INFLUENCE OF REPETITION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUPILS: A CASE OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN TURBO DIVISION, UASIN~ GISHU COUNTY, CBII TOTT

Tags: academic performance, performance, self esteem, respondents, academic achievement, time management strategies, Turbo, intellectual performance, repetition, class size, Kenyatta University, academic achievements, MASTER OF ARTS IN PROJECT PLANNING, university supervisors, TABLE OF CONTENTS, primary school teachers, primary schools, primary school, project report, Kenya, pupil achievement, Primary Education, effective time management, University of Nairobi, class sizes, Development, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Nairobi, institution of higher learning, World Bank, KENYA CORNELIUS BII TOTT
Content: INFLUENCE OF REPETITION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUPILS: A CASE OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN TURBO DIVISION, UASIN~GISHU COUNTY, KENYA CORNELIUS BII TOTT A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN PROJECT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI 2014 i
DECLARATION This project report is my original work and has not been presented to any institution of higher learning for any academic award.
CORNELIUS BII TOTT Signature..................... L50/61575/2013
Date........................
This project report has been submitted for examination with our approval as university supervisors.
MRS. DORICE KHATETE Signature..................... DR. CHARLES WAFULA Signature....................... Lecturer, University of Nairobi
Date........................ Date.........................
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DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this project report to my parents whose resources has managed to propel me to this level and friends who agreed to share their little resources and offered encouragement when I was down. May the Almighty God bless you abundantly. iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My gratitude goes to the University of Nairobi for granting me the opportunity to pursue this course with the institution. Special thanks to my supervisors, Mrs. Dorice Khatete, and Dr. Charles Wafula for their guidance and encouragement which made this project report a success. I also wish to thank all my course work lecturers at the University. I also want to recognize my classmates who gave me the motivation and encouragement to finish the research report, and being there always for me. I would also like to express my gratitude to my family for all the financial support. Above all my special gratitude goes to the Almighty God for the gift of life and for giving me the skills, knowledge and strength to be able to complete this project report. iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION .......................................................................................................................... ii DEDICATION ............................................................................................................................. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT........................................................................................................... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................. v LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................... viii LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................................... ix ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS..................................................................................... x ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................. xi CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................................... 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Background of the Study .......................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem.......................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Purpose of the Study ................................................................................................................. 4 1.4 Objectives of the Study............................................................................................................. 4 1.5 Research Questions ................................................................................................................... 4 1.6 Significance of the Study .......................................................................................................... 5 1.7 Delimitation of the Study.......................................................................................................... 5 1.8 Limitations of the study ............................................................................................................ 6 1.9 Assumptions of the Study ......................................................................................................... 6 1.10 Definition of Significant Terms .............................................................................................. 6 1.11. Organization of the Study ...................................................................................................... 7 CHAPTER TWO .......................................................................................................................... 9 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................................ 9 2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 9 2.2 Empirical Review of the Study Objectives ............................................................................... 9 2.2.1 Self-esteem and Academic Performance ............................................................................... 9 2.2.2 Stigma and Academic Performance ..................................................................................... 10 2.2.3 Class Size and Academic Performance................................................................................ 12 v
2.2.4 Age and Academic Performance ......................................................................................... 14 2.2.5 Knowledge Gap ................................................................................................................... 15 2.3 Theoretical Framework ........................................................................................................... 16 2.3.1 The Theory of Pedagogy...................................................................................................... 17 2.3.2 Theory of Multiple Intelligence ........................................................................................... 19 2.4 Conceptual Framework ........................................................................................................... 20 CHAPTER THREE .................................................................................................................... 22 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................. 22 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................. 22 3.2 Research Design...................................................................................................................... 22 3.3 Target Population.................................................................................................................... 22 3.4 Sampling Procedure ................................................................................................................ 22 3.5 Methods of Data Collection .................................................................................................... 23 3.5.1 Questionnaire ....................................................................................................................... 23 3.5.2 Interview Schedule............................................................................................................... 23 3.5.3 Documentary Analysis Schedule ......................................................................................... 24 3.6 Validity and Reliability........................................................................................................... 24 3 .6.1 Validity ............................................................................................................................... 24 3.6.2 Reliability............................................................................................................................. 24 3.7 Data Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 25 3.8 Methods of Data Analysis....................................................................................................... 25 3.9 Ethical Considerations ............................................................................................................ 26 3.10 Operational Definition of Variables...................................................................................... 26 CHAPTER FOUR....................................................................................................................... 28 DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION ..................................... 28 4.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................. 28 4.1.1 Response rate ....................................................................................................................... 28 4.2 Background Information ......................................................................................................... 28 4.2.1 Gender of the Respondents .................................................................................................. 28 4.2.2 Ages of the Respondents...................................................................................................... 28 4.2.3 Educational Qualification of the Respondents..................................................................... 29 vi
4.2.4 Respondents Working Experience...................................................................................... 30 4.3 Specific Information ............................................................................................................... 30 4.3.1 Self Esteem and Academic Performance ............................................................................. 30 4.3.2 Stigma and Academic Performance..................................................................................... 31 4.3.3 Class Size and Academic Performance................................................................................ 33 4.3.4 Age and Academic Performance ......................................................................................... 34 4.3.5 Indicators of Academic Performance................................................................................... 35 4.3.6 The Influence of Repetition on Academic Performance (Regression Model)..................... 36 4.4 Results from the Discussion Interviews with Head Teachers................................................. 38 CHAPTER FIVE ........................................................................................................................ 39 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................................................................ 39 5.1 Summary of Findings.............................................................................................................. 39 5.2 Discussions ............................................................................................................................. 40 5.3 Conclusions............................................................................................................................. 42 5.4 Recommendations................................................................................................................... 43 5.5 Suggestion for Further Study .................................................................................................. 43 REFERENCES............................................................................................................................ 45 APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................. 50 APPENDIX I: QUESTIONAIRE FOR TEACHERS................................................................... 50 APPENDIX II: INTERVIEW SCHEDULES FOR HEAD TEACHERS .................................... 53 APPENDIX III: NCST RESEARCH AUTHORIZATION PERMIT ......................................... 54 APPENDIX IV: RESEARCH CLEARANCE PERMIT (FRONT) ............................................. 55 APPENDIX V: RESEARCH CLEARANCE PERMIT (BACK) ................................................ 56 vii
LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework ............................................................................................... 21 viii
LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1: Sample Frame .............................................................................................................. 23 Table 3.2 Operational Definition of Variables ............................................................................. 27 Table 4.1 Gender of the Respondents ........................................................................................... 28 Table 4.2 Ages of the Respondents............................................................................................... 29 Table 4.3 Educational Qualification of the Respondents.............................................................. 29 Table 4.4 Respondents Working Experience................................................................................ 30 Table 4.5 Self Esteem and Academic Performance...................................................................... 31 Table 4.6 Stigma and Academic Performance.............................................................................. 32 Table 4.7 Class Size and Academic Performance ........................................................................ 33 Table 4.8 Age and Academic Performance .................................................................................. 34 Table 4.9 Indicators of Academic Performance ........................................................................... 35 Table 4.10 Influence of Repetition on Academic Performance (Regression Model) ................... 36 ix
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS CBD: Curriculum Based Development CHS: Child Health Survey EFA: Education for All LOI: Language of Instruction MTE: Mother Tongue Education NHES: National Household Education Survey PISA: Programme for International Student Assessment SES: Socio-economic Status SPSS: Statistical Package for social sciences STAR: Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio UIS: Institute for Statistics UK: United Kingdom UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization x
