Influences of social conditions on costume in medieval Europe, ME Novak

Tags: Lester, Davenport, wall painting, Daniel-Hops, monasteries, tapestries, Church, subjects, Helen Churchill, Boutell, New Torki nacmllian Co., Hew Xorici Tudor Publishing Co., Armatron, Boehn, Westlejr Waterless Church, Plate armor, Burrls-Meyer, architecture, customary law, social conditions, feudalism, vassal, COSTUME, fief, Gothic architecture, Middle Ages, Gothic artists, Romanesque art, stained-glass windows, Cathedrals
Content: IHFLOJENCES OF SOCIAL COHOITIONS ON COSTUKB IS MEDIEVAL miiOi'K by NARCIA Ј»IADIltЈ NOVAE B. A., MaiTmount Golleg«, I960 A HASXHR'S REPORT subnitted in partial fulfillment of the r«4Ulremect8 for the degr«« HASTi^R OF SCIENCS Oepartaent of Clothing and Textiles KANSAS STATE UBIVi^RSITT Manhattan, Kanaaa 1965 Approved byt Major Profefes
COSTUME 0? THE Middle Ages
Early Middle jVgee: Centuries Twelfth Centuiy Thirteenth Century fourteenth century Fifteenth Century
Fifth to the Twelfth
A^t* 1 3 20 52 55 56
INTRODDCTION The dreas of any given tine as well as other forms of art Is said to be an expression of that period. In the words of Parsons, "!Ehe results In ooatuoe, as In other ffledlums, are but a matericLL i«cord of the great Ideals that swayed nations at the time of their creation (26, p. XXIV)." livirlook (18) states further that fashions are olosely related to the social oondltlons of the nation. The purpose of this report was to study some of the social conditions of the Middle Ages and to point out their Influence on medieval dress. The Middle Ages Included the period from the fall of Home (476 A.S.) to the fall of Constantinople (1463 A.D.). The Boolal aspects which were investigated were feudalism, the form of government that existed in the Middle Ages, and the Church, the doninant unifying force of the Middle Ages. The oonolderation of costume was confined to that of the nobility. Parsons (26) and other authorities on costume, state that under the feudal system, only the nobles and their families wore fine costume. The costume considered was for Јurope in general because fashion was more or less the same all over Europe. Boehn said, "Clothing of the Middle Ages was very much alllce, the differences negligible among nations ($, p. 256)." \
2 Thla paper should be of interest and alue to students of hl8tox7 of costume, since, to my Imowledgo, no study has been done relating social conditions to the costume of the Kiddle Ages. Ky interest in the study was stiaulated by the fact that I en affiliated vrith the fioaan Catholic Church and teach dothine in a parochial high school.
SOKE SOCIAL ASPiliOTS 0? XRЈ MISOLE AGЈS feudaliaa was a system of government that existed in Kurope during the lUddle Ages* Some historians traoe the origins of feudalism to the Soman institution of preoarium. Others attribute its origins to the Gexiaan oomitatus. In the former institutions, weaker men took refuge with stronger ones of wealth and position. The oomitatus consisted of a personal relationship entered into \>y the German ohief eind his friends for mutual protection, service, and support. Several conditions existed that contributed to the development of feudalism. Kaids by the Vikings, Hungarians, and Moslems terrorised the people and isolated areas by disrupting coQuaunications. The power of the empire was decentralized and unable to prx>teot the people. Nobles settled down and developed their own fighting forces for protection (Stephenson, 29). Feudal Society was composed of nobility who wex>e lords and vassals. The lord and vassal entered into a gentlemanly contract whereby a mutual bond of loyalty and support existed. A man acknowledged himself to a lord declaring himself as the lord's man thus becoming bis vassal. The lor^ gave a piece of land with its laborers, a fief, to his vassal. The vassal also received militaiy protection and Judicial protection etm administered by the lord's court. In return, the vassal furniohed and supported a mounted soldier or knight in the lord's army, 3
vfao also served la the lord's court as a judge, witness:, or defendant* Political and social support were given to the lord at ceremonial funotlone and dlploriatlo ventures. Hospitality was shown to the lord when he visited the fief. The lord received financial asalstanoe from the vassal at the time of knighting of the lord's son, marriage of his eldest daughter, or when captured and held for ransom. A vassal also paid a feudal incident to the lord when the vassal's eldest son inherited the fief. If the vassal had no sons, the eldest daughter inherited the fief upon marriage to a vassal designated by the lord, ttoanwhlle, the fief was held by the lord who received its income (Stephenson, 29)* Xhe noble's eldest son became a laile(;ht. The other sons, except those of royal blood, remained squires unless they carved out lands and titles for themselves. A man began training for knighthood at an early age. He learned the strategy of war and the social graces by attending the knights and their ladies as an apprentice in a feudal court other than his own. After proving himself, the candidate was nominated for knighthood. He fasted and prayed and was dubbed a knight. The religious and colorful rite was symbolic of what he as a knight hoped to be--a man physically and spiritually pure and able to face death for honor or God. As a knight he wore an amor of chalnmall that Included a hairnet which covered the head and neck, and a mantle. By the 14it century, plate armor had replaced the armor made of chalnmall. With this armor, the knight wore a doublet as an undergarment, hose attached to the
doubJlett and a siirooat. The surcoat, a sleeveless tunic, developed during the Crusades was worn over the armor to eliai> taate the glare oJT the sun (Ourant, 1^). It was an accepted convention that each knight reward a noble lady. Acoordine to aedieval poetry, the knic^ht pledged his aervicea to this lady. She gave him her colors to wear and asked ot him dangerous feats. He invoked her name in co»> bat. If he served her well, she rewarded hin with her affection, i^acb knight wore a veil, mnntle, or other token of his lady in tournaments and war. The code of conduct for the knight that came to include the above feeiinine implications was known as chivalry, a social aspect of feudalism (I^xrant, 13). Another social aspect of feudalism was heraldry. It was the science and art of armorial bearings or coats of anas, devices used in Kedieval western JSurope on shields and surcoats. Heraldry was developed because of a need for the identification of knights on the battlefield, in tournaments and during the Crusades. It was symbolic of the adventures and hopes of the knight. His marital status was shown by his coat of arms. Xhe knight adopted his fsunily's coat of arms. His children inherited his arms. All sons, except the eldest, permanently changed their father's amis by changing colors, adding a new device or border. The daughters used their coats of arms and placed them in a diamond-shaped losenge. When they married the family coat was placed beside the husband's on his shield. If a daughter was an heiress, her coat of arms was placed upon
her husband's shield. Aa heirs accumulated armorial bearings, shields were (quartered, that is, divided into equal quarters in which inherited coats of ansfl were placed, JBventually eaoh quarter was subdivided to accomodate extra coats (Boutell, 6, rtoncrieff and Pottinger, 23). Placement of the coats of arms was done according to th» points on the ahieldj rank designated by the position on the shield. For example, the Dexter or right side of a shield was aore honorable than the Sinister or left side. The armorial bearings were Bade of coaponents, i,e, motals, colors, and furs. The baokgrotind of the shield or surcoat was of one ooaponent. The devices or emblems charged or placed upon it were of one or both of the remaining components (Boutell, 6, Monorieff and Pottinger, 23). To help maintain the hierarchy of the feudal system during the lUddle Ages many sumptuary laws were passed. The laws, particularly those regulating dress, were used primarily to preserve class distinctions. According to Baldwin (3), D. J. Hedley in his "Social England" stated that medieval society was dominated with the Idea of coste and was outwardly marked by a difference in costume. Ordinances strove to preserve the natural differences in dress and thus to bolster up class distinctions on which they ware founded. In iiiagland, a sumptuary law of 1362 set down what Item* of apparel could not be worn by certain classes of people. Craftsmen and artisans and their families "'shall not wear cloth of a higher price for their vesture or hosing, than
within forty shilling the whole doth,' that thajr shall neither buy such cloth, nor aoijuire it in axsj other manner (Baldwin, ^, p. '}&')," This class was also forbidden to wear precious stones, cloth of silver, silk, girdles, knives, buttons, rint^s, brooches, ohaias, etc* of gold or silver, and embroidered or silken clothing. Their wives were not to wear a veil or kerchief of silk. Bo fur except lamb, coney, cat, or fox could be worn. The sane law directed esquires and gentlemen below the rank of knlЈ:ht not possesalng lund or rent in value of one hundred pounds a year not to wear cloth costing more than four aarica and a half in amount needed for one suit. Cloth of gold or silver, silk, etc. as above, as well as harness of gold or silver, precious stones, pearls or any kind of fur were also forbidden. An exception was made of esquires and gentlemen possessing lands or rents in value of two hundred marks or more a year. This group was permitted the use of cloth worth five arks a piece, silk, cloth of silver, ribbons, girdles, etc. reasonably trimmed with silver. Use of miniver without ermine or letuse or trimmed with precious stones was allowed (Baldwin, 3, pp. '^6, *9). Merchants, citizens and burgesses, if posBessing goods and chattels worth five hundred pounds, were authorized to wear clothes similar to esquires and gentlemen with an Income of one hundred poimds. Knighta, with an income of less than two hundred mark* were not allowed to use cloth worth more than six narks, cloth of gold, nor cloaks, mantles, or gowns furred with miniver, nor
sleeves of ermlna, cor any apparel embroidered wltb precious
etoces or with anythicg elae. Knights with incomes from four
hundred to one thousaztd marks a year could wear anything ex-
cept ermine, etc. as above*
A year later the above law was repealed at the re(iuest
of parliament. The king noted that the ordinance had done
very little good. In future jenrs other ordinances wsrs passed
but also to little avail (Baldwin, 5),
In QermeLny, the Nuremberg council strove to curb extra-
vagances rather than to preserve class distinctions. However,
an ordinance was passed in Nuremberg, where class distinctions
were definitely cited. " . , , 'henceforth no male person, ... 'except doctors (of the law) and knights, shall wear in
any part of his garb any strings, borders or lace, which are
wholly or in part gold' (Greenfield, 15, p, 117)." "Burgher
... ladies,
must not put on a veil or a headdress that liad
in It more than a certain quality of material and were not to wear it in auch a way 'that the ends in front lie upon the
head' (Greenfield, 15, p. 108)."
