Justice or Prey: the Switch among Different Forms of Capital in Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped, P Chiu

Tags: Official Conference Proceedings, Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities, Osaka, Japan, cultural capital, Fatty Arbuckle, Asian Conference on Arts, self-preservation, social capital, Robert Louis Stevenson, Silent Film Comedian, David Balfour, Bourdieu, story structures, learning game, capital style, Pierre Bourdieu, economic capital, McFarland & Company, University of California Press, Roscoe Arbuckle, game levels, retention test, post test, playing the game, story structure, Japan, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, learning games, control group, Bibliography Bourdieu, David's father, Understanding Bourdieu, William Hearst, Virginia Rappe, Ebenzer Balfour, David, Alan R. Sadovnik, National Chung Cheng University, experimental group
Content: The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012 Official Conference Proceedings
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Justice or Prey: the Switch among Different Forms of Capital in Robert Louis Stevenson's "Kidnapped" Pinyao Chiu 0336 National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012 Official Conference Proceedings 2012
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Introduction As Stevenson declares in his own essay, "The author, for the sake of circumstantiation, admitted character, within certain limits, into his design; but only within certain limits" (4). In other words, the characteristics of the protagonist, which is purposely created by the author, should be read alongside with the story setting so that his or her value can be perfectly demonstrated. Since Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped was published in 1886, the travel experience of the protagonist, David Balfour, has aroused a series of discussions. Henry James comments this work, "Though a fine book in many ways, stop without ending" (158). Some critics in the following age, like Susan R. Gannon, even refer to this novel as "a fragment of David's own Bildungsroman1" (23), and needs to be observed with Stevenson's another book, Catriona, in order to entirely understand the complete story of David Balfour's adventure. Synthesizing the ideas of Gannon and James, the plot of Kidnapped, in the view of Maurice Z. Shroder, is "a young man goes forth to discover his own nature and the nature of the world" (15). Actually, this assertion is coherent with the development of David's identity in this novel. In the beginning, as David visits the House of Shaws to find his uncle, Ebenzer Balfour, he is easily cheated by this old man, and almost loses his life. Nevertheless, when David returns to this place in the final section of this book, he already has enough intelligence to cooperate with Alan in order to lead Ebenzer to admit his faults. The story design is in accordance with Shroder's words, the journey of David's self exploration, as well as a necessary process which stimulates this innocent adolescent to become a mature adult. However, although the degree of traditional Bildungsroman successfully interprets the function of David's journey in Kidnapped, it still stays on the phase of realizing David's change without systematically revealing some specific evidence to prove it. Therefore, the focus throughout this paper is to account for David's various living conditions by adopting Pierre Bourdieu's concept of capital, and further observes the attitude of David and Ebenzer as they respectively encounter the risk of losing the equal exchange in the circle of Bourdieu's three forms of capital. I attempt to enhance the weakness section of previous studies through three fundamental guises: firstly, analyzing the role of cultural capital in David's adventure, secondly, perceiving the interaction among David's different forms of capital, and at last, examining the 1 Based on the statement of M. H. Abrams, "The subject of Bildungsroman is the development of the protagonist's mind through varied experiences, which usually involves recognition of one's identity and role in the world" (201). 758
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existence of sense of alienation between David and his uncle, which can be regarded as the consequence of over concentrating on their own property. I plan to argue that what Ebenzer gains from the heritage of House of Shaws is reasonable, and David's attitude toward the gambling card game in Cluny's cage is too harsh because David has owned more benefit than what he originally has through these events. The Role of Cultural Capital in David's Adventures In reviewing the theory of Pierre Bourdieu, "capital is accumulated labor whether in its materialized form or its `incorporated,' embodied form" (241). That is, the meaning of capital, in Bourdieu's view, does not simply imply "the economic game" (243). To explain the private wealth of modern people, it can be demonstrated in three fundamental guises based on the field where it works: the economic capital, which is directly associated with the material wealth, like money or real estate, the social capital, which can be developed by broadening the social connection, such as interpersonal relationship or social status, and the cultural capital, which symbolizes the degree of education or the regulation of the social custom. Among these, cultural capital is the most debatable one that Bourdieu attempts to emphasize its influence more than others. About the concept of cultural capital, it is an indefinable idea for readers due to the difficulty of being explained concretely. Depending on its function, therefore, Bourdieu maintains that this concept is composed of three different situationsthe objectified state, the institutionalized state, and the embodied statein order to make his argument be more specific. The objective state, the easiest one to be understood, means that "the cultural capital objectified in material objects and media, such as writings, paintings, monuments, instruments, etc., is transmissible in its materiality" (Bourdieu 249). That is, cultural goods, which belong to the objective state, can be clearly evaluated by the material value without any ambiguous space. The institutionalized state, in the comment of Alan R. Sadovnik toward Bourdieu's theory, implies that "although schools appear to be neutral, they actually advantage the upper and middle-classes through their symbolic representations. These classes possess cultural capital, or symbolic representations of cultural domination, all of which have important exchange value in the educational and cultural marketplace" (11). Apparently, the function of the educational system is the best sample to demonstrate the role of the institutionalized state in the society. Even though it cannot be judged by any practical value system, its influence toward people is more serious
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than the objective state. Different from the objectified state and the institutionalized state, which can respectively take cultural goods and the educational system for example, the embodied state is the most complicated one among these. Through the analysis of Bourdieu, "this embodied capital, external wealth converted into an integral part of the person, into a habitus, cannot be transmitted instantaneously (unlike money, property rights, or even titles of nobility) by gift or bequest, purchase or exchange" (246). That is, neither the material exchange, which is the essence of the objectified state, nor the propaganda of pedagogue, which is the most important media of the institutionalized state, are the necessary requirements for the dominant class to establish the embodied state. It is a kind of habitus in daily life, and plants into people's behavior without awareness. In Bourdieu's theory, the meaning of habitus, is further explained as a sort of tool, which endows the dominant class a chance to display their authority. Standing on his shoulder, Michael Grenfell defines habitus that "the values, tastes, and lifestyles of some social groups are, in an arbitrary manner, elevated above those of others in a way that confers social advantage" (102). As well as the ideological state apparatus2, which has the ability to create the social value and encourages people to obey the authority, habitus also has the function of erecting the mainstream quality although these judgments simply belong to a specific class from the very beginning. By adopting Bourdieu's statements to examine Kidnapped, even though the death of David's father gives Ebenzer an opportunity to sell David to Captain Hoseason and coerces him to start his journey, the habitus of the Covenant not simply broadens David's horizon, but also forces him to accommodate different kinds of authorities, and even stimulates him to change these. For instance, as those sailors on the Covenant prepare to besiege David and Alan in the Round House, David describes his own mental situation as follows: "As for hope, I had none; but only a darkness of despair and a sort of anger against all the world that made me long to sell my life as dear as I was able. I try to pray, I remember, but that same hurry of my mind, like a man running, would not suffer me to think upon the words; and my chief wish was to have 2 According to Louis Althusser, state apparatuses can be divided into the ideological State apparatuses and the repressive State apparatuses. Althusser asserts, "The repressive State apparatuses function by violence, whereas the ideological State apparatuses function by ideology" (1490). That is, different from the repressive State apparatuses such as the police or the army which adopt the absolute power to control people's behavior, the function of the ideological State apparatuses is not only potential and peaceful, but it can affect people without awareness. 760
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the thing begin and to be done with it." (KN 88)3 It is worthwhile to notice the change of David's attitude, from optimistic to pessimistic, from a peaceful prayer to an angry fighter. After being oppressed by the hierarchy structure in the Covenant, seeing Ransome's death and realizing the conspire of Capitan Hoseason toward Alan, the habitus around the Covenant survival of the fittest starts to challenge David's original moral evaluation. Coincidentally, David's transformation is similar to the words of Bourdieu, "In the form of what is called culture, cultivation, Bildung, presupposes a process of embodiment, incorporation, which, insofar as it implies a labor of inculcation and assimilation, costs time, time which must be invested personally by the investor" (245). In comparison, because of these unbelievable experiences, David gradually gains more treasures of cultural capital than "a little packet containing four things" (KN 5), which he initially gets from the minister as he leaves hometown Essendean. Furthermore, not only the experience on the Covenant, but the habitus of the Highlanders also affects David's thought. For instance, in order to avoid the complicated legal process, David accepts Mr. Rankeillor's advice, "if possible, out of court" (KN 292). As he deals with the problem of inheriting the heritage of the House of Shaws, he cooperates with Alan and plays a trick to lead Ebenzer to admit what he has done. In other words, David's strategy is exploiting the loopholes of the law. On the contrary, this attitude is contradicted with his previous opinion to the death of the Red Fox. About this incident, the dialogue between Alan and David is noticeable: "`can you swear that you don't know him, Alan?' I cried, half angered, half in a mind to laugh at his evasions. `No yet,' says he; `but I've a grand memory for forgetting, David'" (KN 172). In this passage, David's reaction is quite different from Alan's because David insists that the real murderer should be punished by the legal power. Compared to the plot of sketching a plan to cheat his uncle, David's personality has changed due to the habitus of the Highlanders which is similar to Alan's words, "Above all of Highlanders, many of whom are obnoxious to the law" (KN 285). Under this environment, where advocates self-reliance, David begins to depend on his own ability to deal with problems rather than relying on the authoritative power. Through the observation to above plots in Kidnapped, Stevenson's design is similar to Bourdieu's argument, "Cultural capital can be acquired, to a varying extent, depending on the period, the society, and the social class, in the absence of any deliberate inculcation, and therefore quite unconsciously" (251). That is, in spite of fighting against the habitus of the Covenant and the Highlanders at first, David 3 Kidnapped, henceforth abbreviated as KN.
