Greenvis: Energy-saving color schemes for sequential data visualization on oled displays, J Wang

Tags: color schemes, visual perception, OLED display, power consumption, sequential data, data visualization, visualization, color scheme, organic light emitting diode, display technology, Computer Graphics Forum, energy-saving, background color, energy saving, OLED displays, blue color channels, CIE color space, CIELUV color space, color space, OLED TVs, RGB color space, color method, C. Brewer, J. Van Wijk, power model, AcM Transactions on Graphics, M. Wattenberg, Geographic Information Society, M. Wijffelaars, M. Harrower, Environmental Systems Research
Content: GreenVis: Energy-Saving Color Schemes for Sequential Data Visualization on OLED Displays
Ji Wang Virginia Tech Blakcsburg, VA [email protected]
Xiao Lin Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA [email protected]
Chris North Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA [email protected]
ABSTRACT The organic light emitting diode (OLED) display has recently become popular in the consumer electronics market. Compared with current LCD display technology, OLED is an emerging display technology that emits light by the pixels themselves and does not need an external back light as the illumination source. In this paper, we offer an approach to reduce power consumption on OLED displays for sequential data visualization. First, we create a multi-objective optimization approach to find the most energy-saving color schemes for given visual perception difference levels. Second, we apply the model in two situations: pre-designed color schemes and auto generated color schemes. Third, our experiment results show that the energy-saving sequential color schemes can reduce power consumption by 17.2% for pre-designed color schemes. For auto-generated color schemes, it can save 21.9% of energy in comparison to a reference color scheme for sequential data. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation]: User Interfaces--screen design General Terms Measurement, Performance, Human Factors Keywords OLED Display, Energy Saving, Optimization, Color Scheme, Visualization 1. INTRODUCTION The organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display is an emerging display technology. It has recently entered the mobile and TV markets. For example, some new smartphones and tablets have OLED displays, including Samsung Galaxy S II [17] and Galaxy Tab 7.7 [18]. Large OLED TVs will also be available soon. For instance, LG plans to release a 55-inch AVI 2012, Capri Island (Naples), Italy
OLED TV panel at CES 2012 [14]. Because of its beneficial properties, OLED displays may become the mainstream display technology in the future. The OLED display technology has the following features: First, each pixel of an OLED display emits three channels of the color - red, green and blue. Second, because of the spectrum feature, the luminance of these three colors are different. For example, the black color is totally black - it does not emit light. And the white color has the maximum luminance because it fully combines the luminance of the three channels. Thus, the power consumption of an OLED display is directly related to the color displayed [8]. Dong et al. present a power consumption model for OLED displays and proposes an energy saving GUI design for smartphones [8]. As computer display screen sizes have increased over time, the display has become a major power-hungry device. Typically, over 38% of the power of a PC is consumed by the display [15]. Despite power efficiency approaches on mobile devices, the display power consumption is still up to 50% of the total power consumption [8]. As discussed previously, displayed colors can influence the power consumption of OLED displays. Thus, for visualization tasks, changing the color encoding can be an approach to save energy on power-hungry display devices. In visualization, colors can be used to visually encode data. Brewer et al. present perceptually effective pre-designed color schemes for map visualizations [5]. They divide the color schemes into three types based on the types of data: sequential, diverging and qualitative. Wijffelaars et al. present an automatic method to generate color schemes. The rainbow color scheme is also widely used in visualization for these three types of data, despite its drawbacks for visual perception [3] [16]. Healey presents a method to choose named colors for data visualization [12]. In this paper, we focus on color schemes for sequential data in visualization. Given the relationship between the power consumption of an OLED display and the color it is displaying, the natural question that arises is whether we can find energy-saving color schemes for visualization on OLED displays. And if so, how to manage the trade-offs between the effective visualization display and the power consumption? In this paper, we discuss this problem in detail and present a
multi-objective optimization approach to solve this problem. The contributions of our work are:
Equation (2) presents the power consumption of the whole OLED display at the pixel level.