Spoolfled ornaments which were regarded as extravagant
or dandified in the ordinance were silver bags, fine pearls,
and slashed shoes or co&ts* Ken end women weire to refrain from wearing any sort of clasps or rlnЈ:s or buttons on their sleeves higher than their elbow, tuider pain of forfeiting one pound haller a day.
The Bishop of Bamberg requested the council to instruct cobblers to make no more peaks on shoes. The council did so,
panallzlng the offending cobblers. This Instance shows how oloaely the sphere asatmed hy the counoll was related to the ... Church. In this ordlnuioe appeared: "No man or woman, should wear any sort of shoe longer, In proportion to the sis* of the foot . . . (Greenfield, 1$, p. 110)." Penalty was inflicted on the wearer as well as the cobbler* In the saine ordinance t}ie wearing of cloth of t!,oli. or of silver, velvet, satin, or other silk materials, fura, coats of cojsel's hair; gaments of schairlocli: and schurlatin, and pearls were forbidden. Other materials algbt be worn only in specified meeLSure or up to a given value. Styles were also censured. For example, woiaen were forbidden to wear garments cut too low at the neck. Considered too low was anything exceeding one finger's breadth below the throat In front and a half >iuarte^ ell in the back. Confiscation of garaents that offended the law, is addition to fines, were used as penalty for offending the law (Greenfield, 15). ЈTen when the laws were enforced, class distinction reaained only until the wealth of a country shifted from the hands of the nobility to the hands of the lower classes (Burlock, IS). Teudaliss. reached its peak in the llik and 12& centuries. 1!hje Crusades, the developsent of towas in the later centuries and the rise of the bourgeoisie helped to break down feudallsa and to degenerate the noble classes. As the nobles sank lower in iaportuncc, they flaunted their pride of birth and feudal traditions. Knit^hthood and chivalry had degenerated to the
point of ridloitlousneas (Stephenson, 29)t
The ChuTOh remained the unifying force of the niddle
Agea« It was a oomBunal aooietj In which everyone wa« a mea-
ber eis a result of God's grace. The importance of the Churoh
Is indicated by Femoud, who writes t
The importance of the role played by the Church will be
... seen
if one goes back to the state of :^ocioty dur-
ing the centtirles coausonly referred to as the Early
Middle Ages, a period of crxuubllng forces and one during
which the Church represented the only organized hiei>-
archy (27, p. 103/.
Ih« Church alone could unite the scattered groups of people
who were entrenched on their own domains.
Both secular and ecclesiastical, spiritual and temporal,
domalna were continually overlapping.
If one makes a distinction between that which is God's and that which is Caesar's, the sace personaeres could be represented each in turn, the two x>ower^ xere ooaipleaentary. Bishops and abbots were also administrators Of domains and it was not unusual to see secular and ·ooleslastlcal authoritlea dividing the same oastellany between them (iemoud, 27, p. 104-).
Heabers of the Church felt united by the bond of super-
natural love and a single ultimate goal to gain eternal happi-
ness in the life hereafter. In attainment of this goal, mate-
rial and physical goods tended to be despised. The body was
mortified and considered good when used in attalnmont of heavsa
(Boehn, 3). i>ecress were passed forbidding dress that called
attention to the body. The clergy preached against luxurious
costume and ridiculed the follies of fashion. Church couneila
ntphaslsed differentiation of costuise among peoples other than
"... Christian (Hansen, 1?)
many notions which belonged to
oanon law became incorporated into customary law (Fenioud, 27,
" u p. 110). It Is a noot point whether the vIeIom of hell, evoked with uoh mastezT' by painters and poets, engendered the para- lysing terror one is apt to imagine, and if the aortifioation of the passions advocated by the Church, robbed our anceptors entirely of the joys of life (i-emoud, 27, p. 118). Suoh a unifying institution as the Churoh affected every facet of life. Its effects were visibly seen in the arts. The Church promoted them for use in her cathedrals, monasteries, chapels, and for private use by her clergy. "A synod urged the representation on Church walls of scenes from Holy Scripture, for this enables illiterate people to learn what books cannot teach them (Daniel-Hops, 11, p. 376)." St. Gregory the Great promulgated the same idea. Architecture, soulptui>e, wall-painting, stained-glass windows, tapestries, and book lllurtinations, carried out these religious themes. Cathedrals served as encyclopedias of Holy scriptures telling their stories in various art forms. Such were the intentions of Somanesiiue and Gothic artists, who were so dedicated that they remained anonymous giving credit only to God (iJaniel-Rops, 11). fiedieval art was divided into two categories i jjomanesque and Oothio. Xhe former was predominant in the early part of the period and the latter characterized art of the later years. Romanesque art was stiff, unemotional, and solemn. It promoted a feeling that corresponded to an inner spirituality whose dominunt virtue was faith. Cathedrals were horizontal and low to the ground. Windows were small and caused the interiors to be dark. Xhe walls were massive and afforded much space for wall painting which along with sculpture was sub-
12 ordlnated to archltaoture. Thcaws of wall paintings woro scenaa from the Old and New Teatament. Sone aolore bad the brilliance of enamel and other colors were alaost monochrome> Soae subjects reminded viewers of mosaics and of llliuninated aanuscrlpts (Danicl-fiops, 11). The statues as a rule were carved from the sane stone that v;as used in building the church, and were nade to fit into the architectural scheme. Their ain was to express saintlincss and devotion or to syabolIso soae Christian Doctrine or mystery (Thomdyke, 50). The huaion figure oni other forma were rigidly portrayed. Figures used were taken fron contemporary life, even though the acenea were taken fron sacred history (Daniel-Hops, 11). Of the term 'Gothic* Hansen sayss Tasarl, a pointer and leading art critic in his day, said of the architecture of the iiuiiediately preceeding period (the lata Middle Agea) that it had been invented by the Goths. . . Vasari's ironic term gothic style, which originated in Fracce, has no connection with the Goths of the period of the great migrations. But, like 'Baroque', it is no longer used disparagingly (17, p. 120). Art of the Gothic style was unrestrained and bold. In architecture, the cathedrals drew the aye haavenward because of their spired and vertical dimensions. Pointed arches increased in height until they wera replaced by the flattened ogival form. This form is thought to have been adapted from the Arabian aroh that was introduced by the Orusaders. flying buttressaa, characteristic of Gothic architecture, aided in emphasising the verticality of the structure (Daniel-Hops, 11, i^tephenson, 29). The decreased amount of wall space of Gothic architecture reduced wall painting to panel painting, and promoted the use
