How integrated is the commercial real estate asset market? Evidence from transaction cap rates, L Peng

Tags: cap rates, commercial real estate, properties, real estate, market conditions, Arsenault, cap rate, Clayton, macroeconomic conditions, property type, investor sentiment, property attributes, real estate investments, integration, mortgage, property types, rent, quarter, construction spending, CBSA, capitalization rate, explanatory power, Jeffrey D. Fisher, Jim Clayton, house price, office properties, growth rate, NCREIF, retail properties, occupancy rate, credit availability, property prices, stock market, property level, Real Estate Finance, explanatory variables, Journal of Real Estate Research, commercial properties, discount rate, market segmentation, Norman G. Miller, property price, local market, Jensen's Alpha, Real Estate Economics, Real Estate Research Institute, asset market, real estate investment, space market, macroeconomic variables, conditions, NOI, commercial property, dispositions, acquisitions, observations, residential properties, commercial mortgages, seasonally adjusted annual rate, NOI growth rate
Content: How Integrated Is the Commercial Real Estate Asset Market? Evidence from Transaction Cap Rates Liang Peng* Department of Finance University of Colorado at Boulder Leeds School of Business 419 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0419 Phone: (303) 492-8215 Fax: (303) 492-5962 E-mail: [email protected] July 25, 2013 Abstract This paper empirically measures the integration of the asset market of commercial real estate by studying the respective explanatory power of three types of variables ­ macroeconomic conditions, local market conditions, and property attributes ­ for property transaction cap rates. Results from analyzing about 10,000 sales of institutional grade commercial properties from 1977 to 2012 indicate that the asset market is substantially but not completely integrated. Macroeconomic conditions, particularly credit availability, risk-adjusted returns of past real estate investments, lagged house price appreciation, and nonresidential construction spending, play a dominating role in explaining property cap rates. Core Business Statistic Area (CBSA) fixed effects and property attributes provide some incremental explanatory power, but local market conditions explain very little of transaction cap rates. JEL classification: C51, E30, G11, G12 Key words: commercial real estate, Market Integration, cap rates * I thank Real Estate Research Institute for a research grant and the National Council of Real Estate Investment Fiduciaries for providing data. I am particularly grateful for numerous constructive comments from Jeffrey Fisher and Joseph L. Pagliari Jr. I also thank participants of the Real Estate Research Institute 2013 conference for their comments. All errors are mine. 1
How Integrated Is the Commercial Real Estate Asset Market? Evidence from Transaction Cap Rates I. Introduction As much as economists believe that the space market of real estate is segmented, they believe that the asset market is more integrated. The segmentation of the space market results from two market attributes. First, properties differ from each other not only in their physical attributes but also in geographic, social, and economic features of their locations. Consequently, the space provided by each property is a unique product and has its own market. Second, demand is local because tenants or users need to have access to the space. This suggests that changes in local economy may have direct impact on the space market. For example, successful IPOs that have made many newly minted millionaires often substantially increase local house prices. The asset market of real estate has very distinct features that lead to the notion that it should be more integrated than the space market. First, demand for assets is national if not global. For instance, city boundaries do not prevent a Texas investor from purchasing an office building in Chicago, or stop an Ohio-based pension fund from acquiring a shopping center in Hartford. Second, the product of the asset market is money, and money produced by different properties is the "same". As Geltner, Miller, Clayton and Eichholtz (2014) put it, which we agree, "cash generated from rents in Chicago warehouses is the same as cash generated from rents in Los Angeles shopping centers." Since asset markets in different regions appear to have the "same" product ­ money ­ and the same national or global demand, economists expect them to be more integrated than the space market. Is money truly the same though? Asset market investors are seeking future cash flow, which comes from future rents. Rents are determined in the space market, which is segmented. Different space markets may have distinct growth prospects and different risks. As a result, the same amount of cash generated by two properties today may indicate different amount of future cash flow with different risks. For instance, one dollar generated from a warehouse in a stably growing market can be worth more than one dollar generated by a shopping center located in a volatile and shrinking market, because the former may 1
indicate future cash flow that grows faster and is less risky. Therefore, while money itself is the same, the cash generated by different properties (or properties in different markets) differs in their expected growth and risk, and thus is heterogeneous. If the demand is essentially national but the product ­ the cash flow ­ is heterogeneous, how integrated is the asset market of commercial real estate? This is an important empirical question for both academia and practitioners. If the market is virtually integrated, research on the pricing of commercial real estate should focus on macroeconomic and capital market conditions. If, however, the market is substantially segmented, more effort should be put on identifying local market variables or property attributes that affect the pricing. This paper aims to measure the integration of the U.S. commercial real estate asset market by investigating to what extent three types of variables ­ macroeconomic conditions, local space market conditions, and property attributes ­ help explain the pricing of individual commercial properties. We use the capitalization rate, which is the property net operating income divided by the property asset price or value, to measure the pricing of properties. The extent of market integration is measured with the extent to which macroeconomic conditions explain property cap rates in regression models. If they completely explain cap rates, we would infer that the asset market is integrated and investors perceive no heterogeneity in risks and growth prospects of cash flow across markets, or the perceived heterogeneity is not priced. We analyze about 10,000 transaction cap rates of institutional grade apartment, industrial, office, and retail properties from 1977 to 2012. This sample is the largest and covers the longest sample period in the literature on determinants of cap rates. Our results indicate that the asset market of commercial real estate is substantially integrated as macroeconomic conditions play a significant role in explaining property level cap rates. The adjusted Rsquare of the regression of cap rates against macroeconomic conditions is 0.48, 0.28, 0.30, and 0.34 for the four property types respectively. The top four most impactful macroeconomic variables are: (1) credit availability, which is measured with the development of the CMBS market; (2) risk-adjusted investment performance of real estate 2
in the past, which is measured with the ex post Jensen's Alpha estimated from past NCREIF price index (NPI) total returns; (3) lagged house price index appreciation; and (4) nonresidential construction spending. The asset market is not completely integrated though. Including fixed effects of Core Business Statistic Areas (CBSA) where properties are located increases the adjusted Rsquare of the regression from 0.48 to 0.56 for apartment, from 0.28 to 0.36 for industrial, from 0.30 to 0.35 for office, and from 0.34 to 0.44 for retail properties. Further, we find little explanatory power of time varying local market conditions, such as vacancy rate and rent growth. This suggests that location-related time-invariant market features drive the heterogeneity in risks and growth prospects of future cash flow more than time-varying local market conditions. Property attributes, such as age and size, provide less but some incremental explanatory power than CBSA fixed effects. This paper makes novel contributions to the literature. The results not only substantiate the integration of the asset market of commercial real estate, but also measure the extent of the integration. They also highlight the importance of location-related attributes, which are captured with CBSA fixed effects in regressions, in determining cap rates. The modest explanatory power of the fixed effects contrasts with the weak power of short-term local market conditions, and indicates the importance of understanding which time-invariant location-related attributes contribute to the perceived heterogeneity in risk and growth prospects of future cash flow and how. Our results have direct implications for commercial real estate investment ­ they help identify variables that affect property cap rates in a statistically and economically significant way, which investors can use to forecast cap rates corresponding to specific expected future macroeconomic conditions in specific CBSAs. Such forecasting relies on relationships between cap rates and economic conditions and locations, instead of sales of comparable properties. This is an important advantage for forecasting cap rates in thin markets and time periods with few sales. 3
