship education in the life of Nigeria citizens in general and university graduates in particular, the National Universities Commission (NUC) made it a national policy to encourage Nigerian Universities to provide entrepreneurship education for undergraduates to address the challenges of unemployment. This made NUC design an entrepreneurship course titled Graduate Self Employment (GSE, 301) with the theory and practice components to be taught in Nigerian Universities.
In Delta State University, it is the policy of the University that those reading business management or Accounting courses must register, study and pass courses in entrepreneurship. While it forms part of the general courses required to be passed before graduating.
In other state Universities in Nigeria, it is only offered as general courses. However, the case of Covenant University, Sango Otta is an outstanding example of where a serious efforts has been made to integrate entrepreneurship development study into the curriculum since the inception of the University in 2001. All the students from 100 to 400 levels are made to register for, study and pass Entrepreneurship Development Study (EDS).
It is therefore observable that; there is a missing link in the National Universities Commission (NUC) policy on entrepreneurship education with the absence of a standard curriculum and course outline/content to guide and develop entrepreneurship in the Universities, since entrepreneurship education in Nigeria schools, colleges, polytechnics and universities is not given serious attention it deserves. Therefore there should be a systematic coordianted planning and implementation carried at producing well course structured, teaching contents, methods and materials.
From the discussion, and analyses of some developed, developing and underdeveloped nations, it is noted that within the last decade, many nations recognized the importance of entrepreneurship education to national development, sustainability and security. This is reflected in Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring (GEM) report of countries participating in entrepreneurship education as at 2008 cited in Martinaz, A.C.; Levie, J. Kelley D.J. Saem Umdsson, R.J. & Schott J. (2010), the nations were categorized into innovation driven, factor driven and efficiency driven as shown below:
Innovation Driven Countries Belgium Demark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Israel Italy Japan Republic of Korea Slovenia Spain United Kingdom
Factor Driven Countries Bolivia Columbia Ecuador Egypt India
Efficiency Driven Countries Argentina Brazil Chile Croatia Dominican Republic Hungary Iran Jamaica Latvia Macedonia Mexico Peru Romania Serbia South-Africa Turkey Uruguay
Source: Ikoya P.O. (2011). Developing Appropriate Human Capital Quality for Entrepreneurship Education and Sustainable Development in Nigeria
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The Global Economic Monitor (GEM, 2000) reported that in a research findings by the Ewing Marion Kauffman centre for Entrepreneurial leadership at the Babson College, USA established that there is a strong relationship between the level of entrepreneurship in a country and national economic development. The GIM (2000) report also shows a correlation between the prevalence of new firms and projected Cross Domestic Product (GDP) also there is correlation between the Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) and projected GDP. Conclusion Entrepreneurship education is very important that there is urgent need for all higher educational institutions in Nigeria to comply with the presidential directives to the effect that entrepreneurship be made compulsory for all students of higher education institutions in Nigeria, irrespective of their areas of specialization. This policy decision was based on government awareness of the crucial role of entrepreneurship education and training in fostering employment generation among the teaming youths, economic growth, and wealth creation. Thus, entrepreneurial skills development according to Anho (2011), goes beyond training and education, it involves a process of human capacities building through formal and or informal training inculcating in the entrepreneur basic skills such as financial skills, technical skills, creative skills, managerial skills, intellectual skills, marketing skills, communication skills and technological skills. Recommendations The overwhelming role of entrepreneurial education in poverty eradication, self-reliance and national security and developed have been succinctly stated in this write up. Since its benefits are enormous, adequate steps should be taken to requite entrepreneurial education by providing at the various levels of governance-federal state and local government areas, suitable environment through proper curriculum planning and implementation, and by proper funding and equipping of the entrepreneurship education centres/units/departments of our Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges. Entrepreneurship education is a life long learning process starting as early at the elementary school and progressing through middle or secondary school to tertiary levels including adult and non-formal education. It is therefore a key to individual, state, national, continental and world economy by generating wealth through creation of jobs, thereby helping to meet up with the ever-changing social political and economic demand of modern society such as unemployment underemployment, crises, war, poverty among others. The gains of entrepreneurship education should be well publicized through various media-radio, television, satellite, and local town cryers to enable all to embrace it. It has often been said that the growth and development of most sectors in Nigeria are dwiddling attributed to poor management and administration of educational policies. Providing education in a nation is one thing and the ability to manage it to obtain the right quality expected is another. Education in some underdevelopment and developing nations like Nigeria should be effectively manage to include functionality which has to do with the planning, organizing, co-ordination, control, budgeting and evaluation using all available resources. This is to enable the outputs to adopt to their immediate and larger society, self, community, national and world, economic, social and other problems which many evolve. In providing employment for self and others. Education from the elementary/primary to the highest levels should include functioning (entrepreneurship) education. Nigeria and every underdeveloped and developing nation must cultivate local initiative by promoting grassroots educatinal planning, implementation, utilization and monitoring. This can be done through decentralized decision-making i.e. democratization of education should be of utmost priority. Functional and entrepreneurship education is a relatively new academic discipline. It is multi-disciplinary in nature, it covers economic and business disciplines such as management, marketing and finance, psychology, sociology, anthropology, teacher and business education. In teaching entrepreneurship education, it should be taught from such perspective involving a wide spectrum of life and disciplines.This paper therefore supports Anho (2011) recommendation that entrepreneurship education, training, mentoring and work experiences should be integrated more in the curriculum of all higher institutions and not to restrict it to only specialized faculties/departments and that entrepreneurship education and development as a programme of human capital development, can be used and should be used for instilling and preserving entrepreneurial climate in an economy and government so as produce self-sufficient, self-sustainable citizens. This will ensure prospects of economic growth, equitable economic distribution, social cohesion, alleviate poverty in the society and guarantee national security. 134
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