Personality profiles identification using MBTI test for management students: an empirical study, A Tyagi

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Content: 151 © Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, January 2008, Vol. 34, No.1, 151-162.
Personality Profiles Identification Using MBTI Test for Management Students: An Empirical Study
Archana Tyagi IMT, Ghaziabad
Today, all over the world, different psychological instruments are being used to determine various personality attributes of employees in all industries. In present study, to go into the depth of personality, help from a psychometric test, namely, MBTI (Myers Briggs Type Indicator), has been taken. Two hundred and twenty nine (229) students were chosen from a management institute, for a comparative study of personality profiles between male and female students and also in Full time and Part time students. In present research work it was found that full time male students were having a significantly higher preference of N and P than part time male students who were having preference of S and J. Additionally it was found that the female students were having a significantly higher attribute of F, than their male counterparts of full time stream of management students in whom T attribute was high. ESTJ type was found to be the dominant one in the management population followed by ISTJ type.
Keywords: Personality, Management Education
Developments in personality psychology over the past twenty years suggest that people can be characterized in terms of their dispositional qualities and that applied psychologists can take advantage of this information in ways that have significant consequences for employee selection, training and development and organizational effectiveness. The empirical literature concerning the relationship between personality and occupational performance is relatively positive. After surveying thirty years of research with thousand of executives and real world performance criteria, it has been demonstrated that personality measures are reliable over a considerable time span; tests taken years ago predict both job progress and current performance. Educators are faced with the daunting task of preparing students for the rapidly changing demands of the century ahead. Personality traits and cognitive styles may help explain some of the variability among
management students. Management students differs from most other education fields in that the postgraduate students are able to transform their classroom experience into the industrial environment which requires ability to do critical analysis, team work, good application of management knowledge and good application of communication skills to name a few. The definition of a good postgraduate student from the management institute's perspective, generally reflect's the student's ability to thrive in the industry. And a very crucial observation has been made in the last few years that the `Best' student in terms of CGPA (cumulative grade point average), are not always the ones to excel in their career. The central issues facing Post Graduate Management Institutes are then: i. How to assess students performance with respect to broad-spectrum academic/industry benchmark
Personality Profiles
ii. How to provide a learning environment so that the students can realize their full career potential Over the years, a widening discrepancy between theoretical and actual performances in the industrial setting is observed . In today's scenario, it is difficult to think of learning without looking at the relationship between the personality type, user interfaces and actual performance in the workplace. It is therefore of significant interest to profile the type preference in a Management Institute with due respect to the differences in terms of Experience and Gender. The MBTI inventory is one of the most appropriate instruments that the educators can adopt to better prepare future managers with management skills, knowledge and professional qualities to meet the ever changing market demands. For the present research work MBTI instrument has been chosen because of its wide implication in educational and organizational settings. MBTI use the language less abstractive to majority of the student population and its application could be extended beyond education/learning style implication. MBTI is being used extensively by the people from the corporate world for Team Building, leadership, understanding problem solving and decision making skills and improving communication skills. Post graduate Management students who has to join work tomorrow, need to identify possible job titles to explore, meaningful work environments, compatible interests and congruous values. Personality Type also contributes to understanding the job search process itself including career exploration, managing change, decision making strategies, and implementing choices. Hence MBTI instrument has been chosen which will not only help the students in knowing and exploring the self but at the same time which will also help in making wise and meaningful
career choices in life. This article is organized into four parts. The first section introduces the MBTI. The second reviews the literature combining MBTI and management education dealing with the practical implications of MBTI . The third section describes in detail the methodology and the fourth and the last , section explain the results and the implication of the findings. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator In his classic book Psychological Types, the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung (1923) described in detail the systematic ways in which people differ. Jung believed that conscious mental activities could be placed in one of four categories: sensing, intuitive, thinking, and feeling .He provided a model that helps us understand the different ways people perceive information and make judgments. The MBTI, developed in early 1950s by Katherine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers,was designed to make Jung's theory more explicit and practical in its application to people `s everyday lives. Since its publication in 1955 ,the MBTI has been increasingly used in the education, counseling ,business ,government and religious communities (McCaulley,1987). Campbell and Davis (1988) reported that more than 1,100 dissertations, theses, books, and journal articles have been published on the MBTI. The MBTI is currently the most widely used inventory of psychological types in the world (Hirsh & Kummerow, 1989). Dimensions and Poles: The MBTI measures preferences on four dimensions, which have been described by Hirsh and Kummerow (1989) .They, classify the four dimensions as: 1. Energizing : How and where you get your energy 2. Attending :What you pay attention to when you gather information