1. Based on the OLED power model, we build a multiobjective optimization approach to find energy-saving sequential color schemes for visualization based on visual perception difference levels. 2. We apply this model in two situations: pre-designed color schemes, and auto-generated color schemes. 3. Our experiment results show that the energy-saving sequential color scheme can reduce power consumption by 17.2% in pre-designed color schemes, and by 21.9% for auto-generated color schemes in comparison to the reference color scheme. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the background and related work on the OLED display power model, color space, color scheme and energysaving visualization. Section 3 presents our general multiobjective optimization model and discusses how to apply our approach in two situations: pre-designed color schemes and auto-generated color schemes. Section 4 addresses the Design of experiments to evaluate our model. The experiment results are presented in Section 5. In the Section 6, we discuss how to generalize our optimization model. And the last section summarizes the conclusions and future work. 2. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK In this section, we provide an overview of the OLED display power model, color spaces, color schemes and energysaving visualization. We do not discuss the mechanism of the OLED display technology in detail, but refer readers to existing references [10] [19]. 2.1 OLED Display Power Model Compared to current LCD displays, the organic light emitting diode (OLED) is an emerging display technology that emits light by the pixels themselves and does not need an external back light as the illumination source [8] [10] [19]. It is speculated that OLED displays will replace LCD displays as the mainstream in the future. On OLED displays, there are three independent light emitting components with red, green and blue colors in each pixel. And these three basic colors have different luminance. Hence, the power consumption of OLED displays is directly related to the colors being displayed. Dong et al. give a power consumption model of OLED displays on the pixel level [8]. The power consumption of each pixel can be described as Equation (1). Ppixel = f (pixel.R) + h(pixel.G) + k(pixel.B) (1) where pixel.R, pixel.G, pixel.B present the color levels in the three basic color channels, and f , h, k are the respective power functions which are empirically modeled by experiments on each color channel.
Pscreen = Pbackground +
Ppixeli
(2)
iSet(pixel)
where Pscreen is the power consumption of the whole OLED display. Pbackground is the background power consumption of the OLED display, and is tested while displaying a solid black screen. Ppixeli is the power consumption of the calculated in Equation (1). The Set(pixel) indicates the color information of each pixel on the OLED display. In addition, Dong et al. apply this power model to estimate the power consumption of the displayed image and find an energysaving GUI style design [8].
2.2 Color Space In data visualization, color can be used to present at least one dimension of the data. There are numerous representations of color space: RGB, HSV, CIELAB, CIELUV, etc. These color spaces are divided into two types:
· One type of color space is based on dispay device technologies, like the RGB color space. The color space represents all the possible combinations of the red, green and blue color channels. · Another type of color space is based on visual perception - the CIE color space, for example, CIELAB and CIELUV [9]. In this type of the color space, the Euler distance of two colors has linear relationship with the visual perception distance.
Wijffelaars et al. shows the relationship between the CIE color spaces and the displayable color spaces [23]. Through that, we can see that the displayable color space is an irregular space. In order to display the CIE color space on a display device, we must transform the color from CIE color space to RGB color space. Ford et al. provide the manual for conversion between the different color spaces [9]. 2.3 Data Types and Color Schemes Regarding data types for information visualization, Ware divides data into four types: nominal, ordinal, internal and ratio [21]. Brewer et al. gives a taxonomy of color schemes for different data types in map visualizations as follows [11]:
· Sequential : The data is ordered, and it uses lightness to present ordered data. Darker colors are used for high-value data and lighter colors show the low-value data. No color in the scheme is more important than the rest, and all the colors in the scheme can be distinguished by user. · Diverging: There is one neutral status in diverging data, and this neutral status is the midpoint which is encoded as the light color. The diverging sequences increase in darkness of different hues.
