RICHARD W. BOUBEL, DL FOX, DB TURNER, AC STERN

Tags: Air Pollution, Academic Press, Measurement, Sampling Systems, Gaseous Pollutants, Indoor Air Pollutants, References, Acidic Deposition, Effects of Pollution, Indoor Air Quality, policy decisions, Fundamentals of Air Pollution, actions, the Fourth Edition, physical sciences, strong foundation, Sampling System, Ambient Air Sampling, Air Pathways, Particulate Pollutants, Elsevier, air supplies, Russ Bullock, communicable disease control, atmospheric chemistry, air supply, environmental protection and management, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, Richard W. Boubel, D. Bruce Turner, Environmental Engineering Department Pratt School of Engineering Duke University, Suggested Reading, FOX Department of Environmental Science School of Public Health University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Oregon State University, meteorology, Arthur C. Stern, Donald L. Fox, Air Pollutants
Content: Fundamentals of air pollution FOURTH EDITION
Authors of Third Edition RICHARD W. BOUBEL Department of Mechanical Engineering OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY Corvallis, Oregon DONALD L. FOX Department of Environmental Science School of Public Health University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, North Carolina D. BRUCE TURNER Trinity Consultants, Inc. Chapel Hill, North Carolina ARTHUR C. STERN (14 March 1909­17 April 1992)
Fundamentals of Air Pollution FOURTH EDITION DANIEL A. VALLERO Civil and Environmental Engineering Department Pratt School of Engineering Duke University Durham, North Carolina AMSTERDAM · BOSTON · HEIDELBERG · LONDON · NEW YORK · OXFORD PARIS · SAN DIEGO · San Francisco · SINGAPORE · SYDNEY · TOKYO Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Vallero, Daniel A.
Fundamentals of air pollution / Daniel A. Vallero -- 4th ed.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN 978-0-12-373615-4 (alk. paper)
1. Air--Pollution. I. Title.
TD883.V25 2007
628.53--dc22
2007028062
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN: 978-0-12-373615-4
For information on all Academic Press publications visit our website at www.books.elsevier.com
Typeset by Charon Tec Ltd (A Macmillan Company), Chennai, India www.charontec.com Printed and bound in the USA 07 08 09 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Dedicated to the four authors of the previous edition. I am standing on the shoulders of giants.
Contents
Preface to the Third Edition
xvii
Preface to the Fourth Edition
xxi
Part I Air Pollution Essentials
1 The Changing Face of Air Pollution
I. Defining Air Pollution
3
II. The Emergence of Air Pollution Science, Engineering, and
Technology
7
III. Air Pollution Before the Industrial Revolution
37
IV. Air Pollution and the Industrial Revolution
40
V. Recent Air Pollution
42
VI. The 1980s
47
VII. Recent History
48
VIII. The Future
49
Further Reading
49
Suggested reading
51
Questions
51
vii
viii
Contents
2 The Earth's Atmosphere
I. The Atmosphere
52
II. Baseline Conditions: Unpolluted Air
53
III. What is Air Pollution?
58
IV. Particulate Matter
59
V. Concepts
71
References
76
Suggested Reading
76
Questions
76
3 Scales of the Air Pollution Problem
I. Local
77
II. Urban
78
III. Regional
79
IV. Continental
80
V. Global
85
Suggested Reading
86
Questions
87
Part II The Physics and Chemistry of Air Pollution
4 Air Pollution Physics
I. Mechanics of Air Pollution
93
II. Fluid Properties
95
Questions
122
5 The Physics of the Atmosphere
I. Energy
123
II. Motion
131
III. Energy-Motion Relationships
137
IV. Local Wind Systems
141
V. General Circulation
148
References
152
Suggested Reading
152
Questions
153
6 Air Pollution Systems and Processes
I. Chemical Processes in Air Pollution
154
Contents
ix
II. Air Pollution Chemodynamics
160
References
197
Suggested Reading
197
Questions
198
7 Characterizing Air Pollution
I. Relationship Between Physics and Chemistry
199
II. Basic Chemical Concepts
200
III. Expressions of Chemical Characteristics
207
IV. Electromagnetic Radiation, Electron Density, Orbitals,
and Valence
210
V. Organic Chemistry
238
VI. Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry
248
VII. Heterogeneous Reactions
259
VIII. Scavenging and Removal from the Atmosphere
259
References
260
Suggested Reading
261
Questions
261
8 Air Quality
I. Averaging Time
267
II. Cycles
270
III. Primary and Secondary Pollutants
273
IV. Measurement Systems
275
V. Air Quality Levels
277
References
295
Suggested Reading
295
Questions
295
9 The Philosophy of Air Pollution Control
I. Strategy and Tactics: The Air Pollution System
296
II. Episode Control
301
III. Air Quality Management Control Strategy
306
IV. Alternative Control Strategies
309
V. Economic Considerations
310
References
311
Suggested Reading
311
Questions
311
10 Sources of Air Pollution
I. General
313
II. Combustion
319
III. Stationary Sources
325
x
Contents
IV. Mobile Sources
336
V. Air Toxics Sources
337
VI. Emission Inventory
343
VII. An International Perspective: Differences in
Time and Space
346
VIII. ODORS: More than just a Nuisance