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3. Deciding : What system you use hen you make decisions . 4. Living : What type of life you will adopt. The second and third categories refer to the mental powers or cognitive dimensions and are often considered the two most important dimensions. The first and fourth categories refer to attitudes. They describe where we gain our energy and how we deal with the outside world. Each dimension has two poles. The first dimension, Energizing refers to a person's orientation toward the world. The two poles of this dimension are introversion and extroversion. Extroversion describes an attitude in which attention is drawn out toward objects an people .Extroverts tend to draw energy from the external world of people and things. They prefer to communicate by talking and they often process information verbally. Introversion describes an attitude in which attention is drawn toward the inner world of ideas. Introverts tends to draw energy from the internal world of ideas, emotions, and impressions. They tend to process information inside their heads. Whereas extroverts often act without thinking, introverts often think without acting. The second dimension, Attending , refers to how a person perceives information. The two poles of this category are sensing and intuitive. A sensing person tends to perceive observable facts through the five senses. An intuitive person perceives information based on the meaning relationships, or possibilities beyond the information gathered through his or her senses. Sensing persons are often described as being more practical whereas intuitive individuals are described as being more innovative. Keirsey and Bates (1978) reported that the perceiving dimension is the source of the most "miscommunication, misunderstanding, vilification, defamation, and denigration".
The third dimension, Deciding, refers to how a person makes decisions. The two poles of this dimension are feeling and thinking. Feeler tends to be very attuned to their own feelings and the feelings of others. They base their decisions on what is important to themselves and others. Thinkers on the other hand ,base their decisions on an objective, impersonal ,and logical analysis of a situation. They are often focused on cause-effect relationships and seek an objective standard of truth. The last dimension of the MBTI, Living, refers to how one is oriented toward the outer world. The two poles of this dimension are judging and perceptive. Judgers are people who prefer to work in a linear, orderly method. They seek closure, tend to be organized, and want things settled. Those who prefer a perceptive experience would rather live a flexible, spontaneous life. They prefer to keep their options open and are often viewed as spontaneous. The four dimensions and the two poles of each, can be combined to identify 16 different types. the MBTI simply suggests one's preferences in dealing with the inner or outer world, perceiving information ,making decisions, and style with the outside world. There is an abundance of literature evaluating the reliability, validity and usefulness of the MBTI (Carlson,1989; Carlyn,1977; Coan,1978; Devito,1985; Huber,1983; Mendelsohn,1965; Myers & McCaulley,1989, Sundberg,1965; Wiggins,1989; Zemke, 1992). While there is an abundance of information related to using the MBTI in counseling, carrier guidance, conflict resolution and team work there is considerably less research work investigating the relationship between the MBTI and the Post Graduate Management students. Educators are faced with the daunting task of preparing students for the rapidly changing demands of the century ahead. Type
Personality Profiles
theory and research suggest that type preferences can affect the preferred work environment. Educators and professionals stay alert to the work environment factors that seem to be causing strain in the people's work life. Understanding one's preferences provides valuable insights into work environment issues. Counselors and Professionals can use that information to understand the work environment fit and /or misfit, design ways of working within the environment or changing it, or envision a different environment with the goal ultimately to increase job satisfaction. Recent investigations suggest that when the personality style of a person parallels the nature of a career, productivity is high, contributions are stronger and satisfaction is apparent. When making decisions about admittance to academic programs, we attempt to identify students who will not only succeed academically but also thrive professionally. Unfortunately, most of the predictors and sorters traditionally used for choosing students are academic indicators. Educators are apparently much better at selecting successful students than at selecting successful professionals (Klitgard, 1985). The task is difficult because we are consistently choosing everyone from the "right tail" that is, trying to select the best from among the good. Organizational life today is increasingly complex, fast ­moving and changeable. To succeed in this challenging environment, managers must be highly competent in an increasingly wide variety of functions and skills (Dent, Curd, Carr & Blass, 2004). A study of the MBTI data of 8,000 UK managers by Ashridge Business School sheds interesting light on the future challenges for management and Leadership Development.. Though extensive study has been done abroad with the help of MBTI instrument in Engineering and other higher education field, not much research work is done in field of
Management, which is a conglomerate of various fields like engineering, science and commerce graduates in a country like India. In India students from various educational backgrounds tend to opt for Management Education in the Post graduate stream. Hence the present study is done in the field of Management, in a Management institute with the Full time Residential students and Part time Management students, who are working in the day time and continuing with their education in the evening. Full time Management students are residential students who tend to complete their Post graduation study in two years and Part time Management students are working in the day time who tend to complete their course in three years. First and foremost aim of this study is to identify the preferences of the Management Students of a management Institute in India. This study also tries to examine the differences in preferences of Males and Females students of a Management Institute. And also in addition it tries to identify the differences in MBTI profiles of Full Time and Part Time Management students. Method Sample: This study was conducted on Post graduate students of a Premier Business Management Institute. Form M of MBTI test was administered on 229 Post graduate students . Out of 229 students ­ Male full time students were 138 ,Male Part time students were 48 in number and Female full time students were 34 in number. There was only 9 Female students were present in the Part time PGDBM Course. The selection process of the students in this management institute is same across the entire programme, that is they have to clear the written test followed by the Group Discussion and Personal Interview.