ABSTRACT Academic performance is the outcome of education. It is the extent to which a pupil, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic performance is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment tests but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are the most important procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts. This study sought to investigate the influence of repetition on academic performance of pupils in primary schools within Turbo division, Uasin Gishu County. The specific objectives of the study sought to: investigate the influence of self esteem on academic performance of pupils; investigate the influence of stigmatization on academic performance of pupils; examine the relationship between class size and academic performance of pupils; and to assess how time wastage influences the academic performance of pupils. The findings of the study will be significant to the management of the schools in that they will be able to gain insight on other possible ways of implementing other strategies for academic performance apart from using repetition as a way of enhancing academic performance. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The target population consisted of 59 head teachers and 472 teachers. The study employed proportionate stratified random sampling technique to sample the schools that participated in the study. Proportionate stratified random Sampling technique was used to select the teachers from public primary schools in the division. The researcher used the questionnaire, interview schedule and document analysis to collect the data for research. Data was tabulated and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequencies and means. Data was presented in frequency and percentages tables. multiple regression analysis technique was used to determine the effect of Independent Variables on the dependent variable. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship (p = 0.00) between low self esteem and academic performance. The findings also indicated a significant relationship (p = 0.000) between stigma and academic performance. The results however indicated that there was no significant relationship (p=0.440) between class size and academic performance. The results also indicated that there was no significant relationship (p = 0.649) between age and academic performance. The researcher concluded that: A pupil with low self-esteem may view his/herself as being unskilled or incapable of completing tasks. Hence, self esteem brings about confidence to pursue academic achievement; stigmatized pupils, although initially proud of their accomplishments, soon come to define themselves as different and their backgrounds a burden. They subsequently began to experience a crisis in competency; large class sizes do not allow individual pupils to get attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance; lastly, age does not have significant influence on academic achievement of pupils. However, longer school time tables demotivate pupils thereby impacting negatively on their enthusiasm to learn. xi
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study Academic performance is the outcome of education. It is the extent to which a pupil, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic performance is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment tests but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts. To narrow down, the pupil academic performance refers to how learners deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers. Therefore it can be concluded that academic performance is the ability of the pupil to study and remember facts and be able to communicate the knowledge verbally or down on paper (Hungi, 2010). According to Abagi (1997) repetition, or retention as it is often referred to in the literature for Developed Countries, is the practice of making children who have not mastered the curriculum and thus do not reach certain academic standards repeat the year while their peers are promoted to the next year. By contrast, social or automatic promotion is the act of allowing these same children to continue to the next year of study with the rest of their peer group despite not having met the minimum required standards. Globally, policies on repetition and automatic promotion vary widely from country to country. As a general rule, repetition is a practice influenced strongly by culture and linguistics. Within Europe, Anglo-Saxon cultures (Great Britain, Ireland and Scandinavian countries Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark) very rarely use repetition as an education policy tool but instead practice automatic promotion with additional support for weaker learners. By contrast, repetition is institutionalized in Francophone countries (France and Belgium) and Lusophone countries (Portugal), although France and Belgium have seen a declining trend in its practice over recent years. Repetition is also a common practice in the United States, although no official data is collected on repetition rates. Despite this, several authors estimate it on the basis 1
of overage children indifferent grades. Repetition is also widely practiced in Francophone Canada (Quebec) (Abagi, 1997). Alexandar (1994) notes that in France in 1966, 60% of primary school completers were repeaters, whereas by 2005, this figure had dropped to 20%. Similarly, in 1966, 18% of pupils had repeated at least two years by the end of the sixth grade of primary school whereas in 2005, this figure had dropped to 1%. However, Avis (2004) points out that while these downward trends have been seen, since the 1990s the percentage of repeaters has increased with every five pupils repeating at least one year, with a persistence of repetition at the beginning and middle of the primary cycle. Belgium has seen a significant decline in repetition at primary school level, while at secondary level, where repetition is permitted it has to be accompanied by a specific programme of intervention to support the student. In Africa, countries which were colonized have been strongly influenced in their education policy by the systems used by the colonial administration and this pattern can generally be seen in their present-day education systems: Francophone Africa and Asia (for example Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and Cambodia), and Lusophone countries(Brazil, Angola and Mozambique) all continue to practice repetition, while most Anglophone countries are more likely to follow patterns of automatic promotion except in very specific circumstances where children have missed a lot of the school year due to illness or other reasons (UNESCO, 2006). According to Calmax (2010), when children start primary school, they come from a variety of backgrounds and experiences some will have benefited from pre-primary education or regular pre-school attendance and may be quite advanced socially and educationally, being able to read and write, while others may not have had any of these opportunities so will appear to be struggling by comparison. In addition, some children will have special educational needs including learning difficulties and behavioral problems. Conflict, economiC Difficulties affecting the time parents or other care givers are able to spend with children, migration, natural disasters, health and nutrition problems or other interruptions may have had an impact on childrens preschool cognitive development. The social environment of school may also be very different from a childs previous social experience and acclimatization to the social codes in school may take varying times. Another contributory problem may be that the language of instruction (LoL) is often a childs second or even third language. 2
In Kenya, most underachievers are allowed to repeat a class so that they can improve their academic performance. But there have always been conflicts between school management and parents in many schools in around the country allegedly because students are ordered to repeat classes due to poor academic performance. The parents argue that the students who repeat classes add an extra burden to parents who still have other children school. In 2012 for example, the ministry of education under its minister issued a stern warning against repetition, as forceful repetition lowers the self esteem of the student. The government on its side is opposed to repetition as a strategy to improve academic performance. The government through the Teachers Service Commission has been warning school management and parents against the practice citing disciplinary action on the proponents. Repeating does not add value to learners' achievement even if parents and teachers want them to do so. Schools that force learners to repeat must be reported. Despite government opposition to repetition the practice is still common in most schools and this is because there is pressure on the teachers to deliver by producing good performance. This leads to school managements to affect a policy that does not allow students who fail to be promoted but alternatively to repeat class in order to improve performance. But there are no remarkable indicators that learners who repeat classes improve academic performance. 1.2 Statement of the Problem Ideally, repetition is viewed as a way of replacing poor performance with good and improved grades. Its main aim is to improve academic performance. In the early classes, repetition is also a way to prevent failure before it occurs so that the extra year is believed to provide learners with additional time for personal adjustment, maturation, and skill development. Repetition is a mechanism for ensuring that learners master the basic skills necessary for success in higher grades. Currently, learners are either forced to repeat a class due to poor performance or they repeat willingly with the hope to do better the following academic year. But in some instances repetition has shown to yield poor performance or resulting to drop outs as a result of low esteem from the students repeating. It is evident that students who repeat classes are more likely to drop out of school (Jonas, 2003). It is also evident from research done by Anderson 2001 that students often improve during the year following class repetition, particularly if additional 3
instruction is provided. However, these gains are normally lost in two to three years. Repetition is also associated with poor social adjustment, attitudes toward school, behavioral outcomes, and attendance which may affect performance negatively. The main reason for repetition is to improve academic performance. Research from literature on repetition and observation from life experiences indicate contrary result. Repetition fails to help learners who repeat to improve their academic performance. This is the reason why this study will seek to investigate the factors affecting the efficacy of repetition as a strategy to enhance academic performance of primary school learners. 1.3 Purpose of the Study The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of repetition on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Turbo division. 1.4 Objectives of the Study The study sought: 1. To establish the influence of self esteem on academic performance of pupils, a case of Turbo Division 2. To establish the influence of stigma on academic performance of pupils, a case of Turbo Division 3. To examine the relationship between class size and academic performance of pupils, a case of Turbo Division 4. To assess the influence of age on the academic performance of pupils, a case of Turbo Division 1.5 Research Questions i. What is the influence of self esteem on the academic performance of pupils in Turbo division? ii. What is the influence of stigmatization on the academic performance of pupils in Turbo division? iii. How does congestion in class influence the academic performance of pupils in Turbo division? 4
iv. How does the age influence the academic performance of pupils in Turbo division? 1.6 Significance of the Study The findings of the study will be significant to the following; The management of the school will be able to gain insight on other possible ways of implementing other strategies for academic performance aside from using repetition as a way of enhancing academic performance. This study is set to significantly aid the government in addressing this issue of repetition. Findings from this study will give alternatives to the government in formulating lasting solutions to the menace of repetition. This study sets out to significantly assist learning institutions in formulating policies that aid them in assisting students that are not performing academically. It will also assist the institutions in reducing congestion in classes resulting from repetition. This study will have a significant impact in helping parents reduce the financial burden of repetition as they incur extra costs in financing the extra year. It will also provide alternative options to parents who feel that their children did not master a concept or two in the previous year and ought to repeat. Students will significantly benefit from this study as they will be able to avoid the agony of repetition. It will set to provide ways of assisting lowly performing students without necessarily repeating them. Students will be able to achieve their career potentials and be able to achieve their goals without necessarily repeating a class or two. future researchers are also set to significantly benefit from the literature of the study as well as the suggestions for further studies that will be suggested in this study. 1.7 Delimitation of the Study The study, instead of considering all the schools in the country, was confined to Turbo division in Uasin Gishu County and the findings from the area cannot be representative of the situation in the whole country. There is therefore need for a similar study to be conducted that takes into consideration the whole country so as to get the national position on the issue. 5
