social justice, Wichita Teacher Inquiry Group, Paulo Freire, Kansas, United States, teaching positions, principals, teachers, Cultural Competence, men and women, school administration, Illustrations, school rules, Textbook, social studies texts, students, teacher, gender bias, social studies, ideological beliefs, Teacher Education, middle school, Association of Teacher Educators, the Association of Teacher Educators, Emporia State University, Pittsburg State University, Kimberly Johnson Burkhalter, online journal, ADVOCATE, University Olathe Public Schools, Southwestern College, Nancy Albrecht, Washburn University Message, public school teachers, Art Images, Textbooks, forms of bullying, Wichita Public Schools, Mary Edwards Walker, school environments, responses, National Center for Education Statistics, Kansas teachers, Sadker, Houghton Mifflin, the ADVOCATE
The Kansas teacher education
The official publication of the Association of Teacher Educators Kansas Dr. Bruce Quantic, Executive Editor Dr. Rusty Meigs, Layout Editor Baker University Olathe Public Schools
Vol. 20, No. 2
Association of Teacher Educators - Kansas Executive Council Dr. Nancy Albrecht, President Emporia State University Dr. Pam Green, President Elect Southwestern College Dr. Pam Sells, Secretary Pittsburg State University Dr. Tim Fry, Executive Director Washburn University
Message from the President of ATE-K The Association of Teacher Educators-Kansas publishes the ADVOCATE at least annually and upon occasion, bi-annually. Manuscript submissions include research reports, Position Paper
s, action research, descriptions of programs or practices, and innovations in education. Manuscripts are "peer reviewed," without the name(s) of authors or institutions. I encourage you to share this new online format of the journal with colleagues and encourage them to submit a manuscript. Information about the ADVOCATE and the Association of Teacher Educators-Kansas (ATE-K) can be found at: http://atekan.org. Nancy Albrecht, Ed.D. Professor of School Leadership/Middle & Secondary Teacher Education Emporia State University Editor's Statement The ADVOCATE Fall, 2012 ON-LINE EDITION The ATE-K organization wants to provide a forum for research and ideas on teacher education in Kansas and elsewhere so that we can improve our understanding of practices that enable our students to become better teachers. The ATE-K Board authorized the ADVOCATE to establish an on-line journal this fall. As we make this transition, we will discontinue the printed version of the ADVOCATE. If this makes you nervous, welcome to the club. The online journal may look different, but the purpose of the journal remains the same. Of course, you may download and print off hard copies for use in your offices and classrooms. You may even share hard copies with your colleagues and libraries on your campuses. The hard part is to submit articles for the ADVOCATE and then get the feedback from our reviewers that indicate an acceptance for publication. Because the ADVOCATE is a peer-reviewed journal, know that when you submit an article it will take some time to get evaluations from our reviewers. Be ready to make changes if our reviewers recommend them. Please go to our web site, atekan.org and get started. Click on "Journal." I want to thank Dr. Rusty Meigs for assisting with this transition. He is an invaluable resource for the association. . Your comments are always welcome. Please assist us in making this a first class online journal by providing us with feedback. H.Bruce Quantic, Ed.D. Editor, the ATE-K ADVOCATE [email protected]
or 1213 N. Hamilton Cir. Derby, Kansas 67
The Wichita Teacher Inquiry Group (WTIG) Lessening Structural, Cultural, Indirect and Direct forms of through Cultural Competence and Transformative Teaching and Learning Drs. Linda F. Rhone and Kimberly Johnson Burkhalter.............................................1 Beyond Busses, Balls, and Beans: An Examination of the Leadership Skills of Kansas Principals Dr. Carolyn L. Carlson...................................................................................12 Alien Education Dr. Jennifer Cady........................................................................................18 Developing Cultural Competence through Problem Posing and Multicultural Children's Literature Drs. Gayla Lohfink and Laurie Curtis..................................................................24 Where Are All the Women? Gender Bias Persists in social studies texts
Dr. Tim Fry and Brenna S. Hofelt.....................................................................28
1 The Wichita Teacher Inquiry Group (WTIG) Lessening Structural, Cultural, Indirect and Direct forms of through Cultural Competence and Transformative Teaching and Learning Linda F. Rhone, Ed.D. Southwestern College Kimberly Johnson Burkhalter, Ed.D. Wichita Public Schools, USD 259 Abstract Bullying at school is an international phenomenon, and as a result there is a need for teachers to understand bullying behavior at its roots and beyond direct (hitting, kicking, choking) and indirect (gossiping, cyberbullying, silencing one's voice) forms. If we are really going to lessen bullying at school overtime, we must talk about the unmentionable: Bullying at school is larger than one child pushing, hitting or kicking another. Literature suggests it is quite disappointing that to date there has been no significant impact on bullying at school in the United States (Juvonen, Graham, & Schuster, 2003; Berger, 2007). Literature also suggests there is little to no national conversation about how direct and indirect forms of bullying at school are connected to ideological beliefs, structural practices and cultural competence. This particular study explored the scholarly literature and educational practices of social justice guru, Paulo Freire and their implications for examining ideology, structural practices, cultural competence, and oppression, namely bullying at school. The teacher-participants in this study became known as the Wichita Teacher Inquiry Group. The six 5th grade teachers, diverse in race, gender and experience, were nominated by their principals to be a part of this year-long endeavor. Fifth grade was selected because bullying behavior is most extensive at the middle school level (Archer & Cote, 2005; Eslea & Rees, 2001; Espelage, Meban, & Swearer, 2004; Pellgegrini & Long, 2002). One of the goals of this study was to help 5th grade students learn an appropriate use of power before they transition to middle school. The principals used social justice oriented teaching as the criteria for nominating a teacher. Social justice teachers' teaching practices are designed to pose thought-provoking problems for students to devise understandings for discussion. They address "key social justice issues locally and globally--regarding racism, class inequality, gender inequalities, planetary pollution and global warming, war and peace, etc., and seek to integrate such issues as themes into the disciplinary subject matters at hand rather than delivering free-standing lectures on them" (Shor, 2011, p. 1.). The nominated teachers who became the six teacher-participants responded to four surveys, participated in nine cultural circles (focused discussion), and were videotaped while teaching a lesson in their respective classrooms. The teacherparticipants came to understand the connection between ideology, structure, culture and oppression in their school contexts as well as how all four can perpetuate direct and indirect bullying behavior. As a result of their experiences with this study, the teacherparticipants were convinced that teaching from a social justice orientation, a Freirean perspective in particular, has the potential to lessen structural, cultural, indirect, and
2 direct forms of bullying, because it poses thought-provoking questions and addresses power and inequities as it relates to race, social class, gender and the like. They were also convinced that teaching from a social justice perspective could help them to guard against becoming teacher bullies. This study was expected to allow those teachers who were very effective at teaching from a social justice orientation to share their teaching practices with those who had less experience. In the end, all social justice teachers, veteran and novice were expected to enhance their skills through this work. Future research should consider further investigation on how ideological beliefs, structural practices and cultural competence can perpetuate direct and indirect forms of bullying so that teacher education programs can address this before preservice teachers earn a license to teach. Key words: Research, Bullying, Ideology, Structural practices at school, Cultural Competence, Critical Multicultural Social Justice Education, Cultural Bullying, Structural Bullying Introduction Though there are many anti-bullying efforts in schools around the country, few of them have been scientifically evaluated (Berger, 2007). One of the key factors in whether evaluation takes place is funding. For example, Smith, Ryan, and Cousins (2007) had three hundred ninety-five schools in the United States respond to a survey regarding the evaluation activities of their anti-bullying programs. The results revealed that few of the schools evaluated their anti-bullying programs, and those who did evaluate their programs used low rigor. The schools that evaluated their programs received external funding to do so which also afforded them the opportunity to offer more anti-bullying programs (Smith, Ryan, & Cousins, 2007). Bullying, according to Coloroso (2003; 2011), at its core is contempt and violence that is fueled by arrogance. Those who feel they are superior to others, often times, believe they can harm people who they feel are "less than they are," and these perpetrators have no remorse. Coloroso (2003; 2011) explained that anyone can be a target of bullying behavior; however, there are those who are more likely to be bullied than others. Children who are vulnerable to becoming a target of bullying are generally "anxious, lack[ing in] self-confidence, unwilling to fight, shy, reserved, quiet, timid, sensitive, poor, rich...perceived as inferior [due to race or ethnicity], or [are] those whose gender/sexual orientation
, or religion is perceived as inferior and deserving of contempt" (Coloroso, 2003, pp. 44-45). Many targets of bullying behavior are selected because their physical, intellectual and behavioral characteristics are devalued (McEvoy, 2005). McEvoy (2005) explained that "if the basis of target selection happens to be a category we recognize as discriminatory, then we also recognize bullying as a hate crime" (p. 3). Bullying can be perpetuated through ideology, structural practice and lack of cultural competence.
