Tags: PUBLICATIONS, OUVRAGES, European Union, Indo-European, The Language, Olga Profili, English translation, semantic change, code switching, chapter, Greek dialects, EINGEGANGENE SCHRIFTEN, Walter de Gruyter, Roula Tsokalidou, Peter Koch, Theme, Terry Tempest Williams, English Composition, David Angell, Martin Luther King, Jr., James Finn Garner, George Lakoff, David R. Ricks, Gerd Hentschel, Herbert S. Terrace, Language and Woman's Place, David Ives, John Benjamins, Werner Winter, Frederik Kortland, Maria Polinsky, Francisco R. Adrados, Theodora Bynon, Frans Van Coetsem, Ladislav Zgusta, Anatoly Liberman, linguistic competence, David Rothenberg, John Agard, Oliver Sacks, Oxford University Press, Terry Hirschberg, Stuart Hirschberg, John M. Stewart, Steven Pinker, foreign language, European Language Policy, Languages in the European Union, the Greek Language, language shift, endangered languages, Gerassimos D. Arsenis, Greek dialect, Christidis, contact language planning, Modern Greek, A.-F. Christidis, The Greek, English language teaching, Daniel Jones, Thomas J. Hinnebusch, Romance languages, David Abram, Susan Irvine, Mikhail M. Bakhtin, Larry M. Hyman, Earl Charles Spencer, Noam Chomsky, Thilo C. Schadeberg, Friedrich Scholz, Boghos Levian Zekiyan, Politics and the English Language, Tilman Berger, Richard Rodriguez, James Gorman, Donald R. Griffin, Georgij A. Klimov, Heinrich Hempel, Indo-Europeans, Ein Handbuch zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, Diachronic prototype semantics, Claude Allibert, John R. Taylor, the study of language, Cognitive Linguistics, lexical semantic change, Edward F. Tuttle, Andrew Pawley, Peter Siemund, language change, Ronald W. Langacker, Asko Parpola, etymological dictionary, substantial bibliography, Roger Green, Leiden Studies in Indo-European, Andreas Blank, Larissa Bonfante, Giuliano Bonfante, proper names, Michael B. Cosmopoulos, David D. Clarke, Thomas Krefeld, hefty volume, Tocharian B. Amsterdam, Tocharian B, Harold C. Fleming, Theo Vennemann, Cambridge University Press, phonological development, Syntactic Typology, Kartvelian Languages, Briony Williams, pp, Harrassowitz Verlag, Max Niemeyer, Gregory K. Iverson, Frederick W. Schwink, Phonological Rules, Pieter A. M. Seuren, Language Classification, Thomas V. Gamkrelidze, Joseph Salmons, Deutsche Sprachgeschichte, Verner's Law, word accent, Martin Atkinson, introductory textbook, Harald Clahsen, innovative organization, Andrew Spencer, Germanic languages, child language acquisition, David Britain, Willy Van Langendonck, Nerother Jenisch, Van Langendonck, nonlinear models, William Van Belle, phonetic notation, linguistic typology
Content: © Diachronica XVII:1.223­245 (2000). PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED / OUVRAGES REЗUS / EINGEGANGENE SCHRIFTEN Note: This listing acknowledges the receipt of recent writings in the study of language, with particular attention to those concerned with language history and the mechanisms of language change, comparative-historical philology, and language typology. Only in exceptional instances will a separate acknowledgment of receipt be issued; no book can be returned to the publisher after it has been analyzed in this section. It should be pointed out, moreover, that by accepting a book, no promise is implied that it will be reviewed in detail in Diachronica. Reviews are printed as circumstances permit, and offprints will be sent to the publishers of the works reviewed, including those items briefly commented upon in the present section. Adams, Douglas Q. 1999. A Dictionary of Tocharian B. Amsterdam & Atlanta: Rodopi. (= Leiden Studies in Indo-European, 10), xxxiv, 830 pp. [This hefty volume aims to present all known vocabulary from Kuchean, usually known as Tocharian B, including Sanskrit loanwords and proper names. Entries include grammatical information, derivationally related items, and textual examples with English translation. While not originally conceived as an etymological dictionary, the finished product contains detailed histories of most words presented, often reviewing both previous literature and laying out the author's own analyses. As a result, many individual entries are over a half page long. Besides a brief introduction, the book contains a substantial bibliography (upwards of 25 pages, covering Tocharian studies and Indo-European etymologies directly relevant to the material at hand) and the following set of indices: English-to-Tocharian reverse index, proper names (plus a short list of possible proper names), meters and words of unknown meaning.] Besch, Werner, Anne Betten, Oskar Reichmann & Stefan Sonderegger. 1998. Sprachgeschichte: Ein Handbuch zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und ihrer Erforschung. (= Handbьcher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft, 2.1.) Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter, l, 1013 pp. [This represents a second and profoundly revised edition of the first half of this ambitious handbook covering the history of German. The second edition of the handbook will more indispensible than the first for all scholars working on diachronic aspects of German and its dialects. The present volume contains 62 essays, out of a planned 232 for the entire work. The six sections in this first part are: "Deutsche Sprachgeschichte im Rahmen der Kulturgeschichte", "Sprachgeschichte in gesellschaftlichem Verhдltnis",
"Wissenschaftshistorische Stufen sprachgeschichtlicher Forschung entlang der Zeitlinie", "Geschichte und Prinzipien der Sprachgeschichtsforschung nach Beschreibungsebenen", Methodologische und theoretische Problemfelder" and "Die genealogische und typologische Einordnung des Deutschen". In addition to normal revisions to reflect recent research and correct earlier errors, contributions include new articles on topics not covered in the first edition, articles rewritten by new authors, and so on. While Sprachgeschichte remains aimed primarily at Germanists, this edition adds significant material on the European context of German and much discussion of direct interest to social and cultural historians. The book contains references at the end of individual chapters, but the third and last volume of the set will contain a subject index and an index of authors.] Binnig, Wolfgang. 1999. Gotisches Elementarbuch. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 169 pp. [B has produced the fifth edition, and the first in a third of a century, of Heinrich Hempel's classic brief introduction to Gothic. It provides the essentials in concise fashion, including 10 pages of bibliography, almost all of it works published since the last edition. After 20 pages of background and a very brief overview of the sound system, the heart of the volume covers morphology in the form of paradigms with some commentary on salient points. The volume concludes with as wide-ranging a set of text samples as the Gothic corpus allows and a glossary.] Blank, Andreas & Peter Koch, eds. 1999. Historical Semantics and Cognition. (= Cognitive Linguistics Research, 13). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, viii, 312 pp. [This volume grows from a 1996 symposium in Berlin, with two additional papers added later. After a substantial introduction to the topic and the chapters, the contributions are: "Cognitive semantics and structural semantics" by John R. Taylor; "Diachronic semantics: Towards a unified theory of language change?" by Helmut Lьdtke; "Why do new meanings occur? A cognitive typology of the motivations for lexical semantic change" by Andreas Blank; "Diachronic prototype semantics: A digest" by Dirk Geeraerts; "Cognitive semantics and diachronic semantics: The values and evolution of classes" by Franзois Rastier; "Losing control: Grammaticalization, subjectification, and transparency" by Ronald W. Langacker; "The rhetoric of counter-expectation in semantic change: A study in subjectification" by Elizabeth Closs Traugott; "Synecdoche as a cognitive and communicative strategy" by Brigitte Nerlich & David D. Clarke; "Laws of thought, knowledge and lexical change" by Beatrice Warren; "Intensifiers as targets and sources of semantic change" by Ekkehard Kцnig & Peter Siemund; "Cognitive ease and lexical borrowing: The recategorization of body parts in Romance" by Thomas Krefeld; and finally "Cognitive aspects of semantic change and polysemy: The semantic space of HAVE/BE" by Peter Koch. The book concludes with a brief but useful index of subjects.] Blench, Roger & Matthew Spriggs, eds. 1999. Archaeology and Language. Volume 3: Artefacts, languages and texts. London: Routledge, xviii, 301 pp. [This collection