1.8 Limitations of the study The school administrations may not allow the research to be carried out in their institutions. This would be due to the altering of the various schools learning programmes and schedules. Moreover, the respondents, who are the institution employees, may be reluctant to provide the required information; due to the fact that they may want to protect delicate information about the institutions. Lastly, time and money allocated for the study is among the limiting factors as there are discrepancies in time and money use, which may impair the study findings. 1.9 Assumptions of the Study The study was carried out with the assumptions that, respondents were in a position and willing to give the correct information and the researcher would have adequate time to collect, gather and analyze information. 1.10 Definition of Significant Terms In this section, operational definitions are presented as will be used within the study context: Academic performance: In this study, this term is used to imply to the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Bilingual education: involves teaching academic contents in two languages in a native and secondary language with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model Class size: Class size is typically defined as the number of students for whom a teacher is primarily responsible during a school year. Double shift: Children are only in school part of the day. Drop out: A student who withdraws before completing a course. Education: it's used in the study to mean the general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next. 6
Effectiveness: the degree to which something is successful in producing a desired result. Efficiency: The extent to which time, effect or cost is well used for the intended task or purpose. Esteem: a persons overall evaluation of his or her own worth which encompasses beliefs such as competency, doubts and emotions such as triumph, despair, pride and shame. Formal education: this is classroom-based, provided by trained teachers. Pupil-teacher: also known as teacher-student ratio, this is the number of student in a school or district compared to the number of teaching professionals. Repetition: In this study, this term is used to imply the process of having a pupil/student repeat an educational course, class or grade usually one previously failed. School wastage: the inefficiency of student flows and student performance within the school system; measures of student dropout, repetition, completion, attendance and academic performance grades are used and analyzed. Stakeholders: people with an interest or concern in a school or project Stigma: a social identity that is devalued in a particular context, which arises at the intersection between identity and context Merit list: school score sheets. Pedagogy: Is the science and art of education; the method and practice of teaching especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept. Quality: Has been used in the study to mean how good or bad something is Relevance: is used in the study to mean something practical and especially social applicability 1.11. Organization of the Study The study comprises of five chapters namely chapter; one, two and three, four and five. Chapter one deals with the background of the study, problem study, research objectives, hypothesis, significance of the study, delimitation of the study and the possible limitations that will be encountered by the researcher. 7
Chapter two basically deals with reviewing of theories and past studies that are related to this study. The past studies offer insights and are beneficial in guiding and providing information to the researcher. Chapter three: Research design and methodology -it encompasses: the research design which the researcher will use, the study area where the researcher will undertake the study, the target population and the sample size that the researcher seeks to obtain information from, research instruments which the study will employ in collecting the information, validity and the reliability of the research instruments, data collection procedures, data analysis procedures , operational definition of variables and ethical consideration. Chapter four deals with data analysis, presentation and interpretation. Data analysis in this chapter will be facilitated by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Finally, chapter five presents a summary of the findings, discussions based on the findings, conclusions and the researchers recommendations based on the findings and conclusions of this study. 8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter presents information on discussing the literature review of the objective of this study and the conceptual framework applied to this study .It will contain information from what other researchers and scholars have already done in order to be able to facilitate the study 2.2 Empirical Review of the Study Objectives This section provides a review on what other scholars have done in respect to the objectives of this study and academic performance. 2.2.1 Self-esteem and Academic Performance Self-esteem refers to a persons overall evaluation of his or her own worth. It encompasses beliefs such as competency, doubts and emotions such as triumph, despair, pride and shame. It can also apply to a particular dimension such as one believing that they are good; thereby making them proud of themselves. Self-esteem can be equated to self worth, self regard, self respect, self love, and self-integrity. Morris Rosenberg (1969) defined self-esteem in terms of a stable sense of personal worth or worthiness. Self concept therefore, is a concept of personality and for it to grow, we need to have self worth, and this self worth will be sought from embracing challenges that result in the showing of success. Earlier studies on social perception and academic achievement have established that parents and teachers tend to encourage and support students to achieve higher academic goals in schools (Frank et al., 2009). Examining students self concept by grade level, the research findings showed that students in advanced grades had higher self concepts. As students advance in years and grade levels, their perceptions of the various aspects of self concept went up. A possible explanation was that students improve in verbal and problem solving skills as they take more academic subjects in school. Additionally, children spend an increasing amount of time in peer interactions during middle-late childhood and adolescence. Hence, good peer relations might be necessary for 9
normal Social development in adolescent (Chapman et al., 2002).A childs self image influences the way peers perceive him or her. Poor peer relations in childhood and adolescence is associated with dropping out of school and delinquency. A research conducted on sex- peer indicated that boys perceived themselves to have significantly better relations with opposite sex peers. During the administration of the survey, most of the girls indicated they were uncomfortable responding to the items on opposite sex peers. Some of them even shared with the researchers that, girls who had better relations with the opposite sex peer were ,,known meaning they had loose morals. One explanation could be that girls in this culture are not allowed to have associations with opposite sex peers during adolescence. Moreover, the African culture tends to discourage girls from associating with the opposite sex peers until they go to college (Frank, 2009). However, other studies reveal that adolescents who feel accepted in their peer groups have their love and belonging needs as well as self ­ esteem needs met. Rejected adolescents are infrequently nominated as Best friends. Rejection results from aggression, poor sociability, communicative unresponsiveness and hyperactivity (Wiggins, 2000).Factors that affect pupils' acceptance by peers include intelligence ability, physical attractiveness, special talents, socioeconomic class and ethnicity. Pupils who belong to middle socio- economic class tend to be more popular than those growing up in lower socio-economic class. All this is associated with dropping out of school and delinquency. This concurs with Frank (2009) who noted that inflating students self esteem by itself can actually decrease grades. High self esteem correlates highly with self-reported happiness and impressive academic outcomes. The converse is always true with regard to a low self esteem. 2.2.2 Stigma and Academic Performance In their seminal review, Crocker et al. (1998) situated stigma in the social psychological literature, defining it as a social identity that is devalued in a particular context. The key component of their definition is that stigma arises at the intersection between identity and context. Thus, as they note, stigma does not reside in the person "but in the unfortunate circumstance of possessing an attribute that, in a given social context, leads to devaluation" (Crocker et al., 1998, p. 506). 10
Social identity threat (Steele et al., 2002); a broader perspective on stereotype threat provides a framework for understanding the circumstances under which a stigmatized social identity can become a psychological liability. In their conceptualization of social identity threat, Steele and colleagues posit that cues from the environment, such as numerical underrepresentation, can signal to an individual that one of his or her social identities may be devalued in that environment. Perceiving such a cue, Steele and colleagues argue, forms a working hypothesis in the individuals mind (a theory of context) that triggers a search for additional information to confirm or disconfirm the suspected potential for social identity-based devaluation. Specifically, this theory of context instigates cognitive processes (e.g., vigilance) and affective responses (e.g., anxious arousal; that undermine performance on tasks that are relevant in the context. Walton and Cohen (2007) have proposed, furthermore, that social identity threat undermines individuals sense of social acceptance, which can, in turn, result in impaired achievement in the domain. Specifically, Walton and Cohen (2007) asserted that this belonging uncertainty "may take the form of a broad-based hypothesis that ,,people like me do not belong here and will not succeed, which, not surprisingly, undermines individuals in- vestment in the tasks most central to the environment (e.g., academic achievement in the school context). Social identity threat, by virtue of undermining individuals fundamental sense of belonging (or legitimacy) in a given context, may manifest as concerns about competency in domains most central to that context. In an academic context, for instance, possessing a marginal, stigmatized identity may manifest as concerns about ones academic competency (Walton and Cohen, 2007). In addition to this work on academic performance, socio economic status (SES) has been found to influence social and emotional well-being in the context of higher education. For instance, in a retrospective study Ostrove (2003) found that women from lower and middle-class backgrounds reported feeling more alienated or belonging less during their time spent at an elite college, echoing Walton and Cohens (2007) work on the effects of racial under- representation at elite private universities. Moreover, students from lower SES backgrounds have also been found to experience concerns about their academic fit and competency in the elite university environment. 11
In his ethnographic study of working-class students at an Ivy League law school, Ostrove (2003) observed that these students, although initially proud of their accomplishments, soon came to define themselves as different and their backgrounds a burden. They subsequently began to experience a crisis in competency. 2.2.3 Class Size and Academic Performance Large class size and over populated schools have direct impact of the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. This is because large class size do not allow individual student to get attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance (Normore, 2006). Many researchers and studies explored the effects of small class on students in the primary grades. Mosteller (1995) proposed factors that made it likely that younger students benefited from smaller class size. When children first came to school, they were confronted with many changes and much confusion, entering this new setting from a variety of homes and circumstances. Many needed training in paying attention, carrying out tasks, and interacting with others in a working situation. In other words, when children start school, they have to learn to cooperate with others and generally become oriented to being students. Biddle and Berliner (2002) offered tentative theories to explain why small classes had impressive effects in the early grades. This was when youngsters were first learning the rules of school and forming ideas about whether they can cope with education. Since there was more one-to-one interaction in smaller classes, teachers learned more about individual students. This translates into helping students develop more useful habits and ideas about themselves. Additionally, teachers in small classes had higher morale and thus created a more supportive learning environment. The most frequently cited class size study in the literature is the STAR (Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio) experiment. The Tennessee STAR (experiment began as a pilot in 1984, was mandated in 1985, and was completed in 1990). Pupils entering kindergarten in participating schools were randomly assigned to a small class (13-17), a full size class (22-25), or a full size class with a full time teacher aide. Teachers were also assigned at random to the classrooms. 12
Pupils were to be kept in the same condition for up to four years, with a new teacher assigned at random each year (Normore, 2006). Participating schools had to have at least three kindergarten classes (57 kindergarten students) and accommodate one control and one treatment. The study was carried out in three kinds of groups: classes one-third smaller than regular-sized classes; regular-sized classes without a teachers aide; and regular-sized classes with a teachers aide. By comparing average pupil performance in the different kinds of classes, researchers were able to assess the relative benefits of small class size and the presence of a teachers aide. The experiment involved many schools and classes from urban, suburban, and rural areas so that the progress of children from different backgrounds could be evaluated. According to Nye et al. (2004), the STAR experiment provided rather strong evidence that class-size reduction led to immediate increases in academic achievement in both reading and mathematics, with some evidence of larger effects for minority students. This study also demonstrated that students who experienced more years of small classes in kindergarten through grade 3 had higher levels of achievement six years later than students who had fewer years of small classes (Nye et al.). They hypothesized that small classes may permit teachers to more effectively individualize instruction. Small classes may also tend to have fewer disruptions making all-class instruction more effective. Normore (2006) suggested that smaller classes benefited student achievement claiming that teachers in small classes paid greater attention to each pupil. Students in these classes experienced continuing pressure to participate in learning activities and became better, more involved students; attention to learning went up and disruptive and off-task behavior went down. Normore (2006) believed that class size might impact classroom processes and pupils learning. He stated that smaller class size allowed teachers to cover more curriculum and students to be more cognitively engaged. These two features led to improved student achievement. Normore asserted that; in larger classes, more time is needed for non-academic activities related to administrative and organizational procedures and to the management and control of discipline. Reductions in the quantity of learning opportunities constrain teachers from achieving the necessary pace, depth and breadth of curriculum coverage as class size increases. 13