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eventually has enlarged his own cultural capital through this journey due to the influence of the habitus of the Covenant and the Highlanders. Thus, this novel entirely displays the role of the embodied state in David's cultural capital. The Interaction among Three Forms of Capital
According to the recognition of Tony Schirato toward Bourdieu's capital theory, "The forms of capital could be economic, in terms of financial assets, but it could take other formsfor instance, the cultural capital associated with a university degree" (109). The behavior of paying the tuition of university, in other words, can be considered as a kind of exchange between the economical capital and the cultural capital because it leads people to get the opportunity to have higher educational degree. Therefore, the connection of the economic capital, the social capital, and the cultural capital, not merely represents a person's wealth, but allows these estates to be transferred with each other. Through Schirato's explanation to the relationship between the tuition and the educational level, the prototype of a person's cultural capital can be traced back to his or her economic ability, and this assumption has also been proved in Bourdieu's own essay. He declares, "Economic capital is at the root of all the other types of capital and that these transformed, disguised forms of economic capital, never entirely reducible to that definition, produce their most specific effects only to the extent that they conceal" (256). As well as what Schirato's maintains, not only cultural capital should be developed by the economic one, but other forms of capital also have to do so. Therefore, because of the same root of the cultural capital and the social capital, it is reasonable for these to flow with each other in order to produce more effect than their original distribution. Based on Bourdieu's concept, the last treatment toward Ebenzer in this novel can be regarded as a fair judgment for both Ebenzer and David because David's benefit is never decreased. As what this paper has mentioned in the first section, David has already gained much more cultural capital through his adventure than what he initially owns, and this invisible reward has entire repaid his regret about the material satisfaction. On the contrary, the life experience of Ebenzer is discussible due to the deal between David's father and him. About the story among David's father, mother, and uncle, the lawyer, Mr. Rankeillor, claims, "They came at last to drive a sort of bargain, from whose ill results you have recently been smarting. The one man took
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the lady, the other the estate" (KN 290). This description, obviously, is the evidence to demonstrate that Ebenzer never gains the wealth of the House of Shaws without any sacrifice. He transfers the social capital, his love to David's mother, into the material satisfaction. Therefore, as David decides to take the heritage from his uncle, Ebenzer absolutely deserves part of it in order to expiate what he loses. In the same way, throughout the critical point of view of Bourdieu, similar transformation can also be found in the plot of the gambling card game which happens in Cluny's cage. Generally speaking, when David knows that Alan has run out of their money because of gambling, his serious attitude toward Alan is debatable because Cluny, the winner of this game, declares, "You give me very much the look of a man that has entrapped poor people to their hurt. I wouldna have my friends come to any house of mine to accept affronts" (KN 236). Obviously, the intention of Cluny to hold this card game is not for Alan's gold, but for providing a leisure activity to his visitors. Otherwise, under Cluny's territory, it is impossible for David to get back their money smoothly without any interference. Moreover, after arguing with Cluny, David is considered as "the spirit of a very pretty gentleman" (KN 237). In other words, David gains the admiration from people, whose habitus is different from his, without any material payment. This applause, in fact, is classified as a sort of social capital by Pierre Bourdieu. Hence, David should not sketch Alan's behavior as "a treacherous child" (KN 239) when they have the quarrel to this issue because he has earned some invisible benefit in this event. As Bourdieu concerns, "The different types of capital can be derived from economic capital, but only at the cost of a more or less great effort of transformation, which is needed to produce the type of power effective in the field in question" (254). In above analysis toward David's unbelievable experience, his material property is never decreased but transferred into the cultural form, and this phenomenon is coherent with Bourdieu's observation to the distribution of personal wealth in the modern society. Sense of Alienation: the Method of Protecting Property
Even though every capital style can switch with each other due to their same origination, people still have the risk to lose the equal exchange during the process of conversion. To explain this problem, Bourdieu indicates that "Everything which helps to disguise the economic aspect also tends to increase the risk of loss. Thus the incommensurability of the different types of capital introduces a high degree of
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uncertainty into all transactions between holders of different types" (257). By observing this comment, lacking an objective judgment to evaluate each kind of capital is not merely the key point to worry people as they have the necessary situation to converse their benefit, but also stimulates the prevalence of egoism in order to protect the Private property. Because of the motivation of self-preservation, sense of alienation, for modern people, is the easiest way to maintain what they already have. In Kidnapped, Ebenzer's mental situation is similar to Bourdeiu's theory because he treats all the people in the society, including David, as enemies to maintain his treasure. Among those passengers' words, which David hears on the way to the house of Shaws, there is a woman whose attitude is the most representative one. David describes it as follows: "The woman's face lit up with a malignant anger. `That is the house of Shaws!' She cried. `Blood built it; blood stopped the building of it; blood shall bring it down.' She cried again 'If ye see the laird, tell him what ye hear; tell him this makes the twelve hunner and nineteen time that Jennet Clouston has called down the curse on him and his house'" (KN 11). Obviously, although the social status of Ebenzer is obnoxious, he still decides to alienate the social group in order to assure the safety of his wealth. All he has in his life is only the material heritage due to the deal with David's father. Under Bourdeiu's recognition, Ebenzer has sacrificed his social capital, but enlarges more economic capital than David's father, Alexander Balfour, whose capital advantage is opposite to Ebenzer's. Avoiding the risk of loss, therefore, he tricks David several times and almost kills him. That is, these behaviors actually originate from his self-preservation regardless of good or evil. Coincidentally, this kind of self-protective behavior can also be perceived in David's journey, especially in his travel to Torosay. After fighting against his first guide, David declares, "I chuckled to myself as I went, being sure I was done with that rogue, for a variety of reasons. He knew he could have no more of my money" (KN 143). At first, David gives this person two shillings to exchange his cultural capital in order to arrive at Torosay. However, as David realizes the greedy intention of this person, he changes his policy and decides to solve this problem by violence. This behavior, in fact, can also be regarded as self-preservation which is the same as Ebenzer's plan. Furthermore, similar situation continually happens in David's life, as he meets a person who disguises a blind man in order to cheat his money, his attitude is the same
