House of Representatives and Senate Staff Levels in Member, Committee, Leadership, and Other Offices, 1977-2010, RE Petersen, PH Reynolds

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Content: House of Representatives and Senate Staff Levels in Member, Committee, Leadership, and Other Offices, 1977-2010 R. Eric Petersen Analyst in American National Government Parker H. Reynolds Analyst in American National Government Amber Hope Wilhelm Graphics Specialist August 10, 2010
CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41366
House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Summary The manner in which staff are deployed within an organization may reflect the mission and priorities of that organization. In Congress, employing authorities hire staff to carry out duties in Member-office, committee, leadership, and other settings. The extent to which staff in those settings change may lend insight into the work of the two chambers over time. Some of the insights that might be taken from staff levels include an understanding of the division of congressional work between Members working individually through their personal offices, or collectively, through committee activities; the relationship between committee leaders and chamber leaders, which could have implications for the development and consideration of legislation or the use of congressional oversight; and the extent to which specialized chamber administrative operations have grown over time. This report provides staffing levels in House and Senate Member, committee, leadership, and other offices since 1977. Data presented here are based on staff listed by chamber entity (offices of Members, committees, leaders, officers, officials, and other entities) in telephone directories published by the House and Senate. These directories were chosen because they are the only official, publicly available resource that provides a concise breakdown of House and Senate staff by internal organization. In the past three decades, staff working for the House and Senate has grown. Between 1977 and 2009, the number of House staff grew from 8,831 to 9,808, or 11.06%. In the Senate, the number of staff has grown steadily, from 3,380 in 1977 to 6,099 in 2010, or 80.44%. There are differences in the scale of growth between the chambers, but there are similarities in the patterns of change in the distribution of staff among congressional entities. In each chamber, for example, there have been increases in the number of staff working in chamber leadership offices, and larger increases in the staffing of chamber officers and officials. In the House and Senate, staff working for Members have shifted from committee settings to the personal offices of Members. Some of these changes may be indicative of the growth of the House and Senate as institutions, or the value the chambers place on their activities. This report will be updated annually. Congressional Research Service
House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Contents Congressional Staffing Summary ................................................................................................4 House Staffing ............................................................................................................................4 House data collection .......................................................................................................... 5 House Member Offices ...................................................................................................6 Committees ..................................................................................................................... 7 Leadership Offices ..........................................................................................................8 Officers and Officials ......................................................................................................8 Commissions ..................................................................................................................8 Senate Staffing.......................................................................................................................... 10 Senate Data Collection ........................................................................................................ 10 Staff in Senators' Offices............................................................................................... 11 Committees................................................................................................................... 12 Leadership Offices ........................................................................................................ 12 Officers and Officials .................................................................................................... 13 Discussion ................................................................................................................................ 15 Data Tables ............................................................................................................................... 16 House of Representatives Data Tables ................................................................................. 17 Senate Data Tables .............................................................................................................. 24 Joint Committee Staff Data ................................................................................................. 29 Figures Figure 1. House and Senate Staff Levels Since 1977....................................................................4 Figure 2. House Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2009 .................................................................6 Figure 3. Distribution of House Member Office Staff Since 1977 ................................................7 Figure 4. Change in Distribution of House Staff Since 1977 ........................................................9 Figure 5. Senate Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2010............................................................... 11 Figure 6. Distribution of Staff Working In Senators' Offices, 1977-2010.................................... 12 Figure 7. Change in Distribution of Senate Staff Since 1977...................................................... 14 Tables Table 1. House and Senate Staff Levels Since 1977 ................................................................... 16 Table 2. House of Representatives Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2009.................................... 17 Table 3. Estimated Staff Working in House Member Offices Since 1977.................................... 18 Table 4. House Committee Staff, 1999-2009.............................................................................. 20 Table 5. House Committee Staff, 1988-1998.............................................................................. 21 Table 6. House Committee Staff, 1977-1987.............................................................................. 22 Table 7. Senate Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2010 ................................................................ 24 Congressional Research Service
House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Table 8. Staff Working in Senators' Offices, 1977-2010............................................................. 25 Table 9. Senate Committee Staff by Committee, 2001-2010 ...................................................... 26 Table 10. Senate Committee Staff by Committee, 1991-2000 .................................................... 27 Table 11. Senate Committee Staff by Committee, 1977-1990..................................................... 28 Table 12. Staff of Active Joint Committees, 1977-2010 ............................................................. 29 Contacts Author Contact Information ...................................................................................................... 31 Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................... 31 Congressional Research Service
House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010
The manner in which staff are deployed within an organization may reflect the mission and priorities of that organization. In Congress, employing authorities hire staff to carry out duties in Member-office, committee, leadership, and other settings. The extent to which staff in those settings change may lend insight into the work of the two chambers over time. Some of the insights that might be taken from staff levels include · an understanding of the division of congressional work between Members working individually through their personal offices, or collectively, through committee activities; · the relationship between committee leaders and chamber leaders, which could have implications for the development and consideration of legislation or the use of congressional oversight; and · the extent to which specialized chamber administrative operations have grown over time. This report provides staffing levels in House- and Senate-Member1, committee, leadership, and other offices since 1977. No House or Senate publication appears to track the actual number of staff working in the chambers by office or entity. Data presented here are based on staff listed by chamber entity (offices of Members, committees, leaders, officers, officials, and other entities) in telephone directories published by the House and Senate. Figure 1 displays overall staffing levels in the House and Senate. Table 1 in the "Data Tables" section below, provides data for all staff listed in chamber directories in the House through 2009 (the latest data available) and in the Senate through 2010. House and Senate staffing data are provided in the "House of Representatives Data Tables" and "Senate Data Tables" sections, respectively, below. Joint committee staff data from both chambers for panels that met in the 111th Congress (2009-2010) are provided in Table 12.2 Congressional staff may be counted in two ways. These include a full-time equivalent (FTE) count that focuses on job positions, and a "head count," that provides the number of people carrying out the work. FTE counts focus on the work to be done, and how much staffing is required to accomplish that work. They are typically used to determine staffing and budgetary need for an organization, but do not reflect the actual number of people who carry out that work. 3 1 Throughout this report, the terms "Member office," "personal office," and "House Member's office or Senator's office" refer to the office held by a Member of the House or a Senator as a consequence of their election or appointment to Congress. They do not refer to the number of facilities in which that work is carried out. Discussions of how many staff are based in Washington, DC, and district or state facilities distinguishes only between locations in Washington, DC, or in the state or district. It does not provide an office-by-office accounting of staff working in multiple district or state facilities. 2 Joint committees that met in the 111th Congress include the Joint Committees on Taxation, Printing, Library of Congress, and the Joint Economic Committee. The table excludes staff listed at various times since 1977 for the Joint committees on Inaugural Ceremonies, Atomic Energy, Defense Production, Internal Revenue Service, and Organization of Congress. Staff data for those panels are available from the authors upon request. 3 According to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), FTEs are determined by a formula that adds the total number of hours worked by all employees of agencies during a year and then divides that total by 2,080, which is the number of scheduled work hours in a work year. The 2,080 hours can be worked by one employee who works a full time schedule of 40 hours each week for 52 weeks, or two or more part-time employees who work a total of 2,080 hours between or among them. This method provides the means for an agency to determine its long term staffing (continued...)