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Educational backgrounds of students were very diverse; ranging from Engineering to as varied as art and commerce. The average age of the total Management students was 24 years. For the Full time Male students the average age was of 23 years, for the Part Time Male students it was 27 years and for Full time Female students it was found to be of 22 years respectively. Procedure: MBTI Instrument: MBTI, form M was administered on the 229 students of a premiere management institute situated in the NCR region of India. Form M contains the newest items, the most precise scoring procedure, and the most current standardization samples to produce scoring weights. Among other improvements over previous forms, this form was designed to maximize precision of preference identification at the midpoint of each dichotomy and to eliminate the need for separate scoring keys for males and females. Form M contains 93 items. Test ­retest reliabilities of the MBTI show consistency over time, with levels of agreement much greater than by chance. The test ­retest reliabilities of Form M are improved over those of Form G. Because the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality inventory was designed to implement Carl G .Jung's theory of psychological type, its validity is determined by its ability to demonstrate relationships and outcomes predicted by theory. MBTI test was conducted on the students as a part of their Organizational Behavior Course. And the result received by the students was shared through personal counseling, which was also one of the objectives of this course. This course being a foundation course is taught in the first year and first semester of the course.
Results The first and foremost aim of the study was to identification of the data which was analyzed through percentage distribution and the Table -1. It shows the percentage distribution of all 229, management students. ESTJ type was found to have the highest percentage in the total population. And the least was ISFP type. Table 1. MBTI- Personality Profiles of Management Graduates Type Total Number Percentage
15.28 %
13.54 %
12.66 %
8.3 %
7.86 %
6.55 %
6.11 %
5.68 %
5.68 %
5.24 %
4.37 %
3.49 %
2.62 %
1.31 %
0.87 %
0.44 %
As it is evident from the Table -1 we can see that the highest percentage of Management students were ESTJ's followed by ISTJ and ENTJ respectively.
Personality Profiles
Table2 : The percentage distribution of Full time and Part time Management Students
Male Students Female Students
ESTJ 13.04 ISTJ 15.94 ENTJ 8.7 INTJ 7.25 ENTP 10.87 INFP 7.25 ESTP 7.25 ESFJ 2.9 ENFP 7.25 INTP 7.25 ISFJ 5.07 ENFJ 1.45 INFJ 2.17 ISTP 2.17 ESFP 0.72 ISFP 0.72
27.08 12.5 20.83 8.33 0 2.08 8.33 6.25 0 0 6.25 2.08 4.17 0 2.08 0
5.88 8.82 8.82 11.76 8.82 11.76 0 17.65 2.94 5.88 0 14.71 2.94 0 0 0
22.22 0 44.44 11.11 0 0 0 0 22.22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Table 3: Full time Male, Part time male and Full time Female & Part time Female
M-F/T E 57.6 52.2 I 42.4 47.8 S 47.6 47.8 N 52.4 52.2 T 81.6 87.8 F 18.4 12.2 J 65.9 56.5 P 34.1 43.5
M-P/T 66.7 33.4 62.5 37.5 80.2 19.8 87.5 12.5
F-F/T F-P/T 58.8 88.9 41.2 11.1 32.4 22.2 67.7 77.8 65.2 57.3 34.8 42.7 70.6 77.8 29.4 22.2
From the table-2 all the four respective dichotomies e.g. E/I, S/N, T/F and J/P is evident. And with the help of Table-3, Male and Female students of Full Time and Part Time of the Management Institute were compared for the percentage values of their corresponding parameters of E/I, S/N, T/F and J/P: 1. The percentage of Extravert was 52.2 for Full time students, where as it was
marginally higher at 58.8 for part time students. 2. The percentage of Sensing was 47.8 percent for full time students, where as it was distinctly higher at 62.5 for Part time students. On the other hand with the Full time students, the percentage of Intuitive was 52.2, which was significantly higher than the 37.5 percent for part time students. 3. There was, however no noticeable difference in Thinking and Feeling for the Male students of F/T and P/T. 4. The Judging factor was also significantly different for Full time and Part time students, 56.5 and 87.5 percent respectively. Similarly for Female students and Male students of Full Time of the Management Institute a comparison was done for the percentage values of their corresponding parameters of E/I, S/N, T/F and J/P. For Full Time Students only, a significant difference was found in the Male and Female Population. Females had a slightly higher percentage of E, 58.8 vs. 52.2. Female are generally more Extrovert, though marginally, than their Male counterparts. As it was also reflected in the US National average study given in the MBTI Manual 3rd edition. Interestingly, contrary to figures suggested by US National average (as depicted in the appendix) and available data on similar attributes of different Tests that Females have, a slightly higher percentage of S, than in males is found in the present study. In the present study, only 32.4 percent females were S as compared to 47.8 percent males. The difference in thinking preference is nearly the same as corresponding difference elsewhere. In this respect the population under study is not significantly different, both Male and Female are equally higher than US national population. Just like in S, contrary to figures suggested by US National average and available data on similar
Archana Tyagi