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II reviews the literature. Section III describes the research design. Section IV discusses the data. Section V presents the empirical results. Conclusions are presented in the last section. II. Literature review While the existing literature is virtually silent on the integration of the asset market of commercial real estate, it contains many important papers that analyze the determinants of commercial real estate cap rates at both the aggregate level and the property level. The two lines of research have different focuses. Research at the aggregate level sheds light on the pricing of commercial real estate as an "asset class" and focuses on the average pricing of properties. This line of research has implications for the role of well-diversified real estate in a mixed asset portfolio. Research at the property level, on the other hand, focuses on cap rates of individual properties, which are critical for real estate investment decisionmaking. Some earlier studies at the aggregate level focus on the relationship between cap rates and expected investment returns of real estate. Froland (1987) studies the movements of quarterly cap rates for apartments, retail, office, and industrial properties for the first quarter of 1970 through the second quarter of 1986. He finds positive correlations of the cap rate with mortgage rates, ten-year bond rates, and the earnings/price ratio, and negative correlations with inflationary expectations and indicators of economic cycles. Evans (1990) investigates the correlation between the quarterly average cap rate of commercial and multifamily properties from American Council of Life Insurance (ACLI) data and the S&P 500 earning/price ratio for the 1975 to 1988 period. He finds that the cap rate is correlated with lagged S&P 500 earning/price ratio. Ambrose and Nourse (1993) relate ACLI quarterly cap rates of six property types with the term spread, which measures expected inflation, and the S&P 500 earning price ratio. They find a negative relationship of the cap rate with the S&P 500 earning price ratio and a positive relationship with the term spread. Jud and Winkler (1995) analyze a panel dataset of quarterly cap rates from 1985:4 to 1992:4 for 22 MSAs, and find that the cap rate is related to contemporaneous credit spread and the stock market risk premium in the previous quarter. 4
More recent studies investigate not only the relationship between cap rates and expected investment returns of commercial real estate, but also the relationship between cap rate and rent growth. Sivitanidou and Sivitanides (1999) study average office cap rates from 1985 to 1995 in 17 office markets. They find that cap rates are related to not only lagged stock market returns and the term spread, but also local conditions, such as rent growth and vacancy rate. Sivitanides, Southard, Torto and Wheaton (2001) analyze appraisal-based capitalization rates from the NCRIEF database in the U.S. market, and Hendershott and MacGregor (2005) analyze U.K. office and retail cap rates. Both studies find evidence of significance impact of local rent growth expectation on the cap rate, but the signs are different across the two markets. Plazzi, Torous and Valkanov (2010) study quarterly value-weighted cap rates in 53 U.S. metropolitan areas from 1994:Q2 to 2003:Q1. They find that the cap rate captures time variation in expected returns but not expected rent Growth Rates of apartments as well as retail and industrial properties. By contrast, offices cap rates are not able to capture the time variation in expected returns but somewhat track expected office rent growth rates. An and Deng (2009) build a dynamic cap rate model that links cap rate to multi-period expected returns and rent growths. Using quarterly series of NCREIF current-value cap rates and Real Estate Research Corporation (RERC) monthly average transaction cap rates, they estimate the model with Kalman filter, and find that cap rates are significantly related to both future expected return and expected rent growth. Noting that rent growth is affected by not only demand but also supply of space, Chichernea, Miller, Fisher, White and Sklarz (2008) expand the literature by relating average cap rates of multifamily properties in 34 MSAs to not only demand side variables, such as expected Employment growth and GMP growth, but also space supply constraints. Their crosssectional analyses provide robust evidence that supply constraints significantly affect cap rates. They also find cap rates are lower in market with greater liquidity. Recent evidence shows that the cap rate is driven by not only expected investment returns and expected rent growth, but also investor sentiment and credit availability. Clayton, Ling and Naranjo (2009) use a vector-error correction model and the RERC quarterly series of surveyed cap rates from 1996:Q1 to 2007:Q2 to investigate the role of investor sentiment 5
in commercial real estate valuation. They derive a measurement of investor sentiment towards commercial real estate and find this measurement being related to property cap rates. Arsenault, Clayton and Peng (2012) find very strong and robust evidence for the effects of mortgage supply/credit availability and property prices on each other in the U.S. commercial real estate market from 1991:Q1 to 2011:Q2. Using the growth of the CMBS market as a proxy for exogenous changes in mortgage supply and use quarterly NCREIF national average current-value cap rates, they find that the larger is the percentage of mortgages backed by CMBS, the lower is the average property cap rate. Chervachidze and Wheaton (2011) use a quarterly panel dataset of capitalization rates over 30 MSAs to determine if national macro factors or local market conditions were the primary drivers in the recent swing of the CRE prices. They find that the expansion of national debt, which they use to measure the credit availability, is one of the key variables that explain the majority of the recent swing. The literature on the pricing of commercial real estate at the property level is relatively new. Wiley (2013) uses about 500 transactions from CoStar and finds evidence that corporate investors, companies buying commercial real estate for use in their operations, tend to buy at a premium and sell for a discount. However, his focus is on price per square foot, not the cap rate. Elliehausen and Nichols (2012) analyze over 8,000 samples of cap rates of offices between 2001 and 2009 in the Real Capital Analytics (RCA) database. They regress cap rates against macro fundamentals, property-level characteristics, type of buyers, type of sellers, and local market conditions, and find that macroeconomic conditions and local market fundamentals explain the greatest part of variation in capitalization rates. While both analyzing property level cap rates, our paper has a few distinctions from Elliehausen and Nichols (2012). First, our focus is to measure the integration of the asset market and quantify the respective explanatory power of macroeconomic, local, and property level variables for property cap rates. Second, we analyze four property types ­ apartment, industrial, office, and retail, while they focus on offices. Third, our sample period is longer ­ from 1977 to 2012 ­ and covers multiple market cycles, while their 6
sample period is from 2001 to 2009. Fourth, we include past risk-adjusted investment performance and credit availability as potential factors, which turn out to be among the most influential factors, while they do not. Fifth, they observe the financing arrangements and types of buyers, and thus are able to analyze their effects on cap rates. We, on the other hand, work on a dataset with relatively homogeneous buyers (the NCREIF dataset, by design, covers institutional buyers only).
III. Research design III.1. Regression Model To measure the integration of the asset market of commercial real estate, we use regressions
to quantify the respective explanatory power of macroeconomic conditions, local market conditions, and property attributes for property transaction cap rates. In developing the
empirical model, we first recognize the roles played by expected/required investment returns (opportunity cost/discount rate) and the expected income growth. Following the
literature (see, e.g. Hendershott and MacGregor (2005), Clayton, Ling and Naranjo (2009), Arsenault, Clayton and Peng (2012), and others), we assume that the equilibrium property
price equals the present value of future net operating income (NOI). Assume that the NOI is a growing perpetuity, the property value at time period is a function of three variables:
expected NOI in next period
, the discount rate for future NOI , and the expected
NOI growth rate .