3 Paulo Freire, a Brazilian theorist, educator and practitioner wrote a number of influential books notably Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Paulo Freire's observations which included thirty years of teaching around the world informed him that most schools promoted the values of the dominant class, creating a "culture of silence" where underserved individuals were oppressed--deprived the means to think critically about their place in the world (Freire, 1993). Much like American education in the 21st century, cultural bias can be found throughout public school curricula and standardized testing, cultural bias is believed to be salient throughout the instructional practices promoted and executed by school teachers and administrators. For example: holding the belief that the dominant or mainstream (presumably European and North American) cultural ways of learning and knowing are superior to ways of learning and knowing that do not reflect such a culture. Ideology can be defined as an unquestioned set of beliefs about a group of people. Though ideological beliefs continue to inform structural practices, cultural knowledge, and ultimately teaching practices, scholars and practitioners argue that they do not. Freire and Macedo (2005) explained that many K-12 schools and universities express publicly that they keep all ideological beliefs out of schools and universities. Freire and Macedo (2005) challenged the notion that ideology does not play a key role in the construct of the derisive social categories of race, ethnicity, class, and gender in schools and universities. They argued that the denial that ideology exists in schools and universities is deceptive and hinders individuals from developing the critical skills needed to become full participants of society (Freire and Macedo, 2005). Freire and Macedo (2005) believe that ideological beliefs guide structural practices at school. Structural bullying is maintained by "Terror." According to Coloroso (2003), terror is structural (systemic) bullying used to intimidate and maintain dominance within systems. Terror flows along ideological gradients. Those with power are likely to bully those who have less whether it is student-to-student or teacher-to-student. Much of the structure of schools is based upon a sense of authority, and has many elements rooted in the ideas of a factory, namely a strict sense of hierarchy (Freire, 1993; Rhone, 2008). Transforming the way that parents and teachers, students and teachers, and students and students interact with each other can change the school culture into a place where parents, students and teachers can learn to think critically, not what to think. This means that teachers would reinvent themselves to become change agents who are open to ideas from those who are, often times, least likely to be listened to, parents and students. Students can be vulnerable to teacher bullying. McEvoy provided an example of what teacher-tostudent bullying looks like: An abusive teacher may argue that a student who complains is simply trying to excuse his or her "questionable" academic performance. This shifts attention from the teacher's inappropriate conduct to a discussion of "standards" and to the student's motivation for complaining. This also has the minimizing effect of suggesting to others that what is at stake is merely a "personal difference," rather than a systematic abuse of power (McEvoy, 2005, p. 2).
4 Twenlaw and Fonagy (2005) defined a bullying teacher as "one who uses his or her power to punish, manipulate, or disparage a student beyond what would be reasonable disciplinary procedure" (p. 2387). Page (2007) reports that teachers who are unable to correct students who break the rules, disengage from the learning process, show apathy, and who don't show concern for receiving bad marks can resort to classroom control strategies that can change them into the biggest bullies in school. First, these teachers were good students in their own schooling experience and are unable to empathize with students who show little interest in following the rules (Page, 2007). Second, most of these teachers have no experiences or teacher training to help them deal effectively with children who refuse to cooperate (Page, 2007). Third, these teachers have a set and limited knowledge base on how to interpret the underlying causes for why students are unmotivated and why they are hostile or feel marginalized in the school environment
(Page, 2007). Further, few but some teachers resort to intentional bullying, intimidation and/or humiliation to force uncooperative students to cooperate. In essence, teachers resort to bullying to gain student control. Though bullying by teachers is generally not direct (hitting, kicking, choking, etc.), it is powerful and very clear to see. It can create a climate that provokes student-to-student indirect and direct forms of bullying. Cultural bullying is maintained through a lack of cultural competence, sometimes associated with terror (Rhone, 2008 Coloroso, 2011; Campbell, 2010). It is cultural bullying when a teacher or a student of the dominant culture singles out a student because of his or her differences such as skin color, ethnicity, social class, language, and sexual orientation. Cultural bullying is taking place when students of color are expected to abandon their core identities including native language in order to "fit" into dominant ideologies operating in the larger school context. Students from diverse racial, ethnic, and impoverished backgrounds are most often not able to "fit" into what has long been defined as "appropriate behavior" and "high academic performers" at school. Recent data indicates that 90% of teachers in United States classrooms are white, middle class and increasingly female (Cushner, McClelland, & Safford, 2009; King, 2000) while the students they teach continue to get racially, ethically, linguistically, and socioeconomically diverse. Many teachers and students bring discriminatory attitudes to school that have been formed from teachings at home (Campbell, 2010). In most cases, white teachers and students have not been exposed to a critically reflective curriculum to examine and deconstruct long-held, deep-seated values and opinions (Campbell, 2012). Teachers and students from the dominate culture might feel contempt for students who are different from themselves due to cultural ignorance. What makes teacher expectations and the resultant discrimination so difficult to eradicate is that personal beliefs are deepseated, part of our individual and cultural experiences, and therefore difficult to change from the outside---they are also often hidden. Even if they believe it to be true, few people are willing to admit that they consider white students to be smarter than African American, Hispanic, Native American
or wealthy students to be more capable than poor students. And one would suspect that even fewer educators are willing to admit that they treat underserved students any differently in the classroom than they do the rest of their students.