attributes of different Tests that Female have a slightly higher percentage of J than males. In our sample only 56.5 percent males were judging as compared to 70.6 percent of females. Discussion Because of the powerful interplay between nature (what the personality of each student brings to learning) and nurture the influence of the learning environment), the discussion of type differences in education ultimately pertains to the issue of human growth and development. Some interesting results were observed in the present research work in relation to MBTI. As evident from Table-1 out of the sixteen types of personality preferences ESTJ (35/ 229) followed by ISTJ (31/229) ,ENTJ (29/ 229) and ENTP (18/229) were represented . If we carefully look at the type preferences we will find that STJ were having a dominant preference over NTJ. Clancy's (1997) analysis of STJs during organizational change provides a crucial perspective for recognizing these types' contributions to change and their style of leading change programs. Her chapter addresses the "conventional wisdom in the type community"-that STJ's have the most difficulty dealing with Organizational change ­by listing STJ behaviors that are interpreted by others as "resistance "and then explaining their basis and purpose for STJs. Because STJs comprise so great a part of the workforce in most organizations, as it is evident from the present research work, and because much of the research implies that Intuitives deal better with change, practitioners of the organizations need to understand that if STJs are not informed and they are not included they will resist change. So, integrating MBTI type knowledge and perspectives into change programs has proven invaluable ­to individual employees and organizations. Organizational life today is becoming increasingly complex, fast ­moving and
changeable. To succeed in this challenging environment, managers must be highly competent in an increasingly wide variety of functions and skills (Dent, Curd, Carr & Blass, 2004). A study of the MBTI data of 8,000 UK managers by Ashridge Business School sheds interesting light on the future challenges for management and leadership development.. When comparing the general population sample with the Ashridge sample, two of the 16 type groups fall with in the top four of both in terms of numbers. These are the ISTJ's and ESTJ's. In this study ESTJ's were the biggest single group in the Ashridge sample. The same findings were observed in the present study also where ESTJ were the most in the population. This result reflects the `here-and ­now-manager'; who provides direction and planning, needing to get people, things and organizations ready for action. They value competence and efficiency, and are best when the problem is clear and can be solved by proven techniques .At their least effective, they can become domineering and impatient with those who do not follow procedures. The ISTJ were the third in the Ashridge population, while in the present research work they were the second largest population. These are `pragmatic' managers who like to bring order and efficiency to their work environment, using logic to influence others. They can become rigid and concentrate so much on logic that they do not see the impact on people. The ENTJ group was the second most frequent in the Ashridge sample, whereas in the present study it was the third in preference of the Management students. This `visionary `group lead by presenting a vision and energizing others to meet it. At times, ENTJs can become impersonal and critical and may appear to be abrasive. This kind of profile (ESTJ, ISTJ and ENTJ) has implications for both organizations and individuals. For decision- making, it would appear that managers show a typical profile that is fairly data rational, but at the same time
Personality Profiles
the need to take more account of people and relationships is also should be considered in today's stress related environment. In the Table one First aim of the present research work was evident and it was already discussed. Now let us discuss the second aim of the present study which is evident from Table -3 in which significant differences in the preferences of Males and Females students have been indicated. In the present research work the Female students were having a significantly higher attribute of Feeling preference, than their Male counterparts of full time stream in whom thinking attribute was high. Early research on psychological type and conflict (Kilman & Thomas, 1975; Mills, Robey & Smith, 1985) found, in general that thinking types tended to be assertive and competitive in conflict situations whereas feeling types favored cooperation and accommodation So, in crucial time bound projects, technical competence of every team member being equal due weight age should be given to feeling of female students who favored cooperation and accommodation in lieu of avoidance or competitive strategy. No significant difference was found in the E/I, S/ N and J/P preferences of Males and Female students. The third and final aim of this study (as evident from the Table-2 ) is to identify the significant and noticeable differences as compared for the percentage value of their corresponding parameters of E/I,S/N,T/F and J/P, in the Full time and Part Time students of the Management Institute. As part time students have work experience, they tend to become more Extroverts in nature. Atman (1993) discovered that Extraverts had a higher sense of goal-directedness and willfulness (described as conation)than introverts, both as adults and in junior high school settings (ages 12-14).In contrast, introverted students prefer reflective observation (Hinkle,1986) and lecture formats (Fourqurean, Meisgeier, & Swank,1990).The implication of these findings