(1)
Equation (1), which is essentially the Gordon (1962) model, suggests that the cap rate at time period , , which is the ratio of the expected NOI to the property price, equals the discount rate minus the expected NOI growth rate. (2)
To accommodate the impact of investor sentiment (Clayton, Ling and Naranjo (2009)) and mortgage supply/credit availability (Arsenault, Clayton and Peng (2012) and Chervachidze
7
and Wheaton (2011)) on the pricing of real, we augment equation (2) with variables that help measure investor sentiment, , and mortgage supply, . (3) Equation (3) is the foundation of our empirical analyses. III.2. Macroeconomic Variables In specifying the model in (3), we first include the following macroeconomic variables that previous studies have considered affecting the required return/discount rate of real estate investors: (1) the risk free interest rate (T-yield), which is measured with the 10-Year Treasury Constant Maturity Rate; (2) the expected inflation (Term Spread), which is measured with the difference between the 10-Year and 1-Year Treasury Constant Maturity Rates; (3) the credit risk (Credit Spread), which is the difference between Moody's Seasoned AAA Corporate Bond Yield and BAA Corporate Bond Yield; and (4) stock market factors, which are the Fama-French factors (FF: Rm-Rf, FF: SMB, and FF: HML). We include the following macroeconomic variables that likely influence real estate investors' expectation of future income growth: (1) the growth of GDP in the previous quarter (GDP Growth) and (2) the NBER-based recession indicator (Recession). Arsenault, Clayton and Peng (2012) find that cap rates are significantly related to recent performance of commercial real estate investments. Particularly, ex post Jensen's Alpha estimated from past commercial investment returns and stock market risk premium significantly reduces cap rates, likely because they reduce the required risk premium. Following this study, we include in the model in (3) two performance measurements of commercial real estate investments: ex post Jensen's Alpha and CAPM Beta (NPI: Alpha and NPI: Beta) that are jointly estimated from a regression of the NCREIF Price Index (total return) in the past 8 quarters against an intercept and the stock market risk premium, which is measured with the Rm-Rf of Fama-French factor in those quarters. The intercept term is interpreted as the ex post Jensen's Alpha and the coefficient of the stock market risk premium is the CAPM Beta. 8
Clayton, Ling and Naranjo (2009) provide evidence that investor sentiment likely affect real estate pricing. We use the following variables to measure the sentiment, or optimism, of investors: (1) total private construction spending on nonresidential properties normalized with GDP (Construction: Nonresidential); (2) the one-quarter lag of the NPI total return for the property type (NPI Return); (3) total private construction spending on residential properties normalized with GDP (Construction: Residential); and (4) the onequarter lag of the growth rate of the Standard and Poor's National Composite Home Price Index for the United States (HPI Growth). We include construction spending as it likely reflects the market expectation of future demand for space, which may or may not be accurate/rational. Note that even though we categorize construction spending as a variable measuring sentiment, it might be also related to the require return of investors and their expected future returns. For example, overbuilding might reduce expected future income growth. We include the lagged NPI total return, as investors might extrapolate past returns into the future (see Goetzmann, Peng and Yen (2009) for evidence for such behavior of home buyers). We include residential construction spending and lagged growth in house price index, as commercial real estate investor sentiment might be related to residential real estate investor sentiment - Levitin and Wachter (2012) point out connections between residential and commercial real estate bubbles. We choose not to include the mortgage flow, which is used in Clayton, Ling and Naranjo (2009) to measure sentiment, for two reasons. First, it is likely not exogenous, as mortgage amount is related to values. Second, unreported robustness checks indicate that mortgage flow has no significant impact on transaction cap rates. Arsenault, Clayton and Peng (2012) and Chervachidze and Wheaton (2011) find evidence that mortgage supply/credit availability affects commercial property pricing. Following Arsenault, Clayton and Peng (2012), we use the development of the CMBS market to measure the mortgage supply. We measure the CMBS market development for industrial, office, and retail properties with the ratio of the Federal Flow of Funds Account variable "Issuers of asset-backed securities; commercial mortgages; asset" to "All sectors; commercial mortgages; asset". For apartment, the measurement equals "Issuers of asset- 9
backed securities; multifamily residential mortgages; asset" divided with "All sectors; multifamily residential mortgages; asset". The two measurements are essentially the percentage of mortgages backed by CMBS. We believe they are superior measurements of exogenous changes in mortgage supply/credit availability than the total mortgage debt, as the total mortgage debt is endogenous and jointly determined with property prices. III.3. Local Market and Property-level Variables Local market conditions likely affect investors' expectation of the risk and growth prospects of future cash flow and thus the pricing of properties. We include the following time varying local market conditions: (1) the median occupancy rate of the CBSA where the property is located (Occupancy); (2) the growth in the occupancy rate in the present quarter (Occupancy Growth); (3) the rent growth in the present quarter (Rent Growth); and (4) the interaction between Rent Growth and Occupancy. We use the interaction term to accommodate possible nonlinear effect of rent growth on the expected future income growth. When the occupancy rate is higher, the current rent growth is more likely persistent in the future due to the limited supply of space. We investigate three property attributes that are likely affecting cap rates: (1) the age of the property when traded (Age); the size of the property (Size) when traded, which is measured with log of thousand gross square feet; and (3) the "class" of the property (Rent Premium), which is measured with the median of the historical ratio of the rent (dollar per square foot per quarter) of the property and the median rent in the CBSA for the same property type in the sample period. The variable Age likely measures a variety of factors. For example, newer properties may better utilize new technologies and provide more amenities. However, Age may also be related to the desirability of the location. For instance, older office buildings tend to be located in more desirable location, as land in such location tends to be developed earlier. Therefore, the impact of Age on cap rates can be complicated and may vary across property types. The variable Size might be related to possible "clientele effects" ­ larger buildings more likely host larger corporations, which might react differently to economic shocks than smaller companies. This might translate into different perceptions of income stability, and thus affect investors' required returns. The variable 10