2.2.4 Age and Academic Performance A study by Walton and Cohen (2007) found that in the lower grades of primary school, older pupils generally outperform younger ones. Younger pupils are far more likely to repeat grades than older pupils. There are particularly high repetition rates of underage pupils in first grade; these suggest there is an unmet need for kindergarten facilities. In higher grades of primary school, older pupils are less likely to be promoted and more likely to drop out of school, resulting in lower survival rates than those of younger pupils. The two most important policy implications of the Walton and Cohen (2007) study were: the unmet need for education facilities for younger children should be met, and there is need for special focus on older pupils in higher grades to ensure that they remain in school. To categorize pupils into underage, on-time and overage groups, Walton and Cohen introduced the concept of relative age. The relative age of pupils refers to how many years the pupils age departs from the official age for their grade. The official ages for each grade are based on UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) definitions. Underage: The pupils age for the previous year is lower than the official age for the grade they reported attending during the previous year. On-time: The pupils age for the previous year is equal to the official age for the grade they reported attending during the previous year. One year overage: The pupils age for the previous year is one year higher than the official age for grade they reported attending during the previous year. 2+ years overage: The pupils age for the previous year is two or more years higher than the official age for grade they reported attending during the previous year (Walton and Cohen, 2007). There is wide variation of pupils ages within grades in many developing countries with some pupils being underage, some on-time, and others one, two or more years overage. Pupils of different ages face unique age-specific challenges, even when they are enrolled in the same grade. It may be that the variation of ages has classroom-wide effects on all the pupils. In the early grades of primary school, promotion rates are positively correlated with age; the overage pupils generally have the highest promotion rates, and underage pupils the lowest. There may be multiple explanations for this: overage pupils may be repeaters who are seeing material for a second time; they may be highly motivated in the early grades; or teachers may promote them 14
out of sympathy. On the other hand, underage pupils have much higher repetition rates in the first grade of school than on-time and older pupils (Walton and Cohen, 2007). The Concept of School Wastage School wastage may mean different things to different people in different contexts. In general, ,,school wastage tends to include the various elements of the educational production model, from "input and process" to "output and outcome". Thus, the term could be broadly defined as a lack of demonstrated school success or unrealized educational gains, which are themselves gauged by student achievements (output) and the social and economic returns (outcome) that occur as a result of the provision of educational services, finance, and the consumption of other school-related resources. In other words, student failure in graduation or academic achievement often results in school wastage. If output or outcome is less than expected, whether it is measured in total number of graduates or total amount of learning, some level of school wastage occurs. In regard to ,,input and process, any misuse of funds, wrongful allocation of resources, or inappropriate use of instructional time can also be deemed as school wastage (Schiefelbein, 1993). Repetition, a key school wastage indicator, is another issue that many educators do not associate with their school system. A typical response from schools and other education officials is "we dont have a repetition problem" or "there are only a few reported cases of repetition in". While it is true that official statistics do not suggest any cause for concern, there may well be hidden problems under the statistics (Devadoss, 2006). The concept of time management is generally defined in terms of a collection of behavior that is deemed to facilitate productivity and lighten stress (Schiefelbein, 1993). It is believed that effective and efficient time management strategies are necessary in order to increase intellectual performance and are frequently suggested by academic assistance personnel and lectures as aids to enhance achievement for students. 2.2.5 Knowledge Gap Past studies have concentrated their research studies on the effects of forced repetition in attendance of pupils in schools. Others have done their research studies on the efficacy of repetition as a strategy to increase performance. However, very little research has been 15
conducted on the on the influence of repetition on academic performance of pupils. This study therefore seeks to fill this gap. 2.3 Theoretical Framework The study is modeled on John Rawls (1971) theory of social justice. Rawls (1971) argues that a society is well ordered when its members know and agree to the same principles of social justice and the basic institutions of society generally satisfy and are widely known to satisfy these principles. Rawls (1971) thus depicts justice as an issue of fairness focusing on the distribution of resources and permitting an unequal distribution only to the extent that the weakest members of society benefit from the inequality (Rawls, 1971). Further, the theory points out that the term justice as fairness does not imply that justice and fairness are identical, but that the principles of justice are agreed to under fair conditions by individuals who are in a situation of equality. Justice as fairness also implies that the principles of justice equally apply to all individuals According to Rawls (1971), the two principles of justice which would be agreed to by rational and mutually disinterested individuals in the "original position" of equality are that: each individual should have equal right to as much liberty as is compatible with the right of others; and any social or economic inequalities which occur between individuals should be designed to benefit every individual and should belong to positions which are equally available to all individuals. The first principle of justice is referred to by Rawls as ,,the principle of greatest equal liberty. The two parts of the second principle are ,,the difference principle and ,,the principle of the fair equality of the opportunity. According to Rawls the first principle of justice is logically prior to the second principle in that for justice to be attained, the first principle must be satisfied. The logical order of the second principle of justice is the principle of equality of opportunity and the difference principle. Thus for justice to be attained the principles of fair equality of opportunity must be satisfied before the difference principle is satisfied. According to this theory the school is seen as a social institution in which its members that is the school managers, teachers and pupils ought to know and agree to the principle of social justice. In this study the resources imply the equality of opportunity in terms of promotion and 16
retention of pupils in schools. When children are told to repeat classes the resources in terms of finance, personnel and the infrastructure will be underutilized. When pupils repeat classes resources at some points are also overstretched. Since Rawls (1971) depicts justice as an issue of fairness, schools should focus on distribution of educational opportunities fairly to all pupils. Rawls (1971) theory of justice is crucial for this study since it seeks to answer questions such as how should the society (school in this case) be structured, how should basic rights and duties be assigned to individuals and how should social and economic advantages be distributed to all members of society. This theory of justice is beneficial to this research since it argues for equal rights for all individuals and denies that injustice toward any particular group of individuals is justifiable unless this injustice is necessary to prevent an even greater injustice (Rawls, 1971). The theory of justice, therefore, guides this research in studying the effect of the pupils repetition on academic performance of pupils. 2.3.1 The Theory of Pedagogy Mark K. Smith (2006) explored the origins of pedagogy and the often overlooked traditions of thinking and practice associated with it. He argues that a focus on teaching as a specialist role is best understood in other ways. Pedagogy needs to be explored through the thinking and practice of those educators who look to accompany learners; care for and about them; and bring learning into life. Teaching is just one aspect of their practice. He also looks to some of the issues facing the development of pedagogical thinking (Ostrove, 2007). Pedagogical Theories postulate how things should be taught and/or how one can bring someone to learn. They often are based on learning theory that is interested in how we learn. The contemporary theory of pedagogy helps to explain the connection between the conditions of the new learning culture/environment and previous educational experiences for facilitating or hindering learning. This theory of pedagogy is helpful in understanding the difficulties students undergo in their learning process (Ostrove, 2007). Well-to-do Romans and some Jews entrusted their children in the care and oversight of trusted slaves (pedagogues). Young (1999) noted that it was a continuous (and ever widening) practice from the fifth century B.C. until late into imperial times. He further reports that brothers sometimes shared one pedagogue in Greek society. In contrast, in Roman society there were 17
often several pedagogues in each family, including female overseers for girls. The distinction between teachers and pedagogues, instruction and guidance, and education for school or life was a feature of discussions around education for many centuries. It was still around when Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) explored education. Education includes the nurture of the child and, as it grows, its culture. The latter is firstly negative, consisting of discipline; that is, merely the correcting of faults. Secondly, culture is positive, consisting of instruction and guidance (and thus forming part of education). Guidance means directing the pupil in putting into practice what he has been taught (Ostrove, 2007). The theory of pedagogy can be taken as continuously running from behaviourist through social to constructivist. This is similar to teaching theory. In this context, it is always easier to say teaching has occurred rather than learning has occurred. It is easier for learners from the behaviourist perspective to demonstrate that learning has occurred by demonstrating enduring change that is observable through their behaviour. The observable changes are characteristics of teaching objectives which remain reactive in the pedagogical model.The growing interest in pedagogy and specialist pedagogues in some countries, when put alongside developments in thinking about the nature of learning ­means that we are at one of those moments where there might be movement around how the term is used in English-language contexts (Ostrove, 2007). It is understandable that the cognitive processes of the students are important. Though the processes are unobservable, they are real and can proceed, influencing and modifying behaviour. Human beings are gregarious and social by nature. They are not isolated in their cognition and also learn by observation and mimeticism. Human beings may also learn without demonstrating that "teaching/learning has occurred". Promotion with the new pedagogical concepts elicits significant results in the reduction of repeating. It is concluded that these strategies based on a pupil-centered philosophy/pedagogy tend to promote learning and consequently, increase academic performance in schools (Ostrove, 2007). In relation to this study, the theory of pedagogy emphasizes on the efficiency or effectiveness of teaching and thus ensuring maximum output in terms of academic performance. This in essence will avoid repetition and as such the efficiency of repetition in enhancing academic performance. This study will therefore seek to determine the extent to which school 18