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as before. David claims, "I told him that, sure enough, I had a pistol in my pocket as well as he, and if he did not strike across the hill due south, I would even blow his brains out" (KN 146). Compared to Ebenzer's reaction as he knows David's background, David also adopts violence to directly reject external interference which possibly harms his economic capital or causes him to lose the equal capital conversion. Therefore, the above examples clearly demonstrate that even though Ebenzer treats David's visit as invasion, his behaviors can be classified as a sort of self-protection which is similar to what David does in the Scottish Highlands. Conclusion
According to the concept of Pierre Bourdieu toward the forms of capital, even though it can be divided into the economic capital, the social capital, and the cultural capital because of its different effect, the economic one is the root of each of these. Due to the similarity of these forms, every capital style can transfer with each other in order to give people the opportunity of producing more benefit. However, Bourdeiu simultaneously believes that lacking an objective judgment among these diverse capitals may bring the risk of the unequal transformation, and this problem has already existed in the society. It will not simply cause people's anxiety of losing what they already have as conversing different forms of capital, but gradually lead them to establish the attitude of self-preservation to face this world. Adopting the theory of Bourdieu to review Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped, In spite of Ebenzer's cruel behavior, David still has the chance to enlarge his cultural capital because he converses his economic capital into the cultural capital during his journey. Hence, David's wealth is much more than his uncle's at last even though Ebenzer has the rights to get one third of the heritage and the mansion. Furthermore, this situation is analogous to what David and Alan encounter in Cluny's cage, when Alan loses all of their gold in the card game, Cluny never wants to grab it, but further admires David as a very pretty gentleman. This applause, in Bourdeiu's view, is classified as a kind of social capital which David owns it without any payment. In other words, under Bourdieu's recognition, David Balfour is the real winner in this capital game. Therefore, it is reasonable for Ebenzer to inherit part of the heritage of House of Shaws, and Alan, a loser in Cluny's gambling card game, should not be treat as a treacherous child by David.
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Bibliography Bourdieu, Pierre. "The Forms of Capital." Trans. J. Richardson. Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood, 1986. 241-58. Print. Grenfell, Michael. Pierre Bourdieu: Key Concepts. Stocksfield: Acumen Publishing Limited, 2008. Print. Gannon, Susan R. "Repetition and Meaning in Stevenson's David Balfour's Novels." Studies in the Literary Imagination. 18.2 (1985): 21-34. Print. Sadovnik, Alan R. Sociology of Education: a Critical Reader. New York: Taylor & Francis Group, 2007. Print. Smith, Janet Adam. Henry James and Robert Louis Stevenson: A Record of Friendship and Criticism. London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1948. Print. Shrode, Maurice Z. "The Novel as Genre." Ed. Philip Stevick. The Theory of the Novel. New York: The Free Press 2001. 10-21. Print. Stevenson, Robert Louis. Kidnapped. London: Vintage, 2009. Print. ---. "A Humble Remonstrance." Ed. E. M. Eigner. English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920. New York: State U of New York, 1992. 21-26. Print. Schirato, Tony. Understanding Bourdieu. California: Sage Publications Inc, 2002. Print. 766
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The Impact of Content Design With Story Grammar on Learning Achievement for Mobile GameBased Learning Wen-Shou Chou, Chieh-Ming Chang 0344 Ming Chuan University, Taiwan The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012 Official Conference Proceedings 2012 Abstract: In the last few years, many research on mobile game-based learning usually put the main stress on the motivation of learning, there was little attention has been given to the factors affecting learning achievement. Moreover, there are many research have proved that story grammar analysis can help with learning, understanding and retention. For reasons mentioned above, this study attempts to assist learner to establish and construct knowledge, to strengthen retention ability, and to keep motivation of learning. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of learning achievement and attitude by utilizing mobile game-based learning with story grammar. Making use of quasi-experimental design for research, 52 third grade students of elementary school were arranged into two groups: experimental group (with story grammar) and control group (without story grammar) for empirical study. Independent t test statistical method was applied to analyze the data. According to the statistical result of the experiment, it showed that there was significant difference of learning achievement between the two groups. The students of experimental group, which were taught by utilizing mobile game-based learning with story grammar, had better performances both in learning achievement and retention. Moreover, mobile game-based learning with story grammar can motivate students and have positive learning attitude. To summary, the present research shows that a mobile learning game with story grammar is highly effective than a regular mobile learning game.
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1. Introduction Digital games can provide a challenge, unpredictable, competitive, and cooperated, learning environment. It can raise learning motivation (Huh, 2008). Learning through playing can also induce internal characteristics of learners such as curiosity, control, and etc., thus game-based learning can also motivate people to learn in their whole life (Prensky, 2003; Gros, 2007). However, in order to make sure that the learners can do learn something after playing the game, digital games for learning or education should be designed under special considerations. Learning achievement is one of the most important learning goals in education. However, the study about the learning achievement is rare in the field of mobile game-based learning till now. Since one of the characteristics for mobile learning is learning can be outdoors, the learning activities should be carefully controlled, and the corresponding digital games applied to these teaching activities should be well designed, such that the learner (or the game player) can really achieve learning goals. How to design game contents to let learners effectively construct knowledge while they experience the game is an important problem. In this research, we try to embed story narrative structures into game levels' design, and study its impact on the learning effects, especially on the effect of learning achievement. 2. Related Works Many studies have proposed methods to integrate the mobile technologies (such as GPS, QR code, wireless network, and etc.) with learning situations to create a mobile learning environment (Huizenga, Admiraal, Akkerman, & Dam, 2009Zualkernan & Raddawi, 2006Schwabe & Gцth, 2005Facer, Joiner, Stanton, Reid, Hull, & Kirk, 2004Klopfer & Squire, 2007Klopfer, Yoon, & Rivas, 2004). These studies have shown that the learning motivation can be improved as compared to traditional learning in the classroom, this is especially true for the students in elementary schools. However, for the mobile game-based learning, whether the learning achievement can also be improved as well as the motivation is still an open question (Huizenga et al., 2009Schwabe & Gцth, 2005). Some research shows that because players have to obey the game rules when playing the learning games, it may make the player's memories become fragmented, or let the player make wrong memory associations.