5 In many United States teacher education programs, preservice teachers take one course titled "Diversity or Multicultural Education" that does not examine unequal distribution of power and/or white privilege (Gorski, 2008). In order for teachers to develop a critical lens, it is important to move beyond food, clothing, and music celebrations of diversity to examine "whiteness" and the privilege associated with it in every aspect of society, especially in schools (Gorski, 2008; King, 2000). Today, white teachers still avoid a serious conversation about how school systems apparently privilege whiteness over other cultures. Therefore, systems that marginalize, bully, some students and promote the well being and success of others remain untouched (King, 2000). Critically examining ideological beliefs, structural practices, school cultural climate, and teaching behaviors can help to ensure that all children will be treated with dignity and respect. Even in the face of standard assessments and accountability through testing, it remains vital for teachers to acknowledge diversity and the role of power in diversity. Methods Six principals were asked to nominate one 5th grade teacher in their buildings whose teaching behaviors were consistent with a social justice orientation. Fifth grade was selected because bullying behavior is most extensive at the middle school level (Archer & Cote, 2005; Eslea & Rees, 2001; Espelage, Meban, & Swearer, 2004; Pellgegrini & Long, 2002). This study drew on data from six 5th grade teachers through four surveys, nine cultural circles, and one videotaped classroom observation. The teachers were diverse by race, gender and experience. Every teacher had approximately 23 students in his or her classroom; therefore, the number of people directly and indirectly impacted by this work was 144. The teacher-participants used a Freirean lens to examine how oppression, silencing, contempt and exclusion, all characteristics of bullying behavior, could be embedded in ideological beliefs that guide the ranking and sorting regimes of what schools do. For example, most ranking and sorting regimes result in middle class, English speaking and mainly white students being ranked into advanced level classes, while students who are impoverished, minority and who possess limited English skills are overrepresented in special education classrooms. Findings Survey instrument #1 revealed that in general the nominees had a teaching philosophy that represented a social justice orientation, they were different from each other; yet, there were many commonalities. Every nominee identified a social justice teacher as one who uses a very engaged approach to teaching designed to empower students and lessen aggressive behavior, namely bullying. Further, the teacherparticipants reported that cooperative learning
, debates, and journal writing, were among the strategies that social justice teachers should use most often. On average, the nominees rated themselves at 7.5, on a scale from 1 to 10, with 10 representing a teacher who uses a social justice orientation in every content area. Generally, the nominees had a strong desire to become more effective social justice educators. The nominees explained
6 that they were most familiar with direct bullying (hitting, kicking, choking, and spitting) and less familiar with indirect (silencing of voice, threats, and verbal taunts), structural, and cultural forms of bullying. After some discussion, they all believed various forms of bullying were present in their schools and classrooms. Most of the nominees believed that teaching with a social justice orientation was consistent with anti-bullying teaching practices. All nominees believed that this study had a connection to the Cultural Proficiency Initiative in the Wichita Public Schools, USD 259. Pre/survey #2 revealed that the teacher-participants did not understand the interconnectedness of structural, cultural, direct, and indirect forms of bullying. This data also revealed the first three cultural circles were effective in helping teacher-participants to understand the connectedness of structural, cultural, direct, and indirect forms of bullying and what teacher-to-student bullying could look like. In survey instrument #3, using data from a survey and observations, it was clear that all teachers had to varying degrees deepened their social justice orientation approach in the classroom. They realized that teacher-tostudent bullying happens more often than they once believed, prior to this endeavor. Survey instrument #4 showed the teacher-participants became more reflective practitioners. The teacher-participants reported that this study caused them to examine their own ideological beliefs about diverse cultures (race, ethnicity, language differences, and social economic class) to ensure they were not using racist practices and they were making clear connections between teaching, power, culture, privilege, and the present day realities of those who continue to experience prejudice and discrimination. All came to understand that dialogue is significant for students and themselves. Every teacherparticipant believes that it is possible to "Lessen structural, cultural, direct, and indirect forms of bullying through cultural competence and transformative teaching and learning" through the use of critical pedagogical practices as advocated by Paulo Freire. Critical pedagogy advocates the use of education as a tool to help learners to better themselves by developing voice for the purpose of creating a more just society. In other words, education is designed to start the process for progressive social change. Cultural Competence/Cultural Circles Over a ten-month period, the teacher-participants attended nine cultural circles (focused discussions) and participated in a number of learning activities. The cultural circles were organized so that teacher-participants could read, reflect, dialogue, present chapters from Paulo Freire's work, and role play. At the core of the first three cultural circles was an examination of ideological beliefs and structural practices that can oppress some students at the expense of others. The teacher-participants learned about the "banking system
." According to Freire, the "banking system" does not invite students' voices in the classroom. It is teacher-centered and does not consider students to have valuable knowledge to share. Teacher A shared her feelings after the first three cultural circles: The dialogue we had about Pedagogy of the Oppressed made me look at how I have been teaching and realize that while I have tried to be innovative and make the classroom relevant to my students, when it comes to crunch time I tend to count on a "banking system," where I give students information and I expect them
7 to feed it back to me. I think one of the most beneficial parts of the first three circles was observing every teacher participant present the way their assigned "social justice" teacher taught a lesson. As I watched every presenter, I began to get ideas of how I could present different lessons, so students could dialogue and gain a greater appreciation for cultural differences, starting with their own. Following the first three days of cultural circles, every teacher-participant was challenged to return to their classrooms and put into practice what they learned by transforming the content they were already teaching to include a critical lens, a deeper social justice orientation. The teacher-participants were given resources that were not limited to but inclusive of: The Planning to Change the World: A Plan Book for Social Justice Teachers (2010-2011); Pedagogy of the Oppressed; Reinventing Paulo Freire: A Pedagogy of Love; Teaching Community: A Pedagogy of Hope; and Rethinking Schools, Vols. 1 & 2. During this year-long journey, teacher-participants were required to reflect and post to the Wichita Teacher Inquiry Group website after every cultural circle and when classroom interactions provoked them to do so. Teacher P captured the essence of her experience after the first three cultural circles: After the three days of circle time, I am reflecting that there will always be room for growth, and that I have been extremely optimistic. I was prepared to "learn solutions" to social justice inequities with the mindset that it was all student-tostudent based. The circle sessions have given me a wealth of opportunity to review my classroom and my own building, to look inward at areas open to professional growth on behalf of our own school staff, starting with myself. Fortunately, this does work within the philosophy and the "best practices," that have been implied by the Cultural Proficiency education and Parent Engagement team. Transformative Teaching and Learning/Observations The remaining cultural circles centralized putting a social justice orientation into action in the classroom. The teacher-participants presented social justice lessons to the Wichita Teacher Inquiry Group. The lessons were designed to teach curriculum from a popular cultural, issues-oriented perspective using critical pedagogical techniques. The lessons included narratives that have been historically marginalized in our society. The teacher-participants used literature that explained how children who are bullied in many instances grow up to bully others and get involved in criminal behavior. The teacherparticipants reported plans to include some of the approaches they learned from the work of Antonia Darder, Reinventing Paulo Freire: A Pedagogy of Love, in their classrooms. The approaches included "Sharing Circles" and the "Daily News." According to Darder (2002), "Sharing Circles" and the "Daily News" allow teachers to turn routine practices into critical dialogue. These activities allow teachers to get more deeply involved in their students' lives in order to help them address some of the inequalities they live with daily, especially bullying. Several teacher-participants reiterated that in order to help students to transform their lives it is imperative that they have the chance to give voice to their struggles. In the end, the teacher-participants encouraged each other to use teaching
8 materials from Teaching Tolerance www.teachingtolerance.org; Rethinking Our Classrooms www.rethinkingourschools.org; Social Justice Plan Book www.justiceplanbook.com; and weblinks from Critical Multicultural Pavilion http://www.edchange.org/multicultural. During December 2010, every teacher-participant was videotaped in their individual classroom while teaching from a social justice orientation. The videotaping revealed that their lessons were engaging and exposed their students to various possibilities for addressing social injustices in their personal lives, communities, and at school. The lessons included classroom dialogue, giving every student a chance to share about his or her lived reality, in whole-class and small group settings. In addition, it included role-play that took the students back in time to take on the roles of freedom fighters who struggled for the right to vote. Instead of "pure" history lessons, students enacted social movements
designed to move groups of people from the margins to the center in the American society. The 5th grade students role-played the positions of perpetuator, victim and bystander in the bullying relationship in order to better understand how they are connected. In one class, the students were inspired to start an Anti-bullying Club. They voted to have their club meet once per week to discuss the injustices of bullying and why it is important to report it, if one is a victim and/or bystander. The Anti-bullying Club would include a website for students to dialogue anonymously. One teacher-participant began having town-hall meetings and formed class committees to address issues regarding those who enjoy privilege at the expense of others--injustice. The six teacher-participants who participated in this study were nominated by their principals as being teachers who have over time demonstrated a commitment to teaching for social justice. Therefore, the teacher-participants came to the Wichita Teacher Inquiry Group with a commitment to teach for social justice, teach through a critical lens. Through their participation in this year-long endeavor, the teacher participants simply used the cultural circles and critical multicultural lessons (in and out of the classroom) to strengthen the skills they brought to this work. As they engaged in critical dialogue and taught critical multicultural lessons, it became evident that they felt strongly about using an anti-bias curriculum to address not avoid the issues that keep students, teachers, parents, administrators and other school community
members divided. Though the teacher-participants believed that most schools worked to ensure that all children receive a quality education, this process is not "sanitized" from the construct of the derisive social categories of class, race, ethnicity, language, etc. (Freire and Macedo, 2005).