13 of stained-glass windows, The rays of light passing through thase fraЈ;iiisnts were broken up and there was muoh blending of different colors and very brilliant offects were produced like the glitterin(; of Jewels (Thomdyke, 30). Bomanesiiue stainedglass xrindows used syiEbollsin or were diyided into coaipartiaents, eaoh ooBpartmont depiotinc a scene from on episode taken froB the Gospels or froB the life of a saint. This 'story-book* form of painting continued into the Qothic period. Side by side with the 'story-book' type of window appeared others devoted to a sinpile figure auch as the image of Christ or His Blessed Mother. When someono conceived the idea oi' setting rose windows high up in the facade, lii-ht poured in and the cathedral at length appeared as a visible sign and promif^e, so to speak, of heaven (Danlcl-Hops, 11). Statuaiy continued to be dependent on architecture. The human forms were slender, with delicate limbs clothed in long flowing drapery. The humaaistic tendency in sculpture caused these figures to be animated^ emotional, and Individual (Saniol-Rops, 11, Btepbonuon, 29). Flexures woven into tapestry followed the predominant styles of art-- Soaanesque rigidness and Gothic animation. Tapestries wero wall hangings originally used for protection from the cold of the stone walls; later chey were uced only for decorative purposes (Candee, 9)> During the early feudal era monasteries were the treasuro* houses of tapestries. These havens wei« built strong and wero sufficiently manned to ward off attack of warring peoi>les. Any articles of concentrated value were given to the monasteries
for aafs-kecplng (Candee, 9)« B«lag persona Mlth lelsiura and having a great deal of ··fety within the monastery, monks and friars came to execute the art. ... The subjects executed Inside the monetstery were religious, niony revelling In the horrors of martyrology, and those Intended as {^ifts or those ordered by the clergy were religious in subject for the sake of appropriateness (Candee, 9, p. 22). Religious compositions i^mained undoubtedly numerous, although from the l^'' century the secular element acc^uired an iaportance which increased year by year (Hunts, 24). Subjects taken from the Scriptures were given a modem touch by introducing portraits of kings and eKperors and their aninals transfixed in ways peculiar to the nature of the art of the day (Candee, 9). Convents occasionally had hangings of subjects froa aythology. xiomances of chivalry, contemporary scenes, and allegory came to the fore in the l^u century (Hunts, 24), When representations of people of aedieval times were depicted in tapestry, a true picture of men and women tnd how they lived and what they wore was given (Candee, 9). Queen Matilda's Bayeaux !rapestry, la a historical document representing the oon15 patronage (Candaa, 9, Hunts, 24). Cand«« aoysi Tapestry more than aigr other hi^ndlcraft has left us a pictorial history of events In a time when records wera soaroe* Ihe effect of the orusades was noticeable in the lapetus it gave to tapestry, rot only by bringing Surope into fresh contact with Oriental design but by increasing the desire for luxurious stuffs. Xhe returning crusaders--what traveller's tales did they not tell of the fabrics of the great Oriental sovereigns and their subjects, the soft rugs, the tent coverings, the gorgeous raiment) and these tales they illustrated with vhat fragments they could port in their travellers' packs (9, p. 24). Another art pursued by the monks was manuscript illumi- nation. lUddleton (22) related that Benedictine monasteries bsosBS active centers for the production of fine illuminated Banuscrlpts. Celtic monks exerted a definite influence on iniaturea through their mlQslonary work on the continent and in Kngland. Years wars spent bordering pages and decorating the first letter of each page with figuraa. Later, the first illuminated latter came to fill a whole page which waa colored in Jewal-like tones. "Portraits of kings ware often introduced at the beginninrs of books . . ., a fashion which In later times was extended to other than royal patrons of art and learn- ing (Middleton, 22, p. 70)." The Intertwined figures and initials prasanted accurate rapraaantatlons of life and costumes. The miniatures of tha Psalter of Saint Louis depict "the historical scenes from tha Old Testament . . . , after the lusual fashion of the time, the Hebrew warriors and their enemies were represented as medieval knights in armour (Middleton, 22, p. 126)*"
The monastic artists . . . wished to suggest that the scene they were painting was one that had happened long ago, and therefore they introduced vhat was the oldest amour they were ao^uainted with . . . Hiddleton continued that as tin* went on . . · the heroes of ancient and sacred history are represented exactly like kin^s and warriors oЈ the artist's own time (22, p. 123).
The other arts were inspired by illuminated manuscripts.
It is recorded that a painter borrowed a prayer book that oon-
tained isiniatures from which he copied the illtuninations in
wall painting. "The embroidered miniature on . . . pieces of
nesdlework resemble closely in style the illuminations . . . ,
and In many oases have been obviously copied from miniatures
"... (niddleton, 22, p. 112)."
there is nothing exception-
al that these miniatures ... might have served as excellent
atotives for a glass-painter (Iliddleton, 22, p. 103)."
The Church reached the height of its power during the
Orusades. The Crusades were military expeditions imdertaken
by Christian powers in the lltt, 12tt, and li» centuries to re-
cover the Holy Land from the ^!oslellls. Xhe Crusades were ini-
tiated by the Pope* The remission of sins was promised to sin-
cere cznisaders. Ј\ren material debts were suspended. All peo-
ples of i-^urope, noblemen, mercheints, clergymen, criminals, beg-
gars, shared in the movement. Pilgrims to the Holy Land bxv>ught
back tales of ill-treatment of Christians there and helped crys-
tallize the main objective of recovering Jerusalem with its
Holy Places froai the Mohammedans (Thomdyke, 30).
"While the rank and file in the crusading armies were ac-
tuated by motives of genuine religious enthusiasm, the princi-
pal leaders regarded the enterprise as also an art of political
17 oon>iuest in which they oould bops to carve out prlnolpalltiea for thnuelTM . . . (Kewhall, 2^, p. 40)." liere was an opportunity for indulging in warlike adventure under the guise of aaceticism (Newhall, 2$}* The First Cimsade was launched personally by Pope Urban ZZ« The crusaders, under the leadership of feudal lords, took different routes, and met at Constantinople. Joining forces, they opened the way across Asia Minor, through Nloea, down the coast of Syria to Palestine. Upon entering Asia Minor, loaders began to think of territorial conquests for themselves. Des- pite the desertions of men for their own ends, plague, and fan- ins, the crusading host captured Jerusalen. For the loost part, the crusading pllgrias returned home feeling justified having defeated the infidels, prayed at the Holy Sepulchre, and bathed in the Jordan. Some crusaders continued to strive to conq,uer new fiefs. Few Westerners settled peraanently in the new Chris- tian state (Newhall, 2^). The recovery of the Holy Places, and the recurrent necessity of defending them, greatly stimulated travel from Europe to Syria. Pllgrias by the thousands visited the Holy Land, . . . returned to their homes, bringing back novelties learned over-seas, having developed the larger point of view which comes with travel and from contact with a different and superior civilization (Hewhall, 25, p. 50). Tsssels sailed regularly from southern France and Italy to Syria. In all there were seven Crusades. Some historians caintain that there were nine Crusades. Thoradyke states, "The crusades increased the prestige of the Church, and showed how religion colored every side of medieval lifs (30, p. 33*)."