of twelve papers examines the relationship of language and archaeology in the context of specific artifacts and texts. The book is divided into an introductory section and two parts. Part 1 is entitled "Linguistic models in reconstructing material culture" and includes the following papers: "Early Oceanic architectual forms and settlement patterns: linguistic, archaeological and ethnological perspectives" by Roger Green and Andrew Pawley; "From pots to people: fine tuning the pre-history of Mailu Island and neighbouring coast, south-east Papua New Guinea" by Tom Dutton; "Language, culture and archaeology in Vanuatu" by Darrell Trynon; "linguistics versus archaeology; early Austronesian terms for metals" by Robert Blust; "The dispersal of Austronesian boat forms in the Indian Ocean" by Warundo Mahdi; and "The formation of the Aryan branch of Indo-European" by Asko Parpola. Part 2 is "Interpreting text" and is comprised of "The language of death in a bilingual community: nineteenth-century memorials in Newport, Pembrokeshire" by Harold Mytum; "The pre-Classical circum-Mediterranean world: who spoke which languages?" by Daniel McCall and Harold C. Fleming; "From artifacts to peoples: Pelasgoi, Indo-Europeans and the arrival of the Greeks" by Michael B. Cosmopoulos; "On the identity and chronology of the R» gvedic river SarasvatЇi" by Rajesh Kochlar; "The archaeology of knowledge: Austronesian influences in the western Indian Ocean" by Claude Allibert; and "Digging up the linguistic past: the lost language(s) of Aneityum, Vanuatu" by John Lynch and Philip Tepahae. Each paper contains its own references, figures and appendices and there is an extensive index. -- Jason Roberts.] Bonfante, Giuliano. 1999. The Origin of the Romance Languages: Stages in the Development of Latin. Ed. by Larissa Bonfante, Preface by Hubert Petersmann, Introduction by Edward F. Tuttle. (= Bibliothek der Klassischen Altertumswissenschaften, Neue Folge, 2. Reihe, Bd 100). Heidelberg: Universitдtsverlag C. Winter. xxvii, 151, 2 pp. unnumbered addenda: Bibliography by Giuliano Bonfante; Recent Bibliography. [Deceptively slim at just a little over 150 pages of small print, this volume is a cornucopia of linguistic and philological detail, reasoned exposition, and informed inference, written mostly in the 1940s during the author's exile at Princeton. At a basic level the book is a compendium of richly documented yet tightly condensed studies of a multitude of features of Romance historical phonology, morphology, and syntax (especially morpho-syntax). In this guise alone, it is a must on the shelf of any Romance language historian, as both an informative manual and a catalyst to further investigation. It is also much more, though. Bonfante takes up key points from Grцber and Bаrtoli, and musters evidence item-by-item in two long chapters to argue that the major reason for the variegated linguistic developments of the Romance area is that the provinces were colonized at different times and later cut off differentially from intense contact with the Roman center. Thus, since core features of modern Romance variety are at least in principle incipient at the point of Roman colonization, the first Romance texts are quite late, and register massive cumulative divergence which must have
taken place much earlier. It is testimony to B's wisdom and erudition that analysis and conclusions put to paper more than a half century ago are still useful, informative, and not stale, even though the central thesis is now much less controversial than it was at mid-century. The title of the first chapter, The Romance Languages as Stages in the Development of the Latin Language, hints at B's point of view, and in eighty-one pages he examines dozens of points under the general rubrics of Vowel Systems, Consonants, and Morphology and Syntax to uphold his premise. The second chapter is Italy as a Focus of Innovations in the Western Romance Provinces: Iberia, Gaul, Rhaetia, Sardinia (83­142). There the author concludes, again after careful examination of a wealth of evidence in similar configuration, that the Romance varieties of Central Italy are not fundamentally conservative, as is often assumed, but highly innovative, and that a wider gamut of innovations than is usually recognized once radiated from Central Italy to the rest of Romance. Thus while it is quite easy to find innovations shared singly between Italian-French, Italian-Rhaetian, Italian-Dalmatian, Italian-Rumanian, and even Italian-Spanish, similar sharing across colonial zones such as FrenchRumanian, Spanish-Rumanian, or French-Spanish is far less frequent. Some Romanists will quibble with a number of details, and more generally with Bonfante's tendency to see spread in shared developments which could just as well have arisen spontaneously, or which could have initiated already in the Latin of Rome and subsequently been eliminated from some areas in the sifting of variants which is normal through time. Nevertheless, his evidence and argumentation are such that they must be considered seriously in any subsequent examination of these issues, and much of his core message meshes well with recent views (e.g. Wright). Romanists owe a debt of gratitude to the author's daughter, Larissa Bonfante, for applying her energy and editing skills to resurrection of the text from its manuscript condition, and to Universitдtsverlag Carl Winter for publishing it. -- Thomas D. Cravens] Booij, Geert & Jaap van Marle, eds. 1999. Yearbook of Morphology 1998. Boston & Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, vi + 309 pp. [Published annually since 1988, this latest instantiation of the Yearbook series focuses primarily on where inflection fits into an overal schema for a grammar, and the ways in which morphology and phonology interact especially with regard to the treatment of allomorphy. There is the usual (for this series) wide range of language data considered and general high quality for the papers contained herein. Included here are five papers from the First Mediterranean Morphology Meeting held in Mytilene (Greece) in 1997, guest edited by Angela Ralli and Sergio Scalise: "Prototypical inflection: implications for typology" by Greville G. Corbett; "The status of tense within inflection" by Marianne Mithun; "On the boundaries of inflection and syntax: Greek pronominal clitics and particles" by Irene Philippaki-Warburton & Vassilios Spyropoulos; "Transpositions and argument structure" by Andrew Spencer; and "On Italian derivatives with antesuffixal glides" by Anna M. Thornton.
The remaining papers are: "The nonuniform strucure of Dutch N-V compounds" by Peter Ackema; "Lenition in Hessian: cluster reduction and `subtractive plurals'" by David J. Holsinger & Paul D. Houseman; "Nominalizations in a calculus of lexical semantic representations" by Rochelle Lieber & Harald Baayen; "A declarative approach to conversion into verbs in German" by Martin Neff; and "Phonological constraints on English word formation" by Renate Raffelsieffen. There is also a book review by Richard Sproat of Packard (1998) New Approaches to Chinese Word Formation. -- Brian D. Joseph.] Bussmann, Hadumod. 1999. Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics, translated and edited by Gregory P. Trauth & Kerstin Kazzazi. London & New York: Routledge, xix, 530 pp. [This work is a much revised and expanded translation of the widely-used Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft, intended to cover all areas and theories of contemporary linguistics. The coverage is indeed broad, but is particularly heavy in some areas, like rhetoric, semantics and semiotics. At the same time, the volume is not always up-to-date, lacking entries for Minimalism, Optimality Theory, Distributive Morphology, or Feature Geometry, but containing entries for concepts far less important to contemporary linguists, like glossematics, audio-lingual method, Marrism, and tagmemics. There are entries for lexical diffusion, grammaticalization, analogy and reconstruction, Grimm's and Verner's Laws. Overall historical linguistics does not fare particularly well, though, with only short paragraphs for `sound law' and `language contact', a bit more for `laryngeal theory' and `network', but no entries for issues like long-range reconstruction, Nostratic, or tonogenesis.] Chambers, J. K. & Peter Trudgill. 1998. Dialectology. (Second Edition.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xiv + 201 pp. [Part of the Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics series, this volume is the second edition of a work which was first published in 1980 and which has become a standard in the field. There has been a thorough revision for this new edition, with particular attention to the updating of the section on dialect geography in the light of a revitalization of this subfield. -- Brian D. Joseph.] Chen, Ping. 1999. Modern Chinese. History and sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xiv, 229 pp. [C here attempts "to present a comprehensive account of the development of Modern Chinese mainly from the late nineteenth century up to the 1990s" (p. xi). He focuses on three main areas of inquiry, making up the three parts of the book: "Modern Spoken Chinese" (Part I), "Modern Written Chinese" (Part II), and "The Modern Chinese Writing System" (Part III), basing this choice on his belief that there have been "close interrelationships between spoken Chinese, written Chinese, and the Chinese writing system ... [with] linguistic, and historical, social factors at work in the process" (p. xi). There is thus much here that is relevant to issues of the effects of external pressures, such as language attitudes and official policies, on language development. The