· Qualitative: There is no ordering of the data, and the different colors indicate the different clusterings. Color in visualization can present at least one-dimensional information. However, choosing a color scheme for a visualization is not merely picking the pretty colors. If just choosing the favorite color, most people will choose blue [4]. There are several methods to generate color schemes for visualization. They can be divided into two types: · Pre-designed Color Schemes: Brewer et al. offer ColorBrewer which has 3 types of 165 color schemes for map visualization based on their expert view [5]. Healey presented the named colors chosen by the color distance, linear operation and color category [12]. While the rainbow color scheme is also widely used in visualization, Borland et al. and Rogowitz et al. argue that the rainbow color scheme does not meet visual perception requirements and can lead to visual illusions [3] [16]. · Auto Generated Color Schemes: Zeileis and Hormik directly use the straight line and equal color distance in the CIELUV color space to generate color schemes [24]. Considering the color distance, Wijffelaars et al. present a method which uses beizer curves to simulate the ColorBrewer color schemes [23]. In this paper, we focus on sequential color schemes for visualization and apply our energy-saving model to both the pre-designed and auto-generated color schemes. 2.4 Energy-Saving Color Schemes Our research is closely related to studies of energy-saving GUI design on OLED displays and energy-aware color sets on HDR displays. Dong et al. present their energy-saving GUIs and browser for OLED smartphones [8]. They report that their approach can reduce over 75% of display power consumption on smartphones. But, their approach for GUIs and browser design cannot generalize to visualization tasks and may offer poor usability. Chuang et al. present an energy-saving color-scheme generator method for the HDR display [7]. However, their approach can only be applied to the qualitative data type. The approach we present in this paper is a uniform energy-saving color model which focuses on sequential color schemes, but is also equally applicable to qualitative data coloring and diverging data coloring. 3. GREENVIS APPROACH Our research question is to find energy-saving color schemes for visualization on OLED displays. In order to solve this problem, we must consider the primary factor that directly influences OLED power consumption, the color schemes. In addition, for given data, whether the different color schemes will offer effective perception of the data in the visualization is another factor which needs to be considered. In our approach, the first factor is based on the OLED display power model. We define the second factor as the visual perception difference level. Visual perception difference level
is a metric that measures the color distinction in the color scheme of the visualization from a perceptual point of view. It is a human-factors parameter. We will describe it in more detail in the following section. 3.1 GreenVis Power Model Dong et al. [8] build the power model of OLED displays at the pixel level. At the same time, the encoding of data using colors in the visualization renders the different geometric regions in the visualization in different colors according to the color scheme. Based on their power model at the pixel level (Equation (1) and Equation (2)), we can easily derive the OLED power model at the region level. The region level power model uses each region's percentage of the whole screen and the color information to estimate the power consumption of the whole OLED display. The region-level power model can be described as in Equation (3).
Pscreen = Pbackground +
Ni=1(Areai Ч PColori )
N i=1
Areai
(3)
where Pscreen is the total power consumption of the visualization on the OLED display. Pbackground is the power which is tested when the screen displays a solid black color. The whole screen can be divided into N regions of N distinct colors. Each Regioni is the union of all pixels of Colori (regions are not necessarily contiguous). Areai is the area of Regioni (in pixels) and i [0, N - 1]. Colori is the color of the Regioni in the color scheme CS. PColori is the power consumption when the whole OLED screen displays Colori. The goal is to find the N best colors for the color scheme.
For the given color scheme CS, we can first use the power consumption model Equation (1) for the each Colori CS, then sort the color scheme CS in order to let P ower(Colori) < P ower(Colorj), where Colori, Colorj CS and i < j. For the sequential and diverging types of color schemes, the area of the Regioni Ai does not need to be sorted. Because the ordering of the regions has been restricted by the data itself. In this paper, our scope does not focus on qualitative data. But in this model, for qualitative data, we need to sort Ai by descending ordering (let Ai < Aj when i > j).
After building the power consumption estimate model, the next step is to optimize this model and find the most energysaving color scheme for the visualization. The color encoding of the visualization is to enable the user to detect the different regions. Through Equation (1) and Equation (2), we can know that the dark colors save more energy. However, we need to choose colors which can be distinguished easily. We define the visual perception difference level to measure the color distinction in the color scheme for the visualization. Thus, there is a trade-off between the power consumption reduction and the visual perception difference level. The goal is to maximize the visual perception difference level and find the minimum power-consumption color scheme for the visualization. It can be described as the multi-objective optimization format in Equation (4).