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Congress uses FTE figures in conjunction with developing appropriations for the legislative branch. The head count approach tabulates the actual number of people working, based on a number of potential data sources. These sources may include payroll records, organizational directories, or other records that capture most of the people working for an organization at any one time.4 Payroll data are supplied by the House and Senate to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) on a monthly basis and made available as a public document,5 but they are not broken down by congressional office or entity.6 This report provides data based on a count of staff listed in chamber telephone directories published since 1977.7 Like most sources of data, telephone directory listings have potential benefits and potential drawbacks. Telephone directories were chosen for a number of reasons, including the following: · telephone directories published by the House and Senate are an official source of information about those institutions that are widely available; · presumably, the number of directory listings closely approximates the number of staff working for the House and Senate;8 · while arguably not their intended purpose, the directories provide a consistent breakdown of House and Senate staff by internal organization at a particular moment in time; and · the directories afford the opportunity to compare staff levels at similar moments across a period of decades.9 At the same time, however, data presented below should be interpreted with care for a number of reasons, including the following: (...continued) expectations and the impact of those expectations on the agency=s future budgets. See Office of Personnel Management, Employment and Trends of Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics, July 2008, available at http://www.opm.gov/feddata/ html/2008/july/intro.asp. While OPM requires federal executive branch agencies to estimate their staffing needs in FTEs, no standard has been explicitly mandated by Congress for legislative entities to use for staff planning. Nevertheless, FTE estimates appear to be widely employed. Regular references to legislative branch staff in terms of FTEs were made by the House Committee on Appropriations beginning in the early 1990s, according to a survey of its hearings and reports. 4 Payroll data might not identify individuals who work for the House or Senate in an uncompensated position, such as interns or staff who are paid by entities other than Congress. 5 Office of Personnel Management, Employment and Trends of Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics, available at http://www.opm.gov/feddata/html/empt.asp. 6 Legislative branch staffing levels, principally based on OPM payroll data, are available in CRS Report R40056, Legislative Branch Staffing, 1954-2007, by R. Eric Petersen. 7 Senate directories listed some Washington, DC-based staff assigned to specific entities (e.g., Member, committee, and other offices) in 1958. The House first published a directory with detailed staff listings by entity in 1977. 8 The actual moment is the deadline that was set for the final collection of listings prior to publication. The exact date for each year is not known , but publication dates for the House and Senate directories were generally in the spring of each year. 9 Other congressional documents list staff by organizational unit, most notably the quarterly Statement of Disbursements issued by the House, and the semiAnnual report of the Secretary of the Senate, issued by the Senate. At the same time, because they capture all paid staff activity for a three-month (House Statements) or six-month (Senate Reports) period, those documents do not provide as clear a picture of staffing at one point in time as the telephone directories do.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 · There is no way to determine whether all staff working for the House or Senate are listed in the chambers' telephone directories.10 If some staff are not listed, relying on telephone directories is likely to lead to an undercount of staff. · It is not possible to determine if those staff who are listed were actually employed by the House or Senate at the time the directories were published. If the directories list individuals who are no longer employed by the House or Senate, then relying on them is likely to lead to an overcount of staff. · The extent to which the criteria for inclusion in the directories for the House or Senate has changed over time cannot be fully determined. For example, staff working in Senators' state offices were not listed until 1987. Some editions of both chambers' directories do not always list staff in various entities the same way.11 This may raise questions regarding the reliability of telephone directory data as a means for identifying congressional staff levels within each chamber over time. · It cannot be determined whether the House and Senate used the same criteria for including staff in their respective directories. This may raise questions regarding the reliability of telephone directory data as a means for comparing staff levels and organizational structures between the chambers. · Some House or Senate staff may have more than one telephone number, or be listed in the directory under more than one entity.12 As a consequence, they might be counted more than once. This could lead to a more accurate count of staff in specific entities within the House or Senate, but multiple listings may also lead to an overcount of staff working in the chamber. · Chamber directories may reflect different organizational arrangements over time for some entities. This could lead to counting staff doing similar work in both years in different categories,13 or in different offices.14 · A random sample of House Member offices used to develop an estimate of Member office staff working in Washington, DC, and discussed in greater detail below, may or may not be representative of the entire population of House Member offices. The extent to which the sample is representative of the population from which it is drawn will determine the accuracy of the estimated data for House Member offices. 10 In the Senate telephone directories, for example, state-based staff in Senators' offices were not listed until 1987. This omission is likely to lead to an undercount of Senate staff prior to 1987. 11 In some instances, a listing for a House or Senate entity would not list staff. In other instances, there were significant changes in the number of staff from year-to-year, and it could not be determined whether that was a consequence of changing organizational practices, or differences in the manner in which staff were included in the directory. 12 For example, some staffers may work on a part-time basis for more than one Member, or for a Member and a committee. In limited instances (some commissions and joint committees), it is possible that some staff are listed in both House and Senate directories. 13 For example, in 1977, House information systems (HIS) staff were listed with staff from the Committee on House Administration (CHA). In 2009, House information resources, the successor entity to HIS, was listed as a component of Office of the Chief Administrative Officer. In this instance, HIS staff listed under CHA are counted as Officer and Officials staff regardless of their initial listing. 14 For example, a number of administrative activities now carried out by staff of the Chief Administrative Officer were previously overseen by the Committee on House Administration, House Clerk, or Sergeant at Arms.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010
Congressional Staffing Summary
Figure 1. House and Senate Staff Levels Since 1977
Between 1977 and 2009, the number of
House staff grew from 8,831 to 9,808, or
11.06%. Change in House staff has been
characterized by slight but steady growth in
two periods (1977-1994, 12.03%; and 1997-
2009, 12.53%), separated by a brief period of
sharp decline (1995-1996, -12.17%). In the
Senate, the number of staff has grown
steadily, from 3,380 in 1977 to 6,099 in 2010,
or 80.44%.
In each chamber, there has been significant
Source: House and Senate telephone directories, various years, CRS calculations.
change in the distribution of staff among offices. In the House, the number of staff
Notes: House data through 2009. Senate data through 2010.
working in Member offices has grown by
more than 12%, a slightly greater rate of growth than all House staff combined. Committee staff has declined nearly 28%. House staff working for leadership and chamber officers and officials15
more than doubled. In the Senate, the number of staff working in Senators' offices has more than
doubled. The number of staff working for Senate officers and officials has grown more than 75%.
Senate committee staff levels have increased by nearly 15%. Staff levels in leadership offices
have more than quadrupled, while the staff of Senate officers and officials has grown by more
than 76%. A more detailed discussion and analysis of the changes in each chamber is provided in
the "House Staffing" and "Senate Staffing" sections below.