9 This study was expected to allow those teachers who were very effective at teaching from a social justice orientation to share their teaching practices with those who had less experience. In the end, all social justice teachers, veteran and novice were expected to enhance their skills through this work. Future research should consider further investigation on how ideological beliefs, structural practices and cultural competence can perpetuate direct and indirect forms of bullying so that teacher education programs can address the issue of teacher bullying before teachers graduate with a license. Limitations We acknowledge that our original plan to organize at least two cultural circles for the parents of the students in the teacher-participants' classrooms to join us in this endeavor would not happen. Among the concerns was whether parents would feel that they were being told how to parent their children. In making the decision to proceed without the "parent-circles," we realized that we would be excluding a significant part of this endeavor. Paulo Freire believed that any effort made to transform classroom spaces to become more democratic should happen simultaneously with parents to ensure that children would have a like experience at home. If a like study is continued at another time, it will be imperative to include parents. Discussion Teaching for social justice means focusing on teachers' and students' activism regarding the social, economic, and institutional structure
s that maintain unearned privilege and disadvantage for particular racial, cultural, language, socioeconomic, and gender groups. In addition, teaching for social justice means facilitating learning in a way that acknowledges cultural and ethnic identity, using a culturally relevant approach to teaching and learning, and building social supports to help all students thrive in the classroom. Bullying and being bullied is associated with health problems for children and adults. Children and adults who are bullied have adjustment problems including poor mental health
and extreme violent behavior. Bullying behavior has long lasting effects for the victim, bystander and perpetuator. National Conference The Wichita Teacher Inquiry Group engaged a national audience in a dialogue about their year-long journey at the 18th Annual Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Conference in Chicago, Illinois. The Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Conference is based upon the work of the late Paulo Freire and the late Augusto Boal.
10 Resource This project is an extension of a dissertation study written by Linda Fae Rhone titled School Bullying: A Freirean Perspective. Rhone facilitates cultural circles (critical discussions) and workshops designed to help a school community guard against structural and cultural bullying and student-to-student and teacher-to-student bullying. Rhone can be reached at: [email protected]
or (316) 847-2921. Acknowledgement A grant from the Kansas Health Foundation and a grant from the Gerber Institute for Catholic Studies funded the Wichita Teacher Inquiry Group. The WTIG consisted of six 5th grade teachers representing six schools in the Wichita Public Schools District. The six teacher-participants selected for this endeavor received graduate credit, professional development
and (for some) an invitation to travel to the Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Conference in Chicago, Illinois. References Archer, J., & Cole, S. (2005). Sex differences in aggressive behaviors. In R.E. Tremblay, W.W. Hartup, & J. Archer (Eds.), Developmental Origins of Aggression (pp. 425443). New York: Guilford Press. Berger, K. S. (2007). Update on bullying at school: Science forgotten? Developmental Review, 27, 90-126. Campbell, D. (2010). Reducing cultural bullying in schools. Leadership for Educational and Organizational Advancement. Coloroso, B. (2003). The bully, the bullied, and the bystander: From preschool to high school--How parents and teachers can help break the cycle of violence. NewYork: Harper Resource. Cusher, K., McClelland, A., & Safford, P. (2009). Human Diversity in Education: An integrative Approach. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. Darder. A. (2002). Reinventing Paulo Freire: A pedagogy of love. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Eslea, M., & Rees, J. (2001). At what age are children most likely to be bullied at school? Aggressive Behavior, 27, 419-429. Espelage, D. L., Meban, S. E., & Swearer, S. M. (2004). Gender differences in bullying: Moving beyond mean level differences. In D.L. Espelage & S.M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in American schools: A socio-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention (pp. 15-35). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Freire, P. & Macedo, D. (2005). Ideology matters. Rowman & Littlefield. Freire, P. (1998). Letters to Cristina: Reflections on my life and work. New York: Routledge. Freire, P. (1993). Pedagogy of the oppressed (Rev. ed.). New York, NY: the Continuum Publishing. Gorski, P. (2008). What we're teaching teachers: An analysis of multicultural teacher education courses. http://www. EdChange.org
11 Hufford, D., Rhone, L. (Ed.).(2010). The Hufford reader. UT: Family Heritage Publishers. Juvonen, J., Graham, D., & Schuster, M.A. (2003). Bullying among young adolescents: the strong, the weak, and the troubled. Pediatrics, 112, 1231-1237. King, J. (2000). White teachers at the crossroads. Teaching Tolerance. Fall, 18, 1-5. McEvoy, A. (2005). Teachers who bullying students: Patterns and policy implications. Copyright: Alan McEvoy. Page, B. (2007). The teacher as bully. Education News. http://www.educationnews.org/articles/the -teacher-as-bully.html Pellegrini, A. D., & Long, J.D. (2002). A longitudinal study of bullying, dominance, and victimization during the transition from primary and secondary school
. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20, 259-280. Rhone, L. (2008). School bullying: A Freirean perspective. Unpublished Dissertation. Schramm-Pate, S. & Lussier, R. (2004). Teaching students how to think critically: The Confederate Flag controversy in the high school social studies classroom. High School Journal, Vol. 87, 2, pp. 56-66. Smith, D., Ryan, W., & Cousins, B. (2007). Antibullying programs: A survey of evaluation activities in public schools. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 33(2), 120-13 Shor, I. (2011). Social justice orientation. Listserv e-mail message. February 23. Twenlow, S. W., & Fonagy, Pl. (2005). The prevalence of teachers who bully students in schools with differing levels of behavioral problems. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(12), 2387-2389.