based factors especially teacher quality and teaching practices influences academic performance and their effects on the efficacy of repetition as a strategy to enhance academic performance (Ostrove, 2007). 2.3.2 Theory of Multiple Intelligence Theory of multiple intelligences arose when some psychologists became critical of the assessments of intelligence based upon a single factor. Additionally, certain individuals, such as those with savant syndrome did not fit into traditional molds of intelligence. David Perkins (2002) states the theory of intelligence in the form; we can become more intelligent through study and practice, through access to appropriate tools, and through learning to make effective use of those tools. Individuals belief about themselves influences much on their performance and how they can do it (Perkins, 2002). Howard Gardner (1983) proposed multiple intelligence theory originally identifying seven components of intelligence. Gardner argued that these intelligences are different from each other and that each person has some level of each. More recently, he has added an eighth intelligence to his list (Educational Leadership, 1997).Teachers have studied and used some of Howard Gardners ideas in their teaching. An example could be in creating a team of students to do a particular project. Here, a teacher may choose a team whose talents comprise most of the eight areas of intelligence identified by Gardner. The teacher may encourage a team to divide up specific tasks in line with specific high levels of talents found on a team. Alternatively, a teacher may encourage or require that team members not be allowed to work in their areas of highest ability in order to encourage their development of knowledge and skills in other areas (Perkins, 2002). The second one is incremental theory of intelligence described as those people who belief intelligence is malleable and can be manipulated. Those with a malleable view of intelligence see failure as indicating that in order to succeed; they have to do something different in the future. Most important, they intend to do it. For these people, a specific performance may reflect something about skill level at the moment, but it says nothing about broader intellectual abilities. And it certainly suggests nothing about the individuals worth as a person (Perkins, 2002). 19
If a person believes a persons characteristic like intelligence can be improved, then they will enhance it in a way that it allows them to perform well academically. (Blackwell, Dweck, & Trzesniewski, (2007) explains the power of belief about intelligence in their implicit theory of intelligence. The implicit theory of belief is based on the assumption that individuals main beliefs have the power to determine the ways they react to different situations (Blackwell, Dweck, & Trzesniewski, 2007). In relation to this study, the study will attempt to show how student based factor influences academic performance of the pupils. The study will seek to identify how strategic studying techniques and their attitude towards learning influences their academic performance and their effects on the efficacy of repetition as a strategy to enhance academic performance (Perkins, 2002). 2.4 Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework outlines the key factors that influence repetition of pupils in primary schools and subsequent poor academic performance i.e. Stigma, Low self-esteem, Congestion in class, and age of pupils. High self esteem correlates highly with self-reported happiness and impressive academic outcomes, and the converse is always true with regard to a low self esteem. In an academic context, possessing a marginal, stigmatized identity may manifest as concerns about ones academic competency. Large class size and over populated schools have direct impact of the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Congested classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and they make pupils to lose interest in school. Lastly, the pupils age has a significant impact on academic performance. For instance, underage pupils may find it hard to concentrate on their class work unlike older pupils; whereas overage pupils may lose their self esteem which in turn lowers academic achievement. 20
Independent Variable/Repetition Stigma Status loss Discrimination Depression
Dependent Variable
Self esteem Shyness Suicide Low confidence
Academic Performance Rankings Transition rates Completion rates
Class congestion No. of pupils/class Teacher-pupil ratio No. of books/pupil
Age of pupils Overage Underage On time
Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework
Government Policy on Repetition Moderating Variable
21
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter consists of the following: the research design, target population, the sampling design and sample size, data collection procedures, data collection instruments, validity and reliability of research instruments, and data analysis. 3.2 Research Design The study adopted a survey research design. A survey is an attempt to collect data from members of a population in order to determine the current status of that population with respect to one or more variables. This design is probably the best method available to social scientist and other educators interested in collecting original data for the purposes of describing a population which is too large to observe directly. Surveys are also excellent vehicles for the measurement of characteristics of large populations (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999:165). This study was concerned with getting data on the influence of repetition on academic performance in sampled schools for generalization to other areas in Turbo Division. 3.3 Target Population Target population consisted of all the head teachers and teachers in Turbo Division in Eldoret West district. Turbo Division consists of two zones namely Sugoi and Turbo zones. The two zones have 27 and 32 public primary schools respectively (Turbo Divisional Education Headquarters, 2014). The study sought to target the head teachers and teachers from these schools. The target population therefore consisted of 59 head teachers and 472 teachers. 3.4 Sampling Procedure The study employed proportionate stratified random sampling technique to sample the schools that participated in the study. The study adopted the use of 30% of the total population as stated by Mugenda and Mugenda (1999) that 30% is well representative. This increased the reliability of data. Purposive sampling was used to obtain the head teachers to participate in the study. This allowed the head teachers of sampled schools to participate. The researcher can 22
purposively sample a group of people believed to be reliable for the study (Kombo and Tromp 2006).
Table 3.1: Sample Frame
Respondents
Target population Procedure
Head teachers
59
100%
Teachers
472
30% of 472
Sample size 59 142
Total
531
201
The study thus sampled 201 respondents. 3.5 Methods of Data Collection The researcher used questionnaires, interview schedules and document analysis to collect the data for research. 3.5.1 Questionnaire Kothari (2008) defines a questionnaire as a tool that consists of a number of questions printed or typed in a definite order on a form or set of forms. The researcher constructed closeended open-ended questionnaires, which were administered to teachers and parents. The researcher used questionnaires because potential information was able to be collected from a large portion of a group. This potential is not often realized, as returns from questionnaires are usually low. Due to the number of respondents expected (large number), the questionnaire was the most appropriate research instrument to be used. 3.5.2 Interview Schedule Interview is a method of collecting data that involves presentation of oral verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral verbal responses (Oson and Onen 2005). The study employed the respondent type of interview where the interviewer retains all control throughout the process. The researcher used the interview schedule for guidance during the interview process. The 23
interview schedule designed was meant for the head teacher because some specific information would be obtained from them. 3.5.3 Documentary Analysis Schedule Secondary data is data which has been collected by individuals or agencies for the purposes other than those of our particular research study. Documents are an important source of data in any area of investigation. Review of the documents shows that the researcher is aware of the available functions of research. Documents generally provide a source of data, which is permanent and available in a form that can be checked by others. Secondary data may be available which is entirely appropriate and wholly adequate to draw conclusions and answer the question or solve the problem. Secondary sources of information can yield more accurate data than can be obtained through primary research. The study therefore employed the use of secondary data through registers and merit lists of the schools under study. 3.6 Validity and Reliability The data collection instruments were tested for validity and reliability as explained below; 3 .6.1 Validity Validity is the accuracy and meaningfulness of inferences, which are based on the research results. It is the degree to which results obtained from the analysis of data actually represent the phenomenon under study (Mugenda & Mugenda, 1999). To test the content validity of instruments, the researcher discussed the instruments with experts and specialists in Nairobi University to ensure that all the concepts under investigation were measured. A pilot study also aided in improving the validity of the instruments. Items were checked to ensure they accurately measured the concepts under study. 3.6.2 Reliability To determine the reliability of the instruments, test-re-test through piloting was done in one public primary school in Soy Division. The reliability of the items was based on estimates of the variability among the responses to the items. The reliability coefficient was determined using 24
Karl Pearsons product moment correlation coefficient because the method is more accurate as it determines the stability of the instrument. The first test was administered to 10 respondents consisting of 1 head teacher and 10 teachers. The instruments were administered again to the same respondents after a period of two weeks and identification maintained. A reliability index (alpha) greater than or equal to 0.5 was considered to be high enough for the instrument to be used in the study. 3.7 Data Analysis Data was tabulated and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequencies and means. The purpose of descriptive statistics was to enable the researcher to meaningfully describe the findings. Data was presented in frequency and percentage tables. The study used the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) program during data analysis. 3.8 Methods of Data Analysis Multiple regression analysis technique was used to determine the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable. It was used to measure the relative influence of each independent variable based on its covariance dependent variable and was useful in forecasting. Usually, it is most appropriate when both the independent and dependent variables are interval, though some social scientists also use regression on ordinal data. Like correlation, regression analysis assumes that the relationship between variables is linear. In its simplest form multiple regression analysis involves finding the best straight-line relationship to explain how the variation in an outcome (or dependent) variable, Y, depends on the variation in a predictor (or independent or explanatory) variable, X. Once the relationship is estimated, it is possible to use the equation: Y = b0 + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X 3 + b4X 4+ e Where: X = The independent variables - X1 = Stigma 25
X2 = Self esteem X3 = Class congestion X4 = Age of pupils = error term. Y = The dependent variable (Academic Performance) b = Independent Variable Coefficients e = Error margin 3.9 Ethical Considerations There are certain ethical protocols that were followed by the researcher. The first was soliciting explicit consent from the respondents. This ensured that their participation to the study was out of their own volition. The researcher also ensured that the respondents were aware of the objectives of the research and their contribution to its completion. Another ethical measure was treating the respondents with respect and courtesy (Schutt 2009). This was aimed at ensuring that the respondents were at ease; it made them more likely to give candid responses to the questionnaire. The respondents were also informed that the responses they would give would be treated confidentially and be used strictly for the study and for no other purposes. There also are some ethical measures that were followed in the data analysis. To ensure the integrity of data, the researcher checked the accuracy of encoding of the responses. This was carried out to ensure that the statistics generated from the study were truthful and verifiable (Schutt 2009). 3.10 Operational Definition of Variables To achieve the objectives of the study the researcher investigated the influence of repetition on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in turbo division. The objectives of the study included, to: investigate the influence of self esteem on academic performance of pupils; investigate the influence of stigmatization on academic performance of pupils; examine the relationship between class size and academic performance of pupils; and to 26
assess how pupils age influences their academic performance. To achieve these objectives questionnaires were used each with specific questions for each objective.
Table 3.2 Operational Definition of Variables
Objective To investigate the influence of low self esteem on academic performance of pupils, a case of Turbo Division To investigate the influence of stigma on academic performance of pupils, a case of Turbo Division To Examine the relationship between class size and academic performance of pupils, a case of Turbo Division
Variables
Indicators
Dependent Academic performance Independent self esteem
Shyness Suicide Low confidence
Dependent Academic performance Independent Stigmatization
Status loss Discrimination Depression
Dependent Academic performance Independent Class size
Teacher-pupil ratio No. of pupils/class No. of books/pupil
Measureme nt scale Nominal Ordinal Nominal Ordinal Nominal Ordinal
Tools
of
analysis
Descriptive statistics. tables and pictures
Types of tools Frequency distribution tables
Descriptive statistics Tables and pictures
Frequency distribution tables
Descriptive statistics. tables and pictures
Frequency distribution tables
To assess how the age of pupils influences the academic performance of pupils, a case of Turbo Division
Dependent Academic performance Independent Age of pupils
Over-age On-time Under-age
Nominal Ordinal
Descriptive statistics Tables and pictures
Frequency distribution tables
The moderating variables were derived from the Kenya government's class repetition policy which aims to put a stop on forced class repetition in all schools in Kenya. The policy contains certain interventions that should be put in place to help mitigate the problem of noncompliance with it by the schools managements. 27
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Introduction This chapter gives details on the background information, data analysis, presentation and interpretation following the findings made by the researcher.