18 Newhall (25) shows the other side of the coin by maintaining that the sub8e<],uent failure and misuse of the Crusades for selfish purposes seriously discredited the papacy. Failures were attributed to the judgment of God and the blame was shifted to the papacy. Too often the popes were svispeoted of using a Crusade as a political expedient and as an excuse for levying taxes. A breakdown of Church discipline resulted from expiation of temporal punishment due to sin and the saorainent of peneoioe came to be less highly regarded. Plenary indulgences were given such too freely. Feudal nobility was weakened. Kany nobles, who impoverished themselves in order to go on the Crusades or neglected their fiefs by long absences, upon their return found their estates in the hands of the lower classes or rival nobles (Thorndyke, 30)* "The noble class as a whole lost both wealth and personnel by its active participation in the holy war, and this resulted in diminishing its political and military importance (Newhall, 25, p. 90)." Association with so many knifrhts stimulated the social side of feudalism and developed greatly the usages of feudalism, such as tournaments, heraldic devices, and coats of arms (Ihomdyke, 30). Notionalism, never known before, became apparent (Durant, 15). Exploits and adventures of the crusaders abiroad added glamour and dignity to knighthood (Shomdyke, 30). "One of the greatest benefits conferred on society by the crusades was the raising of the standard of comfort through the spread of luxury (Archer, 2, p. 456)." Trade routes being
19 established, close relations with the Greeks, Sareoens, and less dlrootljr with more distant nations as Persia, Јs7Pt, India, and China, desires of the Westerners were satisfied. The expansion of trade brought into coonon use spices, perfuses, and other products of the fast which had previously been the luxury of the few. Silk-weaving was introduced from Greece. CJotton and silken goods were brought from Syria, perfume froa Persia and apices and Jewels from India (Archer, 2).
i.i-»».tl,-- COSTUME OF THE KIDDIE A0i3 Early niddl* Ag«s to the Twelfth Century As the Middle Ages opened, men and vomen wore a tunlcllke gemcnt with sleeves and a mantle. The tunic, gli^dled at the waistline, fell in numerous folia and was so long that on> ly the tips of the shoes could he seen* Often several tunics were worn, one on top of another. The sleeves of the outer tunic were elbow length, allowing the sleeves of the contrasting under*tunic to be seen. Next to the body, a boneless elose»fittlng waist was worn. Ken also wore breeches under the tunics. The mantle was secured by a clasp in front. Sometimes the nantle was thrown over the left shoulder, leaving the right arm free. A full cloak made of gold tissue was worn aalsss the occasion, such as bad weather, demanded otherwise (Lester, 21). TAider the Merovingian and Carolingiem monarchies (^a Century to the lOtk Century), men wore a sock-like boot that oaaa to the calf of the leg, or a fabric hose was drawn up over the breeohes. If looser breeches were worn, longer hose were bound to the leg with cross-gartering. Later the hose were tied below the knee so that the wide top hung down in a cuff, or a knot was tied at the top of the abort hose which made them serve as a sort of fitted boot. Men usually wore no headgear. 20
· 21 Th« heads of women were covered by veils susoeptlble to arrangement (Davenport, 12) Fabrics of hemp and woolens used in garBsnts were woven in twilled and diapered desicpiB. Bright-colored stripes and cheeks, multi-colored braids and tapes, frine;ee, nets were favored (Davenport, 12). Felt and camlet, a coarse cloth of caael's hair, of the Merovincian monarchy (428-752), gave way to finer fabrics of linen, cotton, and eilk for the nobility (lester, 21). Queen Clotilde, wife of Clevis (481-311) ia often pictured wearing; a tunic confined at the waist by a band of preoious material. A mantle was laced across the chest, over which fell her plaits of hair. Since, according to court rule, the Merovingians were forbidden to cut their hair, the plaited hair often reached the floor. Women of rank and wealth grew to love ornaments, wearing many Jewelled bracelets, rin^s, and aeoklsoes. Girdles were of gold and later gilded embroideries esriohed the borders of tunics and cloaks, an influence of the Byzantine court (Lester, 21), Challamel, 10). In the Prankish court, Christianity came to play an laI>ox^ant part in the costumes and textiles of the succeeding ages. Under the direction of royalty, designs were developed that expressed early Christian ideals. Tapestries which hung in churches used Christian symbols such as the cross, vine, circle, Si^uare, lamb, and dove. Soon fabrics for tunics and mantles were woven which used the same symbols in their designs. Colors also took on a religious significance. White symbolised
22 purltjr; blue symbolized heavenly trust and sanctlfleatlon; red, love of God; purple, dignityi green, eternal youth; gold, viiw tuej bright yellow, fertility; and violet, humility (Lester, 21). With the development of feudalism, oostume esM to plJV a more and more important role in medieval society. Feudalism brought class divisions which in turn made fine clothes and richnesB in coBtume symbolic of noble rank. The richer and finer the costume, the more important and higher the rnnlc of the lord (Farsons, 26). Durine the reign of Charleaagn* (768-81t-) fortunes wep« spent by the nobility to out-vie their equals and social inferiors in dress. Charlemagne tried to regulate extravagant dress by setting an example of simplicity. Dressing in the saner of his father, he \i8ually wore a linen shirt and linen drawers vmder a knee-length tunlo. Bands were would around his legs in a oross-gartered effect. A small cap was worn over short hair. The nobles also affected short hair in imitation of Charlemagne, who brought the style from the ^ast. The Bysantlne court also influenced the costume worn by Charlemagne on festive occeisions. Only on two such occasions did he wear goldbrocade clothing. Jewelled shoes, a mantle secured with a gold clasp, and a gold diadem on his head (Boehn, 5). Binder (4) and Boehn (3) give an example of Charlemagne*! lesson in ecoof* omy. The nobles were invited to a hunt. Their king attired himself In a simple sheepskin in contrast to their own silks and Jewels. Tom from trekking through bramble and wet from
25 rain, th« nobles were forced to appear In coiirt the next day in the saae torn and wet attire. Charlenagae had remained digr and untom. Apparently this lesson had been directed to the men. It is recorded that the ladies of the royal household set the tone of eostune for wonen of the ii^pire, which was Itururious aiid extravagant. The noble ladles followed aviit (Boehn, 3). She ost elegant ladies wore two close-fitting tunics of different colors. The neck, sleeves, and hema of the tunics and mantles were often trimmed with wide bands of embroidery. The fabrios were tr2msparent and dinging. Later, heavier fabrios were used as dresses became more ample. Xhe Jewelled girdle was worn Just above the hips. A diadem or band held embroidered veils upon the head. Long hair, plaited and intertwined with ribbons and purple bands continued to be worn by noble ladies (Lester, 21). Women wore admonished by the Church for giving so maoh attention to themselves. St. Bernard admonished his own sister for giving 80 muoh attention to her dress. Svaa though clothing was of a standard cut for both sexes, the attire of women tended to be wider and longer, end to conceal the huaaa figure ioore completely. The early Christian church regarded the body of woman as a continual invitation to &ia» St. Clement advised women to hide their faces as well as their hair* Couverchefs, sof the hair aXso eyBbollzed the dependence of women upon men* The doalc, worn by both sexes, case to be seoux>ed on the right shoulder with a clasp* Men's narrow-sleeved ooats were shortened to the thighs (Boehn, ^, Lester, 21). With the Crusades, whloh lasted though the lio, 13», and 13* Centuries, all Christeadoa was brought into contact and trade with the Јa8t. The bllaud, which reflected many Bastem influenoea, was worn by both man and woicen. It was a long, straight garoent with Ion;', shaped sleeves that were either funnel shaped or tluht-fltting to the elbow and widening suddenly below the elbow. SoawtliDes the cuffs on the sleeves were 80 long that they were tied in knots to prevent trailing on the ground. A Jewelled or plain girdle sometises belted the bliaud. Aa ankle-length tunio of llnon, a chalnae, with long, straight sleeves, a belt and a high neckline fastening at the neck, waa worn under the bliaud. The bliaud was worn long by women and from below the knee to very long by the men. Breeches or trousers held up by a belt to which hose were laced, were worn next to the body by men. The logs continued to be cross-gartered from the kneos down. A mantle, fastened in front by a large brooch or buckle, was worn over the entire costume (Bavenport, 12( Svans, 14), Ladies* mantles or oapes were fastened in front by a cord running across the chest, whe3:>e it would be held by two fingers, ^y the 11* century, handkerchiefs and gloves were in established use (Davenport, 12). During Cherlenagne's reign only the upper classes were privileged to wear real gloves. Qloves played an iiq>ortant