House Staffing Between 1977 and 2009, the number of House staff grew from 8,831 to 9,808, or 11.06%. Staffing levels have ranged from a low of 8,831 in 1977 to a peak of 10,004 in 2008. Each year, the number of House staff has grown by an average of 31 individuals,16 or 0.39%. Change in House staff has been characterized by slight, but steady growth in two periods (1977-1994, 12.03%; and 1997-2009, 12.53%), separated by a brief period of sharp decline (1995-1996, 12.17%). Figure 2 displays staff levels in five categories (House-Member offices, committees, leadership, officers and officials, and commissions) since 1977. Figure 4 displays change in the distribution of staff among the categories at various intervals. Table 2, in the "Data Tables" section below, provides detailed staff levels in those categories.
15 In 2009, House officers included the Clerk, Sergeant at Arms, Chief Administrative Officer, and Chaplain. Officials included staff in the offices of Parliamentarian, Interparliamentary Affairs, Law Revision Counsel, Legislative Counsel, General Counsel, Inspector General, Emergency Preparedness and Planning Operations, and House Historian. The Senate elects two officers, the Secretary of the Senate and the Sergeant at Arms. Officials include the Chaplain, Legislative Counsel, and legal counsel. 16 Rounded to reflect a whole number.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 House Data Collection House staff data were developed based on an estimate of staff working in Member offices, and a full count of staff listed in all non-Member congressional offices listed in each House telephone directory.17 In some years, the House published two directories. When that happened, data were taken from the earlier publication. A full count of House Member office staff was beyond the capacity of available resources, and unlikely to yield a significantly different result than that which would result from a full count of staff working in all Members' offices. Since 1975, the House has limited the number of full-time staff working in a Member's office to 18 permanent employees; in 1979 up to four FTEs who may work part time were authorized.18 As a consequence, among all congressional entities, House Member office staffing is least likely to show a high degree of variability. For each year, a random sample of 45 Member offices was drawn in proportion to the distribution of Member offices in the Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn House office buildings in 2009. Staff telephone data from those offices were counted and assumed to be in Washington, DC, if they were listed as working in the Cannon, Longworth, or Rayburn buildings, and outside of Washington, DC, if they were not.19 The average number of staff working in Washington, DC, and in district offices was computed. Those data were multiplied by the number of Member offices20 to derive an estimate of the number of staff employed in personal offices who work in House Member offices. Table 3 in the "Data Tables" section below provides the computed averages from the sample data and the estimated House Member staff working in Washington, DC, and district offices. Committee data are based on a full count of all telephone directory listings for House standing, special, and select committees as described in individual directory listings. The data also include associate staff of the Committees on the Budget, Rules, and Ways and Means, and joint committee staff housed in House facilities. In the "Data Tables" section below, three tables provide staff levels in various House committees. Table 4 provides House committee data for 1999-2009; data for 1988-1998 are available in Table 5; and Table 6 provides data for 19771987. Joint committee data are available in Table 12. Data for leadership offices include a full count of staff working for Members in leadership positions. In 2009, these listings included the following: Speaker, Majority Leader, Majority Whip, Senior Chief Deputy Majority Whip, Minority Leader, Minority Whip, Chief Deputy Minority Whip, and Democratic and Republican Cloakrooms. Data for chamber officers and other House officials include a full count of staff working for House officers and officials. In 2009, House officers included the Clerk, Sergeant at Arms, Chief Administrative Officer, and Chaplain. Officials included staff in the offices of Parliamentarian, Interparliamentary Affairs, Law Revision Counsel, Legislative Counsel, General Counsel, Inspector General, Emergency Preparedness and Planning Operations, and House Historian. 17 Entities and staff that are not a part of the House, but were listed in the directory (including the Senate, other legislative branch entities, executive branch agencies, and vendors) are excluded from these data. 18 See CRS Report RL30064, Congressional Salaries and Allowances, by Ida A. Brudnick for details. 19 The House telephone directory provides consistent five-digit listings for all House staff who work in Washington, DC. 20 House Member offices includes Representatives, Delegates, and the Resident Commissioner. The number of House Member offices was 439 in 1977-1978, 440, 1979-2008, and 441 in 2009.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Commissions data comprise the smallest category of House data, and are based on a full count of those entities. In 2009, commissions data included staff working for the Commission on Congressional Mailing Standards (commonly known as the Franking Commission); the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (typically referred to as the Helsinki Commission); and the Congressional-Executive Commission on the People's Republic of China. Figure 2. House Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2009
Source: House telephone directories, CRS estimates and calculations. Notes: House Member office data is an estimate developed from a sample of 45 Member offices for each year, multiplied by the number of Member offices. All other categories are based on a full count of directory listings. House Member Offices Staff levels in House Member offices have grown from 6,556 in 1977 to 7,360 in 2009, or 12.27%. The level of staffing grew steadily from 1977 until peaking at 7,284 in 1994, and falling 10.74%, to 6,502, in 1995. Member staff increased between 1997 and 2009 in an uneven, but generally upward pattern before reaching its current high of 7,360. House Member staff comprise approximately three-quarters of all House staff. This proportion of overall staffing has been relatively steady since 1977. Figure 4 provides staff levels and distributions among categories of offices for four years between 1977 and 2009.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Figure 3. Distribution of House Member Office Staff Since 1977
Source: House telephone directories, various years, CRS calculations. Notes: Line graph charts change in estimated levels of staff working in House Member offices since 1997. Table provides the average number of staff in a Member's office, and their distribution between Washington, DC, and district facilities for the years noted. All estimates are based on a random sample of 45 House Member offices. Figure 3 displays the distribution of House Member staff between Washington, DC, and district offices since 1977, and the average number of staff working in a Member office at various times. From 1977 until 1994, more staff worked in Washington, DC, than in field offices. Throughout that period, however, the number of staff assigned to district offices steadily grew while Washington, DC-based staff declined in an uneven, but generally downward pattern. Since 1994, staff have been relatively evenly distributed between Washington, DC, facilities and district offices. The average number of staff working in an individual Member's office reflects both the relatively modest growth of Member staff since 1977, and the changing distribution of staff from Washington, DC, to district office settings. Table 3 in the "Data Tables" section below provides the estimated House Member staff working in Washington, DC, and district offices since 1997. Committees Committee staff levels have shown the greatest decline among House staff categories, decreasing 27.97% since 1977. Change among House committee staff was characterized by a moderate decline in 1977-1980 (-9.04%), steady growth from 1981 until 1992 (20.64%), a period of sharp decline in 1993-1996 (-43.66%), and a period of slow growth from 1997 to the present (6.67%). The 2009 level of 1,362 is 529 (-27.97%) fewer than 1977 levels, and 871 fewer than the 1992 peak of 2,233 (-39.01%) staff. Since 1977, committee staff have comprised a decreasing proportion of House staff, falling from 20.58% of House staff in 1979 to 13.89% in 2009. In the "Data Tables" section below, three tables provide staff levels in various House committees. Table 4 provides data for 1999-2009; data for 1988-1998 are available in Table 5; and Table 6 provides data for 1977-1987.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Leadership Offices Staff in House leadership offices showed the greatest percentage increase, rising 253.23% since 1977. While the relative increase is substantial, the actual number of staff is relatively small, and grew from 69 in 1977 to 219 in 2009. As a proportion of House staff, leadership employees comprised 0.72% in 1979, and 2.23% in 2009. Officers and Officials Staff working in the offices of House officers and officials has grown 205.54% since 1977. Staff levels grew steadily from 1977 to 1991, when they showed a one-year drop of 33.15%, from 537 in 1992 to 359 in 1993. In 1994, staff levels returned to a level similar to 1992, and increased again in 1995 to 818, or 57.01%. After dropping to 704 in 1996, levels began a steady increase to 1,056 in 2008, an increase of 50.00%, before falling 21.59% to 828 in 2009. As a proportion of House staff, officers and officials staff grew from 3.95% in 1979 to 8.44% in 2009. Commissions Congressional commission staff levels are essentially flat, and have ranged from a high of 51 in 1977 to a low of 19 in 2001. In 2009, 29 staff worked for congressional commissions.21 Congressional commissions have consistently comprised less than one-half of one percent of all House staff.