min y = (Pscreen, -N )
(4)
where Pscreen is the power consumption of whole OLED display, as in Equation (3). N is the visual perception difference level for the N regions in the visualization. In order to maximize N , it is described to minimize -N . This problem can be presented as optimizing the power consumption under a list of the specific visual perceptual difference levels N based on all N colors in the color scheme CS. The solutions of the multi-objective optimization problem can be described as a Pareto frontier [13]. In the CIELAB and CIELU V perceptual uniform color space, the visual perception difference level N can be normally considered as the Euler distance of any two colors of the N colors in the color scheme CS. For pre-designed color schemes, we cannot modify the value of N . It has been defined by the color scheme itself. However, for auto-generated color schemes, we need to adjust N for the optimization. N can be chosen based on metrics with regards to the type of data, as discussed in Section 3.3. We can control the value of N in order to get the most energy-saving color scheme for different visual perceptual difference levels. The power consumption of the energy-saving color scheme will be the Pareto frontier in the Power Consumption-Visual Perceptual Difference Level chart as Figure 4. In our general model, the type of the color scheme is an important factor to influence power consumption estimation. We will discuss our model in detail for two situations: predesigned color schemes, and auto-generated color schemes. 3.2 Pre-designed Color Schemes There are some pre-designed color schemes, including ColorBrewer [11], Healey's color scheme [12] and the rainbow color scheme [3]. These pre-designed color schemes can be used for sequential, diverging and qualitative data visualization. In this paper, we focus on sequential data visualization. We use the sequential color scheme from ColorBrewer as an example to discuss how to apply our general model to sequential data visualization on pre-designed color schemes. In this situation, we cannot change the visual perception difference level N and the color ordering. In another words, N is fixed for the specific color scheme. Thus, the multi-objective problem is simplified to the single-objective optimization. To find the most energy saving color scheme in these pre-designed color schemes, the Equation (4) can be described as
min y = Pscreen
(5)
The optimization process is to apply each pre-designed color scheme CS into the Equation (5) and find the minimum power consumption color scheme.
3.3 Auto-Generated Color Schemes For auto-generated color schemes, our model will have a larger search space for the optimization than for pre-designed color schemes. The visual perception difference level N can be varied in this type of color scheme.
There exist some auto-generated color schemes for sequential data visualization. Wijffelaars et al. give an approach that uses bezier curves to simulate ColorBrewer color schemes in
CIELCHuv color space and automatically generate the sequential color scheme by the given intuitive parameters [23]. Alternatively, Zeileis and Hormik directly use the straight line and equal color distance in CIELUV color space to generate color schemes [23]. We choose Wijffelaars' single hue sequential color scheme generator approach as an example to apply our GreenVis general model. Its intuitive parameters are the Hue H [0 , 360 ], the Saturation s [0, 1], the Brightness b [0, 1] and the Contrast c [0, 1] [23]. At the same time, we also need to define the visual perception difference level N . Normally, N is the distance between colors in the perceptual uniform color space. For given specific data, we need to consider the data features to give the definition of the N . These are the requirements of the sequential data color scheme [22]:
· The colors should have a clear ordering in the perception. · The visual perception difference level is related to the data difference linearly. · The colors are equally important in the visual perception level.
Thus, we need to define the visual perception difference level N to meet these requirements. Wijffelaars et al. define the color distance of sequential color schemes in the CIELCHuv color space as Equation (6).
D(c1,
c2)
=
|
ln(
125 125
- -
c1.L c2.L
)|
(6)
where D is the color distance, c1 and c2 are any two colors, L is the lightness component of the color. Equation (6) means that the color distance is based only on the lightness component of the colors. For sequential data, the maximum distance will be the distance between the start color Colors and the end color Colore in the auto generated color scheme CS, as D(Colors, Colore). Thus, in our model for sequential data visualization, we define N as the scaled value from 0 to 1 of D(Colors, Colore).
In the optimization process, the free variables are H, s, b, and the number of the sequential parts N are given by user input. The Contrast c is directly related to the lightness component of colors. So, c is related to N . We need to control the value of N to apply to Equation (4) and find the most energy-saving sequential color scheme for the different values of N .
4. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY In this section, we detail the experimental methodology and setup that we employ in our evaluation of the GreenVis model and the OLED display power model.