Rent Premium is also possibly related to "clientele effects" ­ tenants who afford higher rents might be more resilient to economic shocks and thus rents might be more stable. However, it is important to note that it is ultimately an empirical question whether these property attributes affect cap rates. Finally, time invariant location specific market conditions may affect property cap rates through their impact on the risk and growth prospects of future cash flow. For example, apartment properties in markets with inelastic land supply may have lower cap rates, as expected rent growth might be higher with limited land supply. Such variables are different to measure individually, but it is relatively easy to control their aggregate effect. We use CBSA dummy variables to capture unobserved local time invariant variables that affect cap rates. IV. Data IV.1. Cap Rates This paper analyzes actual transaction cap rates of acquisitions and dispositions of the four main types of institutional grade properties (apartment, industrial, office, and retail) in the NCREIF database from the third quarter of 1977 to the second quarter of 2012. We calculate the transaction cap rates for acquisitions and dispositions using similar approaches with the key difference being the NOI used. For acquisitions, we use the stabilized annual NOI after the acquisition to calculate cap rates. However, NOI is not observed after dispositions; therefore, we use the stabilized annual NOI before the disposition for the cap rate calculation, under the assumption that the NOI after disposition is proportional in expectation to the NOI before. Our analyses address the difference in the cap rate definitions for acquisitions and dispositions by including a dummy variable for dispositions in regressions. The acquisition cap rates are calculated following the procedure below. First, we identify acquisitions between 1977:3 and 2012:2 with observed purchase prices ("InitialCost" of NCREIF database) and transaction time. Second, we identify the quarterly NOI for the eight quarters (or until the end of the sample period if the acquisition took place within 11
eight quarters before 2012:2) after each acquisition. For us to proceed with the calculation of the cap rate, NOI needs to be observed for all the eight quarters; there need to be at least six quarters that have stabilized NOI, which is defined as NOI when the occupancy rate (LeasePercent) is above 85%; and the median of the stabilized quarterly NOI needs to be between 0.5% and 5% of the purchase prices (annual NOI being between 2% and 20% of the purchase prices). Third, we identify the maximum and the minimum of the quarterly stabilized NOI, and remove them if they are 50% greater and less than the median quarterly stabilized NOI. Finally, we calculate the cap rate as four times the average of the remaining quarterly stabilized NOI, which is intended to capture the stabilized annual NOI, divided with the purchase prices. The disposition cap rates are calculated in the same manner, but we use sale prices ("GrossSalePrice" in NCREIF database) instead of purchase prices, and use the stabilized NOI before instead of after the disposition. To mitigate possible data errors, we calculate the cap rate for a disposition only if both "GrossSalePrice" and "NetSalePrice" are observed and their difference is less than 15% of the "NetSalePrice". After calculating the acquisition and disposition cap rates, we remove outliers by excluding the lowest 1% and highest 1% cap rates for acquisitions and dispositions respectively. Our final sample consists of 2,891 cap rates (1,608 acquisitions and 1,283 dispositions) for apartment, 3,113 cap rates (1,961 acquisitions and 1,152 dispositions) for industrial, 2,190 cap rates (1,308 acquisitions 882 dispositions) for office, and 1,832 cap rates (1,059 acquisitions and 773 dispositions) for retail properties. Table 1 summarizes the mean, standard deviation, minimum, median, and maximum cap rates for each of the four property types. Figures 1 to 4 plot the cap rates against the time periods when the transactions take place for the four property types respectively. IV.2. Macroeconomic variables Macro level variables used in our analyses are from four sources: the Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED), the Federal Flow of Funds Account, the NCREIF website, and the data library on Kenneth French's website. 12
We obtain the following quarterly variables from the FRED: the 10-Year Treasury Constant Maturity Rate, the term spread (the difference between the 10-Year and 1-Year Treasury Constant Maturity Rates), the credit spread (the difference between Moody's Seasoned AAA Corporate Bond Yield and BAA Corporate Bond Yield), the growth rate of GDP (GDP being seasonally adjusted annual rate), the Standard and Poor's National Composite Home Price Index for the United States, NBER-based Recession Indicators, the total private construction spending on residential properties (seasonally adjusted annual rate), and the total private construction spending on nonresidential properties (seasonally adjusted annual rate). We normalize the construction spending with the GDP. Figure 5 plots the time series of the Treasury yield, the term spread, and the credit spread from 1977:3 to 2012:2. Figures 6 and 7 plot the Home Price Index and the normalized construction spending for residential and nonresidential properties for this period. We calculate the following quarterly time series using information from the Federal Flow of Funds Account: the development of the CMBS market for industrial, office, and retail properties ("Issuers of asset-backed securities; commercial mortgages; asset" divided with "All sectors; commercial mortgages; asset" for commercial mortgages), the development of the CMBS market for apartment ("Issuers of asset-backed securities; multifamily residential mortgages; asset" divided with "All sectors; multifamily residential mortgages; asset" for multifamily mortgages). The time series of the two measurements of the CMBS market development are plotted in Figure 8. We download the quarterly Fama-French factors ­ Rm-Rf, SMB, and HML ­ from Kenneth French's website, and the quarterly total returns of NCREIF Price Indices for the four property types from the website of NCREIF. Figure 9 plots the NPI total returns. We construct ex post Jensen's Alpha and CAPM Beta for each property type in each quarter using the NPI total returns and the stock market risk premium (Rm-Rf of the Fama-French factors) in the past eight quarters. Specifically, for quarter , we regress the NPI total returns net the risk free rate (the 10-year Treasury Constant Maturity Rate) in quarters to against an intercept term and the stock market risk premium in those quarters. The 13
intercept term is the ex post Jensen's Alpha and the coefficient of the stock market risk premium is the Beta. Figure 10 and Figure 11 respectively plot the estimated ex post Jensen's Alpha and the CAPM Beta for the four property types. IV.3. Local and property-level variables We construct and use in-sample measurements of local market conditions. A caveat is that our sample is a relatively small subset of commercial properties in each market; therefore, the measurements may not reflect the market conditions for the average property in each market. However, there is an advantage to use in-sample measurements ­ institutional grade properties differ from other properties in size, stability of cash flow, and pricing, and in-sample measurements may reflect market conditions that are more relevant for our sample properties. We calculate the medians of the occupancy rate, rent, and their respective growth rate for each Core Business Statistic Area (CBSA) for each property type using the NCREIF database, following the procedure below. We first identify property/quarter observations with the occupancy rate being observed and greater than 70%. For these property/quarter observations, we estimate the rent using the gross operating income in that quarter divided by leased space, which equals the gross square feet times the occupancy rate. For each CBSA/quarter, if there are at least 6 observations of property occupancy rates or rent in that CBSA/quarter, we discard outliers that are 2 standard deviations away from the mean and then calculate the median occupancy rate or the median rent. To obtain the median growth rate in the occupancy rate and the median growth rate in rents, we used rents estimated above and the occupancy rate for each property to calculate the growth rates for each property/quarter. We then eliminate growth rates that are greater 20% or lower than -20%. If there are at least 6 observations left for that CBSA/quarter, we discard outliers that are 2 standard deviations away from the mean and then calculate the median of the growth rate in occupancy rate and the median in rent growth. The NCREIF database often contains "YearBuilt" for properties, which is used to calculate the property age (in quarters with the quarter of being built assumed to be the 2nd quarter 14