i 25 pairt In feudal transactions as Allen states A feudal lord would give a glove to his vassal as a sign of his authority over his . . · on the other hand( vassals often had to give gloves to their overlords as a sign of aubioission. tEleventh Century clothes were lined and adorned with fur such as ermine, squirrel, marten, rabbit, etc. Kxtravagance in the use of furs had reached so far that in the Crusade of 1190, King Phillip of France and King Richard of England thought it fit to prohibit knights from wearing furs, but to no avail (Davenport, 12). The armor of the knights and garments worn under armor affected men's and women's costume (Boehn, 3, Daveni>ort, 12). Knights wore conical helmets with nosepieces and hooded hauberks, types of sleeveless Jackets, made of ohednmail. Chaizunail consisted of ringu linked together in over-lapping scale fashion. The BsTsaux Tapestry shows that other hauberks ware also mads of quilted materitil or of leather with short sleeves. Haubez4cs were knee-length in the 11th century. To facilitate riding, the hauberk had slits in front and back. Xhe forearms of the knight were protected by long sleeves of the undergarment which
26 waB pivbably quilted. The legs were covered by oroaa-garterlag above separata shoes* During the 12^ and 13t' centuries, chainnail oame to cover the aras, hands, and legs of the knight (Savenport, 12). twelfth Century In the 12* eentury the knight's houberk had a shorter, fuller skirt eliminating; the need for slits. The sleeves were long, ending in mittens. The eoif-de-mailles surrounded the head closely and covered the chin so that the helmet was not always worn. 8y the end of the centtiry, the helaet was rounded, having lost its oonieal shape. A long under-tunlc with trailing, gored fullness was worn under the hauberk. Sosetiaes the skirt was slit for the sake of oonvenienoe. A surcoat, worn over the amor of the knight, was introduced in the middle of the century (Davenport, 12). As the knight's armor became more conoealing, the neoe8> sity of distinguishing one froui another was met by the development of armorial bearinf^s. I'^r-decorated shields soon became elaborated with ubiquitous color. The beginnings of armorial bearings were shown on the Bayeaux 'i'apestry. There was a parallel growth of interest in all-over patterns on garments and the new lavish use of small piece furs; both were allied with the rise of patterned armorial bearings (Davenport, 12). Bliauds continued to be worn by both men and women. Bf the 12th century, the women's bliaud was a fitted dress, lacing at the Bides or back. The sleeve either turned back, hung
over th« hand oonceallng it, or the trailing cuff continued to
be tied In knots. Decorative bands and orpbreys, woven by
Bonka and ladies, formorly worn at the neck and wrists, inoved
to horizontal positions around the upper am, and across the
shortened, narrowed skirt of the bliaud. The full skirt of the
chainse, contrasting in color, weis seen and fre^iuently was so
long that it trailed on the ground. Woven girdles, like or-
phreys, were worn, a wide one at the waistline and a narrower
one knotted below (Davenport, 12).
Pointed shoes, poulaines, invented by Faulk of Anjou to
hide his lll-fonied feet, began to appear. Wooden pattens
were devised to protect the poulaines in bad w*ather. High
boots, often with turned down cuffs, were not unconunon (Daven-
port, 12).
Both men and women wore fur-lined mantles, pelissons, by
the end of the century. In Kngland, the short Angevin mantle
introduced by iienry Courtmartel was worn. For travaling the
bell-shaped hooded cape continued to be used. Up until the 13*
century, a cloak was taken off as a sign of respect. Histori-
"... ans recorded,
whenever men of breeding appear before
their leige lord they should not wear their cloaks, and that
whoever is ignorant of tliis rule shows he is a churl (Hansen,
17, p. 121}." In later 12* centuzy, men wore berets or brimmed
bats (Davenport, 12).
Women wore their hair parted and flowing, or braided and wound about with a ribbon. Hair of young girls was oomx>letely
uncovered or bound by a fillet. The veil of married women was
nwller, circular, and held in place by a circlet or crown (QaYenport, 12) Short hair was worn by the Norman men until the lift and 12it centuries, when they replaced It with the long hair style of the Kngllsh. Subject to much regulation, long hair and beards teoame standard. In 1104, Henry Z of Јnc;land was harangued by Bishop Serlo, who said that the men wearing beards resembled Saracens rather than Christians. King Henry and several noblemen, filled with remorse, permitted their beards to be trimmed by the Bishop. Later In the century, beards were censured and became definitely less comiiion. long hair was frowned upon. Priests carried scissors to out locks whenever deemed neoes8ai7. IClng Henry's conscience bothered him so that he cut his long tresses. "All the Icnl^ts copied this for a year or so . . . (Davenport, 12, p. 132)." Chief articles of jewelry were large high brooches set with massive stones, fastening the slit bodice at the throat. Similar stones were used on crowns and circlets. Clasps were used for the ends of the oorda that fastened capes. The beginnings of partl-color and dagfcing from Germany were apparent (Davenport , 12). Thirteenth Century ^ This century opened what Hansen (1?) called the * Gothic period of the Middle Ages. "Gothic costume . . . gave slenderIMSB to the body and emphasised the vei^ical line, like the architecture which was contemporaiy with It (Hansen, 17, P> 121).'
29 fhm Qotbio partiality for thss* slender fonss was shown ia long loose tunics wotn by both sexes. Discovered by the Crusaders when they passed through Bysantium, the tunic was brought back to Surope along with the pointed arch. Over the long tunics wer« worn sleereless surooats adopted from the knights* garments worn by the Crusaders over their armor as a protection from the glare of the sun. With the long tunic was worn the poulaine, the exaggerated toe corresponded to the age's liking of elongated forms (Hansen, 17). Binder (4) states that the idea for the pouledna was taken from the tuxned-up toes on the Saracenic and Turkish shoes and was brought back by the Crusaders* Under the long tunic men wore hose fastened to a belt azoiud the waist. By the 13i^ century, the breeches beoass under-drawers and were worn with a shirt tinder the tunic (Uanaen, 17). Over this costume, nen wore hooded overcoats, fur-lined pelissons, or poncho and gaucho-like capes. Capes with hoods ·fere also used. The lengthening of the tail or liripipe on the hood conformed to the elongation of the Gothic ideal (Davenport, 12, Hansen, 17) · Head coverings continued to be berets and high crowned, briaaed hats of the sugar-loaf type that turned up in the back. The coif fitted the head closely, came down at the back and was tied under the chin with strings (Daveivport, 12, Truman, 31). The Lateran Council of 1213 compelled the Jews to idertiXy themselves by wearing a rotind hat surmounted by a lonff, erect point (nansen, 17).
10 Xha women's tunlo or ootte flared from the hlpa empha- alslBg the helly. ^e garaent waa skimpy around the ohest and bloused at the low waistline which waa sometimes girdled. The sleeves tapered from the waist to the wrist and the neckline waa lower. Decoration waa In the form of horizontal orphreys. The cloak, often fur-lined, was seml-clroular with a front fastening (Davenport, 12). ^e wimple, a headdress for women that appeared early In this century, waa a a(iuare of white material which would around the head and throat. Truman (31) t among other writers of historic costume, maintains that It originated In England in the lam century, Davenport (12) points out that the wimple, enclosing the face of Its wsuxer, was analagous to that of the colf-de-mallles of the knight. The wlmpla and chinband were combined In a headdress that consisted of a strip of linen that would around the forehead and was secured by another strip that went under the chlnt the two strips were pinned together at the top. Types of wimples have continued through the ages la the fona of headdresses for nuns, their religious orders having been established in the Middle Ages (Truman, 31) · A straight atrip of linen worn from under the chin around the top of the head, leaving the neck bare, was called a chinband or barbette. The chinband was sometimes worn with a pillbox type of crown. >^ueen Kleanor, wife of Henry II, is said to have Introduced it into Јngland (Allen, 1). The braided hair was also gathered into net criapines. Women of rank wore eriaplnes of gold thread encircled by a band of jewels of gold
· FLAXЈ Z 1. A noblewoaan wearing the wlaple, surooat over ttae cottet taken from Westlejr Waterless Church, 0«BbrideeBhire (Davenport, 12, p. 199). 2* A knight wearing the coif-de-maillee as part of his ohalnfflall armor, the surcoat over the axaori taken from Westley vifaterless Church, Oaabridgeshlre (i>avenport, 12, p. 199)
52 nua I r mA 2.