4.1 Experiment Settings The OLED display device used in the experiment is µOLED32028-P1 AMOLED display module from 4D System [1]. The measurement devices are Agilent 34410A multi-meter
Figure 1: The experiment device settings for our evaluation
Table 1: 4D System µOLED-32028-P1 AMOLED
Display Module Optical Characters
Chromaticity Red Green Blue White Point
CIE x
0.66 0.29 0.15
0.31
CIE y
0.33 0.66 0.16
0.33
and Agilent E3631A DC power supply. The OLED display module is 320 Ч 240 resolution with 65K colors. Figure 1 shows the experiment hardware settings. During the measurement, we set the DC voltage to 5.0V and track the electrical current values in order to calculate the power consumption by P = U I. The optical characters of the µOLED-32028-P1 AMOLED display module is listed in Table 1. Using the parameters CIE x and CIE y in Table 1, we can get the forward transformation matrix M from RGB to CIEXYZ and the reverse transformation matrix M -1 from CIEXYZ to RGB [9]. We need to mention that the RGB color space here is specific for µOLED-32028-P1 AMOLED display module. Thus, the same RGB values in our OLED display and sRGB present different colors in CIEXYZ color space. 4.2 OLED Display Power Model Evaluation In order to verify the power model from Dong et al. [8] on our OLED display module, we display three color channels and three blended colors in the whole OLED display individually. The six test color channels are R-red, G-green, B-blue, Y-yellow (red + green), M-magenta (red + blue) and C-cyan (green + blue). The color level is scaled from 0 to 31. Thus, we need to test 192 (32 Ч 6) different colors. And for each color, the test lasts for 10 seconds. The multimeter records the current value every second. The current value of each color is the average of its 10 records. 4.3 Treemap We use a treemap as the example of visualization for our evaluation. Treemaps are one type of visualization for hierarchical data [2]. It uses recursive space filling to present the tree data structure. In treemaps, colors can indicate one
dimension of the data [6]. The reason why we use treemaps as the evaluation example is that treemaps have high data density and fill the space efficiently. An important difference between treemaps and other visualization approaches is that the treemaps do not need a background color because they are space filling. The colors in the space are only related to the data itself. The area of the color filling is the unique factor in our model. The treemap we use for the evaluation is generated by a random binary tree. It has 59 leaf nodes and the area of each node is the same. For each leaf node, we assign a random integer value from 0 to 8 as the sequential data label for coloring. The treemap we use for evaluation is shown in Figure 2 (a). 4.4 Experiments on Color Schemes For the pre-designed color scheme, we apply our model on all the 9-levels sequential color schemes in ColorBrewer for the treemap visualization. Then, the energy saving color scheme is chosen by our model and the power consumption is estimated. At the same time, the rest of the sequential 9levels color schemes in ColorBrewer are applied on the same treemap as the reference group. For the auto-generated color scheme, we choose Wijffelaars' approach [23] to generate 9-level sequential color schemes for the treemap visualization. As in the description of Equation (4) and the discussion in Section 3.3, we can use the multiobjective optimization approach to find the most energysaving color scheme for various values of visual perception difference level 9. In the optimization process, we set the visual perception difference level 9 as 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and search in the space: {hue|0 hue 360, hue Z} Ч {saturation|0 saturation 1} Ч {brightness|0 brightness 1} for the energy-saving color schemes. The set of energy-saving color schemes for different 9 can be described as the Pareto frontier. At the same time, we use the gray scale sequential color scheme in the same visual perception difference level as the reference group to compare against. 5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS In this section, we present our experimental results from the measurement of the power consumption in three experiments that are described in Section 4. 5.1 OLED Display Power Model Evaluation The experimental results of the OLED display power model are plotted in Figure 3. The X-axis indicates the scale of the color level from 0 to 31. The Y-axis presents the power consumption. We can see that the curves are nonlinear which is an effect of the gamma correction [8]. The experiment results shows that our OLED display module follows the power model in Equation (1) and Equation (2). Through the results, we can also see that Pbackground of our OLED display module is 0.36 W. 5.2 Pre-designed Color Scheme For the pre-designed color scheme evaluation, the treemap visualization results are shown in Figure 2 (b) and Figure 2