4.1.1 Response rate The study had 142 questionnaires targeting the same amount of respondents. 118 questionnaires were filled meaning that the study had an 83% response rate.
4.2 Background Information The research assessed the background information of the respondents in an effort to ensure that sampling was effectively done. The responses were as presented below.
4.2.1 Gender of the Respondents The researcher sought to establish the gender of the respondents so as to establish whether there was gender bias in the respondents. The findings were as presented in table 4.1
Table 4.1 Gender of the Respondents
Gender
Frequency
Percentage
Male
75
64
Female
43
36
Total
118
100
According to the study a majority of the respondents 64% were male, while 36% were female. The gap between both genders of the respondents was interpreted to mean that there were more male teachers than female. However, the researcher wasnt biased in this study since both genders were reached during data collection. 4.2.2 Ages of the Respondents The researcher sought to establish the ages of the respondents to establish whether teachers at the schools met the right age threshold. The findings were as presented in table 4.2 28
Table 4.2 Ages of the Respondents
Age (Years)
Frequency
20-30
4
31-40
71
41-50
30
51and Above
13
Total
118
Percentage 4 60 25 11 100
According to the study, a majority of the teacher respondents (60%) were teachers aged between 31-40 years, 25% were aged between 41-50 years, and 11% were aged 51 and above, while 4% were aged between 20-30 years. This implies that most primary school teachers in Turbo division were youthful and though mature enough to serve in their duties.
4.2.3 Educational Qualification of the Respondents The researcher sought to establish the level of education of the respondents to establish whether they were well informed on the study subject. The findings were as in table 4.3
Table 4.3 Educational Qualification of the Respondents
Educational Qualification
Frequency
Percentage
Form Four
6
6
Certificate
4
3
Diploma
47
40
Graduate
61
51
Total
118
100
According to the study, a majority of the teacher respondents (51%) held a bachelors degree, 40% were diploma holders, and 6% were form four leavers, while 3% were post secondary school certificate holders. This was interpreted to mean that most of the respondents
29
had the right academic background and thus were well informed of the subject matter. Their responses to this studys objective were therefore reliable.
4.2.4 Respondents' Working Experience The researcher sought to establish the work experience of the respondents. The findings were as presented in table 4.4
Table 4.4 Respondents Working Experience Working Experience (Years) Frequency
Percentage
Below 3
34
29
4-6
24
20
7-9
12
10
Over 10 Years
48
41
Total
118
100
Results from the study established that a majority of the teachers who responded (41%) had served in their duties for over 10 years, 29% had worked for less than 3 years, and 20% had served in their positions for 4-6 years, while 10% of the teachers who responded had worked in their positions for 7-9 years. This was interpreted to mean that the study was able to get information from very experienced persons with enough exposure on the subject matter. This further added to the credibility of the study. 4.3 Specific Information The researcher sought to investigate the influence of repetition on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Turbo division, and the findings were tabulated as follows: 4.3.1 Self Esteem and Academic Performance The researcher sought to establish the influence of low self esteem on academic performance of pupils and subsequent class repetition. The findings were as presented in table 4.5: 30
Table 4.5 Self Esteem and Academic Performance Key: F: Frequency, %: Percentage, SA: Strongly Agree, A: Agree, UD: Undecided, D: Disagree, SD: Strongly Disagree, T: Total, M: Mean
Statement
SA A UD D SD T M
Most pupils who perform poorly are characterized by a failure to express their views and opinions
F 3 3 9 39 64 118 4.3 % 2.5 2.5 7.6 33 54 100 86%
Poor performing pupils lose their self esteem and thus assume a submissive tone
F 3 3 25 49 38 118 4 % 2.5 2.5 21 42 32 100 80%
Poor peer relations in childhood and adolescence contributes to poor academic performance thereby subjecting pupils to class repetition
F 1 8 18 24 67 118 4.2 % 1 7 15 22 55 100 84%
F 4 7 17 37 58 100 4.6
Pupils give excuses for failure and verbally put themselves down
% 4 6 14 27 49 100 92%
Results from the study indicated that a majority of the respondents (92%) held that pupils gave excuses for failure and verbally put themselves down, 86% said that most pupils who performed poorly were characterized by a failure to express their views and opinions, 84% were of the opinion that poor peer relations in childhood and adolescence contributed to poor academic performance thereby subjecting pupils to class repetition, while 80% said that poor performing pupils lost their self esteem and thus assumed a submissive tone. This was interpreted to mean that low self-esteem amongst low achieving pupils in Turbo division was reflected in their behavior, body language, approach to life and overall demeanor. 4.3.2 Stigma and Academic Performance The researcher sought to establish the influence of stigma on academic performance of pupils and subsequent class repetition. The findings were as presented in table 4.6:
31
Table 4.6 Stigma and Academic Performance Key: F: Frequency, %: Percentage, SA: Strongly Agree, A: Agree, UD: Undecided, D: Disagree, SD: Strongly Disagree, T: Total, M: Mean
Statement
SA A UD D SD T M
Most poor performing pupils feel underrepresented which signals to them that their social identities may be devalued in the school's environment
F 4 0 13 29 72 118 4.4 % 3 0 11 25 61 100 88%
Discrimination is a major threat that undermines F 5 7 14 62 30 118 3.9
most individual pupils' sense of social acceptance,
which in turn result in impaired achievement
% 4 7 12 53 25 100 78%
Stigmatized pupils are highly depressed due to an F 4 6 15 29 64 118 4.2
identity crisis; further worsening their performance
% 3 5 13 25 54 100 84%
Pupils from lower socio-economic status backgrounds often experience concerns about their academic fit and competency in an elite school environment
F 3 3 25 41 46 118 4.1 % 2.5 2.5 21 35 39 100 82%
The study established that a majority of the respondents (88%) were of the opinion that most poor performing pupils felt underrepresented which signaled to them that their social identities may be devalued in the schools environment, 84% said that stigmatized pupils were highly depressed due to an identity crisis; further worsening their performance, 82% held that pupils from lower socio-economic status backgrounds often experienced concerns about their academic fit and competency in an elite school environment, and 78% were of the opinion that discrimination was a major threat that undermined most individual pupils sense of social acceptance, which in turn resulted in impaired achievement. This was interpreted to mean that a key indicator of most pupils in primary schools within Turbo who posted low academic achievement is that they came from humble social backgrounds/socio-economic statuses. Thus, they experienced some kinds of rejection which emanated from poor sociability. Socio-economic class and ethnicity could have been be a key 32
factor that led to them being stigmatized hence making them feel unappreciated amongst their peers from decent backgrounds.
4.3.3 Class Size and Academic Performance The researcher sought to establish the influence of class size on academic performance of pupils and subsequent class repetition. The findings were as presented in table 4.7:
Table 4.7 Class Size and Academic Performance Key: F: Frequency, %: Percentage, SA: Strongly Agree, A: Agree, UD: Undecided, D: Disagree, SD: Strongly Disagree, T: Total, M: Mean
Statement
SA A UD D SD T M
Classes have large numbers of pupils that don't get adequate attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance
F 33 % 2.5 2.5
11 41 9 35
60 118 4.3 51 100 86%
Congested classes hinder pupils from getting adequate learning materials like books hence affecting performance
F 3 3 25 51 36 118 4 % 2.5 2.5 21 43 31 100 80%
Teachers in large classes acquire low morale and F 1 8 18 23 68 118 4.2
thus create a less supportive learning environment
% 1 8 16 22 53 100 84%
High teacher/pupil ratios don't allow teachers to F 5 5 15 43 50 118 4.1
cover more curriculum and for pupils to be more
cognitively engaged
% 4 4 13 37 42 100 82%
The findings from the study indicated that a majority of the respondents (86%) held that classes had large numbers of pupils who didnt get adequate attention from teachers which invariably led to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance, 84% said that teachers in large classes acquired low morale and thus created a less supportive learning environment, 82% of the respondents were of the opinion that high teacher/pupil ratios didnt allow teachers to cover more curriculum and for pupils to be more cognitively engaged, while 33
80% held that congested classes hindered pupils from getting adequate learning materials like books hence affecting performance. This was interpreted to mean that most primary schools in Turbo division were characterized with pupil over enrolment. This subsequently impacted negatively on smooth learning as a result of scarcity of learning resources. This scenario might be a result of free primary education which was introduced by the government in 2003.
4.3.4 Age and Academic Performance The researcher sought to establish the influence of age on academic performance of pupils and subsequent class repetition. The findings were as presented in table 4.8:
Table 4.8 Age and Academic Performance Key: F: Frequency, %: Percentage, SA: Strongly Agree, A: Agree, UD: Undecided, D: Disagree, SD: Strongly Disagree, T: Total, M: Mean
Statement
SA A UD D SD T M
Most pupils that perform dismally tend to be underage ones who are not well oriented for school
F 16 53 17 18 14 118 2.7 % 14 45 14 15 12 100 54%
Most pupils are falling behind because they are F 13 36 25 34 10 118 2.9
bored with lengthy school years
% 11 32 21 29 9 100 58%
Most pupils in this school are on time and they perform relatively well
F 13 84 % 11 71
0 21 0 118 2.3 0 18 0 100 46%
Forced class repetition has seen the rise of discontented overage students who perform poorly
F 34 56 % 30 46
8 20 7 17
0 118 2.1 0 100 42%
According to the study, majority of the respondents (58%) held that most pupils were falling behind because they were bored with lengthy school years, 54% said that most pupils that performed dismally were underage ones who were not well oriented for school, 46% were of the opinion that most pupils in their school were on time and they performed relatively well, while 34
42% held that forced class repetition led to the rise of discontented overage students who performed poorly.