book closes with a substantial (12-page) bibliography, and a subject/name index. -- Brian D. Joseph.] Christidis, A.-Ph., ed. 1999. Dialect Enclaves of the Greek Language. Athens: Hellenic Republic Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs, 155 pp. [This volume is a collection of nine contributions on varieties of Greek that survive, some of them just barely, outside of the national boundaries of Greece, in enclaves which in some instances date from classical antiquity. Many of the papers deal with the dialects as endangered speech communities, and discuss the effects of contact with co-territorial languages. After forewords by Gerassimos D. Arsenis and D. N. Maronitis, and an introduction by A.-Ph. Christidis, the following papers are presented, first in Greek and then in a complete English translation: "The Greek-Pontic dialect group" by Georges Drettas; "The Greek spoken in the region of Pontus" by Peter Mackridge; "The Greek language in southern Italy" by Olga Profili; "The idiom of Calabria" by Marianna Katsoyannou; "The revival of Grico in the Greek community of Salento" by Olga Profili; "The Greeks of the Azov region (Marioupolis district) and their language" by Ekaterini PappouZouravliova; "The survival and functioning of the Greek dialects of the area of Marioupolis" by Aspassia Hatzidaki; "The idiom of the Sarakatsans of Bulgaria" by Christos Tzitzilis; and "The Greek-speaking Cretans of Lebanon and Syria: The survival of a particular ethnic identity" by Roula Tsokalidou. There is no index. -- Brian D. Joseph.] Christidis, A.-F., ed. 1999. "Strong" and "Weak" Languages in the European Union: Aspects of Linguistic Hegemonism. Thessaloniki: Centre for the Greek Language, Vol. 1: xc, 515 pp., Vol. 2: xi, 530 pp. (516­1046). [This massive set is a collection of 51 papers and transcripts of two round table discussios from an international conference held in Thessaloniki, Greece, March 26­28, 1997 under the auspices of the Department of Linguistics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the Centre for the Greek Language. All of the papers are published bilingually, in the language in which they were delivered and in a translation (into Modern Greek, French, or English), and several pertain to issues of language contact and pressures inducing language shift. In Volume 1, after a preface by D. N. Maronitis, there are 29 papers. In Part A, "Linguistic Hegemonism, Language and Society", are: "Small and endangered languages: A threat to the language or to the speaker?" by Hartmut Haberland; "Strong and weak languages in Australia" by Peter Mьhlhдusler; "Philosophical issues of contact language planning: Response to the prevailing tendencies of linguistic hegemonism" by Lachman M. Khubchandani; "Language attrition, language death, language murder -- Different facts or different ideologies?" by Tove SkutnabbKangas; "Attitudes to multilingualism" by A.-F. Christidis; "The voices of society: Literacy, consciousness and power" by Jacob L. Mey; "Quand les reprйsentations linguistiques inventent les langues" by Louis-Jean Calvet; "Some remarks on
language policy" by Mart Rannut; "Attitudes toward language: Weakening strong languages and strengthening weak ones" by Miquel Strubell; "Discourse, language shift, and mutual implications for linguistic anthropology and political philosophy" by Lukas D.Tsitsipis; "In search of a theory of lingusitic inequality" by Theodossia-Soula Pavlidou; and "Linguistic theory and issues of prescription/description" by Demetra Kati/Marianna Kondyli. In Part B, "The European Dimension", are: "Mehrsprachigkeit und kleine Sprachen -- Minderheiten im zukьnftigen Europa" by Peter Hans Nelde; "Dominante und dominierte Sprachen in der europдischen Union" by Ulrich Ammon; `National Languages and European Koine" by Ch. G. Lazos; "Big and Small in EU Language Policy" by Eoghan Mac Aogбin; "The Promise and Threat of English as a `European' Language" by Robert Phillipson; "Internationalisation, mondialisation des йchanges et diffusion des langues dans l'Europe communautaire" by Claude Truchot; "Language Dynamics and Lesser Used Languages in the European Union" by Marilena Karyolemou; "European Language Policy: Theory and Practice" by Vasso Tokatlidou; and "European Integration, National Languages and Linguistic Policies" by Anna Frangoudaki. In Part C, "Language-Languages, Contact and Conflict", are: "Dutch: A European Language in the World" by Florian Coulmas; "Les attitudes linguistiques face au galicien" by Mauro Ferneandez; "`Blurring Borders. When Everone Claims to be a Minority...'. The Transformation of the Spanish-Hegemonic Discourse in Catalonia" by F. X. Vila I Moreno; "The `Weak' Languages of the European Union and their Attitude towards Linguistic Hegemonism: The Case of Romany" by Sofronis Chatzisavvidis; "Q.: Do you use foreign words when you speak? [in Greek] A.: Never! (Laughter)" by Marianthi Makri-Tsilipakou; "Greek Students in Belgium and France. Between the `Strong' French and `Weak" Greek Languages. Findings of an Empirical Research Project" by Michalis Damanakis; "La contestation de l'hйgйmonie de la langue d'accueil par la langue d'immigration. Un йquilibre fragile entre franзais et grec dans la communication de grecs de Paris" by Georges Androulakis; and "Bilingualism, Gender, and Ethnic Identity" by Roula Tsokalidou. The second volume contains 22 individual contributions. In the continuation of Part C are: "The Greek dialect of Marioupol: Maintenance or shift?" by Aspassia Hatzidaki; "Loan and contraction phenomena in dialectal speech" by Angeliki Malikouti-Drachman; "The language question and the modern Greek dialects (1880­1910)" by Rea Delveroudi; "Social and interactional constraints on phonological change" by Lesley Milroy; "Language and nationalism in Yugoslavia" by Ranko Bugarski; "Nationalism and language: A Balkan experience" by Bozidar Jaksicґ; "Radio reports from the battlefield" by ValicґNedeljkovicґ Dubravka; "Ethnic `cleansing' and language `purity': Aspects of conflicting Balkan nationalisms" by Stephanos Pesmazoglou; and "`Weak' and `strong' in the Balkans" by Elli Skopetea. In Part D, Language Policies, are: "Multiliteracies: Rethinking what we mean by literacy and what we teach as literacy in the context of global cultural diversity and new communications
technologies" by Mary Kalantzis & Bill Cope; "The language policy of Foreign Language teachers" by Karen Risager; "The conflictual subjectivity of the periphery ELT practitioner" by Bessie Dendrinos; "Linguistic hegemony in the discourses of applied linguistics and ENGLISH language teaching" by Mitsikopoulou Vassiliki; "Linguistic hegemonism in the intercultural approach to the teaching of foreign languages and its ramifications" by Andromachi Sapiridou; "The `strong'-`weak' discourse in school" by Eleni Boutouloussi; "The attitude to minority languages in Greece in relation to the European legal environment on the threshold of tht twenty-first century" by Konstantinos Tsitselikis; "The need to standardize minority languages" by Olga Profili; "Spelling reform in the `strong' and `weak' languages of the EU" by Eleni Karantzola; "Problиmes de standardisation du Grec moderne" by Anna Iordanidou; "Ideologies, meanings, and translation" by Eleni Sella-Mazi; "Intralinguistic inequality" by D. N. Maronitis; and "Poetic multilingualism in Anglo-American and Greek modernism" by Takis Kayalis. The last part gives the proceedings of the two round table discussions, on "Language and nation" and "Language policies and multilingualism in the European Union", respectively. The volume closes with a succinct "Statement" of the outcome of the conference, an Index of terms, an Index of language and dialects, and a List of contributors. -- Brian D. Joseph.] Christophersen, Paul. 1999. A Linguist's Credo. Selected Papers (= RASK Supplement Vol. 9). Odense: Odense University Press, 176 pp. [One of Denmark's leading Anglicists who worked with Otto Jespersen on part of J's Modern English Grammar, C in this book presents a selection of 13 previously published papers covering three main areas of inquiry. Part one contains three papers on topics concerning "The Role of Linguistics", Part two has six papers treating various aspects of "language learning", and Part three includes four papers on issues in "The History of English." The book contains a preface by the author and a subject/ name index. -- Brian D. Joseph.] Collins, Beverley & Inger Mees. 1998. The Real Professor Higgins: The Life and Career of Daniel Jones. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, xxv, 571 pp. [This volume not only recounts Jones' life -- his early life and training in Chs. 1 & 2 and his career at University College London as "the pre-eminent British scholar in the field of phonetics in this century" (xxi) in Chs. 3 through 13­but also provides a summation of Jones' contribution to the phonetic sciences in Ch. 14, although the effect of work on the phonetic sciences is apparent throughout. C & M review background and content of Jones' major as well as many minor works in various sections; Ch. 9 is devoted entirely to An outline of English phonetics. Woven in with Jones' history are partial histories of Passy, Sweet, Palmer, Firth, Jones' protйgйs, the IPA, spelling reform, and phonetic sciences and foreign language teaching in higher education, most notably in Britian. Jones' dealings with Shaw and evidence for title's claim is presented in §4.9. C & M's discussion of Jones'