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Figure 2: Treemap Visualization Results. (a) Treemap visualization for our evaluation (b) Most energy saving sequential color scheme from ColorBrewer (c) Most energy consuming sequential color scheme from ColorBrewer (d) Energy saving color scheme in 9 = 0.6 (e) Reference color scheme in 9 = 0.6
Power Consumption - Color Level
Red
2.5
Green
Blue
Yellow (Red+Green)
Magenta (Red+Blue)
Cyan (Green+Blue)
2
1.5
Power Consumption (Watts)
1
0.5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Color Level
Figure 3: Experiment results of the OLED display power model
Table 2: Results of Pre-designed Color Scheme
(Watts)
Most Energy Saving Average Most Energy Costing
1.171
1.414
1.625
(c). Figure 2 (b) shows the most energy-saving 9-level sequential color scheme from ColorBrewer. At the same time, the treemap with the most energy-consuming color scheme is in Figure 2 (c). Table 2 shows the power consumptions of the most energy-saving color scheme, the average of the reference color schemes, and the most energy consuming color scheme. Compared with the average power consumption of the reference color schemes, we can see that the most energysaving color scheme saves 17.2% of energy. 5.3 Auto Generated Color Scheme The experiment results are shown in the Figure 4. From the results, we find that the sequential energy-saving color scheme can reduce 21.9% of power consumption on average over the reference color scheme. The set of the energysaving color schemes in the different values of 9 assembles
Table 3: Energy-Saving Auto Generated Color Scheme (a) Energy-Saving Color Scheme (9 = 0.6) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 78 L 78 71 64 57 48 38 27 14 0 u -68 -62 -56 -50 -42 -33 -23 -13 0 v 100 92 83 73 62 49 35 18 0 (b) Reference Color Scheme - Gray Scale (9 = 0.6) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 78 L 95 89 82 73 63 52 37 20 0 u0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 v0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 the Pareto frontier of this multi-objective optimization. The treemap visualization with the most energy-saving sequential color scheme with 9 = 0.6 is shown in Figure 2 (d). Figure 2 (e) shows the visualization result using the greyscale reference color scheme in 9 = 0.6. We also list the CIELU V parameters of the color schemes in Figure 2 (d) and (e) as Table 3 (a) and (b) respectively. 6. DISCUSSION In this section, we discuss generalizations of our GreenVis approach. 6.1 Generalize to all parts of a visualization The visual encoding is just one part of an information visualization. A complete information visualization application also includes the background color, labels, legend, caption and text [20]. These parts must also be considered in order to reduce the total power consumption. For many visualizations, the background might be the largest area displayed, and usually in a single solid color. Through the OLED display energy model in Section 2.1, we know that a black colored background will reduce the most power consumption. The reason is that OLED displays do not emit any light from pixels that are colored fully black. So, a simple first step is to adjust the background to the color black. For text labels, using a white color text will achieve high contrast with the black background color. Because text likely
Pareto Frontier of Power Consumption - Visual Perception Difference 1.6 Energy Saving Color Scheme Gray Scale Color Scheme 1.4
1.2
Power Consumption (Watts)
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Visual Perception Difference
Figure 4: Multi-objective optimization results for the auto-generated color scheme
consumes a relatively small total number of pixels, the high power cost of white color is acceptable. After these initial steps, we can then begin our approach described in the previous sections. However, we will need to reduce our search space of the optimization so that the user can distinguish between the color-encoded data and the black background color (and possibly also the text color, depending on the layout). In this step, we can also use the visual perception difference level N to measure the difference between the color schemes and the color of the background. 6.2 Generalize to diverging and qualitative data In the above sections, we discussed how to apply our GreenVis model to an auto-generated color scheme for sequential data visualization. Now, we discuss two other data types diverging and qualitative data. For diverging data, we can also apply our model. However, the visual perception difference level N will need to be re-defined. For diverging data, N is the sum of the color distance between the two end colors and the midpoint color. For qualitative data, Chuang et al. present an energy-saving auto-generated color scheme approach [7]. In their model, they fix the lightness value and search for colors with the same visual perception difference level on the same lightness surface of the CIELAB color space. Whereras, in our model, we do not need to restrict the lightness value to a constant. Based on our multi-objective optimization model, we can find energy saving color schemes using the whole color space. 7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK In this paper, we present our approach to reduce the power consumption on OLED displays for sequential data visualization. First, based on the OLED power model, we build a multi-objective optimization approach to find the most energy-saving color scheme based on the visual perception difference level for visualization. Second, we discuss the model in the two situations: pre-designed color schemes, and auto-generated color schemes. For pre-designed color schemes, the visual perception difference level is defined by the color scheme itself, and the model becomes a singleobjective optimization. We apply our model to ColorBrewer, an expert-generated color scheme for map coloring. For the