12 Beyond Busses, Balls, and Beans: An Examination of the Leadership Skills of Kansas Principals Carolyn L. Carlson, Ph.D. Washburn University Introduction Each year in American public schools, nearly 450,000 teachers leave their jobs (Johnson, Berg, & Donaldson, 2005). This means that one-sixth of all teachers either transfer to different schools/districts or leave the teaching profession altogether. One of the main factors contributing to teachers' decisions to remain at or leave their positions is related to the level of support from school administrators. Not only is a principal responsible for managing the school (the busses, balls, and beans), but the principal is responsible for being the leader of the school as well. Research indicates that the decision to remain or leave a particular school is greatly influenced by the principal and the principal's leadership style (Brown & Wynn, 2007). This study sought to examine how the effectiveness of the leadership of principals in Kansas compares to the effectiveness of the leadership of principals throughout the rest of country. Background on Teacher Retention and Principal Leadership The National Commission
on Teaching and America's Future report that every school district in the country is affected by continuous teacher turnover (NCTAF, 2010). The large numbers of teachers leaving the field of education (the phenomenon known as "attrition") can be explained, in part, to the working conditions
and school environment faced by many teachers. Research indicates that the working conditions of teachers affect their ability to teach well and the satisfaction they obtain from their teaching (Johnson, et al., 2005). One of the main sources affecting the working conditions of the school is the leadership of the school. The effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the leadership of the principal directly impacts the satisfaction of the teachers in the school (Johnson, et al., 2005). Luekens, Lyter, Fox, & Chandler (2004) found that over one-third of teachers who transferred to new schools reported that their dissatisfaction with the administrations' support was either a "very important" or "extremely important" reason for leaving their position. Similarly, Johnson and Birkeland (2003) found that, among 50 novice Massachusetts teachers studied over four years, those who decided to leave their schools or the profession often "described principals who were arbitrary, abusive, or neglectful. . . ." (p. 594). While ineffective principal leadership often leads to teacher attrition, effective principal leadership often leads to teacher retention. "How principals execute their leadership affects school organization, culture, and working conditions, which, in turn, affect job satisfaction
and teacher retention" (Cornelia, 2010, p.3). Similarly, Useem (2003) found that "strong administrators and a collegial staff climate can lead to higher rates of teacher retention" (p. 18). "New teachers perceive building principals to be the vital link in their success" (Danin & Bacon, 1999, p. 206). Research suggests that teacher
13 retention increases "when school environments are organized for productive collegial work under a principal's effective leadership" (Johnson, et al., 2005, p.67). For example, Louis, Marks, and Kruse (1996) reported that principals who delegate authority and support collective decision-making foster a "collective responsibility for student learning and instructional collaboration among teachers" (p. 774). Effective principals create a working environment that promotes teacher retention. The school principal has "the responsibility of creating an institutional atmosphere of collaboration and support, as opposed to one in which individual teachers shut their doors and operate privately" (Heller, 2004, p. 6-7). Effective principals attract, support, and retain qualified teachers who are successful in the classroom (Brown & Wynn, 2007). Methodology In this study, selected data from the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) 2007-2008 School and Staffing Survey were analyzed to examine teachers' responses to various statements regarding their teaching positions. The survey consists of several questionnaires, including one designed specifically for teachers to complete. This questionnaire asked participants about various issues, including education and training, teaching assignments/experience, perceptions and attitudes about teaching, and workplace conditions. Once the surveys are completed and returned, names, addresses, and other identifying information are removed to protect the confidentiality of the participants. For researchers who qualify, "restricted-use data" may be used for analysis. This data contains individually identifiable information that is confidential and protected by law. Only those who have official clearance from the NCES may access this data. This researcher holds a license to utilize restricted-use data. Results and Discussion Both public-use and restricted-use data from responses to selected questions from the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey Teacher Questionnaire were used in this study. Participants were asked to indicate a level of agreement to the following five statements: 1. "In this school, staff members are recognized for a job well done." 2. "My principal enforces school rules for student conduct and backs me up when I need it." 3. "The principal knows what kind of school he or she wants and has communicated it to the staff." 4. "The school administration's behavior toward the staff is supportive and encouraging." 5. "I am generally satisfied with being a teacher at this school."
14 Weighted responses were used in the analysis of the data from each of the five statements, indicating application of the results to 3,404,500 public school teachers in the United States. These responses were compared to the responses to the same statements by 37,700 teachers in Kansas (See Table 1). First, weighted responses to the statement, "In this school, staff members are recognized for a job well done" were examined. The results indicate that nationwide, 34 percent of teachers "strongly agree" with the statement. Among the teachers in Kansas, 32.3 percent "strongly agree" with the statement. There is only a 1.7 percent difference in the responses of the Kansas teachers as compared to the national average. Second, 56 percent of participants nationwide "strongly agree" with the statement, "my principal enforces school rules for student conduct and backs me up when I need it." In Kansas, 55.1 percent of teachers indicated that same level of agreement with the statement, resulting in a less than one percent difference between the responses of Kansas teachers and teachers nationwide. Third, responses to the statement, "the principal knows what kind of school he or she wants and has communicated it to the staff" indicate that 57.7 percent public school teachers "strongly agree" with the statement. 55.2 percent of teachers in Kansas also strongly agree that their school principals have effectively communicated his or her vision for the school to the teachers a difference of 2.5 percent. Fourth, weighted responses to the statement, "The school administration's behavior toward the staff is supportive and encouraging" were examined, indicating that 55 percent of public school teachers in the nation "strongly agree" with the statement. Kansas teachers indicated a slightly higher level of support and encouragement from their principals. 57.7 percent of teachers in Kansas strongly agree with this statement, resulting in 2.7 percent higher than the overall finding for the nation. Fifth, only 59.4 percent of public school teachers "strongly agree" with the statement, "I am generally satisfied with being a teacher at this school." In Kansas, 57.1 percent of teachers "strongly agree" that they are generally satisfied with their teaching positions, which is 2.3 percent less than that nationwide response. These results indicate that Kansas principals are performing at a level similar to principals across the nation. The largest difference in percentage of responses from teachers nationwide and those in Kansas was 2.7 percent. However, this difference was is a result of a higher number of Kansas teachers strongly agreeing that their principals were supportive and encouraging. These results are encouraging for the state of Kansas, particularly when noting that a higher number of teachers in Kansas believe their school administration offers more support and encouragement as compared to the remaining states in the nation.
However, while Kansas principals should be pleased with the indication that they are providing similar levels of effective leadership to their teachers, there is still much room for improvement. Only 32.3 percent of teachers in Kansas feel that staff members are recognized for a job well done. This means that 67.7 percent of Kansas teachers did not agree that teachers' accomplishments are adequately acknowledged. Further, only slightly more than half of all Kansas teachers agreed that their principals adequately enforced rules, agreed that their principals have effectively communicated the goals of the school, agreed that their principals are supportive, and agreed that they are satisfied with their teaching positions. Therefore, almost half of all Kansas teachers do not agree that their principals enforce rules, effectively communicate the mission of the school, or are supportive of the teachers. Almost 43 percent of Kansas teachers are not satisfied with their teaching positions. This lack of a supportive environment can result in teachers leaving the school or the teaching profession altogether.
This should be addressed in two areas. First, academic institutions training aspiring principals should provide them with the knowledge and skills to be effective leaders in their future schools. Future principals should have a firm grasp on how to be not only efficient managers of their schools' busses, balls, and beans, but also how to effectively be the leaders of their schools. Second, current Kansas principals should address this issue in their own school environments by identifying areas of weakness in their own leadership style. This self-reflection may improve their leadership skills and prevent the loss of high-quality staff.
Weighted Responses of Public School Teachers
In this school, staff members are
recognized for a job well done.
My principal enforces school
rules for student conduct and
backs me up when I need it.
The principal knows what kind of
school he or she wants and has
communicated it to the staff.
The school administration's
behavior toward the staff is
supportive and encouraging.
I am generally satisfied with
being a teacher at this school.