35 (L«8t«r, 21). Ueaddressea wers beginning to widen. Young girls wore their hair loose (Davenport, 12). Fltohets, vertical slits in outer garments, allowed aooeas to pouohea, called aumonleres, worn by both men and woaen (Davenport, 12). '^hese pouches or slBSbags were Saracenic In origin, being introduced to the West by the Crusaders (I^ester, 21). Persons of rank wore gloves that weirs Jewelled or embroidered. Bishops have retained this Jewelled or embroidered glove into the present day (Xruman, ^1). With the Church baolcing nobility, sumptuary laws were passed Uniting extravagance and finery according to rank. Only virtuous womsn were allowed to wear hooded mantles on the street (Burris-Meyor, 8, Challsmel, 10). In France, veils of ladies of rank reached to their feet* Ladies of lesser rank wore shorter veils as regulated by law (Binder, 4, BurrisHeyer, 6). Wives of ?rench barons were forbidden to wear gowns of higher value than twenty-five sous by the yard. Lord's wives were not to wear gowns of more than eighteen sous and middle class ladlec no more thon sixteen sous and nine demiers (Lester, 21). fbllippe le Bel, ruler of France in the late IJtt centuiy, pressed by the Church, regulated the number of dresses for each social class. Neither men nor women of the rising bourgeoisie were to wear voir, gris, or ermine, or gold, precious stones, or crowns of gold or silver. Dukes and barons, of six thousand livres of land or more, and their ladles might have four robes a year and no more. Knights and their ladies were allowed two
3* robes a ytar (Lavcr, 19). A bourgeoiBe lady waa fined for dxesaing lUte a noblewaan (Dayenport, 12). The Elector of Saxony issued sinilur doorees (lioehn, 5). Louis IX (1126-1270) admonished hia coiiptlere: "'You ahould dress yourselvea well and neatly in order that . . . your people will . . . esteem you the higher for it' (Lester, 21, p. 96)." Foxirteenth Century Boehn states, "Amour provides the external impetus to the great ohangss in masculine civilian costume ... (5. p. 216)." In this century there was a shift from chainmail armor to plate armor. Plate armor followed the lines of the body, necessitating an alteration in form of the undergarments. The confining of the upper part of the body was preceded by a similar encasing of the lower legs in iron, which (jradually spread to the thi&hs. Xhis enabled the eurooat to be shortened, llhe knight necessarily had to appear in different garb when he took off his armor. Everything had to be narrow and tight. The fitted coat, the pourpoint which was quilted, and waistlength hose served as a protection under the armor (Boehn, 5). The pourpoint, a low-necked garment, was more waisted and padded cut at the breat by the middle of the century. As it became progressively shorter, the hose were laced to its eyeleted hem. The sleeves were long and tight. Over the pourpoint, was worn the ootehardie, a low-necked garment that laced or buttoned down the center front by the middle of the century. Tippets, or orpherys, hanging from the elbow of the sleeves,
ware Tur-llned. The cotehardie also became progressively
shoiTter, reaching from below the knees In the early part of
the oenttU7 to just above the crotofa by the end oЈ the cen-
^ tury* The hem was often dagged In lobes.
the end of tb«
century, the cotehardie had appropriated the oollair, sleeves
and pleats of the houppelande which came in at the end of the
century (Davenport, 12).
The long fitted stockings that laced to the pouxiwint
often partl-colored, that is, each stocking was a different
color (Davenport, 12). The brilliant coloring of the hose or
hosa was inspired by the colors of the stained-glaas windows
of Gothic cathedrals (Binder, 4). These hosa were very notice-
able due to the shortness of the pourpoint and cotehardie.
Ken were chided for wearing too little, but to no avail. The
Ohuroh thus ordained that improper dress be limited to the no-
bility (Binder, 4, Lester, 21).
Men's capes were short, shoulder length and fashioned of
fur. Longer capes with dagged edges were fastened on one shoul-
der. Long capes were worn only for travel, or by members of
knightly orders. Edges of hcods were also dagged and the liri-
plpe became so long that it became the subject of magisterial
censorship (Boehn, $)· Hats too becaae taller with sugar-loaf
crowns. The brim was turned up at the back and in front pro-
jected in a peak ovor the forehead (Hansen, 17)>
Hair, by mid century, was parted, exposing the forehead
and was rolled at the nBi>e. The bowl-crop, hair radiating from
a spot on the cro«m and cropped from the bangs in a continuous
9S lln* around the bead, made Its app«arЈmc« In the latter part of the century. In loost oasea the neclc and bead were shaved to a point above the ears. foulaines or orackowa* the latter tern said to have originated in Craokow, Poland, reached their glory In this century. The toes became so long that they had to be ohained to the knee of the wearer, a fashion originated by King James Z of Scotland (Boehn, 5, Davenport, 12). Length of toes designated the dignity of the wearer. As early as the late 13The cotte, essentially the 12» oentiixy bliaud, worn under the surooat was form-fitting with long buttoned sleeves. The armholes of the sleeveless surcoat weare enlarged and revealed the girdled feninine figure beneath it. The annholes were triaaied with fur and were termed "windows of hell" by the clergy, " . . . which suggests the asoetic attitude of the Kiddle Ages to the temptations of the feaale body (Hansen, 17, p. 123)." Copying her lord's gament, the lady often wore false sleeves which were attached to the surcoat and bestowed them as love-tokens to her knight (Boehn, 5). Eventually the surcoat or sideless gown became so lone that one side of the skirt was held up by « Jewelled clasp, tussoire, which revealed the contrasting color and fabric of the ootte. Pope Hioholas instructed women to wear dresees only to the ground or barely a handsbreadth longer (Farsons, 26). About the middle of the 1411 century, Jeanne of Bourbon, wife of Charles V of Prance, encouraged the wearing of a very modish bodice which fitted the figure closely, stopped just above the hips and was sleeveless. It formed part of the wardrobe of ladles of rank and was made of costly material and e(^ually costly trimming (Boehn, 3)« Women wore cloaks only for cez^monlal occasions. The hoods were worn only by the bourgeoisie (Davenport, 12). During the first half of the century, wimples, and wlmplas and chinbands continued to be worn. The hair was sometimes set in wide V-arrangecicnts caught in crosplne nets. Worn in spirals over the eyrs, the hair was covered with cauls of gold braid or
I wlr« set with Jewels held In plaoe by a low metal band or Jewelled orown. This was the reticulated headdresa* Long hair was worn by brides, jrouns girls, and PLATE II 1. Bllaud of the 12!ii centxiry, mantle, plaltad hfilr (Wilcox, 33, p. 55). 2. Uurccct or sideless pown of the 14tt century worn over the cotte, science oX heraldry on the skirt of the gowni reticulated headdress (Wilcox, 35, P. 53).
41 The English haunted so muoh into the foly of strangers, that every year they changed then In diverse shapes and dlsgulshlngs ot clothing, noM loius, now large, now wide, now strait, and every day clothlnr^ges, new and destitute, and devest from all honesty to old arroye or good useige{ and euiotber tlxe in short clothes, and so strait walsted, with full sleeves and tapetes of sur coats and bodes, over long and large, all so ragged and knlu on every side, and all so shattered, and also buttoned, thut I with truth shall say, they seem more like to torEtentors or devils in their clothing, and adso in their shoying and other arraye than they seemed to be like men (Khead, 28, p. 58), Fifteenth Century Skttlo oostuae reached its culutinatlon during this cen- tury (iiansen, 17) « lien's pourpolnt beoame the doublet. Tha padded, olose-fitting garment was now not only padded in the upper chest but also in the shoulders and upper sleeve, accent- ing a tiny waist. Bjf the end of this century it as^uaed the high collar of the houppelande, the typical outer garment of the X^f^ century. Uosa were laced to the shorter doublet. Tha ootehardle became the Jerkin which attained the collar, sleeves, and pleats of the houppelande. Necklines of the Jerkin were bateau or a deep V filled in with a breast cloth and laced vg^ the middle. Tmn's cloaks had become so short that they barely covered the buttocks (Davenport, 12). Јdward IV of Kngland de- creed that no man below the rank of yoenan should wear the pad- ding in the doublet, only lining. Men of lower rank than lords were forbidden to wear the very short doublets and cloaks. Tailors were forbidden to make these garments (Allen, 1). She houppelande which made its appearance in the late 14ft century from the low Countries, was wont b/ both men and wocen.