21 For more information on congressional commissions, see CRS Report R40076, Congressional Commissions: Overview, Structure, and Legislative Considerations, by Matthew Eric Glassman, and CRS Report RL33313, Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups, by Matthew Eric Glassman.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Figure 4. Change in Distribution of House Staff Since 1977
Source: House telephone directories, CRS estimates and calculations. Notes: Pie charts provide the distribution of staff by category in the years listed. In the "Change by Office Category" table, the middle columns represent change by category for each 10-year period. The final column represent change since 1977. House Member office data based on an estimate developed from a random sample of 45 Member offices for each year, multiplied by the number of Member offices. All other categories are based on a full count of directory listings.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Senate Staffing In the Senate, the number of staff has grown steadily, from 3,380 in 1977 to 6,099 in 2010, or 80.44%. Each year, the number of Senate staff has grown by an average of 82 individuals,22 or 1.91%. Figure 5 displays staff levels in four categories (Senators' offices, committees, leadership, and officers and officials) since 1977. Table 7 in the "Data Tables" section below, provides detailed staff levels in those categories. Figure 7 displays change in the distribution of staff among the categories at various intervals. Senate Data Collection All Senate staff data reported here are based on a full count of all telephone directory listings for Senators' offices, committees, leadership, and officers and officials. Staff working in Senators' offices were counted as working in Washington, DC, if they were listed in an office in the Russell, Dirksen, or Hart Senate Office Buildings, and as working in a state office if they were not. In 2010, leadership listings included the following: Majority Leader, Assistant Majority Leader, Republican Leader, Republican Whip, President of the Senate, President Pro Tempore, Democratic Policy Committee, Democratic Steering and Outreach Committee, Senate Democratic Communications Center, Republican Conference, Republican Policy Committee, Democratic Cloakroom, Republican Cloakroom, Secretary for the Majority, and Secretary for the Minority. Data for Senate officers and other chamber officials include a full count of staff in the following: Secretary of the Senate and Sergeant at Arms, the two officers elected by the Senate; Chaplain; Legislative Counsel; and Legal Counsel.
22 Rounded to reflect a whole number.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Figure 5. Senate Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2010
Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations. Notes: All categories are based on a full count of directory listings. Staff in Senators' Offices Staff in Senators' offices have grown from 2,068 in 1977 to 4,346 in 2010, or 110.15%. The level of staffing appears to have grown steadily since 1977, but the full extent of change over time cannot be determined, because prior to 1987, Senate telephone directories did not include statebased staff working in Senators' offices. Between 1987 and 2010, the number of staff working in Senators' offices grew 32.26%, from 3,286 to 4,346. This may call into question the validity of identifying data for 1977-1987 as all Senators' office staff, or ascribing significance to the apparently sharp rise in staff levels between 1986 and 1987. Given the consistent upward trend among all categories of Senate staff, it may be that the lack of state office data results in an undercount of staff working in Senators' offices. This may be particularly acute in the Senators' office category, since, as described below, staff working in the state facilities of Senator's offices have grown at a faster rate than Washington, DC-based staff. Senators' office staff have grown as a proportion of overall Senate staff over time. In 1980, Member office staff comprised 59.24% of Senate staff. The proportion grew to 68.49% in 1990, and 73.55% in 2000, before dropping slightly to 71.26% in 2010.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010
Figure 6 displays the distribution of staff based in Senators' Washington, DC, and state offices. It shows that after a period of growth between 1977 and 1987, Washington, DCbased staff growth was essentially flat. Most of the growth in Senators' staffs since 1987 appear to have been among state-based staff, which nearly doubled in size from 935 in 1987 to 1,833 in 2010. More staff work in Washington, DC, offices than in state offices, but the proportion of Senators' staff based in states has grown steadily since 1987, when listings for state-based staff were first available, while the staffing levels in Washington, DC, offices has remained flat. In 2010, approximately 58% of staff working in Senators' offices did so in Washington, DC, down from a high of 71.55% in 1977. Table 8 in the "Data Tables" section below provides the number of staff working in Senators' offices in Washington, DC, and state offices. Committees
Figure 6. Distribution of Staff Working In Senators' Offices, 1977-2010 Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations. Notes: All categories are based on a full count of directory listings. Staff telephone data from Senators' offices were counted and assumed to be in Washington, DC, if they were listed as working in the Russell, Dirksen, or Hart Senate Office Buildings, and outside of Washington, DC if they were not.
Senate committee staff levels have shown the smallest increase among Senate staff categories, rising 14.94% since 1977. Change among Senate committee staff may be characterized in four stages: an increase during 1977-1980 (20.57%); minimal growth from 1981 until 1992 (1.29%); a period of decline in 1993-1998 (-16.30%); and a period of steady growth from 1999 to the present (32.27%). The 2010 level of 1,246 is 162 (14.94%) more than 1977 levels, and 61 (-4.67%) fewer than the 1980 peak of 1,307 staff.
Between 1977 and 2010, committee staff comprised a decreasing proportion of Senate staff, falling from 33.72% of Senate staff in 1980 to 18.83% in 2000. The proportion of Senate committee staff grew to 20.43% by 2010.
In the "Data Tables" section below, three tables provide staff levels in various Senate committees. Table 9 provides data for 2001-2010; data for 1991-2000 are available in Table 10; and Table 11 provides data for 1977-1990.