of the year when the property was built) when a transaction takes place. The NCREIF database also often contains information on property size. We use "GrossSquareFeet" to measure property size, if this information is available and the number is greater than 5,000 (size smaller than 5,000 square feet may indicate data errors). If the value of "GrossSquareFeet" changes over time for a property, we use the available value of the quarter that is closest to the transaction date. We also calculate the "rent premium" for each property whenever possible. We first calculate the property-to-market rent ratio in each quarter that allows such a calculation, and then use the median of the time series of the ratio as the measure of rent premium for each property. Summary statistics of Age, Size, and Rent Premium are reported in Table 1. V. Empirical results It is important to note that there is the well-known "clustering" problem in all of our regressions in this paper. There could be unobserved common shocks for all properties in the same quarter, or for all properties in the same CBSA when CBSA dummies are not included. To mitigate the impact of the unobserved common shocks on the calculation of the standard deviation (see, e.g. Petersen (2009) for the importance of the correction to the OLS standard deviation), in all reported results, we calculate one-way (sale quarter) clustering-robust standard deviations when CBSA dummies are included, and two-way (quarter and CBSA) clustering-robust standard deviations when CBSA dummies are not included.2 In estimating the model in equation (3), we first include only macroeconomic variables and run OLS for each property type separately. This allows us to directly measure the extent of the integration of the asset market. Table 2 reports the results for each property type, which indicate that the asset market is substantially integrated. The adjusted R-square is 0.48, 0.28, 0.30, and 0.34 for the four property types respectively. Table 2 identifies four variables ­ the ex post Jensen's Alpha, the development of the CMBS market, the lagged house price index appreciation, and the construction spending 2 The R functions we use are from Mahmood Arai's website. 15
on nonresidential properties ­ that show significant explanatory power for cap rates. Specifically, the higher is the ex post Jensen's Alpha, the lower is the cap rate. This is consistent with Arsenault, Clayton and Peng (2012). Further, the more developed the CMBS market, which indicates greater credit availability, the lower the cap rate. This corroborates Arsenault, Clayton and Peng (2012) and Chervachidze and Wheaton (2011). It is interesting to note that higher lagged house price index appreciation and more nonresidential construction spending seem bad news for property pricing. The negative impact of construction on property values may indicate that investors lower their expectation for future income growth when they expect an increase in space supply. It is worth noting that other macroeconomic variables, including the term spread, the credit spread, the stock market factors, and investor sentiment as measured with the lagged NPI total return, do not show consistent effects on cap rates across property types. Table 3 reports results from similar regressions, with the only difference being that the regressions include CBSA dummy variables to capture CBSA specific average cap rates (CBSA fixed effects). Two results are worth noting. First, it is clear that including CBSA fixed effects significantly increase the explanatory power of our model. The adjusted R2 increases from 0.48 to 0.56 for apartment, from 0.28 to 0.36 for industrial, from 0.30 to 0.35 for office, and from 0.36 to 0.44 for retail properties. This indicates that the asset market of commercial real estate is not perfectly integrated. Second, the four most influential macroeconomic variables remain significant, except that the nonresidential construction spending now has insignificant impact on office cap rates. Tables 4 report results of three regressions of cap rates for apartment, all of which include CBSA dummies. The first regression includes macroeconomic variables that are significant at 5% level in Table 3 for apartment. The second includes both the macroeconomic variables and local time varying market variables. The third includes the macroeconomic variables, local market conditions, and property attributes. We use the same sample for the three regressions, which consists of transactions that have all explanatory variables observed. A disadvantage of using these "complete" observations is the smaller sample size. An advantage is that when we run the three types of regressions 16
using the same sample, any gain in goodness of fit is not due to a larger sample size, but due to the inclusion of new explanatory variables. Table 4 provides a few important findings. First, local time varying market conditions and property attributes add very little to the goodness of fit. The adjusted R-square is 0.38, 0.39, and 0.40 for the three regressions respectively. This means that including local market conditions and property attributes does not explain more of apartment cap rates. Second, in addition to ex post Jensen's Alpha, the development of the CMBS market, and the nonresidential construction spending, the NBER-based recession dummy has a significant negative effect on the cap rate. This seems to indicate that apartments have relatively higher values in recessions. This is consistent with that households more likely rent than own in recessions; therefore, apartments might have higher expected future income growth during recessions. Third, lagged house price index appreciation is no longer significant, likely due to the smaller sample size. Fourth, rent growth rate has a nonlinear relationship with the cap rate. Rent growth rate has greater negative impact on the cap rate, which means positive effect on the property value, when the occupancy rate is higher. Finally, older apartment buildings tend to have higher cap rates, possibly due to outdated amenities. Table 5 reports the same three regressions in Table 4 but for industrial properties. The macroeconomic variables included are those significant for industrial in Table 3. All three regressions use the same sample of "complete" observations. The adjusted R-square is 0.38, 0.39, and 0.43 for the three regressions respectively. This suggests that local market conditions have little incremental explanatory power but property attributes have modest explanatory power for cap rates. Note that the four key macroeconomic variables ­ ex post Jensen's Alpha, the CMBS development, the lagged house price index appreciation, and the construction spending of nonresidential properties ­ remain significant. Moreover, the construction spending of residential properties is also significant, and has a negative coefficient. This seems to suggest that a better prospect of the housing market, which is indicated by the greater construction spending, is good news for values of industrial properties. This seems consistent with Miller, Peng and Sklarz (2011), which provide 17