can be useful for educators. Extraverts work best in action and may be described as stimulus hungry; perhaps due to physiological characteristics of the brain. The hustle and bustle that sometimes interrupts the concentration of introverts may be the needed prompt for Extraverts to engage their minds in learning .Introverts appear to do their best thinking in anticipation rather than on the spot; it now seems clear that this is because their minds are so naturally abuzz with activity that they need to shut out external distractions in order to prepare their ideas. As people with S factor prefer the art of living in the present and are very much dependent upon their physical surroundings, to the satisfaction of enterprise and achievement, this result also speaks of the same. Intuitive types are described as holistic learners (Beyler & Schmeck, 1992),field independent (Holsworth,1985) , and having thin boundaries (Ehrman ,1993) .They have been found to score higher than Sensing types on measures of post conventional ethical decision making (Catoe, 1992; Faucett, Morgan, Poling & Johnson, 1995), reflective judgment (Bowen,1990), and conation or goal orientation in adults (Atman,1993). Academic self-esteem (Schaefer, 1994) and academic comfort (Apostal & Trontvent, 1989) have been found to be higher among intuitive types; however Hammer and Kummerow (1996) suggested that these kinds of findings reflect academia as it is currently constructed. They called attention to the equally academic value that sensing types present for practical, hands- on learning. The J-P dichotomy of the MBTI identifies how individuals approach the outer world,with Judging types preferring planfulness and perceiving types preferring the flexibility to wait and see. The J factor is reflective of people who live according to plans, and standards. They Like to have matters settled and decided as promptly as possible, so that they will know what is going to happen and can plan for it
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and be prepared for it. That's why Executives of P/T, who are having the dual responsibility of working in the daytime and studying in the evenings, can only do so if they are conscientious by nature. S factor is reflective of people who work more steadily, with a reflective idea of how long it will take. They like an established way of doing things and are having patience for routine details. MBTI Inventory results provide individuals with avenues for self awareness and possibilities for human growth and professional development. (Chang & Chang 2000). And at the same time this awareness will not only help the students but the business community as well in not only nurturing but retaining the talent as well. Hammer (1993) suggested that they may switch jobs that match their personality, or make adjustments in the present job. Attrition a burning issue in today's corporate world can also be dealt by understanding MBTI preferences in depth. Garden (1989) studied computer professionals in both large and small companies .Those with N, P and I preferences are expected to leave their employer if it were a larger company; perhaps they sought more autonomy, which is likely to come in a smaller company. Those with S and J preferences said they were more like to leave smaller companies; perhaps seeking the more detailed regimen of a larger company. In present research work it was found that Full time Male students were having a significantly higher attributes of N and P than Part time Male students, who are having dominant attributes of S and J. People with N and P attributes are gifted with vision, spontaneity and flexibility. At the time of Campus Placement these attributes can be highlighted and shared with the prospective organizations to retain them longer in the company. Recommendations Educators are faced with the daunting task of preparing students for the rapidly
changing demands of the century ahead, and this task becomes even more crucial in today's scenario. And for Educators of Management Institute the responsibility becomes much more since they are not only helping in the nurturing of the personal and academic growth of the students but at the same time, they are also preparing the future leaders of the corporate world. And though MBTI instrument can be of immense help to our Management Executives in many areas, here I have chosen few significant areas where this instrument can be a great help. With the help of MBTI, future managers will be able to understand the importance of communication, resolving of conflict and understanding their own learning styles. Let's take up these issues one by one:
1. One of the most frequent
organizational applications of psychological
type comes in response to client requests to
"help us communicate better" (Sample &
Hoffman, 1986)) Research supports the
usefulness of types in understanding
understandings. Management students ,both
full time and Part time students can take a
cue of their own communication pattern and
identify ways to he or she can modify that style
to be more effective.