reconstructions of earlier forms of English appearing in the Pronunciation of English is particularly germane to historical lingistics (see specifically §14.15, "Chaucerian and Shakespearean reconstructions"). C & M reproduce 128 figures and 60 photographs. An appendix (28 pages) provides background information of phonetic studies preceding Jones in Western and Eastern Europe and America. In addition to the appendix, oft referred to end matter includes: five of Jones' IPA examination papers from sessions during the period 1920 to 1941; IPA charts from 1904, 1912, 1921, 1932, and 1951 as well as the corrected 1996 version; notes; list of 33 interviews conducted, most recorded; chronology of Jones' publications from 1906 to 1985, and discography; references; and index. -- Thomas Purnell.] Damke, Ciro. 1997. Sprachgebrauch und Sprachkontakt in der deutschen Sprachinsel in Sьdbrasilien. (= Europдische Hochschulschriften: Reihe 21, Linguistik; Bd. 190.) Frankfurt a. M.: Peter Lang, xviii, 319 pp. [This book is split into seven sections, each handling one aspect of the language contact situation in the Missхes Region in Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. The first section offers a short background of the immigration situation, defines the base dialect from Germany (Hunsrьckisch, HR) and the indigenous language (Portuguese, P), and discusses the interplay between the two, which yields what the author refers to as "Brasildeutsch (BD)." The second section, entitled "Die Geschichte der deutschen Sprachinsel" offers background information on the settlement itself, including but not limited to things such as the founding of the colony, background of the immigrants, history of the region into which the immigrants settled, et cetera. In the third section, entitled "Die Sprache," Damke defines in more detail the different languages that play a role in the contact situation and defines the terms used throughout the remainder of the book. Section four, "Linguistische Analyse des HR", presents a detailed analysis of the structure of HR, with special attention paid to phonology and morphology. The largest section, "Soziolinguistische Analyse des HR, HD und P" (HD = Hochdeutsch), presents the background of the consultants and the methods used in interviewing. Damke also devotes a great deal of attention to the ability of the consultants in all of the languages that have an influence on BD, as well as proficiency in BD itself. Furthermore, the author discusses the social aspects of the language, such as attitude toward the different languages and their usefulness in the society. The sixth section, "Das Brasildeutsch," consists of discussion of code switching and borrowing. The seventh section concludes the text. Following the conclusion section are a bibliography, an index, and one appendix containing the questionnaire used. The text contains eight maps and thirty-seven tables, disbursed throughout. -- Steven R. Geiger.] Fernбndez Бlvarez, Pilar. 1999. Antiguo Islandйs: Historia y lengua. Madrid: Ediciones Clбsicas, 363 pp. [This textbook is intended as a comprehensive introduction to Old Icelandic for Spanish-speaking students, and it provides an impressive amount and range of material. A 40-page introduction covers some
background on language and history but concentrates on Old Norse literature. Generally traditional in orientation and structure, F provides straightforward accounts of sound changes from Proto-Indo-European or Early Germanic into Old Norse and detailed inflectional paradigms with more commentary than many similar works, throughout with plenty of examples. Still atypical for many beginning texts on dead languages, F includes three relatively extensive chapters on syntax. Indices are given for words and forms cited, overview paradigms, Old Norse to Spanish glossary, and detailed bibliography, arranged by topic. Surprisingly for the thoroughness of coverage in other areas, there are only about 20 pages of Old Norse readings.] Harasowska, Marta. 1999. Morphophonemic Variability, Productivity, and Change: The case of Rusyn. (= Trends in Linguistics, 110). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, xv, 266 pp. [H investigates variability in "velar palatalization" (/k/~/c/) and "dental palatalization" (six alternations including /d/~/dz/ and /t/~/c/) in the nominal system of Rusyn, spoken by a Slavic minority in the Vojvodina. Written sources show variation on these counts and prescriptive grammars as well, and evidence presented here suggests that changes are in progress in the community. Using Labovian models of sound change (to a lesser extent, of data collection, but not of social structure) and Bybee's morphological framework, H argues that morphophonemic variability is driven by phonetic distance, `familiarity' and frequency of occurrence of given words (i.e., token frequency, rather than type frequency). H concludes that her findings provide support for Bybee's analogical model and view of lexical organization, arguing that morphophonemics links not only phonology and morphology, but also semantics. The book references, an index of subjects and one of names.] Hentschel, Gerd, ed. 1997. Ьber Muttersprachen und Vaterlдnder: Zur Entwicklung von Standardsprachen und Nationen in Europa. Frankfurt a. M.: Peter Lang, x, 297 pp. [This volume contains 13 papers, taken mostly from presentations held in the Sommersemester of 1995 at the Carl von Ossietzky Universitдt Oldenburg in a course entitled "Ьber Muttersprachen und Vaterlдnder." The first paper, "Vцlker, Nationen und Nationalsprachen: Frankreich, Deutschland und Polen im Zentrum Europas" by Andrzej de Vincenz serves as an introduction. The remaining twelve papers are divided into two sections: "Ьber `alte' Staaten im Westen" and "Ьber `neue' Staaten im Osten." In "Ьber `alte' Staaten im Westen" are "Muttersprache Deutsch -- Deutsches Vaterland?" by Claus Ahlzweig; "Die Vertreibung der Mehrsprachigkeit am Beispiel Цsterreichs 1867­1918" by Hanna Burger; "Schriftsprachenbildung und Sprachpolitik in den romanischen Lдndern" by Gustav Ineichen; "Sprachen und Vцlker Belgiens" by Rudolf Kern; "`Modersprake' und `Muttersprache'. Standardisierung um Deutschen und Expansion" by Wolfgang Rohde; and "'De tael is gansch het Volk'! Oder nicht? Bemerkungen zur Entwicklung und gegenwдrtigen Position der niederlдndischen Standardsprache" by Arie Sturm.
In "Ьber `neue' Staaten im Osten" are "Tschechen und Slowakien: Zum Scheitern einer gemeinsamen, tschechoslowakischen Schriftsprache" by Tilman Berger; "Sprachen und Nationen im Raum des Kaukasus" by Winfried Boeder; "RuЯland, WeiЯruЯland, Ukraine: Sprachen und Staaten der `slavischen Nachfolge' von Zarenreich und Sowjetunion" by Gerd Hentschel; "Sprachen und Nationen des sьdslavischen Raums" by Werner Lehfeldt; "Sprache und Nationalitдt im Baltikum" by Friedrich Scholz; and "Das Verhдltnis zwischen Sprache und Identitдt in der Entwicklung des armenischen NationalbewuЯtseins. Versuch einer begriffLichen Formulierung aus geschichtlicher Erfahrung" by Boghos Levian Zekiyan. Each paper has its own bibliography. -- Michael C. Lind.] Hirschberg, Stuart & Terry Hirschberg. 1999. Reflections on Language. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, xxxix, 632 pp. [This work, a thematic language reader designed for introductory courses on writing and on language as a social form, is divided into eleven themes. Theme 1, "Acquiring Language" contains "The Day Language Came Into My Life" by Helen Keller, "Dyslexia" by Eileen Simpson, "The Language Family" by Noam Chomsky, "Genespeak" by Jay Ingram, "Reinventions of Human Language" by Jared Diamond, and "Baby Born Talking -- Describes Heaven" by Steven Pinker. Theme 2, "Communications Across Species", contains "Wordy Apes" by Donald R. Griffin, "Conversations with a Gorilla" by Francine Patterson, "What I Learned from Nim Chimsky" by Herbert S. Terrace, "Language and Thought" by Susanne K. Langer, "How to Say `Fetch'" by Vicki Hearne, and "Words, Words, Words" by David Ives. Theme 3, "The Bodily Basis of Language", contains "Symbolic Action" by Kenneth Burke, "The Flesh of Language" by David Abram, "Anger" by George Lakoff, "The President's Speech" by Oliver Sacks, "Thinking in Pictures" by Temple Grandin, "The Language of Pain" by Richard Selzer, "Yellowstone: The Erotics of Place" by Terry Tempest Williams, and "The Language of Clothes" by Alison Lurie. Theme 4, "Can We Talk", contains "The Dialogic Imagination" by Mikhail M. Bakhtin, "The Social Basis of Talk" by Ronald Wardhaugh, "Verbal Dueling" by Peter Farb, "Like, Uptalk?" by James Gorman, "Gurdjieff Remembered" by Fritz Peters, "What's Wrong with TV?: Talk Shows" by Tom Shachtman, and "What We Talk About When We Talk About Love" by Raymond Carver. Theme 5, "Communication Between Sexes", contains "Language and Woman's Place" by Robin Lakoff, "Sex, Lies, and Conversation" by Deborah Tannen, "Women and the Language of Men" by Jane Tompkins, "Real Men Don't, or Anti-Male Bias in English" by Eugene R. August, "Advertisements for Oneself" by Lance Morrow, "Rule #19: Don't Open Up Too Fast" by Sherrie Schneider and Ellen Fein, and "Your First Date" by Linda Stasi. Theme 6, "Language Between Cultures" contains "Salsa X 2" by Enrique Fernandez, "Public and Private Language" by Richard Rodriguez, "Language Sessions" by Sarah Min, "The Language of Discretion" by Lydia Minatoya, and "What's in a Name?" by David R. Ricks. Theme 7, "Many Englishes", contains "Something About English" by Paul