evidence that house transaction volume, which predicts higher house prices in the future, stimulates economic production. Table 5 also indicates the same nonlinear impact of rent growth on cap rates. However, now rent growth seems less effective when the occupancy is high. This seems puzzling, and contrasts with the results for apartment. Finally, property attributes contribute modestly to the explanatory power of the model. The adjusted Rsquare increased from 0.38 to 0.43 when property age, size, and rent premium are included as explanatory variables. Table 5 shows that larger and lower class (lower rent premium) industrial properties tend to have lower cap rates. Table 6 reports results of the same three regressions using "complete" observations for office properties. The adjusted R-square is 0.36, 0.36, and 0.41 for the three regressions respectively. This indicates that local market conditions have little incremental explanatory power but property attributes have modest explanatory power. Note that while the CMBS development remains significant, Jensen's Alpha and lagged house price index appreciation are no longer significant, possibly due to the smaller sample size. Further, the term spread has a significant positive impact on office cap rates. This is consistent with the notion that, when the expected inflation is high, office investors requires higher returns. Finally, older and larger office properties tend to have lower cap rates, likely because they have more desirable location, but alternative explanations cannot be ruled out. Results of the same three regressions based on "complete" observations for retail properties are reported in Table 7. The adjusted R-square is 0.33, 0.33, and 0.34 for the three regressions respectively. This indicates that local market conditions and property attributes have little explanatory power for cap rates. Note that the ex post Jensen's Alpha, the lagged house price index appreciation, and the construction spending of nonresidential properties are no longer significant. It is also interesting to note that rent growth has no detectable impact on the cap rate. Finally, both age and size affect cap rates ­ younger and larger retail properties tend to have lower cap rates. We also conduct a few alternative analyses using different measurements of macroeconomic variables and local market conditions, such as the level of occupancy rate 18
instead of/in addition to the change of the occupancy rate. These alternative specifications do not change the main findings reported above, and do not provide better explanation of property cap rates. VI. Conclusions How integrated is the asset market of commercial real estate? This empirical question is important for both academia and practitioners. This paper aims to measure the market integration by quantify the extent to which three type of variables ­ macroeconomic conditions, local market conditions, and property attributes ­ help explain property transaction cap rates, using about 10,000 sales of institutional grade commercial properties from 1977 to 2012. The results indicate that the asset market is substantially but not completely integrated. Macroeconomic conditions, particularly credit availability, risk-adjusted returns of past real estate investments, lagged house price appreciation, and nonresidential construction spending, play a dominating role in explaining property cap rates. CBSA fixed effects and property attributes provide some incremental explanatory power. Surprisingly, local market conditions have little explanatory power for property cap rates. 19
References Ambrose, B., and H.O. Nourse, 1993, Factors influencing capitalization rates, Journal of Real Estate Research 8, 221-237. An, Xudong, and Yongheng Deng, 2009, A structural model for capitalization rate, San Diego State University Working Paper. Arsenault, Marcel, Jim Clayton, and Liang Peng, 2012, Mortgage fund flows, capital appreciation, and real estate cycles, Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics DOI: 10.1007/s11146-012-9361-4. Chervachidze, Serguei, and William Wheaton, 2011, What determined the great cap rate compression of 2000­2007, and the dramatic reversal during the 2008­2009 Financial Crisis?, Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics DOI 10.1007/s11146-011-9334-z. Chichernea, Doina, Norman G. Miller, Jeffrey D. Fisher, Bob White, and Michael Sklarz, 2008, A cross-sectional analysis of cap rates by msa, Journal of Real Estate Research 30. Clayton, Jim, David Ling, and Andy Naranjo, 2009, Commercial real estate valuation: Fundamentals versus investor sentiment, Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics 38, 5-37. Elliehausen, Gregory, and Joseph B. Nichols, 2012, Determinants of capitalization rates for office properties, Federal Reserve Board working paper. Evans, R., 1990, A transfer function analysis of real estate capitalization rates, Journal of Real Estate Research 5, 371-379. Froland, C, 1987, What determines cap rates on real estate, Journal of Portfolio Management 13, 77-83. Geltner, David M., Norman G. Miller, Jim Clayton, and Piet Eichholtz, 2014. Commercial real estate analysis and investments (OnCourse Learning). Goetzmann, William N., Liang Peng , and Jacqueline Yen, 2009, The subprime crisis and house price appreciation, Yale ICF Working Paper No. 1340577 Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1340577. Goodman, Allan, 1978, Hedonic prices, price indices, and housing markets, Journal of Urban Economics 5, 471-484. Goodman, Allan, and Robin A Dubin, 1990, Non-nested tests and sample stratification: Theory and a hedonic example, Review of Economics and Statistics 72, 168-173. Goodman, Allan, and Thomas G. Thibodeau, 1998, Housing market segmentation, Journal of Housing Economics 7, 121-143. Gordon, Myron J., 1962, The investment, financing, and valuation of the corporation, Homewood, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, Inc. Hendershott, P. H., and B. D. MacGregor, 2005, Investors rationality: Evidence from u.K. Property capitalization rates, Real Estate Economics 33, 299-322. Jud, D., and D. Winkler, 1995, The capitalization rate of commercial properties and market returns, Journal of Real Estate Research 10: 509-518 10, 509-518. Levitin, Adam J., and Susan M. Wachter, 2012, The commercial real estate bubble, Business, Economics, and Regulatory Policy Working Paper Series No. 1978264. Ling, David C., Andy Naranjo, and Milena Petrova, 2013, Why do distant buyers pay more? Search costs, behavioral biases, and information intermediar effects, University of Florida Working Paper. 20
Miller, Norman, Liang Peng, and Michael Sklarz, 2011, Economic Impact of anticipated house price changes - evidence from home sales, Real Estate Economics 39, 345378. Peng, Liang, 2012, Risk and returns of commercial real estate: A property level analysis, Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1658265. Peng, Liang, and Thomas Thibodeau, 2012, Risk segmentation of american homes: Evidence from denver, Real Estate Economics forthcoming. Petersen, Mitchell A., 2009, Estimating standard errors in finance panel data sets: Comparing approaches, Review of Financial Studies 22, 435-480. Pivo, Gary, and Jeffrey D. Fisher, 2011, The walkability premium in commercial real estate investments, Real Estate Economics 39. Plazzi, Alberto, Walter Torous, and Rossen Valkanov, 2008, The cross-sectional dispersion of commercial real estate returns and rent growth: Time variation and economic flucuations, Real Estate Economics 36, 403-439. Plazzi, Alberto, Walter Torous, and Rossen Valkanov, 2010, Expected returns and the expected growth in rents of commercial real estate, Review of Financial Studies 23, 3469-3519. Sivitanides, P., J. Southard, R. Torto, and W. Wheaton, 2001, The determinants of appraisal-based capitalization rates, Real Estate Finance 18, 27-37. Sivitanidou, R., and P. Sivitanides, 1999, Office capitalization rates: Real estate and capital market influences, Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics 18, 297-322. Straszheim, Mahlon R, 1974, Hedonic estimation of housing market prices: A further comment, The Review of Economics and Statistics 56, 404-406. Wiley, Jonathan A., 2013, Buy high, sell low: Corporate investors in the office market, Real Estate Economics 41. Zhou, Yu, and Donald R. Haurin, 2010, On the determinants of housing value volatility, Journal of Real Estate Research 32, 377-396. 21
Table 1 Summary of cap rates, age, size, and rent premium
This table summarizes the transaction cap rate, age when traded, size (1,000 gross square feet) when traded, and the rent premium, which is the historical median of the ratio between the property rent to the median rent of same property type in the CBSA in which the property is located, of apartment, industrial, office, and retail properties in the NCREIF database for which we are able to calculate transaction cap rates.
Observations Mean Standard dev. Minimum Median Maximum Observations Mean Standard dev. Minimum Median Maximum Observations Mean Standard dev. Minimum Median Maximum Observations Mean Standard dev. Minimum Median Maximum