Percentage of Teachers in Kansas 32.3 55.1
Difference 1.7 .9
16 Summary Data analysis indicates similar findings in teachers' beliefs in the effectiveness of the leadership of the administration when comparing the results in Kansas to those nationwide. While principals in Kansas should feel a sense of satisfaction that their leadership abilities are similar to those of administrators across the nation, they must also be aware of the improvements that can be made, potentially resulting in even higher numbers of job satisfaction and, therefore, teacher retention. Effective principals create an environment where teachers feel and sense of collaboration and support, and as a result, are dedicated to their jobs. On the contrary, ineffective principals fail to create such a climate, leaving the teachers to feel a sense of isolation, leading to dissatisfaction with their jobs and a higher probability that they will leave their teaching positions for either a different position in the teaching field or a different position in a field outside of teaching. Current and aspiring principals in Kansas (and across the nation) must recognize the impact they have on teacher retention and must take steps to ensure that teachers in their schools feel a sense of satisfaction with their jobs to improve the retention rate of teachers. References Brown, K. M. & Wynn, S. R. (2007). Teacher retention issues: How some principals are supporting and keeping new teachers. Journal of School Leadership, 17(6), 664698. Carroll, T. G. & Foster, E. (2010). Who will teach? Experience matters. Washington, D.C.: National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. Cornelia, J. A. (2010). Principal leadership: The missing link in teacher retention. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. (3420054) Danin, R. & Bacon, M.A. (1999). What teachers like (and don't like) about mandated induction programs. In M. Scherer (Ed.), A better beginning: Supporting and mentoring new teachers (p. 202-209). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervisions and Curriculum Development. Heller, D. A. (2004). Teachers wanted: Attracting and retaining good teachers. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervisions and Curriculum Development. Ingersoll, R. M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis
. American Educational Research Journal
, 38(3), 499-534. Johnson, S. M., Berg, J. H., & Donaldson, M. L. (2005). Who stays in teaching and why: A review of the literature on teacher retention. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education. Johnson, S. M., & Birkeland, S. (2003). Pursuing a "sense of success": New teachers explain their career decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 581-617. Kardos, S. M. (2004). Supporting and sustaining new teachers in schools: The importance of professional culture and mentoring. Harvard University
, Cambridge, MA.
17 Louis, K. S., Marks, H. M., & Kruse, S. (1996). Teachers' professional community in restructuring schools. American Educational Research Journal, 33(4), 757-798. Luekens, M. T., Lyter, D. M., Fox, E. E., & Chandler, K. (2004). Teacher attrition and mobility: Results from the teacher follow-up survey, 2000-01. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics. National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2012). Retrieved March 20, 2012, from Schools and Staffing Survey Web site: http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/sass/ Renard, L. (1999). Ask not what your school can do for you, but what you can do for you. In M. Scherer (Ed.), A better beginning: Supporting and mentoring new teachers (p. 225-232). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervisions and Curriculum Development. Useem, E. (2003). The retention and qualifications of new teachers in Philadelphia's high-poverty middle schools: A three year cohort study. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Education Fund. Viadero, D. (2002). Researchers skewers explanations behind teacher shortage. Education Week, 21(30), 7.
18 Alien Education Jennifer Cady, Ph.D. Southwestern College Alien Education Stepping into the classroom now-a-days is like walking through Times Square. Students come equipped with vast levels of knowledge just like the diverse individuals navigating the streets in the heart of New York City. The interactions embedded within the classroom often mimic the commotion found as spectators eagerly await the infamous ball drop. In the field of education though, once the ball drops, it is hard to pick up the shattered pieces that fall to the ground. Thus, it becomes imperative to determine how the teacher, grounded with the same solid foundation as the Statue of Liberty, can use her skills in order to avoid offering the same traditional education that quite simply no longer works for the intricate individuals of our nation. To establish a firm foundation, educators should first seek to build a classroom that thrives on respect for one another (Tomlinson, 2001). This is done through verbal praise and acknowledgement of individual strengths. Moreover, it is done through the teacher's ability to express the value of each and every student. It isn't enough to take a personal survey of each student at the beginning of the year only to throw it in a filing cabinet so that later it can be shredded. The teacher has to go above and beyond the basic collection of knowledge about each individual in order to weave the core of who each individual is into the depths of each lesson (Connell, 2005). It takes time, energy, and effort. As the year progresses though, the results are priceless similar to the bargains one might find on the streets of the Big Apple. Teachers must also possess the ability to establish an environment in which collaboration thrives (Bruce & Calhoun, 1996). This does not mean that one individual shares his/her ideas and everyone else must agree. Rather, the relationship between all individuals must be one in which everyone feels safe in sharing his/her ideas (See Appendix A & B). This can be accomplished by looking at answers via a multi-leveled approach. There is never just one answer to a problem. Sharing this reality with students allows students to feel as though they may in fact have a reasonable solution though it may be different from others. When teachers open up the classroom to accept that everyone has a unique way to arrive at the final outcome, a structure of thriving subways will begin to emerge. One of the key ingredients to education is the simplicity of movement (See Appendix C & D). When teachers allow students to move and learn they allow for retention of material (Connell, 2005; Wolfe, 2001). Too often, teachers fear losing control, but when movement is involved the opposite occurs. Students begin to focus in on the task at hand while displaying less behavioral issues. This can be done in a variety of ways. Teachers can provide uncomplicated directions such as, "Find someone in the class who shares the same favorite color as you do then share your answer with him/her."
19 After the teacher provides directions she can set a timer for two minutes and allow the students to take responsibility for their own learning. After the timer sounds, the teacher could hold the students accountable for their learning by having them write their answer, coupled with that of their partner's answer, via a Venn diagram on a small personal whiteboard (think green). This allows the teacher to visually identify mastery, or lack thereof, and it allows the students to reflect. Often times, once students communicate with others they will alter their outlook to reflect the desired outcome that the teacher intended to begin with. Those who do not need to alter their answers are still provided the opportunity to build communication skills, share their ideas, and express how their ideas compare to others. The visitor in NYC will often flag down a taxi to navigate from one location to the next. Learning through movement is much the same. Teachers of modern learners must understand that when flying into an area that is highly populated, full of relevant history, and fascinating on every level it is no longer enough to provide a tour of the land through verbal communications while spectators sit quietly by. The opposite is true. To be a successful teacher it is essential to tap into the resources surrounding the population, weave the individual histories of its members into the lessons, and allow for the independent expression of movement so that participants retain the information in a manner that allows for future problem solving. To the countryman, New York City may very well seem chaotic, but when chaos has a valid purpose it can no longer be viewed as chaos. Rather, it should be deemed an intricate city that many long to visit. The same is true for the prosperous classroom. When constructed properly, visitors will flock to vacation in what is still viewed as alien to the field of education. Once enough visitors have walked the beaten path the element of alienation will dissipate and comfort will set in. At that point, post cards can be written and new territories discovered. References Bruce, J. & Calhoun, E. (1996). Creating learning experience
s: The role of instructional theory and research. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Connell, J. D. (2005). Brain-based strategies to read every learner: Surveys, questionnaires, and checklists that help you identify students' strengths plus engaging brain-based lessons and activities. NY: Scholastics, Inc. Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Wolfe, P. (2001). Brain matters: Translating research into classroom practice. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
20 Appendix A Cooperative Learning via a Safe Elementary learning environment
When students are assigned specific job tasks (e.g., recorder, writer, material's manager, or speaker), within their cooperative groups, learning is heightened and classroom management flows much smoother than when tasks are not clearly defined. Furthermore, when teachers use items such as tickets to promote positive behavior expectations, instead of removing recess as a punishment, the students gain self-confidence, selfcontrol, and are afforded the much needed opportunity to exercise and engage in social interactions while enjoying fresh air. As well, a deeper understanding of probability can be obtained when teachers share with students that the more tickets earned for positive behavior the greater chance they have of winning a small prize at the conclusion of class. The prizes do not have to be expensive. Teachers can use free homework passes, one-onone lunch coupons, or classroom privileges.