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Several researchers have proposed considerations or guidelines for designing learning games. Killi (2005) proposed three design principles when designing an educational game. (1) storytelling : try to embed the learning contents into a game story. This can effectively immerse the learners into game-based learning environment. (2) game balance : the game mechanism should be designed with no partiality and with suitable award, feedback, and challenges. (3) optimized cognitive load : games should be designed not to overload the learners' cognitive perceptions. Pivec and Dziabenko 2004proposed six steps for designing learning games. Bopp (2006) indicated that a didactic analysis of digital learning game should include learning goals, learning content, and learning methods three dimensions. And the dimension of learning methods could be further considered from the situation, temporal , and social three sub-dimensions. Wherein the considerations concerning situation sub-dimension could be correlated to a game level design. These studies do not discuss whether the narrative structures of a learning game will affect the learning outcome or not. Some studies from the education field have found that teaching with narrative structures can enhance the learner's capabilities of reading and understanding. Moreover, it can also improve the learning retention effects and raise learning motivationBoulineau, ForeIII, Hagan-Burke, & Burke, 2004Idol Croll, 1987 Vallecorsa & DeBettencourt, 1997The "Story Map" was proposed by Idol Croll (1987) and was originally used to help learners to organize the learning contents by applying narrative structures. It help learners construct learning events and contents in a structural way, such as let learners describe a story background (time, location, the protagonist), the theme, plot, and result. In order to study the possible differences between learning effects about whether the mobile learning game is designed with narrative structures or not, we applied the concepts of the"Story Map" to game level design. The corresponding story structures can be applied to design game levels well. Where the theme corresponds to the given problems to be solved in the game level, the plot corresponds to the events and actions taken in game level. With the introduction of a game avatar and the animations given between game levels, the mobile game can possess good narrative structures. 3. The Proposed Learning Game 3.1 Learning with the Mobile Game The game is designed for the third grade students of elementary school in Taoyuan,
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Taiwan. The students will take a panel computer to play the game. It is expected that after playing the game, students can learn the characteristics of plants in the school. After showing a greeting page of the game (Fig. 1-1), some clues about characteristics of a plant will be given (Fig. 1-2). The students should look for the real plant having these characteristics in school (Fig. 1-3). When they find the plant, they can take pictures for it, and the pictures will be stored in the computer (Fig. 1-4, Fig. 1-5). If students take the right pictures (judged by teachers), the game level is completed, and they will go to the next level, otherwise, they should look for the right plant again (or play the same game level again). Each game level is consisted of recognizing one plant in school by showing some characteristics of the plant as clues. These clues may include describing the shape of plant, indicating the year of plant, putting some history associated with it, or pointing out some important functions of the plant, such as the function of medicine, emphasizing the differences between the plant and some other well-known plants, or some perceptual features such as taste like something, and maybe combinations of these clues.
Fig. 1-1.The greeting page of learning game.
Fig. 1-2. Clues about a plant are given.
Fig. 1-3.Looking forthe real plant in school.
Fig. 1-4. Take pictures for the plant.
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Fig. 1-5.The stored pictures can be judged by teachers whether the students find the right plant or not. Figure1. The proposed learning game: to learn plants in school. 3.2 Game Design for Empirical Study Two versions of games with the same game levels are designed. The "Story Map" method (Idol & Croll, 1987) was applied to design the game levels in order to embed story structures into game levels. The version of learning game with story structures (called as scenario mode) has a linear structure of game levels (Fig. 2), and between two game levels, there is a short animation for telling about the story, this animation will be played before going to the next level. The other version (the task mode) does not have any structure constraints between game levels. Students can play levels in a random order. Since the levels can be played randomly, there are no animations between the levels. In this version of game, students are just asked to look for a plant in each level, while the other one, a story accompanied by short animations is given to students, and they can imagine now why they should look for the plant.
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Figure 2.The scenario mode of learning game with linear game structure.
Figure 3.There are no level structures in the task mode of learning game.
4. The Research Method and Results 4.1 The Process of quasi-experimental Study (1) Two classes of grade 3, elementary school in Taoyuan, Taiwan were selected to join the experiments (each class has 26 students, including 13 boys and 13 girls). The scores of "nature science" subject of these two classes were tested by statistical t-tests in order to show that there was no statistically different between these two classes about knowing the plants in school. (2) One class was treated as experimental group (playing the game version with linear level structures and short animations), while the other class was treated as controlled group (playing the other version of game). (3) Students took a prior test firstly, then an introduction about how to play the game was given. (4) After playing the game, a post test was taken. (5) Two weeks later, take the retention test, where the retention test was similar to those of post test except making new arrangements of questions. 4.2 Analysis and Results The following analysis was taken in this experiment: (1) Comparison between the scores of prior test and post test in experimental group
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and control group, respectively. (2) Comparison between the scores of post tests in experimental group and control group (3) Comparison between the scores of post test and retention test in experimental group and control group, respectively.
Statistically independent t-test method was applied to analyze the data. For the experimental group, playing the game with story structure will improve the learning achievements (Table1, t=-4.126, p = 0.000***). Playing the game without story structures may let the learning achievement become worse (Table2), however, the difference is not statistically significant (t=1.719, p = 0.079).When comparing the
Table1. Comparisons of prior test and post test for the experimental group
Student Mean Std. s
Prior test
26 73.65 15.72
Post test 26 89.42 11.51
Table 2. Comparisons of priortest and post test for the control group
Student mean Std. s Prior test 26 75.00 15.74
Post test
26 67.88 12.74
post tests between these two groups, the difference was statistically significant (t=6.394, p=0.000***). The mean scores of retention tests were 86.92 and 70.58 for the experimental group and control group, respectively. There was no statistical significance between the scores of retention test and post test for both the two groups, it means that playing learning games will have good retention effect no matter what the game has story structure or not. 5. Conclusions Based on the empirical study, the learning game with story structures can have better learning achievement, while the learning game without story structures have little effects on learning achievement. Moreover, playing learning games have good retention learning effects no matter what the design method is embedded into story structures or not. This study shows that game contents designed with story structures may improve learning effects, but it still needs more experiments and studies before 773
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we can really make some conclusions. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Science Council of the Republic of China under contracts NSC 100-2410-H-130-063 and NSC 99-2511-S-155-001. References Bopp, M. (2006). Didactic analysis of digital games and game-based learning. In: Maja Pivec (ed.): Affective and emotional aspects of human-computer interaction: Game-based and innovative learning approaches. IOS Press, Amsterdam. Boulineau, T., ForeIII, C., Hagan-Burke, S., & Burke, M. D. (2004). Use of story-mapping to increase the story-grammar text comprehension of elementary students with learning disabilities.Learning disability Quarterly, 27(2) , 105-121. Facer, K., Joiner, R., Stanton, D., Reid, J., Hull, R., & Kirk, D. (2004). Savannah:Mobile gaming and learning? Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 399-409. Gros, B. (2007). Digital games in education: The design of game-based learning environments. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(1), 23-38. Huh, J. (2008). Adoption and dissemination of Digital Game-Based Learning. Handbook of research on instructional systems and technology, 409-415. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. Huizenga, J., Admiraal, W., Akkerman, S., & Dam, G. ten (2009). Mobile game-basedlearning in secondary education: engagement, motivation and learning in a mobile city game.Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25, 332­344. Idol, L. Croll, V. J. (1987). Story mapping training as a means of improving reading comprehension .Learning Disability Quarterly, 10(3), 214-230. Killi, K. (2005). Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model. Internet and Higher Education, 8, 13-24. Klopfer, E., Yoon, S., & Rivas, L.(2004). Comparative analysis of Palm and wearablecomputers for participatory simulations. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 347-359. Klopfer, E., & Squire, K. (2007). Environmental Detectives--the development of an augmented reality platform for environmental simulations. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56(2), 203-228. doi:10.1007/s11423-007-9037-6 774
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Pivec, M.,& Dziabenko, O. (2004). Game-based learning in universities and lifelong learning: "UniGame: social skills and knowledge training" game concept. Journal of universal computer Science, 10(1), 14-26. Prensky, M. (2003). Digital game-based learning. ACM Computers in Entertainment, 1(1), 1-4. Schwabe, G., & Gцth, C. (2005). Mobile learning with a mobile game: design andmotivational effects. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 204-216. Vallecorsa, A., &deBettencourt, L. (1997). Using a mapping procedure to teach readingand writing skills to middle grade students with leaming disabilities. Educationand Treatment of Children, 20, 173-188. Zualkernan, I. A., &Raddawi, R. (2006, November). Exploring game-based m-learning for first language interference problems in higher education.Information Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'06), Athens, Greece.