Leadership Offices Staff in Senate leadership offices showed the greatest percentage increase, rising 340% since 1977. While the relative increase is substantial, the actual number of staff is relatively small, and grew from 40 in 1977 to 176 in 2010. The number of leadership staff peaked in 2006 at 214. As a proportion of Senate staff, leadership employees were 1.19% in 1980 and 2.89% in 2010.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Officers and Officials Staff working in the offices of Senate officers and officials has grown 76.06% since 1977. Staff levels have grown from 199 in 1977 to 331 in 2010, but were characterized by sharp decreases in 1986, 1993-1996, and 1998-2001. Despite the growth, Senate officers and officials staff decreased as a proportion of Senate staff, falling from 5.86% in 1980 to a low of 4.36% in 2004. In 2010, the proportion of officers and officials staff was 5.43%.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Figure 7. Change in Distribution of Senate Staff Since 1977
Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations. Notes: Pie charts provide the distribution of staff by category in the years listed. In the Change by Office Category table, the middle columns represent change by category for each 10-year period. The final column represent change since 1977. All categories are based on a full count of directory listings.
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House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Discussion In the past three decades, the number of staff working for the House and Senate has grown. There are differences in the scale of growth between the chambers, but there are similarities in the patterns of change in the distribution of staff among congressional entities. In each chamber, for example, there have been increases in the number of staff working in chamber leadership offices, and larger increases in the staffing of chamber officers and officials. In the House and Senate, staff working for Members have shifted from committee settings to leadership settings or the personal offices of Members. Some of these changes may be indicative of the growth of the House and Senate as institutions, or the value the chambers place on their activities. One example that may be an indication of institutional development may be found in the growth in both chambers of the number of staff working in leadership and officers and officials' offices. A potential explanation for these changes may be found in what some might characterize as an ongoing professionalization and institutionalization of congressional management and administration. Some note that as organizations such as governing institutions develop, they identify needs for expertise and develop specialized practices and processes.23 In Congress, some of those areas of specialization arguably include supporting the legislative process through the drafting of measures, oversight and support of floor activities, and the management of legislation in a bicameral, partisan environment. Another potential explanation related to a more institutionalized, professionalized Congress could be the demands for professional management and support. This could arise as a result of congressional use of communications technologies, and the deployment of systematic, professionalized human resources, business operations, and financial management. Consequently, increased specialized support of congressional legislative and administrative activities may explain increases among staff working for chamber leaders, and officers and officials.24 In another example, the distribution of staff working directly for Members has shifted from committee settings to personal office settings. Staff in Member offices of both chambers has grown; House committee staff has decreased; and the level of increase in Senate committee staff is substantially less than all other entities in that chamber. This may represent a shift from collective congressional activities typically carried out in committees (including legislative, oversight, and investigative work) to individualized activities typically carried out in Members' personal offices (including direct representational activities, constituent service and education, and political activity).25
23 See, for example, Nelson W. Polsby, "The Institutionalization of the U.S. House of Representatives," The American Political Science Review, vol. 62, no. 1 (March 1968), pp. 144-168. 24 For background on leadership offices, see CRS Report RS20881, Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities, by Valerie Heitshusen, and CRS Report 97-780, The Speaker of the House: House Officer, Party Leader, and Representative, by Valerie Heitshusen; for background on support offices, see CRS Report RL33220, Support Offices in the House of Representatives: Roles and Authorities, by Ida A. Brudnick. 25See CRS Report RL33686, Roles and Duties of a Member of Congress, by R. Eric Petersen.
Congressional Research Service
15
House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010
Data Tables
Year House Senate Year House Senate Year House Senate Year House Senate
Table 1. House and Senate Staff Levels Since 1977
1977
1978
8,831 3,380
9,102 3,750
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
9,075 3,832 1991 9,560 5,208 2001 9,349 4,926
9,265 3,991 1992 9,836 5,359 2002 9,389 5,324
9,176 4,044 1993 9,484 5,200 2003 9,112 5,373
9,556 4,021 1994 9,891 5,366 2004 9,556 5,624
9,267 3,933 1995 8,724 5,114 2005 9,521 5,562
9,428 4,072 1996 8,692 5,019 2006 9,568 5,879
9,083 4,815 1997 9,056 5,047 2007 9,718 5,691
9,500 4,927 1998 9,251 5,240 2008 10,004 5,901
Source: House and Senate telephone directories, various years, CRS calculations. Notes: House data through 2009. Senate data through 2010.
1979 9,045 3,640 1989 9,447 4,907 1999 9,050 5,138 2009 9,808 5,687
1980 9,341 3,876 1990 9,436 5,030 2000 8,994 5,198 2010 6,099
Congressional Research Service
16
House of Representatives Data Tables
Year House Member Office Committee Leadership Officers and Officials Commissions Totals Year House Member Office Committee Leadership Officers and Officials Commissions Totals Year House Member Office Committee Leadership Officers and Officials Commissions Totals
Table 2. House of Representatives Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2009
1977
1978
6,556 1,891 62 271 51 8,831
6,614 2,067 69 329 23 9,102
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
6,844 1,720 58 434 19 9,075 1991 6,825 2,098 107 501 29 9,560
6,884 1,851 71 437 22 9,265 1992 6,932 2,233 106 537 28 9,836
6,786 1,867 64 436 23 9,176 1993 7,040 1,950 107 359 28 9,484
7,050 1,974 65 444 23 9,556 1994 7,284 1,947 112 521 27 9,891
6,737 1,997 66 445 22 9,267 1995 6,502 1,258 125 818 21 8,724
6,942 1,980 63 424 19 9,428 1996 6,532 1,306 128 704 22 8,692
6,512 2,025 93 434 19 9,083 1997 6,893 1,277 132 733 21 9,056
6,864 2,062 95 457 22 9,500 1998 6,972 1,361 160 737 21 9,251
1979 6,737 1,861 65 357 25 9,045 1989 6,786 2,062 88 475 36 9,447 1999 6,835 1,311 159 723 22 9,050
1980 6,913 1,991 79 337 21 9,341 1990 6,717 2,088 101 495 35 9,436 2000 6,737 1,334 165 738 20 8,994
CRS-17
Year House Member Office Committee Leadership Officers and Officials Commissions Totals
2001 7,108 1,295 177 750 19 9,349
2002 7,079 1,321 173 787 29 9,389
2003 6,737 1,328 179 832 36 9,112
2004 7,060 1,399 203 861 33 9,556
2005 7,020 1,379 192 896 34 9,521
2006 7,089 1,370 190 884 35 9,568
2007 7,011 1,426 207 1,040 34 9,718
2008 7,226 1,472 214 1,056 36 10,004
2009 7,360 1,362 219 828 39 9,808
Source: House telephone directories, CRS estimates and calculations. Notes: House Member office data based on an estimate developed from a sample of 45 Member offices for each year, multiplied by the number of Member offices. All other categories are based on a full count of directory listings.
Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Table 3. Estimated Staff Working in House Member Offices Since 1977
Sample Averages
Member Staff Estimates
Washington, DC Staff 9.49 9.80 9.18 9.42 8.76 9.02 9.09 9.36 8.40 8.87 7.98 8.73 8.40
District Staff 5.44 5.27 6.13 6.29 6.80 6.62 6.33 6.67 6.91 6.91 6.82 6.87 7.02
Member Staff 14.93 15.07 15.31 15.71 15.56 15.64 15.42 16.02 15.31 15.78 14.80 15.60 15.42
Member Offices 439 439 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440
DC Staff 4,166 4,302 4,038 4,146 3,852 3,970 3,999 4,116 3,696 3,901 3,510 3,843 3,696
District Staff 2,390 2,312 2,699 2,767 2,992 2,914 2,787 2,933 3,041 3,041 3,002 3,021 3,090
Member Staff 6,556 6,614 6,737 6,913 6,844 6,884 6,786 7,050 6,737 6,942 6,512 6,864 6,786
CRS-18
Sample Averages
Member Staff Estimates
Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Washington, DC Staff 7.96 8.16 8.51 8.40 8.24 7.60 7.82 8.51 7.84 7.82 7.93 7.98 8.11 7.98 7.93 8.09 8.42 8.33 8.20 8.44
District Staff 7.31 7.36 7.24 7.60 8.31 7.18 7.02 7.16 8.00 7.71 7.38 8.18 7.98 7.33 8.11 7.87 7.69 7.60 8.22 8.24
Member Staff 15.27 15.51 15.76 16.00 16.56 14.78 14.84 15.67 15.84 15.53 15.31 16.16 16.09 15.31 16.04 15.96 16.11 15.93 16.42 16.69
Member Offices 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 440 441
DC Staff 3,500 3,588 3,745 3,696 3,628 3,344 3,442 3,745 3,452 3,442 3,491 3,510 3,569 3,510 3,491 3,559 3,706 3,667 3,608 3,724
District Staff 3,217 3,236 3,188 3,344 3,657 3,158 3,090 3,148 3,520 3,393 3,246 3,598 3,510 3,227 3,569 3,461 3,383 3,344 3,618 3,636
Member Staff 6,717 6,825 6,932 7,040 7,284 6,502 6,532 6,893 6,972 6,835 6,737 7,108 7,079 6,737 7,060 7,020 7,089 7,011 7,226 7,360
Source: House telephone directories, various years, CRS calculations. Notes: Based on a random sample of 45 Member offices drawn in proportion to the distribution of Member offices in the Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn House Office Buildings. Staff telephone data from those offices were counted and assumed to be in Washington, DC if they were listed as working in the Cannon, Longworth, or Rayburn Buildings, and outside of Washington, DC if they were not. Averages data were multiplied by the number of Member offices to derive an estimate of the number of staff employed in personal offices.
CRS-19
Table 4. House Committee Staff, 1999-2009
Committee
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Agriculture
53
51
56
56
53
55
50
53
45
45
45
Appropriations
138
150
152
161
122
133
133
134
158
154
130
Armed Services
55
52
48
49
55
52
56
60
67
65
67
Budget
87
86
79
84
91
87
87
80
72
73
73
Education and Labor
76
70
67
66
69
72
75
64
72
78
76
Energy and Commerce
83
84
86
93
92
90
89
82
79
104
96
financial services
51
49
58
60
63
63
62
59
62
63
62
Foreign Affairs
64
63
67
67
69
73
76
80
81
78
80
Homeland Security
-
-
-
-
17
44
38
51
63
62
62
House Administration
28
32
37
35
38
41
38
38
38
43
41
Judiciary
61
70
68
70
77
73
73
73
70
75
70
natural resources
56
62
60
64
64
64
63
62
67
71
61
Oversight and Government Reform
116
105
107
101
94
110
100
96
106
100
71
Rules
34
36
31
33
36
36
36
37
34
35
37
Science and Technology
52
52
50
53
47
53
53
47
50
50
54
small business
27
28
23
23
29
30
33
30
28
25
26
Standards
12
11
13
13
11
11
9
13
16
16
14
Transportation and Infrastructure
119
124
73
73
73
75
76
78
76
77
82
Veterans' Affairs
20
28
28
26
30
29
27
28
33
32
32
Ways and Means
66
64
69
70
69
71
74
72
64
71
69
Intelligence
24
22
28
31
26
32
29
36
39
36
32
Select Energy Independence & Global Warming
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13
20
23
Military and Commercial Concerns with China
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Source: House telephone directories, CRS calculations Notes: Committees are listed by names used in the 111th Congress, or most recent year in which the committee existed. "-" indicates that no staff were listed for that year. In some instances this was because the committee did not exist. In other instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff.
CRS-20
Committee Agriculture Appropriations Armed Services Budget Education and Labor Energy and Commerce Financial Services Foreign Affairs House Administration Judiciary Natural Resources Oversight and Government Reform Rules Science and Technology Small Business Standards Transportation and Infrastructure Veterans' Affairs Ways and Means Intelligence Aging Children, Youth and Families District of Columbia Hunger Merchant Marine and Fisheries Narcotics
1988 59 207 62 103 113 147 85 97 44 81 100 75 38 79 52 10 126 39 86 31 35 17 38 15 81 17
Table 5. House Committee Staff, 1988-1998
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
54
63
59
61
55
55
206
205
217
223
219
215
64
70
73
87
66
75
106
97
92
97
90
93
111
110
100
112
97
100
142
135
139
162
143
140
93
98
101
107
88
94
99
98
102
102
104
100
49
54
59
58
49
53
80
73
67
73
74
70
100
100
107
121
101
89
71
85
88
99
83
83
40
39
41
42
41
41
77
92
93
102
93
92
47
49
41
45
32
36
9
8
11
8
8
8
139
132
142
150
144
137
33
34
37
39
44
40
85
87
94
96
92
92
34
36
21
25
24
25
36
34
36
38
-
-
15
18
16
15
-
-
38
39
38
34
23
34
15
14
15
16
-
-
84
83
86
81
75
73
18
16
17
15
-
-
1995 57 148 46 72 67 69 51 60 25 50 75 77 36 51 27 7 119 25 61 20 -
1996 58 149 50 72 70 67 55 64 27 56 84 94 36 54 27 9 119 28 65 24 -
1997 55 151 53 68 72 82 51 63 29 54 57 94 36 55 27 8 116 28 64 23 -
1998 54 151 53 78 92 86 54 65 27 62 62 132 41 53 25 11 121 15 60 24 -
CRS-21
Committee
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
Organization of Congress Post Office and Civil Service
-
-
-
-
-
13
-
13
-
-
-
97
92
92
85
92
68
80
-
-
-
-
Source: House telephone directories, CRS calculations Notes: Committees are listed by names used in the 111th Congress, or most recent year in which the committee existed. "-"indicates that no staff were listed for that year. In some instances this was because the committee did not exist. In other instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff.