Roberts, "The Glamour of Grammar" by Julia Penelope, "Jabberwocky" and "Explaining the Meaning of Jabberwocky" by Lewis Carroll, "From Outside, In" by Barbara Mellix, "What's in a Name?" by Itabari Njeri, "Ladyfingers and Nun's Tummies" by Martha Barnette, "From A Clockwork Orange" by Anthony Burgess, and "Listen mr oxford don" by John Agard. Theme 8, "The Politics of Everyday Language", contains "What's in a Name? The Ideology of Cultural Classification" by Jack Solomon, "The Classroom and the Wider Culture: Identity as a Key to Learning English Composition" by Fan Shen, "Sexism in English: A 1990's Update" by Alleen Pace Nilsen, "AIDS and Its Metaphors" by Susan Sontag, "The Word Police" by Michiko Kakutani, "Old Age Needs a New Name, But Don't Look for It in Webster's" by Frank Nuessel, "The Human Cost of an Illiterate Society" by Jonathan Kozol, and "Little Red Riding Hood" by James Finn Garner. Theme 9, "The Rhetoric of Advertising", contains "The Hard Sell: Advertising in America" by Bill Bryson, "Ways of Seeing" by John Berger, "The Rhetoric of Advertising" by Stuart Hirschberg, From "The Beauty Myth" by Naomi Wolf, "Beauty and the Beast of Advertising" by Jean Kilbourne, and "Sprayed and Neutered" by Susan Irvine. Theme 10, "The Language of Politics", contains "Politics and the English Language" by George Orwell, "Analyzing the Rhetoric of Nixon's `Checkers Speech'" by Stuart Hirschberg, "The Gettysburg Address" by Gilbert Highet, "Propoganda Under a Dictatorship" by Aldous Huxley, "I Have a Dream" by Martin Luther King, Jr., "Eulogy for a Princess" by Earl Charles Spencer, and "How to Watch TV News" by Neil Postman and Steve Powers. Theme 11, "Cybertalk", contains "The Haves and the Have-nots" by LynNell Hancock, "Into the Electronic Millennium" by Sven Birkerts, "Return to Sender" by David Angell and Brent Heslop, "Women and Computers: Is There Equity in Cyberspace?" by Paula Span, "The Electronic Palimpsest" by Brian Hayes, "How the Web Destroys the Quality of Students' Research Papers" by David Rothenberg, "Christmans Unplugged" by Amy Bruckman, and "The Personal Touch" by Chet Williamson. Each selection starts with an introduction, a headnote, and a journal prompt, and questions for sparking discussion. The book also contains listing of the contents by rhetorical type, a list of illustrations, a preface, an introduction, a glossary of rhetorical and linguistic terms, an index of authors and titles, and a subject index. -- James Weller.] Hombert, Jean-Marie & Larry M. Hyman, eds. 1999. Bantu Historical Linguistics: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. (= CSLI Lecture Notes, 99). Stanford, Calif.: Center for the Study of Language and Information, 600 pp. [This collection represents a major publication in Bantu historical linguistics, with contributions by many leading figures in the field and many that bring together the empirical and theoretical perspectives of the subtitle. After a brief preface by the editors, the first section, "Classification and linguistic history", presents "Towards a historical classification of East African Bantu languages" by Derek Nurse; "Subclassifying Bantu: The evidence of stem morpheme innovation" by Christopher Ehret;
"Classifications lexicostatistiques: bantou, bantou et bantoпde: De l'intйrкt des `groupes flottants'" by Yvonne Bastin and Pascale Piron; "A note on historical and geographical relations among the Bantu languages" by Michael Mann; and "Contact and lexicostatistics in Comparative Bantu studies" by Thomas J. Hinnebusch. The second section, "Comparative and Historical Phonology", consists of "Nasal vowel creation without nasal consonant deletion, and the eventual loss of nasal vowels thus created: The pre-Bantu case" by John M. Stewart; "The historical interpretation of vowel harmony in Bantu" by Larry M. Hyman; "Remarks on the sound correspondences between Proto-Bantu and Tswana (S.31)" by Denis Creissels; "Vowel systems and spirantization in S. W. Tanzania" by Catherine Labroussi; "Katupa's Law in Makhuwa" by Thilo C. Schadeberg; and "Unresolved puzzles in Bantu historical tonology" by Gйrard Philippson. The final section, "Comparative and Historical Morphology", offers "L'augment en bantou du nord-ouest" by Claire Grйgoire & Baudouin Janssens; "Les formes nominoverbales de classes 5 et 15 dans les langues bantoues du Nord-Ouest" by Pascale Hadermann; "Future and distal -- ka-'s: Proto-Bantu or nascent form(s)?" by Robert Botne; "Tense and aspect in Lacustrine Bantu languages" by Derek Nurse & Henry Muzale; and "The genesis of verbal negation in Bantu and its dependency on functional features of clause types" by Tom Gьldeman. Individual contributions contain references and the volume closes with an index of languages.] Hundt, Marianne. 1998. New Zealand English Grammar Fact or Fiction?: A corpusbased study in morphosyntactic variation. (= Varieties of English Around the World, G23.) Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, xiv, 212 pp. [Although a dictionary of New Zealand English (NZE) has been published, no attempt has been made to describe, and therefore institutionalize, the grammar of NZE. This means that NZE is considered a `semi-center' using the terms of (Clyne 1995). In her book H uses a corpus based method to look at variation in and between British English (BrE), American English (AmE), Australian English (AusE) and NZE. By describing the grammar of NZE, she is taking NZE one step closer to becoming a `nearly full centre.' Chapter 2, presents the theory of national standards and corpus based studies and lays out the corpus based method. Specific morphological variables are examined in Chapter 3. In terms of morphological change, NZE was found to be not as advanced as AmE but not as conservative as BrE. In Chapter 4, H examines current hypotheses of regional syntactic differences. Synchronic regional syntactic variation is found to be the result of the different speeds at which diachronic syntactic change occurs. Chapter 5 examines differences among World Englishes at the interface of the grammar and the lexicon. In Chapter 6, H questions the usefulness of using statistics to shed light on linguistic differences. She finds that the difficulty lies in finding hypotheses that are both easily verified or falsified with statistics and provide a linguistic explanation. In her study, statistics were not useful for determining grammatical differences between varieties for while frequency is a criterion used to determine regional differences,
it cannot always be used since overall grammatical frequency is too small to be statistically significant. H finds that language change may erase differences between national varieties, and this makes it difficult to separate national differences from language change. NZE was found to be significantly different from other varieties of English. -- Marianne Milligan.] Instituto Neoelinikon Spuрon (Iрrima Manoli Triandafiliрi). 1999. Leksiko tis kinis neoelinikis. Thessaloniki: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, xxxii, 1532 pp. [This large-scale monolingual dictionary of Standard Modern Greek was prepared under the auspices of the Institute for Modern Greek Studies (created as part of the legacy of -- and thus named for -- the great Greek linguist Manolis Triandafyllidis). There are over 60,000 entries, each complete with phonetic and stylistic information, in addition of course to definitions, and in most cases a considerable amount of etymological information too, and each showing an impressive level of detail in all aspects of the entries. An appendix (pp. 1515­1532) gives full examples of inflectional forms for all classes of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals, and verbs. -- Brian D. Joseph.] Jones-Bley, Karlene, Martin E. Huld, Angela Della Volpe & Miriam Robbins Dexter, eds. 1999. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference. (= JIES Monograph, 32). Washington: Institute for the Study of Man, vi + 289 pp. [The papers in this volume are divided into three broad sections, purely linguistic, poetic or mythical, and archaeological or migrational aspects of Indo-European studies, although the editors point out that the these three approaches are necessarily fluid. The linguistic studies begin with "A Celtic Miscellany" by Calvert Watkins. W deals with four problems in Celtic historical linguistics, the last of which attempts to equate the name of the Gaulish Stag God, Cernunnus with the Anatolian Storm God Tarhзunt-s (South and West Anatolian) and Tarhзunna-s (Central Anatolian). The second paper picks up on the Anatolian theme with Palatalization and Labiovelars in Luwian by Vyacheslav Vs. Ivanov, adding to the evidence that Anatolian continued distinct reflexes of inherited velars and palatovelars. In "Vowel Epenthesis and Syllable Structure in Hittite", Darya Kavitskaya considers epenthetic vs. purely orthographic vowels in Hittite, and their implications for Anatolian and Indo-European syllable structure. Ilya Yakubovich discusses the "Stative" Suffix /-aЇi -a/ in the Verbal System of Old Indic". Carol F. Justus describes "The Arrival of Italic and Germanic `have' in Late IndoEuropean", a verb that developed independently in many of the various IndoEuropean branches. Apostolos N. Athanassakis considers "OЇ keanos: Mythic and Linguistic Origins", while Martin Huld surveys the PIE form for `bear', usually reconstructed as *Hr® tk^o- and, in a novel interpretation, sees it as a zero-grade form, H2r® t- `to roll, turn', plus a derivational suffix, k^o-, referring to the bear's waddling gait. In the section on poetics and mythology, Dean Miller continues recent work extending the Dumйzilian three functions to include a possible fourth
in "Kings Communicating: Royal Speech and the Fourth Function". Other papers in this section, "Towards the Poetics of Potions: Helen's Cup and Indo-European Comparanda" by Thomas R. Walsh; "Studies in Homeric Epic Tradition" by Ralph Gallucci; and "Cometas, On Lazarus: A Resurrection of Indo-European poetics?" by Edwin D. Floyd offer interesting new interpretations of Indo-European poetic tradition. In the final section on the archaeology of Indo-European, Edwin F. Bryant considers Indian responses to the notion of a non-Indian homeland for Indo-European, or at least the Indic branch of it. Jeannine Davis-Kimball discusses "Priestesses, Enarees, and Other Statuses Among Indo-Iranian Peoples", while Andrew Sherratt concludes the volume with a stimulating essay, "Echoes of the Big Bang: The Historical Context of Language Dispersal", a discussion of the cultural and linguistic situation in the 3rd to 4th century BC Pontic region, arising from the cultural transformations in Mesopotamia. Each paper has its own bibliography, and there is a useful general index. -- Peter A. Michalove.] Justus, Carol F. & Edgar C. Polomй, eds. 1999. Language Change and Typological Variation: In Honor of Winfred P. Lehmann on the Occasion of His 83rd Birthday. Volume I: Language Change and Phonology. (= JIES Monograph, 30), 319 pp; Volume II: Grammatical Universals and Typology. (= JIES Monograph, 31), 320­641 pp. Washington: Institute for the Study of Man. [This two-volume set, honoring one of the most distinguished Indo-Europeanists of our time, covers topics representing Lehmann's many interests and achievements. Volume I includes a list of Lehmann's publications, and a tribute by Mohammad Ali Jazayery. The section on language change includes "A Few Remarks on ProtoIndo-European Substrates" by Edgar C. Polomй, on current theories of pre-IndoEuropean substrate influences in western Europe; and "Hispanoceltica o Celtibйrico" by Francisco Villar. A section on grammatical change includes "How Grammars of English Have Miscued" by Charles J. Bailey; and "Internal Reconstruction, on its Own" by T. Givуn. G discusses the role of internal reconstruction in understanding the process of language change. A section on Germanic Data, perhaps Lehmann's first love, includes "Rengрi южr Vingi (Am. 4.2) `Vingi distorted them': `Omitted' runes -- A question of typology?" by Elmer Antonsen; and "wair und andere Bezeichnungen fьr "Mann" im Gotischen" by Wolfgang Meid, with a focus on semantic differences. A section on numerals includes "Die indogermanischen Zahlwцrter: Neue Ergebnisse und Perspektive" by Onofrio Carruba; "On Terms for `Half, Moiety' in Indo-European and Germanic" by Vyacheslav Vs. Ivanov, on the connection between these terms and other concepts in Indo-European, suggesting a possible loan relationship between Germanic and Yenisseyan; and "Towards a Typology of Change in Numeral Systems" by Eugenio Lujбn Martinez, which sets out several types of numerical systems, and discusses change from one to another. The second part of the volume deals with phonology. The section on phonological universals includes "Secondary split, Gapfilling & Bifurcation in Historical Phonology" by Henry Hoenigswald; "Umlaut as
Regular Sound Change: The Phonetic Basis of `Ingenerate Umlaut'" by Gregory K. Iverson and Joseph Salmons, which sees umlaut in Germanic as a uniform phonological development resulting from regressive vowel assimilation; and "Umlaut as a Reflex of Accentual Structure" by Frans Van Coetsem discusses the effect of stress and accent, in terms of dominance and non-dominance, on umlaut. The next section, on phonological typology, includes "Italic Consonantism in Light of the Glottalic Theory" by Thomas V. Gamkrelidze; "Lachmann's Law Again" by Frederik Kortland; "Some Thoughts on the Laryngeal and Glottalic Theories" by Ladislav Zgusta; and "On the Role of Typology in Reconstructing Phonological Rules" by Frederick W. Schwink, stressing that abstract and realist approaches to reconstruction are not contradictory. Under the rubric of IE Phonological Particulars, Anatoly Liberman writes on "Schдrfung/Stoottoon and Trдgheitsakzent/ sleeptoon in the Rhein-Limburg area and their Scandinavian Analogues"; Franзoise Bader deals with Indo-European poetics in "Fonctions des Allitйrations"; and Werner Winter discusses "Consonant Harmony in Armenian". The second volume is devoted to grammatical universals and typology, another area where Lehmann has made significant contributions. Paolo Ramat discusses "Categories and Categorization", subdividing linguistic categories into bundles of features, and features into values. This is followed by "Topic and Comment" by Pieter A. M. Seuren; and "A Footnote to Lehmann's OV/VO Typology" by Robert Longacre. Theodora Bynon discusses current perspectives on Schleicher's methodological aims in "Schleicher's Reconstruction of a Sentence Back to Pre-Pre-IndoEuropean". Other papers include "Hacia una typologнa de las combinaciones de rasgos linguнsticos" by Francisco R. Adrados; "On the Relationship of Typology and Genealogy in Language Classification" by Henrik Birnbaum; and "Typology and the Saussurean Dichotomy" by Anthony Aristar, discussing the complementary roles of synchronic and diachronic typology. Subhadra Kumar Sen contributes an important study of the syntax of the Anitta Text; Douglas Mitchell writes about "Lehmann's Use of Syntactic Typology"; and Michael Clyne discusses "Typology and Language Change in Bilingualism and Trilingualism". A final section on alignment and contentive type includes "Alignment in Early Proto-Indo-European" by Bridget Drinka; "Syntax in the Indo-European Morphosyntactic Type" by Helena Kurzovб; "On the Pre-Accusative Component in the Structure of the Kartvelian Languages" by the late Georgij A. Klimov, suggesting that protoKartvelian was not ergative, but had active/stative; "On Congruence in Languages of Active Typology" by Karl Horst Schmidt; "On the Structuring of Early IndoEuropean in Areal-Typological Perspective" by Lбszlу Deszц; "Gender in Historical Perspective: Radial Categories Meet Language Change" by Bernard Comrie and Maria Polinsky, an examination of some problems in the noun classes of Tsez; "Impersonal Habet Constructions in Latin: At the Crossroads of Indo-European Innovation" by Brigitte Bauer; and "Indo-European `have': A Grammatical Etymology" by Carol F. Justus, a study of the grammatical origins of verbs `to