351
References
353
Suggested Reading
353
Questions
354
Part III Risks from Air Pollution
11 Effects on Health and Human Welfare
I. Air­Water­Soil Interactions
359
II. Total Body Burden
365
III. The Human Respiratory System
378
IV. Impact of Air Pollution on Humans
381
V. Impact of Odor on Humans
394
References
395
Suggested Reading
395
Questions
396
12 Effects on Vegetation and Animals
I. Injury versus Damage
397
II. Effects on Vegetation and Crops
399
III. Effects on Forests
403
IV. Effects on Animals
408
References
411
Suggested Reading
412
Questions
412
13 Effects on Materials and Structures
I. Effects on Metals
413
II. Effects on Stone
416
III. Effects on Fabrics and Dyes
417
IV. Effects on Leather, Paper, Paint, and Glass
419
V. Effects on Rubber
420
References
421
Suggested Reading
422
Questions
422
Contents
xi
14 Effects on the Atmosphere, Soil, and Water Bodies
I. The Physics of Visibility
423
II. Formation of Atmospheric Haze
430
III. Effects of Atmospheric Haze
433
IV. Visibility
434
V. Acidic Deposition
435
VI. Effects of Acidic Deposition
438
References
439
Suggested Reading
440
Questions
441
15 Long-Term Effects on the Planet
I. Global climate change
442
II. Ozone Holes
451
References
453
Suggested Reading
454
Questions
454
Part IV The Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution
16 Ambient Air Sampling
I. Elements of a Sampling System
457
II. Sampling Systems for Gaseous Pollutants
459
III. Sampling Systems for Particulate Pollutants
463
IV. Passive Sampling Systems
466
V. Sampler Siting Requirements
468
VI. Sampling for Air Toxics
469
References
470
Suggested Reading
470
Questions
470
17 Ambient Air Pollutants: Analysis and Measurement
I. Analysis and Measurement of Gaseous Pollutants
472
II. Analysis and Measurement of Particulate Pollutants
487
III. Analysis and Measurement of Odors
490
IV. Analysis and Measurement of Visibility
492
V. Analysis and Measurement of Acidic Deposition
496
References
497
Suggested Reading
498
Questions
498
xii
Contents
18 Air Pollution Monitoring and Surveillance
I. Stationary Monitoring Networks
500
II. Mobile Monitoring and Surveillance
503
III. Remote Sensing
505
IV. Personal Monitoring
506
V. Quality Assurance
508
VI. Data Analysis and Display
510
References
513
Suggested Reading
513
Questions
513
19 Air Pathways from hazardous waste Sites
I. Introduction
515
II. Multimedia Transport
516
III. Contaminant Fate Analysis
516
IV. Modeling
524
V. Assessment of a Hazardous Waste Site
525
References
533
Suggested Reading
533
Questions
533
Part V Air Pollution Modeling
20 The Meteorological Bases of Atmospheric Pollution
I. Ventilation
537
II. Stagnation
539
III. Meteorological Conditions during Historic Pollution
Episodes
540
IV. Effects of Pollution on the Atmosphere
546
V. Removal Mechanisms
547
References
550
Suggested Reading
551
Questions
551
21 Transport and Dispersion of Air Pollutants
I. Wind Velocity
552
II. Turbulence
554
III. Estimating Concentrations from Point Sources
557
IV. Dispersion Instrumentation
566
Contents
xiii
V. Atmospheric Tracers
571
VI. Concentration Variation with Averaging Time
576
References
578
Suggested Reading
579
Questions
579
22 Air Pollution Modeling and Prediction
I. Plume Rise
582
II. Modeling Techniques
585
III. Modeling Nonreactive Pollutants
587
IV. Modeling Pollutant Transformations
590
V. Modeling Air Pollutants
593
VI. Model Performance, Accuracy, and Utilization
627
References
633
Suggested Reading
636
Questions
637
23 Air Pollution Climatology
I. Sources of Data
638
II. Representativeness
641
III. Frequency of Atmospheric Stagnations
646
IV. Ventilation Climatology
647
V. Wind and Pollution Roses
650
References
654
Suggested Reading
655
Questions
655
Part VI The Regulatory Control of Air Pollution
24 Air Quality Criteria and Standards
I. Air Quality Criteria
659
II. Conversion of Effects Data and Criteria to Standards
659
III. Conversion of Physical Data and Criteria to Standards
669
IV. Conversion of biological data and Criteria to Standards
671
V. Air Quality Standards
672
Suggested Reading
677
Questions
678
25 Indoor Air Quality
I. Changing Times
679
II. Factors Influencing Indoor Air Quality
680
xiv
Contents
III. Indoor Air Pollutants
682
IV. Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants
685
V. Control of Indoor Air Pollutants
687
References
692
Suggested Reading
692
Questions
692
26 Regulating Air Pollution
I. Introduction
696
II. Titles
697
References
706
Suggested Reading
706
Questions
706
27 emission standards
I. Subjective Standards
707
II. Objective Standards
709
III. Types of Emission Standards
713
IV. Variant Forms of Emission Standards
713
V. Means for Implementing Emission Standards
715
References
721
Suggested Reading
721
Questions
722
28 The Elements of Regulatory Control
I. Control of New Stationary Sources
724
II. Control of Existing Stationary Sources
725
III. Control of Mobile Sources
726
IV. Air Quality Control Regions
727
V. Tall Stacks and Intermittent and Supplementary Control
Systems
728
References
729
Suggested Reading
729
Questions
729