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Public obsession: The Fatty Arbuckle Case and its Impact on Modern Day Media Coverage of High Profile Court Cases Sungmin Yoon 0992 The Hockaday School, USA The Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities 2012 Official Conference Proceedings 2012 Abstract: Murder, sex, whacko, and a celebrity. This is all a high-profile court case needs to excite us, and to catch the attention of the media. The Fatty Arbuckle case of the 1920s, having all four elements, was subject to much public attention and media coverage, which had a damaging effect on the defendant and legendary comedian, Roscoe Arbuckle. This case started an unfortunate trend; modern media, having realized the lucrative business in covering high-profile court cases, is now spending too much time and resources on these court cases, exemplified by the O.J. Simpson, Michael Jackson, and Casey Anthony trials. Yet this type of sensationalist journalism must change, and fast. This paper examines how such trend had been initiated by the infamous Arbuckle case, and how it has evolved into an abominable and unethical practice that undermines both the Criminal Justice system of the United States and basic journalism ethics.
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It was the perfect Hollywood drama; the Fatty Arbuckle case1 had everything: the perpetrator, America's most celebrated and loved actor, Roscoe Arbuckle2; the victim, Virginia Rappe3, a seemingly angelic yet morally depraved party girl; the accuser, Maude Delmont4, former prostitute and known for her endless criminal records; and the ambitious, money-driven reporter, William Hearst5, eager to capture every minute of the case and expose it to the public as interestingly as possible. All these elements contributed to the gathering of thousands of people around their TV sets as Roscoe Arbuckle was arrested, September 11, 1921, on the charges that he had raped and subsequently killed starlet Virginia Rappe6. The instant Arbuckle's scandal broke out, bold headlines blazed newspapers, touting the rape of the "innocent" girl by the supposedly monstrous demon that had turned against his fans in committing such a felony. Journalists fabricated different versions of the story, subtly changing the details of the court case to produce something that would appeal and thus sell. Soon enough, Arbuckle found himself banned from all producing companies, losing a career and his entire future within the film industry, eventually sinking into oblivion7. The drama was finally over for Arbuckle. But not for the American public. Since the Arbuckle case, celebrities' trials became a "hot topic" for the media, which continued to sell celebrity court drama in turn for profit and audience interest. O.J. Simpson, Michael Jackson, and Casey Anthony were all caught underneath the spotlight cast by the media, and subsequently became victims of the public's overwhelming interest8. The Fatty Arbuckle case, falsely publicized and over-dramatized by the emergent and profit-driven mass media industry of the late 1920s, marked the beginning of societal exploitation of high-profile court cases for entertainment and the media's unrelenting attempts to gain profit off of such interest, even if it means distorting truths into gossip-worthy scenarios.
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The Fatty Arbuckle gained media attraction for multiple reasons, but the spotlight was brought on largely by the emergent mass media of America during the 1920s. Unfortunately for Arbuckle, the early 1920s marked a turning point within the media industry. Turning away from the original means of delivering entertainment to a minimal, fragmented audience, media magnets saw potential and thus heavily invested in the emergent mass, national entertainment market.9 First came the commercial radio broadcasts, followed by wired service reports, which allowed for chains of printed newspapers, which then allowed for the delivery of information to a mass audience within a short period of time.10 As a result of the expanding journalism industry, circulation of newspapers rose from 26,000 to 750,000 within five years, with 1.32 million copies sold every day.11 Along with the rise of mass print publication came a rise in sensational journalism, or yellow journalism12, as tabloid publishers "responded to the demands of a sensation-seeking readership.13" The sudden influx of print media, wide-scale and instant delivery of news, and sensationalism would all come back to haunt Arbuckle, over-emphasizing and over-blowing an already grim part of his life. Yet we cannot blame solely bad luck and timing for the Arbuckle's cases publicity; the media had done much damage as well. Once word got out that Roscoe Arbuckle had been arrested, people directed all their attention to the case. Journalists jumped right into the story. Reporters from all over the world lined to get a glimpse of Arbuckle in the courthouse14, and "women's vigilante groups lined the courthouse steps and corridors demanding an immediate lynching.15" But the media wanted what would sell. Thus, they straw-manned and fabricated the entirety of the case. "Fatty Arbuckle Sought in Orgy Death16" blazed newspaper headlines, and 778
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the not-so-innocent Rappe was portrayed in a way that "[anyone]'d certainly never seen. Her hair was cut like a Sunday-school teacher's, falling demurely above the shoulder straps of a humble gingham dress she might have made herself, with a matching bonnet.17" Blazing lurid headlines and portraying Rappe as a helpless, innocent girl, the media had "[Arbuckle], heretofore a babyfaced innocent symbolic of wholesome screen fun... become in three trials a defiler of womanhood, a monster, and a menace to society.18"
William Hearst19, leading newspaper publisher, served as an avant-garde of this movement, gaining profit off of Arbuckle's wrongdoing. Hearst encouraged his editors to print shocking yet interesting headlines such as "Raper Dances While Victim Dies,20" "Stepmother Abandoned by Arbuckle Salves at Washtub,21" and "Grave of Arbuckle's Mother is Neglected, Final Resting Place Has no Headstone.22" Worse, when Hearst's cameramen were denied entrance into the courtroom, he created "mock-up" and passed it onto the public as the truth23. Though Hearst had no validity to his claims, the public still believed him.
But this tactic proved successful on the media's part. The Examiner had sold more copies about the Arbuckle scandal than any edition since the 1915 sinking of the Lusitania24 25, and "Hearst was later able to boast that he sold more newspapers reporting the Arbuckle case than he had since America entered the First World War.26' The attraction brought on by the manipulation of the media was massive, and this would eventually establish a trend that remains today--the media's "manipulate[ing] [of] public opinion and the criminal justice system for their own purposes.27" Indeed, "Ever since Fatty Arbuckle was accused of the rape and murder of a
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showgirl during a wild party in his hotel room 82 years ago... the American appetite for juicy details of luminary wrong-doings has never abated.28"
Though the popularity of the Arbuckle case eventually died out, the media's enthusiasm for high-profile court cases never did. O.J. Simpson29 fell pretty to such enthusiasm. When words broke out that the famous football player had murdered his wife and her friend and public interest of the court case gained momentum, the media rushed to cover the story. Indeed, "this high profile court case is often reported as the most extensively covered media event in history...the media system covering the O.J. Simpson criminal trial alone (not counting the later civil trial) included 19 televisions stations, 8 radio stations, 121 video feeds, 8 miles of cable, 850 telephones, 23 newspapers and magazines, and 2,000 reporters."30 What would have been perhaps a normal court trial had turned into a national entertainment with an audience of 150 million31, with the elements of a dramatic soap opera. So what made the Simpson trial in such high demand? First, like the Fatty Arbuckle case, "...the Simpson case had all the ingredients of a great drama. It had celebrity, charismatic and memorable characters, murder, and to top it off, television cameras in the courtroom. He said that adding the cameras was `like throwing gasoline on a fire, it transformed the proceedings into a sort of `hype heaven.32'' O.J. Simpson's status as legendary football player had made his conviction even more shocking. But to America, Simpson was not just a football legend; rather, he was "...like a member of the family, so much a part of American life' that this is 'as close as most people will come to having a loved one facing a murder charge' and that 'people do not want to believe that their father killed their mother.33" Simpson was regarded by many as a hero and an idol34, so much that his downfall had a shock factor that impacted society, and the media was quick to exploit the 780
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crushed faith of Americans to fabricate a news-worthy trial. Newspaper headlines that haunted Arbuckle were replaced by news coverage for Simpson, as multiple broadcast networks aired section specifically reserved for the Simpson trial. For example, "OJ garnered more reports on the three national networks' evening news programmes in six months than the 1994 mid-term elections35 did in the entire year...; it was the subject of more stories than the effort to design a new health-care system or the Rwandan genocide;... CNN, which might as well be renamed OJNN employs an OJ staff of almost 70. The broadcast networks, too, have their own OJ squads of commentators, ever ready to materialise for emergency OJ updates.36"
Similarly, Michael Jackson37 and his court case38 also generated wide interest, though the trial was different from that of Simpson's in that the media was banned from photographing a `"prospective grand juror.39'" Perhaps this was the courthouse's attempt to curb the media's efforts to gain profit from publicizing the Jackson case, but banning photographs could not ban the media completely. Beginning with the entry of Jackson into the courthouse, news stations including CNN, MSNBC, and Fox News aired every glimpse of Jackson that they could get40, most reporters covering the case sit[ing] on the edge of their seats every day half expecting something bizarre or surreal [Like Jackson's pajama incident41'] to happen.42" "Hordes of reporters, TV crews, and radio stations...roam[ed] the courthouse halls, desperate for information,43" and soon enough, "... [one could] get Jackson updates every quarter-hour.44" Despite the banning of photographs within the courthouse, the media eventually found a way around the ruling to profit from the trial.