VUSS 111 1. Jiouppeland* with lagging, ohap«ron, and poulaines (Wilcox, 33, p. 52). 2« J«rkin worn over doublet, hose, poulaincs, and chaperon (Wilooz, 33 · P> 52).
Usually nad* of brocade, lined with fur, and the edges dagged, the men's houppelande bting in folds, tuciced into place under the belt. The trailing sleeves progressed fro« bag-shaped to hanging. Frequently opened down the front, the houppelande had a high shaped collar. The length varied froB balow the knee to a dragging train for great occasions (Davenport, 12). On their beads, men continued to wear the sugor-loaf hat which was a brimloss oval cap. The lengthening liriplpe of the dagged hoods were wrapped around the head to form the tui>baned chaperon (Daveni)ort, 12). Dashing young aen slung the liriplpe of the hood over their shoulders (Wilcox, 33). ^* roundlet was padded into & spreading bria with a scarf bound around it and the chin. Lester (21) maintains that the roundlet was a turban that was borrowed fron the East by the Crusaders. Plumes, pins, and omanents were worn on hats by the end of the century (Davenport, 12). As footwear pouloines, each on© of a different color in parti-color fashion, were worn (Truman, 31). Xhe vezy-short w&lsted bodice of thb women's bouppelands had a wide, low, V-neckline outlined in ftu*. The V deepened until the ootte worn underneath was exposed. Ey the end of th* century, necklaces and scarves filled in the neckline. A wide belt was placed Just under the arms and bust. The gored skirt bordered with fur was so long that it had to be held or tucked VP revealing the undergarment or cotte. The wide band of luxurious material oi< the skirt of the cotte matched the tight Sleeves also of the cotte which were seen from under the sleevMl
5 of tb« houppelande (Oarenport, 12). Somatlnes the exoess skirt was oarrled by an attendant, a fashion set by Isabella of Bavaria, vd.fe of Charles TI (13S0-1422). The trailing long sleeves and train followed the long vertical lines of Gothic archlteoture (Lester, 21). The cloaks worn by ladies of rtuik on great oeeasions were said to have trailed on the ground for five yards (Boehn, 5)« "The Prior of Vipeois raleed bis voice against the lonp:-t.-?iled ^ovms. 'The tail,' he said, 'gives a wooan the look of a serpent* (Challamel , 10, p. J^-)." To top the Gothic silhouette, women wore vertical headdresses. The bennin, a oonioal cap about a yard high, fitted close to the head. Fron the peak of the cone fell a veil of finest texture that reached the shoulder (Lester, 21). BurrlsHeyer (8) said that the hennin was borrowed by the Crusandsrs from the headdress of certain sects of Jewish women in Jsrasalea. Hansen (17) said that it resembled the conical oetal tantura wozti by the women of Byria. Both writers agree that the idea, like so many other ideas, was brought home by the Crusad«> era from the East. 'i'he nobility was not limited to the height of hennin they could wear. In Frsnoe, iriddle class women were limited to two feet for hennin heieht. Sumptuary laws limited the longest veils to the noble ladles (Binder, 4, U'ilcox, 33). The preaching of the monk, Coneote, against hecnins, to a crowed of 20,000 women in 1428, led women to biun their hennlns in public. I1
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48 as soon as the danger vaa over' ( Spectator 11, p. 98), (Davenport, 12, p, 3X'^)>" Women who wore hennlna and esoofflons were compared to homed beasts and were pictured as S«» tan. The escofflon. Introduced by Isabelle of Bavaria, was a two-homed arrangement, a yard high made of fine lawn, stiffly starched and wired to keep the horns In place. Froa the tip of the horns, flags, fringes, and other materials fell to the ·boulders (Lester, 21). Other variations of the high headdresses were the butterfly headdress and the heart-shaped hat. The former headdress consisted of a floating gause yell stretched over wires which were tilted at the bade of the head and attached to a net cap that enclosed the hair. For the latter headdress, the hair was padded and stuffed until it attained a considerable height and was placed In nets. The curved part of the heart shape waa covered with a veil (Trunan, 31). The hair w«s usually stuffed under the headdress. "The fact that Isabelle of Bavaria was completely bald and without eyebrows Is supposed to have led, out of court snobbery, to plucking of eyebrows and forehead, to give an exaggeratedly bald look . , . (Davenport, 12, p. 292)." Women emulated men in wearing little bells on the hema of their garments, hoods, girdles, and on the tips of their shoes. A German innovation, the council of Ntiremberg, in 13^^31 decreed that no one should wear bells or such baubles of silver attached to his girdle, but to no avail. This fashion lasted until the late l^ik century (Boehn, ^).
nun T 1. Houppelande and st«9ple hexmln (Vfllcox, 5J, p. 53). 2. Sldeleas gown or surooat over the ootte, mantle^ butterfly headdress t taken from Hertfordshire, Brooboume Church (Davenport, 12, p. 355). 3* Houppelande, heart-bhaped headdress; takea from Hertfordshire, Brooboume Church (Davenport, 12, p. 355). 4. Esooffion headdress (Brooke and Laver, 7, p. 53).
PULXS T iffk I~ - 50
5X labrlos ware woolens, silks, patterned velvets and brooades of deep blues, maroon, greens, purples, and browns. These oolors, used In two or three combinations, carried out eiy bold designs (Grlmball, 16, I>ester, 21) · During the Gothic period, France came to be the originator of fashions. Kere the rich ruling court circles set the tone for the entire elegantly dressed world of the time. Each land had its own individual note which varied at different times. "In those days, fashion and costume was more or less a common affair for the vrhole of western and central i^rope (Vsener, 32, p. 11)."
SOmAHT fashion psychologists state that the oostiime of refleota the conditions of that period. Uurlock (18) says that fashion* are closely related to the social conditions of the nation* The pxirpose of this report was to study some of the soeial conditions of the Middle Ages and to point out their influence on medieval dress. Two important social aspects of European lUddle Ages, feudalism and the Ohuroh, were considered in this study. Feudalism, the type of govemaent that existed in the Kiddie Ages, was built upon a class system. Costune reflected that division of classes, the higher the rank of the wearer, the nore elaborate was his attire. As the middle classes gained in social standing and wealth, sumptuary laws were passed in an attempt to limit extravagant dress to the noble class, often to no avail. A social aspect of feudalism was chivaliy and knighthood. The attire of the knights definitely influenced civil costume. The wimple worn by women was adapted from the coifda-nallles of the knights* chainmall armor. The doublet and hose worn under plate armor was incorporated into civil oostuas by men. Both men and women adopted items of knightly attire. The surcoat, worn over armor for protection against the glare of the sun, was taken into both men's and vromen's costume. 52
53 The Chiiroh was the dominant unifying force of the Middle Ages. Art was a communal expression to the glory of God. The highest expression was found in the Gothic churches, whose vertical lines were predominant in architecture and sculpture. Stained-glass windows, wsuLl-palntings , illuminated manuscripts, and tapestry vibrated with color. Costume of the day was represented in these art forms. Costume reflected the vertical lines of Gothic architecture as is seen, for example, in the trailing houppelande of the 15" century and the accompanying steeple headdress, the hennin. The jewel-tones of the stainedglass windows, wall paintings, illuminated manuscripts, and tapestry were reflected in the colorful costume. Symbols used in the design of tapestry were also used in fabrics for costumes. The Church held that anyone who lived in a manner in keeping with her teachings would attain eternal happiness in the world hereafter. One of its teachings stressed the fact that the body was a continual temptation to sin. Costume of the early Kiddle Ages reflected this philosophy by concealing the form of the human figure. The Crusades, a series of holy wars initiated by the Pope, undertaken to recover the Holy Flaoes from the Mohammedans, brought an interchange of new ideas between the Bast and the West and stimulated a desire for such items as gorgeous fabrics, jewels, and perfumes. Heturning home to all parts of Јurope, the Crusaders were an incentive for women to assert themselves. As seen through costume, for example, the loose fitting bliaud of the liu centuiy became a form fitting gown in the 12i» century.