Apartment
Industrial
Office
Cap rates
2,891
3,113
2,190
0.065
0.086
0.082
0.018
0.022
0.023
0.031
0.041
0.033
0.063
0.086
0.080
0.137
0.168
0.159
Age (years since built when traded)
2,695
2,680
2,008
14.56
14.90
17.75
14.22
10.84
15.55
0.25
0.25
0.25
11.25
13.5
15.38
110.25
76.00
137.25
Size (1,000 square feet)
2,585
3,078
2,173
289
305
256
171
558
301
16
7
5
263
188
168
3,312
22,119
5,535
Rent Premium
1,799
2,108
1,419
1.053
1.135
1.053
0.263
0.396
0.301
0.409
0.418
0.414
1
1.025
1.023
2.813
2.855
2.793
Retail 1,832 0.079 0.020 0.042 0.076 0.164 1,668 16.52 14.10 0.25 13.50 128.50 1,820 245 287 6 140 2,610 844 1.063 0.339 0.388 1 2.661
22
Table 2 Cap rates and macro variables This table reports results of property level OLS regressions of cap rates against macro-level variables. "Sale" is a dummy variable if the cap rate is for a disposition. "T-yield" is the 10-Year Treasury Constant Maturity Rate. "Term Spread" is the difference between the 10-Year and 1Year Treasury Constant Maturity Rates. "Credit Spread" is the difference between Moody's Seasoned AAA Corporate Bond Yield and BAA Corporate Bond Yield. "FF: Rm-Rf", "FF: SMB", and "FF: HML" are the Fama-French factors. "NPI: Alpha" and "NPI: Beta" are ex post Jensen's Alpha and CAPM Beta estimated using the NPI property type total returns and the "FF: Rm-Rf" in the past 8 quarters. "GDP Growth" is one-quarter lag of the growth rate of GDP. "Recession" is the NBER-based recession indicator. "CMBS" is the development of the CMBS market, which equals "Issuers of asset-backed securities; commercial mortgages; asset" divided with "All sectors; commercial mortgages; asset" for industrial, office, and retail properties, and equals "Issuers of asset-backed securities; multifamily residential mortgages; asset" divided with "All sectors; multifamily residential mortgages; asset" for apartment. "Construction: Residential" is the total private construction spending on residential properties normalized with GDP. "HPI growth" is the one-quarter lag of the growth rate of the Standard and Poor's National Composite Home Price Index for the United States. "Construction: Nonresidential" is the total private construction spending on nonresidential properties normalized with GDP. "NPI return" is the one-quarter lag total return of the property type NPI. Two-way (CBSA and sale quarter) cluster-robust standard deviations are in parentheses. *** indicates significance at the 1% level. ** and * are for 5% and 10% respectively. 23
Table 2 (continued)
Intercept Sale T-yield Term Spread Credit Spread FF: Rm-Rf FF: SMB FF: HML NPI: Alpha NPI. Beta GDP Growth Recession CMBS Construction: Residential HPI Growth Construction: Nonresidential NPI Return Sample size Adjusted R
Apartment 0.058*** (0.009) -0.002 (0.001) 0.278** (0.141) 0.142 (0.091) -0.002 (0.243) -0.018** (0.008) 0.020 (0.014) -0.011 (0.008) -0.027* (0.016) 0.002 (0.002) -0.072 (0.120) -0.007*** (0.002) -0.236*** (0.027) -0.076* (0.041) 0.175*** (0.054) 0.443*** (0.138) 0.007 (0.042) 2,729 0.48
Industrial 0.081*** (0.011) -0.002 (0.001) 0.116 (0.169) 0.101 (0.094) 0.359 (0.330) -0.001 (0.008) -0.002 (0.013) -0.002 (0.006) -0.071** (0.028) -0.004* (0.002) -0.052 (0.120) 0.002 (0.002) -0.080*** (0.021) -0.095** (0.047) 0.320*** (0.050) 0.320*** (0.108) -0.028 (0.070) 2,863 0.28
Office 0.080*** (0.012) -0.003* (0.002) 0.292* (0.161) 0.217** (0.096) 0.049 (0.292) -0.005 (0.008) -0.000 (0.013) -0.015** (0.007) -0.046*** (0.017) -0.002 (0.002) -0.236 (0.177) 0.002 (0.003) -0.098*** (0.026) -0.028 (0.043) 0.186*** (0.060) 0.191** (0.093) -0.099** (0.048) 2,065 0.30
Retail 0.048*** (0.015) 0.001 (0.001) 0.321* (0.178) 0.326*** (0.103) 0.904** (0.466) -0.012 (0.015) 0.000 (0.018) -0.000 (0.011) -0.060** (0.023) 0.004** (0.002) 0.168 (0.180) -0.003 (0.004) -0.084*** (0.025) -0.117* (0.065) 0.205*** (0.055) 0.368*** (0.104) 0.124 (0.082) 1,670 0.34
24
Table 3 Cap rates, CBSA fixed effect, and macro variables This table reports results of property level OLS regressions of cap rates against dummy variables of CBSAs where properties are located and macro-level variables. "Sale" is a dummy variable if the cap rate is for a disposition. "T-yield" is the 10-Year Treasury Constant Maturity Rate. "Term Spread" is the difference between the 10-Year and 1-Year Treasury Constant Maturity Rates. "Credit Spread" is the difference between Moody's Seasoned AAA Corporate Bond Yield and BAA Corporate Bond Yield. "FF: Rm-Rf", "FF: SMB", and "FF: HML" are the Fama-French factors. "NPI: Alpha" and "NPI: Beta" are ex post Jensen's Alpha and CAPM Beta estimated using the NPI property type total returns and the "FF: Rm-Rf" in the past 8 quarters. "GDP Growth" is onequarter lag of the growth rate of GDP. "Recession" is the NBER-based recession indicator. "CMBS" is the development of the CMBS market, which equals "Issuers of asset-backed securities; commercial mortgages; asset" divided with "All sectors; commercial mortgages; asset" for industrial, office, and retail properties, and equals "Issuers of asset-backed securities; multifamily residential mortgages; asset" divided with "All sectors; multifamily residential mortgages; asset" for apartment. "Construction: Residential" is the total private construction spending on residential properties normalized with GDP. "HPI growth" is the one-quarter lag of the growth rate of the Standard and Poor's National Composite Home Price Index for the United States. "Construction: Nonresidential" is the total private construction spending on nonresidential properties normalized with GDP. "NPI return" is the one-quarter lag total return of the property type NPI. One-way (sale quarter) cluster-robust standard deviations are in parentheses. *** indicates significance at the 1% level. ** and * are for 5% and 10% respectively. 25
Table 3 (continued)
CBSA dummies Sale T-yield Term Spread Credit Spread FF: Rm-Rf FF: SMB FF: HML NPI: Alpha NPI. Beta GDP Growth Recession CMBS Construction: Residential HPI Growth Construction: Nonresidential NPI Return Sample size Adjusted R
Apartment Yes -0.003*** (0.001) 0.251** (0.1220) 0.136 (0.082) 0.080 (0.244) -0.014* (0.007) 0.016 (0.012) -0.010 (0.007) -0.035** (0.014) 0.002 (0.002) -0.072 (0.093) -0.006** (0.002) -0.214*** (0.024) -0.097*** (0.032) 0.192*** (0.046) 0.450*** (0.109) 0.008 (0.031) 2,729 0.56
Industrial Yes -0.002** (0.001) 0.100 (0.152) 0.150 (0.094) 0.273 (0.307) 0.004 (0.009) -0.003 (0.012) -0.003 (0.006) -0.073*** (0.027) -0.002 (0.002) -0.030 (0.114) 0.002 (0.003) -0.073*** (0.019) -0.094** (0.039) 0.288*** (0.049) 0.357*** (0.106) -0.027 (0.059) 2,863 0.36
Office Yes -0.005*** (0.001) 0.343** (0.157) 0.267*** (0.094) 0.330 (0.360) -0.005 (0.008) -0.000 (0.014) -0.017* (0.009) -0.051*** (0.016) -0.002 (0.002) -0.158 (0.178) 0.003 (0.003) -0.080*** (0.021) -0.040 (0.037) 0.217*** (0.051) 0.209 (0.130) -0.084* (0.047) 2,065 0.35
Retail Yes -0.002** (0.001) 0.108 (0.186) 0.225** (0.107) 0.972 (0.611) -0.002 (0.012) 0.010 (0.017) -0.012 (0.014) -0.078*** (0.026) 0.004* (0.002) -0.027 (0.240) -0.004 (0.003) -0.105*** (0.026) -0.063 (0.069) 0.166*** (0.059) 0.369*** (0.108) 0.084 (0.075) 1,670 0.44
26
Table 4 Apartment: cap rates and macroeconomic, regional, and property variables
This table reports results of property level OLS regressions of apartment cap rates against CBSA dummies, macroeconomic variables, local market conditions, and property attributes. "Rent Growth" is the median property rent growth rate for the CBSA where the property is located in the quarter when the transaction takes place. "Occupancy Growth" is the median property occupancy growth rate. "Rent Growth * Occupancy" is an interaction between the "Rent Growth" and the median occupancy rate (not its growth). "Age" and "Size" are respectively the log of the property age (in quarters) and the log of gross square feet when the transaction takes place. "Rent Premium" is the historical median of the ratio between the property rent to the median rent of the CBSA. One (sale quarter) cluster-robust standard deviations are in parentheses. *** indicates significance at the 1% level. ** and * are for 5% and 10% respectively.