29 Organization for Air Pollution Control
I. Functions
730
II. Organization
733
III. Finance
736
IV. Advisory Groups
737
Suggested Readings
738
Questions
739
Contents
xv
Part VII Preventing and Controlling Air Pollution
30 Preventing Air Pollution
I. Introduction
743
II. Sustainability
743
III. Green Engineering and Sustainability
744
IV. Life Cycle Analysis
753
V. Pollution Prevention
756
VI. Motivations for Practicing Green Engineering
761
VII. Future People
767
References
770
Suggested Reading
772
Questions
772
31 Engineering Control Concepts
I. Introduction
774
II. Process Change
776
III. Fuel Change
777
IV. Pollution Removal
778
V. Disposal of Pollutants
780
References
784
Suggested Reading
784
Questions
784
32 Control Devices, Technologies, and Systems
I. Introduction
786
II. Removal of Dry PM
794
III. Removal of Liquid Droplets and Mists
807
IV. Removal of Gaseous Pollutants
810
V. Removal of Odors
821
References
822
Suggested Reading
823
Questions
823
33 Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants
I. Air Quality and Hazardous Wastes
825
II. Pre-control Considerations
830
III. Contaminant Treatment and Control Approaches
832
IV. Thermal Treatment Processes
835
V. Thermal Destruction Systems
839
xvi
Contents
VI. Destruction Removal
844
VII. Other Thermal Processes
845
VIII. Indirect Air Impacts
848
References
849
Suggested Reading
850
Questions
850
34 Control of Stationary Sources
I. Introduction
852
II. Energy, Power, and Incineration
853
III. Chemical and Metallurgical Industries
859
IV. Agriculture and Forest Products Industries
872
V. Other Industrial Processes
878
References
883
Suggested Reading
884
Questions
885
35 Control of Mobile Sources
I. Introduction
886
II. Gasoline-Powered Vehicles
886
III. Diesel-Powered Vehicles
889
IV. Gas Turbines and Jet Engines
889
V. Alternatives to Existing Mobile Sources
891
References
893
Suggested Reading
893
Questions
894
36 Source Sampling and Monitoring
I. Introduction
895
II. Source Sampling
895
III. Statistics of Sampling
897
IV. The Source Test
899
V. Source Monitoring
910
References
915
Suggested Reading
915
Questions
915
37 The Future of Air Pollution
I. The Good News
917
II. Stubborn Problems and Innovative Solutions
917
Index
919
Preface to the Third Edition The authors of this book include a chemist (Donald L. Fox), a meteorologist (D. Bruce Turner), and a mechanical engineer (Richard W. Boubel). This 1:1:1 ratio has some relevance in that it approximates the ratio of those professionally involved in the field of air pollution. In the environmental protection and management field, the experience of the recent past has been that physicists and electrical engineers have been most attracted to the radiation, nuclear, and noise areas; biologists and civil engineers to the aquatic and solid waste areas; chemists, meteorologists, and chemical and mechanical engineers to the area of air pollution and its control. These remarks are not intended to exclude all others from the party (or from this course). The control of air pollution requires the combined efforts of all the professions mentioned, in addition to the input of physicians, lawyers, and social scientists. However, the professional mix of the authors, and their expectation of a not-too-dissimilar mix of students using this book, forewarns the tenor of its contents and presentation. Although this book consists of six parts and three authors, it is not to be considered six short books put together back-to-back to make one large one. By and large, the several parts are the work of more than one author. Obviously, the meteorologist member of the author team is principally responsible for the part of the book concerned with the meteorology of air pollution, the chemist author for the chapters on chemistry, and the engineer author for those on engineering. However, as you will see, no chapters are signed, and all authors xvii
xviii
Preface to the Third Edition
accept responsibility for the strengths and weaknesses of the chapters and for the book as a whole. In the 20 years since publication of the first edition of Fundamentals of Air Pollution (1973), and the 9 years since the second edition (1984), the fundamentals have not changed. The basic physics, chemistry, and engineering are still the same, but there is now a greater in-depth understanding of their application to air pollution. This edition has been edited, revised, and updated to include the new technology available to air pollution practitioners. Its contents are also influenced to a great extent by the passage of the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). These amendments have changed the health and risk-based regulations of the US Clean Air Act to technology-driven regulations with extensive penalty provisions for noncompliance. We have added more detailed discussion of areas that have been under intensive study during the past decade. There has been a similar need to add discussion of CAAA90 and its regulatory concepts, such as control of air toxics, indoor air pollution, pollution prevention, and