5» With the breakdown of feudal society which was one of the results of the Crusades, and the emerging of a middle class, the nobility lost Its prestige and wealth. They attempted to maintain their position by flaunting their rank through ostentatious costuns.
ACKHOWIfOOnEHT The writer wishes to express her sincere appreciation to her major advisor, Miss Gertrude Llenka*Bper« Associate Professor of Clothing and Textiles, for her valuable assistance, enthusiasm and guidance in the preparation of this report*
1. Allen, Agnes. The Story oЈ Clothes. Londoni Faber and Faber, 19571
2. Archer, T. A. and Ktngsford, Charles L. Ihe Cinisades . Hew Yorki Henry Kolt and Co., 1927.
3. Baldwin, Frances iilizabeth. "Sumptuary Legislation and
Personal Regulation in Knsrland," John Hopkins
mi TmU). Universlter studies in Historical and Political
ggjence .
4. Binder, Pearl. Waffs and Korc-ls . Hew Torki William Morrow and Co.
5. Doehn, llax von. fodes and Hanrera . Vol. Z. Fhiladelphiat
J. i'. Lipplncotte
'·>. ,
6. Boutell, Chi-rles, Kercldry: jlncient and Kodem . Mew 7oxkt Scribner, K'elford, and Armatron'r, 1873.
7» Brooke, Iris and Laver, James. Јnp:lish Jostume From the Fourteenth Through the nineteenth century . New Torki nacmllian Co., 1937
8. Burrls-Meyer, Elisabeth. Thxa Is Fashion . New torkt Harper and Brothers iVollshera, 1943»
9. Candee, Helen Churchill. The Tapestry Book . Hew Xorici Tudor Publishing Co., 1912.
10. Challamel, Aucustin M. The History of Fashion in France, London: Sanpson I11. Baniel-Hopa, Henry. Cathedral and Crusade . New Yorkj ji. P. Button and Co., 1957.
12. Oavenport, lUlla. The Book of Oostuae . New Yorkt Crowo Publishers, 1^551
13. Durant6,, Will. IThbet-AACgTe o9f FgQalittfhh.. Kew Yorkt Simon and Schuster, 1950.
14. Ii.'vans, Mary. Costtime Throughout the Af;ea . i-hiladelphiai J. P. Lippincott Co., 1930.
15. Greenfield, Kent itoberte. "Sumptuary Law In TiureBberg,"
Wn\ John i.oi)ltlr)B 'Jniveralty ^^tudics in idstorical and
ISliticLl ocioEce .
no. t (l^jl^). 106-1^5.
16, arlBiball, Elizabeth B, and Wells, Rhea. Coatuminp: a Hay . Kew York: Ihe Century Co., 1925.
17» Hansen, Henny harold. Gostuiae Cavalcade . London s Methuen and Co., Ltd., 1956.
18. Hurlock, Elizabeth. Ifae Payoholor-Y or iJresg . Kew Xorki Ronald ir^esa Co., 1929.
19. Layer, Janea. Clothes . Kew Yorki Horison Press, 1953»
20. Laver, James, otyle in Costume . Hew tork: Oxford University Press, 19*9.
21. I«8ter, Katharine Korris. Historic Cos tune , ieoriai Charles A. Bennet Co., 1956.
22. Kiddleton, J. A. Illuainated h^nttscripts in Classical and Kedleval Tjcea . Cambridge i Ibkiverslty Press,
2?. rtoncreiffe end itittinger. Simple HsraldrT caiearfully Illustrated . New Yorki Thomas Relson and Sons, 1953. 2». Munts, Bugone. A Short History of gai^estry . Hew lox*! Cassell and Co., Ltd., 1B85. 25. Hewhall, Sichard A. The Crusades . Sew Yorki Henry Holt and Co., 1927. 26. Parsons, Frank A. Ihe Psychology of Dress . Garden Cityi Ooubleday, Page and Co., 192^. 27. Pemoud, Itegine. The Glory of the I^dieval World . New York! Ray Publishers, 1950. 28. ahead, 0. W. Chats on Costume . London* I. Fisher Unwln, 1906. 29. Stephenson, Carl. Kedieyal History . Kew Torki Harper and Brothers Publlshera, 1951. 30. Thomdyko, lynn. The liistory of I'ledleval Europe . Boston! Houghton-nifflin Co., 1917. 31. Truman, Nevil. Hiatorie Costuming . London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, itd., 1937.
32. Wagner, Eduard. i'ledieyal Costuice. Armour and -jeapons . London I Paul EodItb, 19^
Wilcox, A, Turner. Ihe Wodo In CoBtuni* . C"harles Sori-bner'e iJons3,, 1942.
New Yorki
XH7L0EN0ES OF SOOIAI. CONDITIONS OR COSTDHS IS MEDIEVAL EUKOPE KARCIA ^MTiADINi:: KOVAX B. A., ilaxTBOunt Collega, I960 il ABSTRACT OF A HASIZR'S BEPOHT submitted in partial fulfillmant oЈ the requlrenects for th» degree HASTJkB OF SCIi.HCЈ Department of Clothlsg and Textiles XABSAS STATE UBIVKRSITT Hsnh&ttan, E&nsae 1%5
ABSTRACT 7««hlon peycboloaista state that tbe costiune of any ag« reflects tbe oonditlons of that period. Parsons soys, "Tbe results In oostume, as in other AodliuBS, are but a material record of tbe great Ideals that swaged nations at the time of their creation (26, p. XXIY)." The purpose of this report was to study aoae of the social conditions of tbe Middle Ages and to point out thair influence on medieval dress* Two Inportttnt social aspects of European Middle Aseu, foudalisn and tbe Church, were considered. Feudalism, tbe type of government that existed in the Kiddle Ages, brought with it class divisions, These divisions were refloated in costune, the higher the rank of the wearer tbe ore lavish and sagnlf leant was the attire. As tbe alddla class gained In wealth and social standing, many susptuaiy laws were pausaed in an attempt to ll&it luxurious dress to the nobility, often to no avail. A social aspect of feudallsa was chivalry and knii^bthood. The cos turns of tbe knights definitely influenced civil oostuste. Both sian and wo&en adopted items of knightly attire. For example, the surcoat, worn by the knight over iuaoor to prevent glare from the sun« was Incorporated into costuE* of both men and wouen. The Church was the dominant unifying force of tbe Middle Ages. Art was a cooaun&l expression to the glory of God. Tbe
2 highest ·xpresQion was in the Gothic chiu:ches, whose vertical lines were predominant in architecture and sculptiire. Stainedglass windows ,, illiunlnated manuscripts, and tapestry were all done in vibrant colors. Costume reflected the vertical lines of Gothic architecture as is seen in the trailing houppelande of the l$>t century and the accompanying steeple-headdress, the hennln> The Jewel-tones of stainedglass windows, illuminated manuscripts, and wall-paintings were reflected in the colorful costume. The Church taught that anyone who lived in the prescribed manner would attain eternal hsppiness in the life hereafter. One of its teachings stressed the fact that the body was a continual temptation to sin. This teaching was reflected in the costxime of the early Kiddle Ages which de-emphaslzed the human form. The Crusades, a series of holy wars initiated by the Pope, undertaken to recover the Holy Places from the Hoslems, brought an interchange of Ideas between the Kast and West and heightened the desire for luxurious stuffs, such as gorgeous fabrics, Jewels, perfumes, etc. The Crusaders, who returned to their homes in all parts of iiurope, proved to be an incentive for women to assert themselves. An example eub seen in costume was the bliaud of the 12* century which by the 14* century became ths fitted dress which revealed the feminine figure. The Crusades and the rise of the middle class helped to break down feudal society. The nobility was losing its social standing and wealth. Ostentatious costume was one means by which the nobles tried to retain their covetous rank.

ME Novak

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Title: Influences of social conditions on costume in medieval Europe
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