2. The benefits of recognizing various components in conflicts are that the type perspectives tend to depersonalize disagreements. The ethic of the MBTI ­the constructive use of differences ­provides a framework and perspective for using any conflict resolution approach. Psychologists and Sociologists have developed models that provide a structure for resolving conflicts (Kilmann & Thomas, 1975). All of these models suggest ways to avoid or get beyond a win/lose approach to conflict, where one side is" right" and the other is clearly"wrong". The single most valuable contribution that understanding different thinking and
Personality Profiles
communication styles bring to the process of innovation is taking the sting out of intellectual disagreements that turn personal. 3. It can be a great help if the curriculum can be restructured to support and challenge each type. As an educator we can consider the data collected from MBTI to develop curriculum and classroom environment that are conducive to active and cooperative learning. According to ,Felder and Brent ,2000 and Provost, 1992; students learn more when teaching style matches their own; however they even learn more if they are aware of how they learn and how to use their strengths and develop their weak area. Being sensitive to the role that personality type plays in learning and teaching styles can not only make a student's first encounter with the different subjects less dismal ,it may also help making learning interesting. The combination of advances in Information Technology and globalizing of markets creates a radically different economic environment from the one that prevailed in industrialized countries in the post world war II decades. The result is a revolution in organizational structures, in the ways people work, and in the meaning of work. Whatever change model or restructuring plan an organization decides to use, the success of each step in the process depends upon the energy, flexibility, creativity, and commitment of the people in the organization. Conclusion One of the paradoxes of modern management is that in the midst of technical and social change so pervasive and rapid that it seems out of pace with the rhythms of the nature, human personality has not altered throughout recorded history. Today's complex products demand integrating the expertise of individuals who do not innately understands one another (Leonard & Strauss 1977). In the end, it is very important to understand that when we tend to look at the kind of
preferences arrived at with the help of the present research work ,it certainly ask us to question the missing `feeling' managers. Is it a possibility that they have become `thinking' to cope with the management role? If we accept that many decisions in business and management are based on logic and objective reasoning, there could be a danger that personal values are overridden by logical, decision -making bosses and organizations. Since the population of the Sample Size is only 229 in number the result can be verified at the larger data .The present research is being confined to the data collection from one Management Institute only and hence the results obtained cannot safely be generalized. Hence the data collection from few Management Institute may be able to give a more wider application of the MBTI Instrument with the Full time and the Part time students. References Apostal, R., & Trontvent, R. (1989). College students' academic comfort and personality. Journal of College Student Development, 30, 210-212. Atman, K.S. (1993) Goal accomplishment style and psychological type ; Cultural variations. Psychological type and Culture­East and West :A MultiCultural Research Symposium, 221-227. Beyler, J., & Schmeck, R.R. (1992). Assessment of individual differences in preferences for holistic-analytic strategies: Evaluation of some commonly available instruments. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 709719. Bowen.J.L. (1990). The combined predictive effect of creativity level and personality type on college students reflective judgment. Doctoral dissertation, East Texas state University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51/01-A ,110. Campbell, D. E., & Davis C. L. (1988). Improving learning by combining Critical Thinking skills with psychological type. Wright-Patterson AFB,OH:School of Systems and Logistics,Air
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Received: April 14, 2007 Accepted: November 22, 2007
Archana Tyagi, PhD, Professor, Institute of Management Technology, Hapur Road, Raj Nagar, PBNo. 137, Ghaziabad - 201 001
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A Tyagi

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