The trial of Michael Jackson intrigued many for various reasons, the most obvious being that like Simpson, Jackson was a national idol: The "King of Pop.45" Another was due to the pop star's eccentricity, hence his nick name "wacko jacko.4647" Jackson was long known for his oddity, 781
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both physical and psychological. In fact, "Jackson's idiosyncrasies of behavior and appearance were already popular topics of discussion more than two decades [before the trial.48" Physically, Jackson went through "a bizarre... metamorphosis,4950" as "years of gruesome plastic surgery...transformed the beaming black child into a strange, pale-faced, wide-eyed figure, looking like a cross between an anorexic teenage girl and an extra in a Hammer horror film.51" Psychologically, Jackson was considered strange, as reflected by his childlike mentality and behavior52, as well his purchase of a hyperbaric oxygen chamber53 that would keep him alive until the age of 15054. The Jackson trial was less of a pursuit of justice. In fact, "there [was] little hatred for the alleged villain and scant pity for the alleged victim. Few...[were] eager to see Jackson severely punished or his accuser richly rewarded.55" Instead, the trial was more of a pursuit of unraveling the seemingly insane and enigmatic mental state of the legendary pop star56, which made the courtroom drama interesting all the while.
Finally, another victim of the media's thirst for courtroom drama, though not a celebrity, was Casey Anthony57, who turned into a celebrity after much public exposure. Huffington Post,58 for example, had an entire section dedicated to the trial of Casey Anthony, its justification being that "some news is so big it needs its own page.59" The Casey Anthony case, also known as "O.J. Number 2,60" was so much alike theatrical entertainment in that people bought tickets to go watch Anthony receive her sentences61. "Hundreds of people show[ed] up each day to watch the murder case unfold. But only those who arrive well before 8 a.m. and wait in June swelter can get a pass allowing them into the...courtroom.62"
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Much like Arbuckle, Casey Anthony was afflicted by the media's exaggerated and overly madeup portrayal of her. "Newspapers post pictures of a scantily clad and dancing Anthony next to stories about her daughter's murder. Nancy Grace dubbed her "Tot Mom." One newscaster even referred to her "boobs" on air. This over-the-top coverage of Anthony's looks makes it seem like she's facing two trials: one in a courtroom, the other in the media.63" Even in stories that had nothing to do with Anthony's physical appearance,..."racy" or "sexy" pictures of Anthony [appeared] in stories...64" Anthony's reputation for being a party girl65 was perfect for the media to exploit, and as a result, Anthony was instantly turned into heartless, irresponsible teenage mom66. This added onto the public's obsession over the trial, as the public were shocked about Anthony's apathy towards her daughter's death and her depravity.
Observing these four cases gives us a general idea of what the media wants from court cases and which trials it classifies as "high profile" and newsworthy, the first being trials that involve celebrities67. As exemplified by the Arbuckle and Simpson trials, trials that involve celebrities, should they be the victim, defendant, or prosecutor--are guaranteed the spotlight, in turn guaranteeing profit for the media. "...public figures like politicians, actors, and athletes usually are the most newsworthy. In his work all of the public figures could be labeled as celebrities, and thus, by default, when any celebrity gets caught up in a legal case it is almost automatically newsworthy. The media are out for ratings, or sales. A newsworthy news event like a celebrity court case can virtually guarantee public interest and thus revenue.68" But why the obsession? Indeed, "There's something about rich and privileged people and famous people that just attracts an audience.69" Sometimes it may be the mere glamour and enviable lives of celebrities that attract the public, or simply "because [the public] can relate to [celebrities'] mistakes...[and] make fun of their mistakes70" There is also the aspect that 783
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celebrities are so much entrenched in our lives--we see them on television and hear about them on the radio everyday--that soon they become a close part of the public, and having that part taken away by the courthouse may sometimes be shocking, if not unbearable71. Though the reason is hard to determine, yet we have always been attracted by celebrities, by their wealth, their fame, their publicity, and consequently, their trials.
Another popular type of trial is one that involves an interesting character; this may involve a celebrity, or one with an unusual trait. Both Michael Jackson and Fatty Arbuckle, disregarding the fact that they were celebrities, were considered "freaks": Jackson, for his physical appearance and childishness, and Arbuckle, for his unusually overweight body. Such anomalies attracted even more audience for the two trials, as the public is always looking for something different in a court case72. Not only would their unusual physical appearances allow the media to mock them and create caricatures out of them, but this would also attract a wider audience as the public saw the "freaks" unravel themselves and their idiosyncrasies in the face of justice. By watching the court cases the public may have expected to better understand the criminalized "freak."
Finally, the media is attracted by cases that involve individuals that allow leeway for exaggeration. In Anthony's case, her status as a teenage mom allowed for the media to manipulate her repute and turn her into a careless, indifferent being, probably straw manning her entirety along the way. This would enhance the drama of the courtroom, thus bringing in more audience. Similarly, throughout the Arbuckle trial, Virginia Rappe, despite her tainted repute, was portrayed by the media as an innocent girl, utilizing her innocent beauty73 as a means to implant a specific image of her into the minds of the public for the purposes of generating more 784
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interest and drama. Had Rappe never had a repute of innocence, the stigma for Arbuckle may never have been as great, and had Anthony never been a teenage mom, the trial may have been just another normal case.
Coverage of such high-profile cases benefits: the general masses, by providing them with drama, gossip, and perhaps a refuge from their humdrum lives; the media moguls, by generating revenue. Ultimately, however, sensationalizing high-profile court cases is unjustified. The obligation of the media is "to report dispassionately and impartially,74" "seek truth and report it,75" "minimize harm,76" and "be accountable.77" Unfortunately, the modern media is not meeting this criterion.