have' in the various branches of Indo-European. In all, these rich volumes pay tribute to a significant and influential scholar. Each contribution contains its own references, and there is no index. -- Peter A. Michalove.] MacSwan, Jeff. 1999. A Minimalist Approach to Intrasentential Code Switching. New York: Garland, 305 pp. [Applying the concepts of minimalism to areas outside the scope of strict theoretical syntax is a very welcome result of M's study of syntactic code switching among Spanish-Nahuatl bilinguals. In this study, M argues that switching between languages does not at all imply deficiency in linguistic competence for either language but follows from standard assumptions about the mapping from lexicon to output -- with an additional wrinkle: in the case of bilingual speakers, more than one lexicon is available. M provides background and presents the overarching theme that code switching should be not be stigmatized in society (pp. 3­25); he also discusses the literature and main approaches (pp. 29­95). M then offers an exposition of the empirical lay of the land (pp. 109­144 plus 97­107 on research design) before he tackles the issue from a theoretical point of view (pp. 145­245). Following the minimalist tenet that variation across languages derives from language-specific morphological properties that force checking of formal features to take place in the syntax or at the level of LF, code switching is constrained only by the requirements of the mixed grammars within a framework following "virtual conceptual necessity." Thus, the minimalist system -- according to which the computational system selects items from the lexicon, enters them into a derivation and yields the output (reaching the interfaces, roughly PF and LF) -- allows mixing of elements from different languages as long as each element satisfies its (morphological) needs. M then analyses the Spanish-Nahuatl corpus according to theoretical developments over the past few years and accounts for a variety of actual as well as unattested types of switching (such as pronoun/verb, determiner-noun order, adnominal modification, OV/VO orders, constructions that would lead to potential garden-paths etc.). The importance of this chapter, especially for non-syntacticians, is that core concepts, basically the structure of the grammar in a minimalist framework, can be applied to an empirical range that goes beyond the usual method of example-construction. By applying these concepts to code switching, M opens the door for similar endeavours in other areas. One can thus conceive of scrutinizing diachronic language development and language genesis along these lines. If code switches result from taking items from more than one lexicon which have to be checked according to the respective grammatical properties, at least language change as the result of influence from another language may be approached in a similar manner. Another, more practical application, is to ponder what such an account may yield for extralinguistic domains. M himself undertakes the task of sketching some implications for educational research and practice (pp. 247­270), in which he suggests how research on code switching may improve educational policy, curriculum and teaching. This applies specifically to language minority children in bilingual
education programs for whom notions of "semilingualism" must be rejected and the Threshold Hypothesis revised. The book also contains an agenda-setting preface, a comprehensive bibliography and a detailed index. -- Kleanthes K. Grohmann.] Marchello-Nizia, Christiane. 1999. Le Franзais en Diachronie: douze siиcles d'йvolution. (= Collection L'Essentiel Franзais.) Paris: Editions Ophrys, pp. 170. [This book is a rather detailed yet succinct outline of the history of the French language. In the introduction Marchello-Nizia states a three part goal: (a) a presentation of changes which occurred at various linguistic levels over 12 centuries; (b) an examination of the extent to which these changes follow general or universal patterns; (c) an analysis of the regularities which may lead to a general hypothesis of the cognitive factors tied to language use. The rest of the introduction is spent briefly reviewing some basic ideas generally associated with language change such as variation and typological shift. Ch. 1 briefly covers the history of the Romance languages, and includes a general chronology of the major stages in the development of French. Ch. 2 is an external history of the language, from the effects of various early invasions, to later efforts to standardize the language and its spread to other parts of the world. Ch. 3 focuses on the evolution of word order in declarative phrases, focussing on the overall typological shift from OV to VO. Ch. 4 extends this analysis to interrogative and subordinate clauses. Ch. 5 focuses on syntactic and morphological changes in noun phrases and within the personal pronoun system. Ch. 6 presents the changes in verbal morphology and semantics and in the syntax of verb phrases. Ch. 7 looks at changes among different types of connectors, including prepositions, subordinators, conjunctions and adverbial connectors. Ch. 8 deals with the origins and evolution of the lexicon. Ch. 9 is a brief discussion of changes in the sound system and in orthography. The conclusion is a discussion of the overall changes in terms of linguistic typology and grammaticalization, and in terms of two other concepts, "contiguпtй ordonйe" and "mйta-paradigme", which are not discussed in much detail. This text includes a short glossary, a biblography and an index. -- Ken Johnson.] Mayrhofer, Manfred. 2000. Etymologisches Wцrterbuch des Altindoarischen. III. Band. Lieferung 28. (= Indogermanische Bibliothek II. Reihe. Wцrterbьcher). Heidelberg: C. Winter, 80 pp. [The next in the series of fascicles in which M is reworking his own earlier Kurzgefasste Etymologisches Wцrterbuch des Altindoarischen, this one is the eighth to appear, covering pp. 561­640, in the second part of the overall work in which he considers the evidence of the "Jьngere Sprache", covering words attested only in Classical, Epic, or later Sanskrit, after the Vedic period. This fascicle contains the rest of the corrections and updatings to previous entries (from nб through hvar-) begun in the previous fascicle, and various indices (for Indo-Aryan words in the ancient Near East, for Old Indo-Aryan (Vedic), for Middle Indo-Aryan, for Nuristani languages, and for Dardic languages, with the beginning of one for Modern Indo-Aryan. -- Brian D. Joseph.]
Mereu, Lunella, ed. 1999. Boundaries of Morphology and Syntax. (= Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 180.) Amsterdam: John Benjamins viii, 312 pp. [This volume contains papers presented at a colloquium with the same title held in Rome in 1997. It treats the interface of morphology and syntax, as well as the interaction of that interface with pragmatics and semantics. The papers address the interface issues in a variety of theories -- minimalism, LFG, grammaticalization theory, etc. There are three sections, with the following content: I, "Morphological Phenomena and their Boundaries": "Between Morphology and Syntax: On the verbal morphology of some Alpine dialects" by Paola Beninca'; "Compounding: Morphology and/or syntax?" by Antonietta Bisetto and Sergio Scalise; "The Effect of Noun Incorporation on Argument Structure" by Marianne Mithun and Greville G. Corbett; "Lexical-Functional Morphology and the Structure of the Lexicon" by Christoph Schwarze; "Somali as a Polysynthetic Language" by Marco Svolacchia and Annarita Puglielli; "Dutch Verbal Prefixes: Meaning and form, grammaticalization and lexicalization" by Johan van der Auwera; "The Irrealis in the Polish Language: A question of verbal moods, conjunctions or the modal particle by?" by Maria Zaleska; II, "Morpho-Syntax and Pragmatics": "Morphological and Syntactical Complexity in French Interrogative Predicates" by Claire Blanche-Benveniste; "Integrating Pragmatics into the Grammar" by Elisabet Engdahl; "Subject, Nominative Case, Agreement and Focus" by Mara Frascarelli; "The English Cleft Construction as a Focus Phrase" by Katalin Й. Kiss; "Agreement, Pronominalization and Word Order in Pragmatically-Oriented Languages" by Lunella Mereu; III, "Morpho-Syntax and Semantics": "Thematic-Role Assignment and Aspect in Italian Pronominal Verbs: A lexicological study" by Vincenzo Lo Cascio and Elisabetta Jezek; "Syntactic Optionality and Lexical Semantics: The case of English manner of motion verbs" by Stella Markantonatou; "Labile Orders and Grammatical Functions: The functional representation of one-argument structures" by Rosanna Sornicola. -- Monica Macaulay.] Mжhlum, Brit. 1999. Mellom Skylla og Kharybdis: Forklaringsbegrepet i historisk sprеkvitenskap. Oslo: Novus Forlag, viii, 229 pp. ["Explanation" has become a hot topic these days in linguistics, diachronic and otherwise (see the review of Thomas Berg's book in the last issue of this journal, for example). M compares the journey implied in the title to explanation in historical linguistics, including the presumption needed to undertake both. After a relatively brief introduction, Part I surveys previous efforts at historical explanation, from "national psychology" and climate through the Neogrammarians on to structuralist and generative approaches. Part II looks at some very different developments in Nordic and Germanic, from /o/ raising to the role of Black Death in Norse language history. Part III returns to more general issues of "explanation", including detailed review of Keller's "invisible hand" account. Ultimately, M aims to reorient discussions of historical linguistic explanation away from more natural science models toward humanistic models and goals. The book contains a bibliography but no index.]