21 Appendix B Cooperative Learning via a Safe Post-Secondary Learning Environment At the college level, learners can engage in meaningful cooperative learning opportunities in which each individual is assigned a specific task with the outcome resulting in the ability to rationalize and reason through course content. Too often, the classroom environment at the college level follows a teacher-centered approach with less emphasis on student-centered learning. If we are to promote successful educators, competent and knowledgeable in what it means to engage all learners, we have to not only verbalize our expectations as college faculty, but also provide hands-on opportunities that will solidify what effective cooperative structures entail.
22 Appendix C Integration of Meaningful Movement at the Elementary Level Signs can be strategically placed throughout the classroom in which students are prompted to navigate to the area that corresponds with their answer choice. Upon arrival at their destination, students can engage in meaningful conversations with those who have a similar answer/response. This promotes critical thinking
and helps students to learn to effectively cooperate with one another. Furthermore, communication skills and a deeper understanding of diverse outcomes can be enhanced by having groups report their findings to the whole class. As well, this process provides a visual assessment for the teacher to gauge the success, or lack thereof, of targeted learning objectives.
23 Appendix D Integration of Meaningful Movement at the Post-Secondary Level When faculty members, at the college level, provide learning experiences that extend beyond the traditional method of lecturing, learners are afforded the opportunity to engage the mind and body. Such learning opportunities not only build content knowledge and peer relations, but they also extend a deeper understanding to pre-service teachers regarding what it means to teach to the multiple intelligences
. As an added bonus to this teaching method, adult learners unveil heightened focus and attention to the task at hand. The same is true for elementary students. This method works well for the majority of learners, but particularly well for individuals diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).
24 Developing Cultural Competence through Problem Posing and Multicultural Children's Literature Gayla Lohfink, Ph.D. Wichita State University Laurie Curtis, Ph.D. Kansas State University Abstract Increasing diversity in Kansas elementary school
s is challenging educators to teach culturally and linguistically diverse students effectively. Unfortunately, research shows teachers as lacking in necessary cultural competencies. This article shares a multicultural picture book action-research project and shows how pre-service teachers constructed pedagogy by selecting literature that drew upon their students' funds of knowledge. Implementation of the same project in practicing teachers' classrooms revealed their self-reflections of students' cultural connections frequently, but more often, the teachers' reflections focused on students' connections to the curriculum. This observation prompted an alternative problem-posing approach for utilizing multicultural literature to be presented for teachers. Implementing multicultural children's literature...has helped me to see that my students grow up different than I did and come from different backgrounds and have different families than I do, and it is something I need to remember when planning for my students... [and] not try to get students to fit into the way I feel comfortable teaching... (Pre-service teacher's self-reflection after reading aloud a multicultural picture book in a practicum setting - March, 2012). Transforming one's cultural landscape
, as this pre-service teacher's reflection demonstrates, requires examining one's personal understandings and recognizing "vacancies" in previous experiences--holes that when recognized leave lasting impressions and prompt one to change the "status quo in education" (Szecsi, Spillman, Vбzquez-Montilla, & Mayberry, 2010, p. 44). Teacher education programs have worked at bringing about changes in mainstream education and particularly the cultural competencies of their candidates for some time (Ming & Dukes, 2006). Incorporating multicultural educational training to facilitate candidates' awareness, knowledge, and skills to more successfully teach students from cultures other than their own is common (Pang, Stein, Gomez, matas, & Shimogori, 2011). Unfortunately, research shows that while practicing teachers are aware and knowledgeable of diversity issues and support multicultural teaching, they fail to consistently and effectively implement cultural practices in their classrooms (Leighton & Harkins, 2010). Such evidence, coupled with the growing diversity in our Kansas elementary classrooms (Center for Public Education, 2009), urges us, as literacy teacher educators, to seek ways that better develop our preservice and (ultimately) practicing teachers' cultural competencies.
25 As such, the intent of this article is to share our multicultural picture book actionresearch project (Author & Author, 2012) and show how pre-service teachers construct pedagogy by selecting literature that draws upon their students' "funds of knowledge" (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992, p. 133). We also examine how such pedagogy alone does not result in culturally competent teachers with "behaviors that illustrate culturally sensitive interactions with diverse groups" (Leighton & Harkins, 2010) and offer an approach for how elementary teachers might utilize multicultural literature to further deepen their cultural teaching competencies. Cultural Competence and Multicultural Literature According to Ming & Dukes (2006), a teacher's cultural competence is measured by how successful he/she is at teaching students from cultures other than his/her own. It involves teachers' knowing how to "tap into the diverse cultures of their students to make learning meaningful and comprehensible" (Pang et al., 2011, p. 560). Teachers can design effective cultural pedagogy by bringing together students, instructional methods, and "materials that are imbued with cultural patterns of students' everyday lives" (Hefflin, 2002, pp. 232-33). Multicultural literature is such material because it reflects the values, facts, and attitudes or the deep structure of a culture, as well as its historical perspectives (Szecsi et al., 2006). Because "it is a safe place to display culture in an interactive and positive way (teacher candidate's self-reflection)," we developed an action-research multicultural picture book project for our teacher candidates. Each semester, we review the project data, modify and enhance the project, and consider how multicultural literature can impact both pre-service and practicing teachers' cultural competencies. Our reflections help us determine how we, as teacher educators, can facilitate candidates' transformation into culturally responsive educators. Multicultural Picture Book Project Our multicultural picture book project began with pre-service teachers' inquiry of quality, dual-language children's picture books--books that reflected the most prominent languages in their practicum settings. Each teacher candidate selected and researched one picture book to share orally with his/her class members. Their presentations included research, a selected oral reading, evaluation of the picture book in terms of its quality as a multicultural literacy tool, and classroom application ideas. As our candidates reflected upon this assignment, 98% of them reported that the use of these books had raised their awareness of such literature as effective tools for increasing cultural sensitivity. To increase our candidates' inquiry and depth of investigation relative to multicultural literature, we added Technological tools
--Glogster (www.glogster.edu/) and VoiceThreadTM--to the picture book project. Through technology, our pre-service teachers probed for additional content and thus enhanced their knowledge of a book itself, the author, illustrator, and thematic implications by examining the literature from varying perspectives.