As reflected by the four cases above, modern media is not fulfilling its duty as a watchdog for the public. First, the sensationalist media does not report "impartially" or "dispassionately." Rather, it tends to present one side of the story, or skew a case as to clearly favor one side over another. In Arbuckle's case, the media failed to report the fact that Delmont, the witness, had intended to jeopardize Arbuckle's career even before the crime scene78, and that Rappe's death may have been caused due to a series of abortions79. In Anthony's case, it only mentioned aspects such as how "she had entered a `Hot Body' contest, got a tattoo, went on a shopping spree and showed no signs of anxiety or depression...after the date...claimed her daughter had drowned.80" Yet they failed to report the fact that "...witnesses did not describe [Anthony] as a bad mother. Most, in fact, said she was a good mother and that her daughter never appeared to be abused or malnourished.81"
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The outcome? The media, through their only partial coverage of a case, had decided for the public what the verdict was to be for all defendants even before they were tried, which would eventually strip the audience of any sympathy for the defendants. People were horrified that both Arbuckle and Anthony were exonerated8283, and these negative perspectives would eventually ruin the lives of both Arbuckle and Anthony8485. Consequently, the media is not "seek[ing] truth," "accountable," or "minimiz[ing] the harm," as shown through the damaging impacts that the trials had on the careers and lives of the defendants of all four cases. Ultimately, in reporting high-profile cases, modern media has undermined all of its obligations to the general public, thus, sensationalist journalism is not justified.
Even worse, focusing too much time and resources on these cases may have a negative impact on the future of journalism. According to Sylvia Adcock, reporter with 25 years of experience: "[journalists should] worry more about...only a very small number of newspapers are able to provide the kind of reporting fire power that print media has traditionally provided in this country to hold our public officials to hold our public officials and our government and everyone else accountable.86" With media moguls competing for profit and the most audience, they sometimes spend too much resource to covering high-profile court cases that they may sometimes neglect the more important and practical issues.
Though the criminal justice system has attempted to curb media coverage of high-profile court cases87, the media always managed to find a way to penetrate the established boundaries88, claiming that "secrecy cheats the public out of its First Amendment right89 to observe and criticize the system through its surrogates in the press.90" Though we, as schadenfreudes by 786
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nature, cannot resist the temptations of a juicy gossip and journalists are obligated to provide transparency, sometimes we must look back and think of who we are affecting and how. Overcoverage may adversely affect those involved in the trial, such as the defendants' lawyers not being able to have a successful outcome due to the bias formed by them media91, and the media infringing upon the defendants' six amendment right92to an impartial jury93. By stripping those involved in high-profile court cases their rights to a fair trial94, the media undermines the foundations of our criminal justice system. Perhaps journalism ethics95 ought to be reevaluated, and over-coverage of court case be held accountable by the government by protecting the rights of the victims or perpetrators on trial and placing legal consequences on journalists who overstep their legal boundaries. Furthermore, journalists, rather than publishing sensationalist stories that sell, should focus more on fulfilling the obligations of a journalist and reporting more practical and important issues. Once journalism ethics has been reestablished and incentivized, perhaps the media and, consequently, the society, would not be so much consumed by high-profile court cases as we have been since the day Fatty Arbuckle was arrested.
1 The Fatty Arbuckle case was a series of trials of Roscoe Arbuckle. On labor day of 1921, Arbuckle hosted a party at the St. Francis hotel in San Francisco. During the party, Virginia Rappe started raving in pain, and Roscoe tried to relive some of her pain. A few days later, Rappe died of a ruptured bladder, and Arbuckle was accused of rape and manslaughter. Roscoe, after three trials, was acquitted. Encyclopedia Britannica. "Roscoe Arbuckle." Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/32371/Roscoe-Arbuckle. 2 Roscoe Arbuckle was a famous comedian of the early 20th century, "the king of slapstick comedy," whose popularity outweighed that of Charlie Chaplin. The first performer to sign a million-dollar contract, Arbuckle was known for his rotund physical figure, hence the nickname "Fatty Arbuckle." Whitty, Stephen. Spokesman Review, "Arbuckle Case First True Scandal in Hollywood." April 17, 2005. http://www.spokesmanreview.com/tools/story_pf.asp?ID=64768 3 Virginia Rappe, an actress of early 1900s (though not very well-known), was the victim of the Fatty Arbuckle case. Though the media portrayed her a sweet, innocent darling, she was actually known to be a party girl and had gotten several abortions by the time of hear death. Oderman, Stuart. Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle: A Biography of the Silent Film Comedian, 1887-1933. Jefferson: 787
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McFarland & Company, Inc., 1994. Accessed November 17, 2011. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=cOK4rXwv80EC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=william+hearst+%2B+fatty+arbuckle& ots=Hqscj3GlSk&sig=nb-3RSRFDsXCBFAO6kcC0jyjJNA#v=onepage&q&f=false. 4 Maude Delmont was a party guest who accompanied Rappe at Arbuckle's labor day party. Delmont was partly responsible for the media exposure of the Arbuckle case, as she constantly sought the media's attention by providing them with `facts' of the Arbuckle case. As the accuser of Arbuckle, she served as a witness throughout the Arbuckle trial, though she was deemed unreliable due to her status as a former prostitute and her "long police record." Delmont, before Arbuckle's party, had allegedly sent a letter regarding her plan to blackmail Arbuckle. Oderman, Stuart. Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle: A Biography of the Silent Film Comedian, 1887-1933. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., 1994. Accessed November 17, 2011. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=cOK4rXwv80EC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=william+hearst+%2B+fatty+arbuckle& ots=Hqscj3GlSk&sig=nb-3RSRFDsXCBFAO6kcC0jyjJNA#v=onepage&q&f=false. 5 William Hearst was a leading newspaper publisher and entrepreneur of the early 1900s. His papers the Los Angeles and San Francisco Examiner were "particularly influential in the crusade to punish Arbuckle for his crimes.'" Fischer, Elizabeth (2004) "The Fatty Arbuckle Trial: The Injustice of the Century," Constructing the Past: Vol. 5: Iss. 1, Article 5. http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/constructing/vol5/iss1/5 7 Jones, Marty. "Hollywood Scapegoat." ProQuest. Accessed November 17, 2011. http://search.proquest.com/docview/224068523/1322D8DA1B9722C703/17?accountid=36236 . 8 The trials of O.J. Simpson, Michael Jackson, and Casey Anthony were all convicted of major offenses, and subsequently gained massive media exposure, attracting the public's interest. 9 Fine, Gary A. "Scandal, Social Conditions, and the Creation of Public Attention: Fatty Arbuckle and the "Problem of Hollywood"." University of California Press 44, no. 3 (1997): 297-323. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3097179. 10 Fine, Gary A. "Scandal, Social Conditions, and the Creation of Public Attention: Fatty Arbuckle and the "Problem of Hollywood"." University of California Press 44, no. 3 (1997): 297-323. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3097179. 11 Hahn, Rebekka. Mass Media in the 1920s. N.p.: GRIN Verlag, 2008. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://books.google.com/books?id=VAG7HTMhj9sC&dq=mass+media+in+the+1920s&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 12 Hahn, Rebekka. Mass Media in the 1920s. N.p.: GRIN Verlag, 2008. Accessed November 18, 2011. p. 6 http://books.google.com/books?id=VAG7HTMhj9sC&dq=mass+media+in+the+1920s&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 13 Hahn, Rebekka. Mass Media in the 1920s. N.p.: GRIN Verlag, 2008. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://books.google.com/books?id=VAG7HTMhj9sC&dq=mass+media+in+the+1920s&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 14 Oderman, Stuart. Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle: A Biography of the Silent Film Comedian, 1887-1933. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., 1994. Accessed November 17, 2011. 15 Oderman, Stuart. Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle: A Biography of the Silent Film Comedian, 1887-1933. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., 1994. Accessed November 17, 2011. 16 Stewart, Graham. "Fatty Arbuckle and a case of career death." The Times, June 16, 2007. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/public/sitesearch.do?querystring=Fatty+Arbuckle+Sought+in+Orgy+Death&p=tto&pf=all &bl=on. 17 Stahl, Jerry. I, Fatty. N.p.: Bloomsbury, 2005. 18 Oderman, Stuart. Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle: A Biography of the Silent Film Comedian, 1887-1933. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., 1994. Accessed November 17, 2011. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=cOK4rXwv80EC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=william+hearst+%2B+fatty+arbuckle& ots=Hqscj3GlSk&sig=nb-3RSRFDsXCBFAO6kcC0jyjJNA#v=onepage&q&f=false. 788