This was interpreted to mean that most of the sampled primary schools had longer school time tables which demotivated pupils thereby impacting negatively on their enthusiasm to learn. Thus, age as a factor did not have significant influence on academic achievement of pupils in the sampled primary schools in Turbo division.
4.3.5 Indicators of Academic Performance The researcher sought to establish the academic performance indicators in primary schools in Turbo division. The findings were as presented in table 4.9:
Table 4.9 Indicators of Academic Performance Key: F: Frequency, %: Percentage, SA: Strongly Agree, A: Agree, UD: Undecided, D: Disagree, SD: Strongly Disagree, T: Total, M: Mean
Statement
SA A UD D SD T M
The school is usually ranked amongst the top in national examinations
F 2 5 15 36 60 118 4.3 % 2 4 13 31 51 100 86%
The school enjoys a relatively smooth transition F 6 10 26 40 36 118 3.8
rate among its pupils
% 5 9 22 34 31 100 76%
Most pupils of this school complete their courses F 0 9 18 44 47 118 4.1
on time
% 0 8 15 37 40 100 82%
On the academic performance indicators in primary schools in Turbo division, results from the study established that a majority of the teachers respondents (86%) noted that their respective schools were usually ranked amongst the top in national examinations, 82% said that most pupils of their respective schools completed their courses on time, while 76% of the teachers observed that the schools enjoyed a relatively smooth transition rate among its pupils. This was interpreted to mean that despite the aforementioned challenges, primary schools in 35
Turbo division did post impressive academic outcomes. This could mean that relevant authorities in the respective schools were privy to these challenges and had employed effective mechanisms as a strategy to counter them.
4.3.6 The Influence of Repetition on Academic Performance (Regression Model) The study adopted the regression model to evaluate how each of the identified factors i.e.; low self esteem, stigma, class size and age influenced academic performance (which in turn influences repetition decisions). The results were illustrated in table 4.10:
Table 4.10 Influence of Repetition on Academic Performance (Regression Model)
Model Summary
Model 1
R .809a
R Square .624
Adjusted R Square .300
Std. Error of the Estimate .53265
a. Predictors: (Constant), d, a, b, c
The model summary indicated that about 62.4% of the data could be accounted for in the regression model (R = 0.809).
ANOVAb
Model
1
Regression
Sum of Squares 15.360
Df
Mean Square F Sig.
4
3.840 13.534 .000a
Residual
32.060
113
.284
Total
47.420
117
a. Predictors: (Constant), age, low self esteem, stigma, class size
b. Dependent Variable: Academic Performance
The regression model also indicated that it was significant (p = 0.00) to mean that it had not been computed by chance. This made the results of the regression model credible and reliable.
36
Coefficientsa
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized
t
Sig.
Coefficients
B
Std. Error
Beta
1
(Constant)
1.155
.520
2.223 .028
Low self esteem
.408
.151
.376 2.701 .000
Stigma
.414
.111
.345 3.717 .000
Class size
-.110
.142
-.097 -.775 .440
Age
-.035
.077
-.036 -.457 .649
a. Dependent Variable: Academic performance
The results indicated that there was a significant relationship (p = 0.000) between low self esteem and academic performance. This was interpreted to mean that a pupils low self esteem played a key role in influencing their academic performance. The results indicated that there was also a significant relationship (p = 0.000) between stigma and academic performance. This was interpreted to mean that stigma was also influenced the pupils academic performance. However, the results indicated that there was no significant relationship (p = 0.440) between class size and academic performance. This was interpreted to mean that in as much as class size has its impacts on a pupils academic achievement, it was not very significant. The results indicated that there was also no significant relationship (p = 0.649) between age and academic performance. This was interpreted to mean that a pupils age didnt have a direct influence on their academic performance. In assessing the regression model for pupils academic performance as per the indicators in the study, the study evaluated the standardized coefficients of the study and illustrated the results as indicated in the following multiple linear model: 37
Academic Performance = 0.376 (Low self esteem) + 0.345 (Stigma) + -0.097 (Class size) + 0.036 (Age) + e (Error Margin) These results indicated that low self esteem is the most significant factor that influences academic performance of the pupils in primary schools within Turbo division. 4.4 Results from the Discussion Interviews with Head Teachers On self esteem, most of the head teacher gave shyness, loneliness, truancy, absenteeism, and low performance as the common indicators. The head teachers held that mechanisms should be employed to help in motivating the pupils so as to increase their self esteem. Most of the head teachers also pointed out that realistic goals needed to be encouraged so as to avoid cases of pupils feeling negative about themselves after failing to meet the extremely high standards. On stigmatization, most head teachers said that equal participation was a necessity in school regardless of a pupils academic/grade versus age status. Guidance and counseling and offering individualized attention were also identified as some of the most effective strategies to counter the effects of negative stigma among pupils. Most head teachers also pointed out that despite their schools enjoying favorable class sizes, it was important for measures to be put in place to counter the ever growing pupil population as a result of the introduction of free primary education. Most of the head teachers thus concurred that class size does have some significant impact on pupil repetition and academic performance since limited resources meant some pupils had to remain in lower grades till room was created in the upper grades. On age, most head teachers held that their schools ensured that older pupils moved to the next class (even with lower marks) so as to avoid further implications on their self esteem and possible stigmatization. Guidance and counseling was also offered to the over aged to help them cope with peer differences. However, most head teachers expressed satisfaction in their pupils academic performance by reiterating that their respective schools posted impressive results in the national examinations. 38
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Summary of Findings On low self esteem, results from the study indicated that a majority of the respondents (92%) held that pupils gave excuses for failure and verbally put themselves down, 86% said that most pupils who performed poorly were characterized by a failure to express their views and opinions, 84% were of the opinion that poor peer relations in childhood and adolescence contributed to poor academic performance thereby subjecting pupils to class repetition, while 80% said that poor performing pupils lost their self esteem and thus assumed a submissive tone. This was interpreted to mean that low self-esteem amongst low achieving pupils in Turbo division was reflected in their behavior, body language, approach to life and overall demeanor. On stigmatization, the study established that a majority of the respondents (88%) were of the opinion that most poor performing pupils felt underrepresented which signaled to them that their social identities may be devalued in the schools environment, 84% said that stigmatized pupils were highly depressed due to an identity crisis; further worsening their performance, 82% held that pupils from lower socio-economic status backgrounds often experienced concerns about their academic fit and competency in an elite school environment, and 78% were of the opinion that discrimination was a major threat that undermined most individual pupils sense of social acceptance, which in turn resulted in impaired achievement. On class size, findings from the study indicated that a majority of the respondents (86%) held that classes had large numbers of pupils who didnt get adequate attention from teachers which invariably led to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance, 84% said that teachers in large classes acquired low morale and thus created a less supportive learning environment, 82% of the respondents were of the opinion that high teacher/pupil ratios didnt allow teachers to cover more curriculum and for pupils to be more cognitively engaged, while 80% held that congested classes hindered pupils from getting adequate learning materials like books hence affecting performance. 39
On the pupils age, the study revealed that majority of the respondents (58%) held that most pupils were falling behind because they were bored with lengthy school years, 54% said that most pupils that performed dismally were underage ones who were not well oriented for school, 46% were of the opinion that most pupils in their school were on time and they performed relatively well, while 42% held that forced class repetition led to the rise of discontented overage students who performed poorly. Finally, on the academic performance indicators in primary schools in Turbo division, results from the study established that a majority of the teachers respondents (86%) noted that their respective schools were usually ranked amongst the top in national examinations, 82% said that most pupils of their respective schools completed their courses on time, while 76% of the teachers observed that the schools enjoyed a relatively smooth transition rate among its pupils. 5.2 Discussions On the influence of self esteem on academic performance, the findings from this study concur with Frank (2009) who noted that inflating students self esteem by itself can actually decrease grades. High self esteem correlates highly with self-reported happiness and impressive academic outcomes. The converse is always true with regard to a low self esteem. If a child has low-self esteem, he/she likely doesnt feel comfortable around new people or situations. If this is the case, they may feel awkward and tend to avoid anything unfamiliar. Often, they will be hesitant to take risks or move out of their comfort zone. With this type of behavior, the child may miss valuable social opportunities and situations. A lack of confidence often goes hand in hand with low self-esteem. A notable characteristic in such a child is talking negatively about him/herself and his/her abilities. They may be overly critical of the skills they possess or their looks. They probably use pessimistic phrasing about the world in general. A child with low selfesteem may view his/herself as being unskilled or incapable of completing tasks. If they actually attempt a new activity but fail, they may just give up and walk away. A child with a higher level of self-esteem is more likely to be confident enough to try again even if the first attempt didnt work (Frank, 2009). On the influence of stigma and academic performance, the studys findings agree with Steele et al (2002) in their conceptualization of social identity threat, where they posit that cues 40