CBSA dummies Sale T-yield NPI: Alpha Recession CMBS Construction: Residential HPI Growth Construction: Nonresidential Occupancy Growth Rent Growth Rent Growth * Occupancy Age Size Rent Premium Sample size Adjusted R
I Yes -0.003 (0.002) 0.207 (0.152) -0.054*** (0.007) -0.006*** (0.002) -0.419*** (0.054) -0.039 (0.030) 0.054 (0.044) 0.505*** (0.133) 1,386 0.38
II Yes -0.002 (0.002) 0.212 (0.143) -0.051*** (0.008) -0.007*** (0.002) -0.444*** (0.052) -0.039 (0.020) 0.037 (0.043) 0.527*** (0.127) 0.104*** (0.039) 2.366** (1.191) -2.535** (1.252) 1,386 0.39
III Yes -0.003* (0.001) 0.220 (0.140) -0.053*** (0.008) -0.007*** (0.002) -0.457*** (0.052) -0.039 (0.030) 0.042 (0.039) 0.548*** (0.124) 0.102*** (0.038) 2.345** (1.170) -2.509** (1.231) 0.001*** (0.000) -0.001 (0.001) 0.001 (0.002) 1,386 0.40
27
Table 5 Industrial: cap rates and macroeconomic, regional, and property variables
This table reports results of property level OLS regressions of industrial cap rates against CBSA dummies, macroeconomic variables, local market conditions, and property attributes. "Rent Growth" is the median property rent growth rate for the CBSA where the property is located in the quarter when the transaction takes place. "Occupancy Growth" is the median property occupancy growth rate. "Rent Growth * Occupancy" is an interaction between the "Rent Growth" and the median occupancy rate (not its growth). "Age" and "Size" are respectively the log of the property age (in quarters) and the log of gross square feet when the transaction takes place. "Rent Premium" is the historical median of the ratio between the property rent to the median rent of the CBSA. Oneway (sale quarter) cluster-robust standard deviations are in parentheses. *** indicates significance at the 1% level. ** and * are for 5% and 10% respectively.
CBSA dummies Sale NPI: Alpha CMBS Construction: Residential HPI Growth Construction: Nonresidential Occupancy Growth Rent Growth Rent Growth * Occupancy Age Size Rent Premium Sample size Adjusted R
I Yes -0.000 (0.001) -0.097*** (0.020) -0.177*** (0.038) -0.072** (0.031) 0.187*** (0.061) 0.413*** (0.096) 1,550 0.38
II Yes -0.000 (0.000) -0.098*** (0.021) -0.170*** (0.039) -0.068** (0.031) 0.190*** (0.061) 0.411*** (0.099) -0.395 (1.319) -12.168*** (3.210) 12.255*** (3.268) 1,550 0.39
III Yes 0.000 (0.001) -0.094*** (0.020) -0.193*** (0.039) -0.075** (0.034) 0.186*** (0.066) 0.413*** (0.103) -0.562 (1.304) -13.178*** (3.329) 13.284*** (3.388) 0.001 (0.000) -0.003*** (0.001) 0.006*** (0.001) 1,550 0.43
28
Table 6 Office: cap rates and macroeconomic, regional, and property variables
This table reports results of property level OLS regressions of office cap rates against CBSA dummies, macroeconomic variables, local market conditions, and property attributes. "Rent Growth" is the median property rent growth rate for the CBSA where the property is located in the quarter when the transaction takes place. "Occupancy Growth" is the median property occupancy growth rate. "Rent Growth * Occupancy" is an interaction between the "Rent Growth" and the median occupancy rate (not its growth). "Age" and "Size" are respectively the log of the property age (in quarters) and the log of gross square feet when the transaction takes place. "Rent Premium" is the historical median of the ratio between the property rent to the median rent of the CBSA. Oneway (sale quarter) cluster-robust standard deviations are in parentheses. *** indicates significance at the 1% level. ** and * are for 5% and 10% respectively.
CBSA dummies Sale T-yield Term Spread NPI: Alpha CMBS HPI Growth Occupancy Growth Rent Growth Rent Growth * Occupancy Age Size Rent Premium Sample size Adjusted R
I Yes -0.000 (0.000) 0.113 (0.152) 0.299*** (0.084) -0.026 (0.026) -0.309*** (0.045) -0.049 (0.037) 1,036 0.36
II Yes -0.000 (0.002) 0.119 (0.150) 0.295*** (0.084) -0.026 (0.026) -0.315*** (0.044) -0.057 (0.036) -0.113 (0.092) 1.820 (1.573) -2.007 (1.700) 1,036 0.36
III Yes 0.000 (0.002) 0.049 (0.155) 0.239*** (0.091) -0.030 (0.025) -0.316*** (0.046) -0.038 (0.042) -0.153 (0.095) 1.281 (1.535) -1.431* (1.666) -0.001 (0.001) -0.005*** (0.001) -0.005** (0.002) 1,036 0.41
29
Table 7 Retail: cap rates and macroeconomic, regional, and property variables
This table reports results of property level OLS regressions of retail cap rates against CBSA dummies, macroeconomic variables, local market conditions, and property attributes. "Rent Growth" is the median property rent growth rate for the CBSA where the property is located in the quarter when the transaction takes place. "Occupancy Growth" is the median property occupancy growth rate. "Rent Growth * Occupancy" is an interaction between the "Rent Growth" and the median occupancy rate (not its growth). "Age" and "Size" are respectively the log of the property age (in quarters) and the log of gross square feet when the transaction takes place. "Rent Premium" is the historical median of the ratio between the property rent to the median rent of the CBSA. Oneway (sale quarter) cluster-robust standard deviations are in parentheses. *** indicates significance at the 1% level. ** and * are for 5% and 10% respectively.
CBSA dummies Sale Term Spread NPI: Alpha CMBS HPI Growth Construction: Nonresidential Occupancy Growth Rent Growth Rent Growth * Occupancy Age Size Rent Premium Sample size Adjusted R
I Yes -0.004*** (0.001) 0.201** (0.100) -0.080*** (0.025) -0.185*** (0.049) -0.031 (0.068) 0.136 (0.120) 6,26 0.33
II Yes -0.004*** (0.001) 0.218** (0.100) -0.077*** (0.025) -0.186*** (0.049) -0.039 (0.068) 0.124 (0.118) -0.230 (0.371) -2.745 (2.605) 2.860 (2.679) 6,26 0.33
III Yes -0.004*** (0.002) 0.225** (0.102) -0.075*** (0.024) -0.192*** (0.045) -0.042 (0.065) 0.123 (0.116) -0.309 (0.392) -3.572 (2.828) 3.700 (2.911) 0.001** (0.001) -0.002* (0.001) 3.464 (2.939) 6,26 0.34
30
Figure 1 31
Figure 2 32
Figure 3 33
Figure 4 34
Figure 5 35
Figure 6 36
Figure 7 37
Figure 8 38
Figure 9 39
Figure 10 40
Figure 11 41

L Peng

File: how-integrated-is-the-commercial-real-estate-asset-market-evidence.pdf
Title: IS THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE HOUSING MARKET
Author: L Peng
Author: Liang Peng
Published: Mon Feb 10 12:14:11 2014
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