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19 20 Fine, Gary A. "Scandal, Social Conditions, and the Creation of Public Attention: Fatty Arbuckle and the "Problem of Hollywood"." University of California Press 44, no. 3 (1997): 297-323. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3097179. 21 Fine, Gary A. "Scandal, Social Conditions, and the Creation of Public Attention: Fatty Arbuckle and the "Problem of Hollywood"." University of California Press 44, no. 3 (1997): 297-323. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3097179. 22 Fine, Gary A. "Scandal, Social Conditions, and the Creation of Public Attention: Fatty Arbuckle and the "Problem of Hollywood"." University of California Press 44, no. 3 (1997): 297-323. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3097179. 23 Fine, Gary A. "Scandal, Social Conditions, and the Creation of Public Attention: Fatty Arbuckle and the "Problem of Hollywood"." University of California Press 44, no. 3 (1997): 297-323. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3097179. 24 Fine, Gary A. "Scandal, Social Conditions, and the Creation of Public Attention: Fatty Arbuckle and the "Problem of Hollywood"." University of California Press 44, no. 3 (1997): 297-323. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3097179. 25 Lusitania was a large passenger steamer which was allegedly sunk by the Germans in 1915, killing 128 Americans onboard. The sinking of Lusitania motivated the United States to join World War I. Bailey, Thomas A. "The Sinking of the Lusitania." Chicago Jounals 41, no. 1 (1935): 54-73. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.calvin.edu/library/knightcite/index.php. 26 Fischer, Elizabeth (2004) "The Fatty Arbuckle Trial: The Injustice of the Century," Constructing the Past: Vol. 5: Iss. 1, Article 5. http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/constructing/vol5/iss1/5 27 Fischer, Elizabeth (2004) "The Fatty Arbuckle Trial: The Injustice of the Century," Constructing the Past: Vol. 5: Iss. 1, Article 5. http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/constructing/vol5/iss1/5 28 http://search.proquest.com/docview/421816458/fulltext/133CE29F2255C96B606/9?accountid=36236 29 O.J. Simpson was blah blah blah ***************************************** http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/people/s/o_j_simpson/index.html 30 http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=LHlcfYKfEzIC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Celebrity+court+cases+as+entertainment&ots= VwM1xUZIUT&sig=Id5dBQ2Szi7DRav6W2IFhVWukU#v=onepage&q=Celebrity%20court%20cases%20as%20entertainment&f=false 31 http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=LHlcfYKfEzIC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Celebrity+court+cases+as+entertainment&ots= VwM1xUZIUT&sig=Id5dBQ2Szi7DRav6W2IFhVWukU#v=onepage&q=Celebrity%20court%20cases%20as%20entertainment&f=false 32 http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=LHlcfYKfEzIC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Celebrity+court+cases+as+entertainment&ots= VwM1xUZIUT&sig=Id5dBQ2Szi7DRav6W2IFhVWukU#v=onepage&q=Celebrity%20court%20cases%20as%20entertainment&f=false 33 http://search.proquest.com/docview/207645026/fulltext/133BFABBA0C28F70C/1?accountid=3 6236 34
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35 36 http://search.proquest.com/docview/224112296/133BFABBA0C28F70C/2?accountid=36236 37 38 39 http://search.proquest.com/docview/421862154/fulltext/133C3E6F6561A9C93EF/1?accountid=36236 40 PDF esther sent me 41 Explain what it was 42 PDF esther sent me 43 http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0207/p03s01-usju.html 44 http://search.proquest.com/docview/422035516/fulltext/133C3E6F6561A9C93EF/14?accountid =36236 45 46 47 48 http://books.google.co.kr/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8IYh7Kz8Z20C&oi=fnd&pg=PA111&dq=michael+jackson,+freak+show,+court+cas e&ots=qu3DQp5VCt&sig=rSDwSRjmZQR7o-KAQiKrRT0tP9o&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false 49 http://search.proquest.com/docview/280582327/fulltext/133C913A273631B3468/6?accountid=3 6236 50 What was this metamorphosis? Maybe add picture of like how his face changed overtime! 51 http://search.proquest.com/docview/201171179/fulltext/133C91518CF1F66BA6E/5?accountid= 36236 52 What was this behavior? 53 What is this oxygen chamber? 54 http://search.proquest.com/docview/236630401/fulltext/133C9105E736F4270F7/3?accountid=3 6236 55 http://search.proquest.com/docview/421987887/fulltext/133C91518CF1F66BA6E/12?accountid=36236 56 http://search.proquest.com/docview/421987887/fulltext/133C91518CF1F66BA6E/12?accountid =36236 57 58 59 60 http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2077969,00.html#ixzz1dq4TSISz 61 http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2077969,00.html#ixzz1dq4TSISz 62 http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2077969,00.html#ixzz1dq4TSISz
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63 http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/blogpost/post/casey-anthony-and-the-media-coverageof-her-appearance/2011/06/02/AGXsTJMH_blog.html 64 http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/blogpost/post/casey-anthony-and-the-media-coverageof-her-appearance/2011/06/02/AGXsTJMH_blog.html 65 66 67 What do I mean by celebrities? 68 http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=LHlcfYKfEzIC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Celebrity+co urt+cases+as+entertainment&ots=VwM1xUZIUT&sig=Id5dBQ2Szi7DRav6W2IFhVWukU#v=onep age&q=Celebrity%20court%20cases%20as%20entertainment&f=false 69 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8076059/ns/msnbc_tv-morning_joe/t/star-trials-why-we-lovethem/ 70 http://www.observer.com/2006/07/iusi-editor-janice-min-dictates-in-raw-times-jessica-jen-jolie/ 71 Find link that I have here that talks about Simpson and him being the father of the public and what not 72 http://www.law.duke.edu/copo/documents/traditionalmediatranscript.pdf 73 What kind of beauty? 74 http://www.law.duke.edu/copo/documents/traditionalmediatranscript.pdf 75 http://www.law.duke.edu/copo/documents/traditionalmediatranscript.pdf 76 http://www.law.duke.edu/copo/documents/traditionalmediatranscript.pdf 77 http://www.law.duke.edu/copo/documents/traditionalmediatranscript.pdf 78 79 80 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/03/casey-anthony-trial-verdict-poll_n_889038.html 81 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/03/casey-anthony-trial-verdict-poll_n_889038.html 82 What happened when they were exonerated? Reaction? 83 Ditto 84 How were their lives ruined? 85 Ditto 86 http://www.law.duke.edu/copo/documents/traditionalmediatranscript.pdf 87 88 How did they cross the legal boundaries? 89 What is the first amendment 90 http://search.proquest.com/docview/194384597/fulltext/133EAA90C155D3046E0/8?accountid=36236 91 http://commons.emich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1149&context=honors&seiredir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fq%3Dintrigue%2Bwith%2Bcelebrity%2Bco urt%2Bcases%26hl%3Den%26btnG%3DSearch%26as_sdt%3D1%252C5%26as_sdtp%3Don#search=%22intrigue %20celebrity%20court%20cases%22 92 What is the sixth amendment right 93 How does it do that? http://commons.emich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1149&context=honors&seiredir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fq%3Dintrigue%2Bwith%2Bcelebrity%2Bco
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urt%2Bcases%26hl%3Den%26btnG%3DSearch%26as_sdt%3D1%252C5%26as_sdtp%3Don#search=%22intrigue %20celebrity%20court%20cases%22 94 95 What is journalism ethics
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P Chiu

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