Niebaum, Hermann & Jьrgen Macha. 1999. Einfьhrung in die Dialektologie des Deutschen. (= Germanistische Arbeitshefte, 37.) Tьbingen: Niemeyer, xvi, 226 pp. [This is a second edition of the Einfьhrung of 1983, thoroughly revised and expanded to include the theoretical and methodological innovations of the last 15 years. It covers the concepts and approaches represented within German dialectology in four sections, the first covering terminology and basic concepts. The second gives the student insight into dialectological approaches, including considerations in choosing the corpus and subjects, approaches to data acquisition, transcription and presentation of data. The third section looks at the history and focuses of German dialectology, including methods of interpreting dialect boundaries, dialect lexicography, historical dialectology, etc., all exemplified with current dialectology projects. The final section presents an overview of the German dialects, along with text samples. Questions and exercises follow many of the sections, and a 23-page bibliography, but no index, concludes the volume. The third section is especially of interest to historical linguists, in part as it reviews methodologies of "classical" dialectology which made significant contributions to the reconstruction of linguistic developments. -- Regina M. Smith.] Niemi, Jussi, Terence Odlin & Janne Heikkinen, eds. 1998. Language Contact, Variation and Change. (= University of Joensuu Studies in Languages, 32.) Joenssu, Finland: University of Joensuu, Faculty of Humanities, vi, 286 pp. [This book presents a few selected contributions from two 1997 conferences held in Estonia and Finland. After a two-paragraph preface, the chapters are: "Purism towards English: A comparative analysis of language planning in the Nordic language communities", by Endre Brunstad; "What is the core of morphology" by Wolfgang U. Dressler; "Sociolinguistic considerations of extralinguistic factors determining language death in the Nganasan minority community of Russia" by Zsuzsa Duray; "Echoes from early bilingualism round the Baltic Sea: Germanic influence on the Balto-Finnic lexicon" Sirkka-Liisa Hahmo & Tette Hofstra; "Fieldwork among speakers of endangered languages: Methodology, reality and social advocacy" by Panu Hallamaa; "Case-assignment and adverbials in Finnish-English bilingual sentences" by Helena Halmari; "Language affinity and language contacts in the history of settlement of Northeast Europe" by Anu-Reet Hausenberg; "Variational patterns in vowel length in Kalashamon" by Jan Heegaard; "The Finnish-American language shift" by Pekka Hirvonen; "Loss and maintenance of linguistic features in language attrition" by Ossi Kokko; "Radically renewing Uralistics and the Siberian contact area of the Uralic languages" by Ago Kьnnap; "Strategies of interpretation" by Minna-Liisa Mathalt; "An army, a navy and Ebonics" by Terence Odlin; "Cultural and biological bases of idioms: A crosslinguistic study" by Esa Penttilд, Marja Nenonen & Jussi Niemi; "Morphological attrition and interference in language contact: Sketching a framework" by Helka Riionheimo; and "Cognate languages in contact: Ingria -- Where four Baltic-Finnic languages meet" by Ilka Savijдrvi. The individual contributions contain references; there is no index.]
Radford, Andrew, Martin Atkinson, David Britain, Harald Clahsen & Andrew Spencer, 1999. Linguistics: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xvi, 438 pp. [This introductory textbook has an innovative organization, being divided into three parts, focusing on "Sounds", "Words", and "Sentences", respectively. Standard topics in introductory texts, such as language change, sociolinguistics, variation, child language acquisition, language pathologies, psycholinguistics, etc. are woven into the discussion of the focal subject of each part. Each part has suggestions for further reading and exercises follow each chapter. Moreover, the "Sounds" part has three appendices on phonetic notation. In addition, the book contains a list of figures, a list of maps, a list of tables, a bibliography, and a subject/name index. -- Brian D. Joseph.] Ramers, Karl Heinz, 1999. Historische Verдnderungen prosodischer Strukturen (= Linguistische Arbeiten, 400). Tьbingen: Max Niemeyer, vii, 165 pp. [In this book, R applies nonlinear models of phonological theory, specifically Autosegmental and Metrical Phonology, to the task of describing and analyzing three well-known and much studied developments in Germanic involving changes in prosodic structures: Verner's Law, Middle English Open-Syllable Lengthening (MEOSL), and lengthening and shortenings in German due to the effects of the "Weight Law" (Prokosch 1939; Vennemann 1988). R finds that these models provide an adequate basis for the explicit formal description of the changes, but notes that answers to the question of why the changes occurred are still to be sought. The book contains a substantial (13-page) bibliography, but no index. -- Brian D. Joseph.] Stevens, Christopher M. 1998. On the Bifurcation and Repression Theories of Germanic and German. (= Journal of Indo-European Studies monographs, 29.) Washington, D. C.: Institute for the Study of Man, xiv, 98 pp. [This book provides the longest critique to date of Theo Vennemann's controversial proposal for a single, unified change incorporating both the First (or Germanic) and Second (or High German) Consonant Shifts. Most of the core of the book updates and expands on the author's two previously published contributions on this subject, but detailed summaries of Vennemann's views have been added, including review of recent works. S continues to reject a "bifurcation" analysis of Germanic obstruents on a wide variety of grounds: methodology and theory of reconstruction, chronology of internal Germanic developments and Latin loanwords, and early Runic evidence. Still, he ultimately withholds judgment on many points, awaiting forthcoming work by Vennemann. Almost one-fifth of the body of the book consists of references, but there are no indices.] Van der Hulst, Harry, ed. 1999. Word Prosodic Systems in the Languages of Europe. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. (= Empirical Approaches to Language Typology, Eurotyp, 20­4.) xxix, 1050 pp. [This massive, seminal work presents a detailed overview of not only word accent in European languages, but also a solid survey of theoretical and empirical aspects of the study of prosody in general. The
first part of the book contains thematic chapters. The editor's background chapter -- well over 100 pages long -- provides a good introduction to the subject, while Marina Nespor treats "Stress domains", Ellis Visch "The rhythmic organization of compounds and phrases", Carlos Gussenhoven and Gцsta Bruce "Word prosody and intonation", and Grzegorz Dogil & Briony Williams "The phonetic manifestations of word stress". The long chapter on "Diachronic prosody" is by Aditi Lahiri, Tomas Riad and Haike Jacobs and concentrates on Germanic and Romance. The second half of the book consists of case studies from Icelandic, Faorese and Basque in the west to Daghestanian languages in the east. Contributors include many of the best scholars working on word accent; familiar names include Kristjбn Бrnason, Michael Jessen, Curt Rice, Iggy Roca. The volume closes with indices of authors, subjects and languages.] Van Langendonck, Willy & William Van Belle, eds. 1998. The Dative: Volume 2, Theoretical and Contrastive Studies. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 296 pp. [This is the second of two volumes on the dative case. This volume treats theoretical, contrastive, typological, and diachronic aspects of the dative, and its chapters make use of a variety of theoretical approaches. After an introduction by the editors, the eight chapters are: "Recipients and `give' constructions" by John Newman; "The possessive dative in Romance and Germanic languages" by Bйatrice Lamiroy & Nicole Delbecque; "The case of the causee. On the competition between dative and accusative in Dutch laten and German lassen constructions" by Luk Draye; "Meanings of the dative case in Old English" by Adam Pasicki; "The dative as participant role versus the Indirect Object: On the need to distinguish two layers of organization" by Kristin Davidse; "The semantic structure of the indirect object in Dutch" by Dirk Geeraerts; "The dative in Latin and the indirect object in Dutch" by Willy Van Langendonck; "From form to interpretation: Building up the `dative'-roles" by Ludo Melis. -- Monica Macaulay.] Windolph, Wolfram. 1998. Nerother Jenisch: Schriftliche Quellen und Glossar. (= Sondersprachenforschung, 2) Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, ix, 99 pp. ["Jenisch" refers to the language of "travelling people", including Romani, and the name is used here as a subordinate concept to the more general term "Rotwelsch". W presents a range of data on Jenisch from written sources in Neroth, in the Eifel region of western Germany. The central evidence is drawn from four lexical lists gathered by nonlinguists. W briefly discusses the local historical and social context, as well as some Yiddish/Hebrew material previously called "Jenisch" from this village. The heart of the volume consists of anlaysis of the word lists, which include material from Yiddish, Romani, Latin, and French. Included is a set of signs for travelling merchants, ranging from information on the household (single person, old people, etc.) to warnings about dogs that bite. W eventually arrives at the conclusion, somewhat surprising in light of the title, that there was no variety
known as "Nerother Jenisch" at all, but only a relatively unstable set of lexical items from the language of travelling merchants (p. 33).] Compiled by Joseph C. Salmons and others, as indicated at the end of the individual notices. Closing date: 5 June 2000.

X Diachronica

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