Committee Agriculture Appropriations Armed Services Budget Education and Labor Energy and Commerce Financial Services Foreign Affairs House Administration Judiciary Natural Resources Oversight and Government Reform Rules Science and Technology Small Business Standards Transportation and Infrastructure Veterans' Affairs Ways and Means
1977 50 76 48 111 103 136 102 85 41 86 103 125 24 77 40 35 85 33 87
Table 6. House Committee Staff, 1977-1987
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
55
58
69
62
56
60
134
129
133
122
142
143
49
48
46
49
48
51
78
82
96
80
97
95
106
102
119
105
112
109
143
135
156
122
147
147
106
102
94
77
81
92
99
84
81
81
85
84
47
50
60
44
46
48
83
83
80
76
72
78
107
103
105
91
103
110
80
73
82
78
80
79
25
34
47
48
43
44
85
86
87
58
73
77
43
40
54
46
56
53
35
11
17
9
9
7
86
80
78
82
98
99
37
33
33
32
34
30
90
90
89
82
84
84
1984 55 166 54 94 113 152 88 85 50 84 107 85 44 73 49 10 102 32 85
1985 58 183 58 100 102 144 89 91 47 85 95 87 41 84 51 9 100 31 91
1986 56 204 59 100 106 138 84 93 49 81 98 84 37 76 49 9 100 32 85
1987 55 205 62 104 110 135 85 93 46 76 103 75 39 76 56 10 109 36 79
CRS-22
Committee
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
Intelligence Aging Assassinations Children, Youth and Families Committees Congressional Operations Covert Arms Sales to Iran District of Columbia Ethics Hunger Merchant Marine and Fisheries Narcotics Outer Continental Shelf Post Office and Civil Service
3
38
35
40
36
32
30
27
32
27
29
35
36
36
38
35
38
33
37
35
37
33
96
118
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
17
18
16
17
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
34
33
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
38
44
45
33
50
38
38
39
42
39
39
40
9
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
14
15
14
64
69
86
91
80
84
78
89
84
75
78
26
27
25
22
-
15
17
21
14
17
16
20
-
17
17
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
55
70
66
65
67
57
55
89
89
92
92
Source: House telephone directories, CRS calculations Notes: Committees are listed by names used in the 111th Congress, or most recent year in which the committee existed. "-"indicates that no staff were listed for that year. In some instances this was because the committee did not exist. In other instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff.
CRS-23
Senate Data Tables
Table 7. Senate Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2010
Year
1977
1978
1979
1980
Senators' Offices Committee Leadership Officers and Officials Totals
2,068 1,084 40 188 3,380
2,215 1,244 91 200 3,750
2,173 1,209 44 214 3,640
2,296 1,307 46 227 3,876
Year
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
Senators' Offices Committee Leadership Officers and Officials Totals
2,308 1,161 118 245 3,832
2,385 1,228 128 250 3,991
2,454 1,200 134 256 4,044
2,430 1,191 136 264 4,021
2,409 1,137 118 269 3,933
2,474 1,177 128 293 4,072
3,286 1,150 131 248 4,815
3,393 1,147 129 258 4,927
3,354 1,167 126 260 4,907
3,445 1,174 137 274 5,030
Year
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Senators' Offices Committee Leadership Officers and Officials Totals
3,612 1,176 138 282 5,208
3,707 1,216 150 286 5,359
3,593 1,141 143 323 5,200
3,826 1094 158 288 5,366
3,771 915 151 277 5,114
3,773 929 151 166 5,019
3,678 899 163 307 5,047
3,876 955 135 274 5,240
3,801 942 135 260 5,138
3,823 979 137 259 5,198
Year
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Senators' Offices Committee Leadership Officers and Officials Totals
3,639 915 146 226 4,926
3,855 1,071 158 240 5,324
3,915 1,047 164 247 5,373
4,091 1,126 162 245 5,624
4,047 1,078 182 255 5,562
4,232 1,146 214 287 5,879
4,044 1,147 203 297 5,691
4,221 1,182 179 319 5,901
4,029 1,153 178 327 5,687
4,346 1,246 176 331 6,099
Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations.
Notes: All categories are based on a full count of directory listings. Senate telephone directories published in 1981, 1996, and 2009 provided listings for 99 Senators' offices.
CRS-24
House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010
Table 8. Staff Working in Senators' Offices, 1977-2010
Year
DC-Based Staff
State-Based Staff
Total Member Staff
DC %
State %
1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
2,068 2,215 2,173 2,296 2,308 2,385 2,454 2,430 2,409 2,474 2,351 2,449 2,381 2,430 2,439 2,473 2,332 2,474 2,422 2,397 2,318 2,407 2,375 2,329 2,258 2,334 2,378 2,474 2,436 2,521 2,394 2,496 2,370 2,513
935 944 973 1,015 1,173 1,234 1,261 1,352 1,349 1,376 1,360 1,469 1,426 1,494 1,381 1,521 1,537 1,617 1,611 1,711 1,650 1,725 1,659 1,833
3,286 3,393 3,354 3,445 3,612 3,707 3,593 3,826 3,771 3,773 3,678 3,876 3,801 3,823 3,639 3,855 3,915 4,091 4,047 4,232 4,044 4,221 4,029 4,346
71.55% 72.18% 70.99% 70.54% 67.52% 66.71% 64.90% 64.66% 64.23% 63.53% 63.02% 62.10% 62.48% 60.92% 62.05% 60.54% 60.74% 60.47% 60.19% 59.57% 59.20% 59.13% 58.82% 57.82%
28.45% 27.82% 29.01% 29.46% 32.48% 33.29% 35.10% 35.34% 35.77% 36.47% 36.98% 37.90% 37.52% 39.08% 37.95% 39.46% 39.26% 39.53% 39.81% 40.43% 40.80% 40.87% 41.18% 42.18%
Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations.
Notes: The Senate telephone directory did not provide listings for state-based staff prior to 1987. Senate telephone directories published in 1981, 1996, and 2009 provided listings for 99 Senators' offices.
Congressional Research Service
25
Table 9. Senate Committee Staff by Committee, 2001-2010
Committee
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry
22
32
27
33
22
29
30
35
32
43
Appropriations
102
90
101
118
120
118
124
121
116
114
Armed Services
44
51
47
48
46
48
51
53
49
50
Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs
38
60
41
46
47
46
41
46
48
60
Budget
46
52
50
49
47
49
50
49
45
54
Commerce, Science, and Transportation
48
59
72
69
64
68
69
69
69
65
Energy and Natural Resources
38
43
42
42
46
43
42
44
47
52
Environment and public works
33
49
53
56
51
50
41
40
45
44
Finance
52
56
60
62
53
63
82
83
84
84
Foreign Relations
55
54
49
56
57
53
52
46
47
66
Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
76
72
74
90
95
92
77
90
89
91
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
74
92
82
86
71
109
89
100
112
127
Judiciary
82
112
115
129
127
137
143
121
106
120
Rules and Administration
16
18
16
16
19
18
22
22
20
23
Small Business and Entrepreneurship
22
29
21
22
24
28
25
32
31
29
Veterans Affairs
18
19
20
17
22
23
24
25
26
27
Select Ethics
11
11
9
9
10
10
11
11
15
15
Indian Affairs
18
21
19
18
16
11
16
20
20
21
Select Intelligence
31
32
30
34
28
42
37
43
39
42
Select Aging
10
25
20
19
12
15
23
23
13
20
Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations Notes: Committees are listed by names used in the 111th Congress, or most recent year in which the committee existed. "-"indicates that no staff were listed for that year. In some instances this was because the committee did not exist. In other instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff.