trading and banking of emission rights. Ten more years of new data on air quality have required the updating of the tables and figures presenting these data. We have expanded some subject areas, which previously were of concern to only a few scientists, but which have been popularized by the media to the point where they are common discussion subjects. These include "global warming," "The Ozone Hole," "Energy Conservation," "Renewable Resources," and "Quality of Life." With each passing decade, more and more pollution sources of earlier decades become obsolete and are replaced by processes and equipment that produce less pollution. At the same time, population and the demand for products and services increase. Students must keep these concepts in mind as they study from this text, knowing that the world in which they will practice their profession will be different from the world today. The viewpoint of this book is first that most of the students who elect to receive some training in air pollution will have previously taken courses in chemistry at the high school or university level, and that those few who have not would be well advised to defer the study of air pollution until they catch up on their chemistry. The second point of view is that the engineering design of control systems for stationary and mobile sources requires a command of the principles of chemical and mechanical engineering beyond that which can be included in a one-volume textbook on air pollution. Before venturing into the field of engineering control of air pollution, a student should, as a minimum, master courses in internal Combustion Engines, power plant engineering, the unit processes of chemical engineering, engineering thermodynamics, and kinetics. However, this does not have to be accomplished before taking a course based on this book but can well be done simultaneously with or after doing so. The third point of view is that no one, regardless of their professional background, should be in the field of air pollution control unless they sufficiently
Preface to the Third Edition
xix
understand the behavior of the atmosphere, which is the feature that differentiates air pollution from the other aspects of environmental protection and management. This requires a knowledge of some basic atmospheric chemistry in addition to some rather specialized air pollution meteorology. The viewpoint presented in the textbook is that very few students using it will have previously studied basic meteorology. It is hoped that exposure to air pollution meteorology at this stage will excite a handful of students to delve deeper into the subject. Therefore, a relatively large proportion of this book has been devoted to meteorology because of its projected importance to the student. The authors have tried to maintain a universal point of view so that the material presented would be equally applicable in all the countries of the world. Although a deliberate attempt has been made to keep American provincialism out of the book, it has inevitably crept in through the exclusive use of English language references and suggested reading lists, and the preponderant use of American data for the examples, tables, and figures. The saving grace in this respect is that the principles of chemistry, meteorology, and engineering are universal. As persons who have dedicated all or significant parts of their professional careers to the field of air pollution, the authors believe in its importance and relevance. We believe that as the world's population increases, it will become increasingly important to have an adequate number of welltrained professions engaged in air pollution control. If we did not believe this, it would have been pointless for us to have written this textbook. We recognize that, in terms of short-term urgency, many nations and communities may rightly assign a lower priority to air pollution control than to problems of population, poverty, nutrition, housing, education, water supply, communicable disease control, civil rights, mental health, aging, or crime. Air pollution control is more likely to have a higher priority for a person or a community already reaping the benefits of society in the form of adequate income, food, housing, education, and health care than for persons who have not and may never reap these benefits. However, in terms of long-term needs, nations and communities can ignore air pollution control only at their peril. A population can subsist, albeit poorly, with inadequate housing, schools, police, and care of the ill, insane, and aged; it can also subsist with a primitive water supply. The ultimate determinants for survival are its food and air supplies. Conversely, even were society to succeed in providing in a completely adequate manner all of its other needs, it would be of no avail if the result were an atmosphere so befouled as not to sustain life. The long-term objective of air pollution control is to allow the world's population to meet all its needs for energy, goods, and services without sullying its air supply.