from the environment, such as numerical underrepresentation, can signal to an individual that one of his or her social identities may be devalued in that environment. Perceiving such a cue, Steele and colleagues argue, forms a working hypothesis in the individuals mind (a theory of context) that triggers a search for additional information to confirm or disconfirm the suspected potential for social identity-based devaluation. Walton and Cohen (2007) also support the above findings in their assertion that a social identity threat undermines individuals sense of social acceptance which can, in turn, result in impaired achievement in a given domain. Ostrove (2003) also observed that stigmatized students, although initially proud of their accomplishments, soon came to define themselves as different and their backgrounds a burden. They subsequently began to experience a crisis in competency. On the relationship between class size and academic performance, the findings from this study are in tandem with Normore (2006) who noted that large class size and over populated schools have a direct impact of the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and made students to lose interest in school. According to Normore this is so because large class size do not allow individual student to get attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance. He thus pointed out that smaller classes benefited student achievement claiming that teachers in small classes paid greater attention to each pupil. Students in these classes experienced continuing pressure to participate in learning activities and became better, more involved students; attention to learning went up and disruptive and off-task behavior went down (Normore, 2006). The STAR experiment conducted by Nye et al. (2004) also agrees to this studys findings by providing strong evidence that class-size reduction led to immediate increases in academic achievement in both reading and mathematics, with some evidence of larger effects for minority students. The experiment also demonstrated that students who experienced more years of small classes in kindergarten through grade 3 had higher levels of achievement six years later than students who had fewer years of small classes. Nye et al hypothesized that small classes may permit teachers to more effectively individualize instruction. Small classes may also tend to have fewer disruptions making all-class instruction more effective. By comparing average pupil performance in the different kinds of classes, researchers in the STAR experiment were able to 41
assess the relative benefits of small class size and the presence of a teachers aide. The experiment involved many schools and classes from urban, suburban, and rural areas so that the progress of children from different backgrounds could be evaluated (Nye et al., 2004). Finally, on the influence of age on academic performance, this studys findings agree with Schiefelbein (1993) who, in his concept of time management, believed that effective and efficient time management strategies are necessary in order to increase intellectual performance and are frequently suggested by academic assistance personnel and lectures as aids to enhance achievement for students. Schiefelbein generally defined effective time management in terms of a collection of behavior that is deemed to facilitate productivity and lighten stress. 5.3 Conclusions If a pupil has low-self esteem, he/she likely doesnt feel comfortable around new people or situations. If this is the case, they may feel awkward and tend to avoid anything unfamiliar. Often, they will be hesitant to take risks or move out of their comfort zone. With this type of behavior, the pupil may miss valuable social opportunities and situations. A lack of confidence often goes hand in hand with low self-esteem. A pupil with low self-esteem may view his/herself as being unskilled or incapable of completing tasks. If they actually attempt a new activity but fail, they may just give up and walk away. A pupil with a higher level of self-esteem is more likely to be confident enough to try again even if the first attempt didnt work. Hence, self esteem brings about confidence to pursue academic achievements. Socio-economic class and ethnicity are some of the key factors that lead to pupils becoming stigmatized hence making them feel unappreciated amongst their peers from decent backgrounds. Stigmatized pupils, although initially proud of their accomplishments, soon come to define themselves as different and their backgrounds a burden. They subsequently began to experience a crisis in competency. Large class size and over populated schools have a direct impact of the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and made students to lose interest in school. Large class sizes do not allow individual pupils to get attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance. Thus, smaller classes enhance pupil achievement 42
since teachers in small classes pay greater attention to each pupil. Pupils in smaller classes experience continuing pressure to participate in learning activities and became better, more involved; attention to learning goes up and disruptive and off-task behavior goes down. In as much as the age factor does not have significant influence on academic achievement of pupils, longer school time tables, however, demotivate pupils thereby impacting negatively on their enthusiasm to learn. Therefore, effective and efficient time management strategies are necessary in order to increase intellectual performance and as aids to enhance achievement for pupils. 5.4 Recommendations This study recommends the following: Educators should encourage their pupils to set realistic expectations. By setting realistic expectations, pupils can stop berating themselves for not meeting some idealistic goal. The pupils should always be advised to adjust to their own self-image and stop comparing themselves to others. Educators should encourage a mutual understanding of stigma, achieved through education, which could eliminate social stigma entirely. An information management model that describes the process by which pupils decide to employ coping strategies to manage their identities should be adopted in the primary schools. Large class sizes in the primary schools should be discouraged and efforts should be put in place to cater for the ever growing enrolment rate as a result of free primary education. Lastly, effective and efficient time management strategies are necessary in order to increase intellectual performance. 5.5 Suggestion for Further Study This study sought to is to investigate the influence of repetition on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Turbo division. However, this study centered on some of the major factors that impact negatively on pupils who have been subjected to repetition thereby leading to poor academic performance Therefore, the study suggests that another study be done 43
to examine the efficacy of repetition as a strategy to improve academic achievement among pupils. 44
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APPENDICES APPENDIX I: QUESTIONAIRE FOR TEACHERS I am Cornelius Bii Tott, a student at the University of Nairobi, undertaking a Masters degree in Project Planning and Management. I am currently conducting a study on The Influence of Repetition on Academic Performance of Pupils in Primary Schools in Turbo Division.
Kindly assist in filling the questionnaire.
All information provided will be treated with confidentiality. Tick (V) where appropriate.
SECTION A: BACKGROUND INFORMATION
What is your gender? Male [ ]
Female [ ]
What is your highest level of education? Secondary form four [ ] Certificate [ ] Diploma [ ] Graduate [ ] Masters [ ] PhD [ ]
3. What is your age bracket?
20- 30 years [ ]31 - 40 years [ ]
41 -50 years
[]
Above 51 years [ ]
4. How long have you been teaching at the school?
Below 3 years [ ]
Between 4-6 years [ ]
Between7-9 years [ ] 10 years and above [ ]
50
SECTION B: SPECIFIC RESEARCH QUESTION 1. To what extent do you agree with the following statements on the influence of low self esteem on academic performance of primary school pupils in Turbo Division?
Key: SA= Strongly Agree; A=Agree; UD=Undecided; D= Disagree; SD=Strongly Disagree
STATEMENT
SA A UD D SD
Most pupils who perform poorly are characterized by a failure to
express their views and opinions
Poor performing pupils lose their self esteem and thus assume a
submissive tone
Poor peer relations in childhood and adolescence contributes to poor
academic performance thereby subjecting pupils to class repetition
Pupils give excuses for failure and verbally put themselves down
2. To what extent do you agree with the following statements on the influence of stigma on academic performance of primary school pupils in Turbo Division.?
Key: SA= Strongly Agree; A= Agree; UD= Undecided; D= Disagree; SD=Strongly Disagree
STATEMENT
SA A UD D SD
Most poor performing pupils feel underrepresented which signals to
them that their social identities may be devalued in the schools
environment
Discrimination is a major threat that undermines most individual
pupils sense of social acceptance, which in turn result in impaired
achievement
Stigmatized pupils are highly depressed due to an identity crisis;
further worsening their performance
Pupils from lower socio-economic status backgrounds often
experience concerns about their academic fit and competency in an
elite school environment
51
3. To what extent do you agree with the following statements on relationship between class size and academic performance of primary school pupils in Turbo division?
Key: SA= Strongly Agree; A= Agree; UD= Undecided; D= Disagree; SD=Strongly Disagree
STATEMENT
SA A UD D SD
Classes have large numbers of pupils that dont get adequate
attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores,
frustration and poor academic performance
Congested classes hinder pupils from getting adequate learning
materials like books hence affecting performance.
Teachers in large classes acquire low morale and thus create a less
supportive learning environment
High teacher/pupil ratios dont allow teachers to cover more
curriculum and for pupils to be more cognitively engaged
4. To what extent do you agree with the following statements on how age influences the academic performance of primary school pupils in Turbo division?
Key: SA= Strongly Agree; A= Agree; UD= Undecided; D= Disagree; SD=Strongly Disagree
STATEMENT
SA A UD D SD
Most pupils that perform dismally tend to be underage ones who
are not well oriented for school
Most pupils are falling behind because they are bored with lengthy
school years
Most pupils in this school are on time and they perform relatively
well
Forced class repetition has seen the rise of discontented overage
students who perform poorly
5. To what extent do you agree on the following indicators of academic performance in this
school?
STATEMENT
SA A UD D SD
The school is usually ranked amongst the top in national
examinations
The school enjoys a relatively smooth transition rate among its
pupils
Most pupils of this school complete their courses on time
52
APPENDIX II: INTERVIEW SCHEDULES FOR HEAD TEACHERS What are the most common indicators of low self esteem among pupils in this school and what strategies does management employ to counter them? ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... Please explain briefly the measures taken to tackle such cases of stigmatization in order to boost the academic outcomes of the affected pupils ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... What can you comment about the class sizes at this school and the impact that they have on academic outcomes of the pupils in this school? ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... Briefly explain how this school tackles the relative age effect to counter the challenges associated with pupils age and academic performance. ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... Please comment on the major academic performance indicator of this school ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... 53
APPENDIX III: NCST RESEARCH AUTHORIZATION PERMIT 54
APPENDIX IV: RESEARCH CLEARANCE PERMIT (FRONT) 55
APPENDIX V: RESEARCH CLEARANCE PERMIT (BACK) 56

CBII TOTT

File: influence-of-repetition-on-academic-performance-of-pupils-a-case.pdf
Title: Influence of repetition on academic performance of pupils: a case of primary schools in Turbo Division, Uasin~Gishu County, Kenya
Author: CBII TOTT
Author: Tott Cornelius Bii, University of Nairobi
Subject: Influence of Repetition on Academic Performance
Keywords: Influence of Repetition on Academic Performance
Published: Mon Aug 18 12:01:04 2014
Pages: 67
File size: 1.35 Mb


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