CRS-26
Table 10. Senate Committee Staff by Committee, 1991-2000
Committee
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry
40
36
36
35
31
31
26
27
23
27
Appropriations
79
81
78
72
71
61
63
61
87
89
Armed Services
50
48
47
49
43
43
45
45
43
47
Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs
50
51
49
48
40
42
41
41
44
42
Budget
58
55
56
52
46
39
44
45
44
48
Commerce, Science, and Transportation
70
72
73
67
59
61
54
58
51
56
Energy and Natural Resources
50
51
49
48
42
44
40
38
37
40
Environment and Public Works
47
47
37
39
37
37
34
36
36
43
Finance
58
57
49
49
47
53
45
52
52
46
Foreign Relations
69
67
66
58
47
51
48
51
49
54
Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
106
102
93
108
81
79
76
85
98
86
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
93
96
96
86
61
63
78
76
65
85
Judiciary
105
119
106
106
86
93
85
93
84
98
Rules and Administration
27
28
27
25
18
18
21
19
15
16
Small Business and Entrepreneurship
21
21
19
22
19
20
19
17
18
20
Veterans Affairs
24
26
21
21
18
17
21
38
19
16
Select Ethics
11
10
11
12
11
9
8
11
10
11
Indian Affairs
22
28
20
20
14
16
18
15
16
20
Select Intelligence
40
41
32
36
24
30
27
34
33
29
Select Aging
33
32
26
23
16
20
18
20
18
17
Select POW/MIA Affairs
-
15
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Select Year 2000 Technology Problem
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
-
Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations Notes: Committees are listed by names used in the 111th Congress, or most recent year in which the committee existed. "-"indicates that no staff were listed for that year. In some instances this was because the committee did not exist. In other instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff.
CRS-27
Table 11. Senate Committee Staff by Committee, 1977-1990
Committee
1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Homeland Security Governmental Affairs Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business and Entrepreneurship Veterans Affairs Select Ethics Indian Affairs Select Intelligence Select Aging Select Impeachment Trials Select Investigations Select Iran-Contra Select Nutrition and human needs Select Senate Committee Systems Select Transition Staff for Former Postal Workers
28
37
30
35
33
34
35
32
33
32
30
35
38
69
67
74
89
63
76
81
81
80
82
78
78
84
28
29
27
27
36
34
37
39
42
42
46
49
49
39
49
43
46
38
39
33
29
29
31
34
31
44
47
79
67
77
63
70
73
74
68
63
61
61
54
89
91
83
92
77
88
78
78
80
78
76
75
72
40
51
52
55
49
52
49
51
48
48
44
46
48
30
33
38
38
52
51
54
51
49
50
46
47
48
28
34
36
40
45
50
45
53
54
55
54
54
54
63
57
55
68
62
62
61
62
60
61
54
57
57
93
122 118 121 118 123 123 112 101 105
95
107 104
108 153 140 156 113 121 120 117
94
99
88
92
97
119 144 139 153 120 135 116 119 121 126 101 100
98
27
30
30
31
30
32
29
28
29
28
29
27
27
22
21
23
23
22
23
24
21
22
21
22
20
21
18
19
20
23
20
22
22
20
21
25
25
26
25
2
9
15
12
17
13
12
10
8
8
9
7
9
0
25
26
15
13
14
19
20
19
23
23
41
26
40
46
43
46
41
41
41
36
32
47
38
40
41
19
19
19
21
28
28
25
34
25
27
24
26
30
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
53
-
-
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations
Notes: Committees are listed by names used in the 111th Congress, or most recent year in which the committee existed. "-"indicates that no staff were listed for that year. In some instances this was because the committee did not exist. In other instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff.
1990 45 80 49 49 58 70 50 50 54 51 102 92 111 28 22 26 11 23 40 32 -
CRS-28
Joint Committee Staff Data
Joint Committee Economic Library of Congress Printing Taxation Joint Committee Economic Library of Congress Printing Taxation Joint Committee Economic Library of Congress Printing Taxation
Chamber House Senate House Senate House Senate House Senate Chamber House Senate House Senate House Senate House Senate Chamber House Senate House Senate House Senate House Senate
Table 12. Staff of Active Joint Committees, 1977-2010
1981 44 46 2 2 14 15 60 58 1991 38 41 2 2 15 14 66 66
1982 44 43 2 2 15 16 60 59 1992 40 44 2 2 18 14 73 73
1983 42 44 3 3 16 16 60 60 1993 32 45 2 2 18 17 72 73
1984 44 44 3 3 17 17 60 60 1994 33 29 2 2 16 16 71 71
1985 40 40 3 3 17 17 66 62 1995 33 35 1 2 7 7 61 60
1986 36 39 3 3 17 16 66 68 1996 30 32 2 1 7 8 59 61
1977 4 46 1 3 15 28 - 1987 34 35 2 2 18 17 60 66 1997 24 23 59 8 9 56
1978 50 51 2 16 15 65 63 1988 44 45 2 2 18 17 64 64 1998 25 25 3 8 8 59 60
1979 55 53 2 2 17 16 63 60 1989 46 44 2 2 14 14 63 59 1999 22 23 2 2 61 62
1980 62 58 2 2 16 16 62 63 1990 42 43 2 2 16 16 67 70 2000 31 31 2 2 60 58
CRS-29
Joint Committee
Chamber
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Economic Library of Congress Printing Taxation
House Senate House Senate House Senate House Senate
34
29
34
36
31
33
29
32
7
-
21
34
35
36
31
31
35
35
34
34
1
1
4
2
2
2
2
2
-
-
-
-
2
2
2
2
4
4
-
-
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
-
-
1
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
-
-
59
62
61
63
65
58
58
61
52
-
57
58
60
65
64
57
55
66
66
65
Source: House and Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations
Notes: Excludes staff listed at various times since 1977 for the Joint committees on Taxation, Inaugural Ceremonies, Atomic Energy, Defense Production, Internal Revenue Service, and Organization of Congress. Staff data for those panels is available from the authors upon request. -"indicates that no staff were listed in the relevant chamber for that year. In some instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff.
CRS-30
House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010
Author Contact Information R. Eric Petersen Analyst in American National Government [email protected], 7-0643 Parker H. Reynolds Analyst in American National Government [email protected], 7-5821
Amber Hope Wilhelm Graphics Specialist [email protected], 7-2392
Acknowledgments Ida Brudnick, Analyst on the Congress, and Jennifer Manning, Information Research Specialist, provided technical assistance with this report.
Congressional Research Service
31

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