auto-generated color schemes, we apply our model to Wijffelaars' color method to generate energy-saving color schemes based on the visual perception difference level for sequential data. Finally, we evaluate our approach on a treemap visualization. The experiment results show that the energy-saving color scheme we choose can reduce power consumption by 17.2% in ColorBrewer. In the auto-generated color scheme, it can save 21.9% of power in comparison to a gray scale as the reference color scheme for sequential data. In the future, we plan to apply our approach to diverging and qualitative data visualization and build a general evaluation framework for the visual perception difference level of the energy-saving color schemes. 8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 9. REFERENCES [1] 4D Systems uOLED-3202X-P1(GFX) AMOLED Display Module Data Sheet. http://www.4dsystems.com.au/downloads/4DGLDisplay-Modules/uOLED-32024P1(GFX)/Docs/uOLED-3202X-P1GFX-DS-rev3.pdf. 2011. [2] B. Bederson, B. Shneiderman, and M. Wattenberg. Ordered and quantum treemaps: Making effective use of 2D space to display hierarchies. AcM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 21(4):833­854, 2002. [3] D. Borland and M. R. Taylor. Rainbow color map (still) considered harmful. IEEE Computer Graphics and applications, 27(2):14­7, 2007. [4] C. Brewer. Designing better Maps: A Guide for GIS users. Environmental Systems Research, 2004. [5] C. Brewer, G. Hatchard, and M. Harrower. ColorBrewer in Print: A Catalog of Color Schemes for Maps. Cartography and geographic information Society, 30(1):5­32, Jan. 2003. [6] M. Bruls, K. Huizing, and J. Van Wijk. Squarified treemaps. In Proceedings of the joint Eurographics and IEEE TCVG Symposium on Visualization, pages 33­42. Citeseer, 2000. [7] J. Chuang, D. Weiskopf, and T. MЁoller. Energy Aware Color Sets. Computer Graphics Forum, 28(2):203­211, 2009. [8] M. Dong and L. Zhong. Power modeling and optimization for OLED displays. Mobile Computing, IEEE Transactions on, (99):1­1, 2011. [9] A. Ford and A. Roberts. Colour space conversions. Westminster University, London, 1998:1­31, 1998. [10] S. Forrest. The road to high efficiency organic light emitting devices. Organic Electronics, 4(2-3):45­48, Sept. 2003. [11] M. Harrower and C. Brewer. ColorBrewer.org: An Online Tool for Selecting Colour Schemes for Maps. The Cartographic Journal, 40(1):27­37, June 2003. [12] C. Healey. Choosing effective colours for data visualization. In Proceedings of Seventh Annual IEEE Visualization '96, pages 263­270,. Acm, 1996. [13] A. Konak, D. Coit, and A. Smith. Multi-objective optimization using Genetic algorithms: A tutorial.
Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 91(9):992­1007, Sept. 2006. [14] LG's 55-inch 'world's largest' OLED HDTV panel is official, coming to CES 2012. http://www.engadget.com/2011/12/25/lgs-55-inchworlds-largest-oled-hdtv-panel-is-official-comi/. [15] V. Moshnyaga. LCD display energy reduction by user monitoring. Computer Design: VLSI in, 1:94­97, 2005. [16] B. Rogowitz and L. Treinish. Why should engineers and scientists be worried about color? Lloydia Cincinnati, pages 1­19, 2009. [17] Samsung Galaxy S II. http://www.samsung.com/global/microsite /galaxys2/html/. [18] Samsung Galaxy Tab 7.7. http://www.samsung.com/global/microsite/ galaxytab/7.7/index.html?type=find. [19] J. Shinar. Organic light-emitting devices: a survey. 2004. [20] R. Spence. Information Visualization: Design for Interaction (2nd Edition). Prentice Hall, 2 edition, Jan. 2007. [21] C. Ware. Information visualization: perception for design. The Morgan Kaufmann series in interactive technologies. Morgan Kaufmann, 2004. [22] M. Wijffelaars. Synthesis of color palettes. PhD thesis, TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITEIT EINDHOVEN, 2008. [23] M. Wijffelaars, R. Vliegen, J. Van Wijk, and E. Van Der Linden. Generating color palettes using intuitive parameters. In Computer Graphics Forum, volume 27, pages 743­750. Wiley Online library, 2008. [24] A. Zeileis and K. Hornik. Choosing color palettes for statistical graphics. Technical Report October, 2006.

J Wang

File: greenvis-energy-saving-color-schemes-for-sequential-data-visualization.pdf
Author: J Wang
Published: Thu Dec 29 21:31:26 2011
Pages: 8
File size: 1.09 Mb


Spiritual Gifts, 19 pages, 0.13 Mb
Copyright © 2018 doc.uments.com