Preface to the Fourth Edition In the Preface to the Third Edition of this book, Donald L. Fox, D. Bruce Turner, and Richard W. Boubel expressed the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to air pollution. I wholeheartedly agree. Nothing has changed in this regard, making it a daunting challenge to update the impressive work of these renowned experts (as well as the late Arthur C. Stern in previous editions). It was easier to add new material than to remove old material. A new edition is an optimization exercise. The book must not change so much that professors using it have to change the course structure so severely that it constitutes a completely new text. On the other hand, a text must be up to date in terms of current technologies and programs, as well as in addressing threats on the horizon. Over a decade has passed since the publication of previous version. From a regulatory perspective, this is a very long time. By conventional measures, such as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, the past decade has been very successful. But, science marches on. I recall that in the 1970s, detection in the parts per million (ppm) was impossible for most compounds. During the 1980s detection limits continued to decrease. Now, detections have improved to allow for measurements below parts per billion for many compounds. We have also witnessed sea changes in risk assessment and management. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency laboratories were realigned to address risks, with separate laboratories to conduct research exposure, effects, risk characterization, and risk reduction. xxi
xxii
Preface to the Fourth Edition
Indeed, the previous authors were quite prescient in predicting the effects of the then newly amended Clean Air Act. The major changes started to kick in as the focus moved from technology-based approaches (best available and maximum achievable control technologies) to risk-based decision-making (residual risks remaining even after the required control technologies). The fundamentals of the science underlying air pollution have not changed, but their applications and the appreciation of their impacts have. For example, I have endeavored to enhance the discussion and explanation of the physical and chemical processes at work, particularly those related to air toxics. This has been a tendency through all four editions. New technologies must be explained, better models and computational methods have become available, analytical procedures have evolved and improved, and acute and chronic effects have become better understood. All of these have enhanced the Science and Engineering knowledge available to practitioners, teachers, and students. And, the savvy of the lay public about air pollution has grown substantially during the previous decade. I am indebted to my fellow scientists and engineers for their insights and comments on how to incorporate the new trends. I particularly want to note Alan Huber, who shared his work in atmospheric dispersion modeling, especially computational fluid dynamics. Others include Russ Bullock (mercury fate and transport), Paul Lioy and Panos Georgopoulos (modeling), Mark Wiesner (nanotechnology), John Kominsky and Mike Beard (asbestos), and Aarne Vesilind (history). As in previous editions, my expectation is that the reader has received some formal background in chemistry. I agree with the previous authors that anyone interested in air pollution must have a solid grounding in chemistry and the Physical Sciences. Without it, there is no way of knowing whether a rule or policy is plausible. I have seen too many instances of "junk science" in environmental decision-making. Often, these are underlain with good intentions. But, so-called "advocacy" does not obviate the need for sound science. That said, with a bit of effort, much of this edition can be a useful tool to any audience who is motivated to understand the what, how and why of air pollution. Another trend that I have hoped to capture is the comprehensiveness needed to address air quality. A problem need not occur if the processes leading to air pollution are approached from a life cycle or "green" perspective. This goes beyond pollution prevention and calls for an integrated and sustainable view. I have dedicated an entire chapter to this emergent environmental expectation. The authors of the previous edition introduced discussions about some emerging continental and global threats to the atmosphere. Since then, the urgency of some has abated (e.g. acid rain and some threats to the ozone layer), some have increased in concern (e.g. global warming), and others have continued but the contaminants of concern have varied (long-range transport of persistent chemicals). The scientific credibility of arguments
Preface to the Fourth Edition
xxiii
for and against regulatory and other actions has been uneven. The best defense against bad policy decisions is a strong foundation in the physical sciences. Let me rephrase that a bit more proactively and optimistically: My overall objective of this book is to give you, the reader, the ability to design and apply the tools needed to improve and sustain the quality of the air we breathe for many decades. These tools can only be trusted if they are thoroughly grounded in the Fundamentals of Air Pollution. DAV

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