26 Our candidates' cultural knowledge has been most impacted by the requirement that they implement the book in a read-aloud within their practicum classroom that draws upon their students' "funds of knowledge" (Moll et al., 1992, p. 133). Sixty-seven percent of their self-reflections following these read-aloud events showed how multicultural literature as a pedagogical tool helped them to see how such methodology framed their students' cultural references and responses instead of their own. Beyond the Multicultural Picture Book Project Recently, we extended the multicultural picture book project to practicing teachers--two kindergarten teachers in a diverse, urban elementary school. Using similar procedures and action-research methodology, we observed how multicultural literature impacted their pedagogical understandings, as they, too, read aloud selected picture books based upon their students' funds of knowledge. While the teachers often reflected upon the children's cultural connections to the books (32% of their self-reflections), they more often reflected (nearly 66%) upon how the children interacted with the literature relative to the reading curriculum (characters, inferences, vocabulary, etc.). Such observations suggest to us that pre-service and practicing teachers' implementation of multicultural literature read alouds is not enough. As Ming & Dukes (2006) noted, using these materials as "add-on[s]" (p. 46) within school routines will not transform the mainstream reading curriculum. Additional strategies are needed to help teachers design and consistently practice culturally relevant pedagogy. Thus, the use of literature within a problem-posing approach is offered. Problem-posing with Multicultural Literature Quintero (2004) maintains that "problem-posing teaching using children's literature supports meaningful learning" (p. 57). An example of problem-posing with multicultural literature is a recent group of Kansas elementary students inquiring, "How does need and access to clean water affect children all over the world?" These particular students were learning about the country of Ethiopia in preparation of their teacher's forthcoming educational visit. To do this, they participated in the reading of several children's books about Ethiopia: The Perfect Orange, The Storyteller's Beads, Fire on the Mountain, and Only a Pigeon. Additionally, they studied a book entitled Our World of Water by Beatrice Hollyer. While the first books provided a historical and cultural understanding of Ethiopia and her people, the book by Hollyer provided a means for students to connect personally to the children in Ethiopia via a common topic--the availability and use of water. The students engaged in meaningful conversations based upon their knowledge about the uses of water, yet their understanding was limited by personal experience
s. How was water used, accessed, and valued by others throughout the world? Through studying the literature, the students considered multiple perspectives in determining how access to clean water might affect the opportunity students have to attend school, remain healthy, and/or take care of family and animals. They took a field trip to a nearby river and wrote stories to share what they had learned. After illustrating the stories, and leaving
27 room on the page for translation into Amharic, a predominant language in Ethiopia, their teacher took the books to Ethiopia, so that Ethiopian students could learn about rivers in Kansas. Truly, with the help of children's literature, these Kansas students reflected on meaningful concepts in profound ways. Our suggested approaches with multicultural literature can help Kansas teachers reconceptualize pedagogies relevant to CLD students, for such transformations may foster their cultural competencies and ultimately impact children. References Author & Author. (2012). Facilitating pre-service teachers' cultural responsiveness through multicultural literature. The Journal of Multiculturalism in Education, 7(2), 1-21. Center for Public Education, (2009). The United States of Education: The changing demographics of the United States and its schools. Retrieved from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/ Hefflin, B. R. (2002). Learning to develop culturally relevant pedagogy: A lesson about cornrowed lives. The Urban Review, 34(3), 231-250. Leighton, L., & Harkins, M. J. (2010). Teachers' perceptions of their cultural competencies: An investigation into the relationships among teacher characteristics and cultural competence. Journal of Multicultural Education, 6(2), 1-28. Ming, K., & Dukes, C. (2006). Fostering cultural competence through school-based routines. Multicultural Education, 14(1), 42-48. Moll, L. C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 132-141. Pang, V. O., Stein, R., Gomez, M., Matas, A., & Shimogori, Y. (2011). Cultural competencies: Essential elements of caring-centered multicultural education. Action in Teacher Education 2011 Yearbook, 33(5/6), 560-574. Quintero, E. P. (2004). Will I lose a tooth? Will I learn to read? Problem posing with multicultural children's literature. Young Children, 59(3), 56-62. Szecsi, T., Spillman, C., Vбzquez-Montilla, Mayberry, S. C. (2010). Transforming teacher cultural landscapes by reflecting on multicultural literature. Multicultural Education, 17(4), 44-48. Children's Literature Cited Araujo, F. P., & Xiao-Jun Li. (1994). The perfect orange: A tale from Ethiopia. Windsor, CA: Rayve Productions. Hollyer, B. (2009). Our world of water. New York: Henry Holt. Kurtz, J., & Kurtz, C. (1997). Only a pigeon. New York: Simon and Schuster. Kurtz, J. (1998). Fire on the mountain. New York: Aladdin. Kurtz, J. (1998). The storyteller's beads. New York: Harcourt.
28 Where Are All the Women? Gender Bias Persists in Social Studies Texts Tim Fry, Ph.D. Washburn University Brenna S. Hofelt Washburn University Introduction Creating an inclusive and a more equitable classroom is a goal that all educators should continually strive for. One area of concern is that many girls and young women do not see themselves in curriculum materials--especially in the social studies. In the social studies methods class I teach, my students are exposed to several forms of bias often found in social studies textbooks. The students are also shown some of the bias I found in two 7th grade social studies texts in a study I did in the early 1990s. Then as part of a textbook analysis assignment, my students examine another social studies textbook for gender bias. One former student of mine and co-researcher of this article greatly expanded the project and examined several social studies texts currently in use in the local area schools. What she found in her study was that "women are still grossly underrepresented in our schools' social studies textbooks, and misrepresentation of women's' contributions in history and stereotypical gender-roles in today's educational materials is still a problematic issue (Hofelt, 2012)." Combining my student's research with the project I did in the early 1990s created a longevity study of gender bias in social studies textbooks. Below we will provide some literature review
s on textbook bias, highlight some of the various forms of bias often found in textbooks and then provide data in table format derived from the examination of several social studies books used in local school districts
. We will also briefly explore some possible reasons for the persistence of gender bias in social studies textbooks. Literature Review A review of the literature on textbook bias turned up numerous studies dating back to the 1960s that showed there was gender bias in social studies textbooks (Blakenship, 1984, Sadker, et al 1995). Research analyzing gender bias in social studies textbooks was further developed with the 1970s feminist movement in what many consider the "second wave" of the women's rights movement--the first wave happening in the mid-1800s. However, Blumberg (2007) notes that 1970s research showed women's contributions in textbooks to be nearly non-existent. Black (2006) noted that throughout the 1970's that there were efforts by "publishing companies to adopt gender fair guidelines" and that by the 1980s, research showed that equity in gender representation had "increased slightly" though it was not yet fully equitable.
29 By the 1990s, textbook studies reveal "modest improvements," that perhaps may be attributed to the early feminist movement in the 70s (Blumberg, 2007). Black (2006) notes that even though significant improvements were visible in incorporating women into textbooks, evidence verified that they "still lacked gender equity." Delaney (1996) noted "marginalized" contributions of women in history texts and described the changes as "superficial" and only "cosmetic." In the last few decades, textbook publishers have made changes to make the content more equitable, the fact remains that gender bias "is decreasing very slowly" (Blumberg, 2009). Hickey & Kolterman (2006) noted that social studies textbooks "largely portray woman as passive bystanders in the world's events, with fewer than 11 percent of textbook images and references devoted to specific women." Thompson (2003) sums it up by noting, "We have century's worth of sexist socialization to overcome." An important rationale for looking at textbooks is that studies have shown that textbooks are the main instructional tools used in schools and therefore largely determine curriculum (Blumberg, 2007). More succinctly, Blumberg reports that students spend on average 85% of their time in the classroom using textbooks. Blumberg also notes that research indicates that teachers not only use textbooks as instructional tools, but that the content in the text largely guides their teaching intentions. In light of this importance, texts should be examined because any forms of bias by race or sex might result in "psychological, social, educational, and economic harm" to students (O'Donnell, 1973). Students receive so many cues about gender role behavior that they psychologically limit themselves to traditional roles that can result in a lowered sense of dignity and self-worth. Sociologically, biased texts can show young women that they are at inferior status to males. Educationally and economically, young women are steered away from prestigious and highly paid lines of work (Schenk, 1976). Forms of Bias in Texts A review of the literature also turned up some articles with suggestions for selecting equitable textbooks (O'Donnell, 1973; Blakenship, 1984; Bally & Smith, 1987). According to these articles, photographs should be examined because of their ability to spark interest and because they tend to leave lasting impressions. Pictures play a huge role in early sex-role socialization by providing children with role models
of what they want to be when they grow up. Pictures then, have a large influence on the goals and aspirations of students and social studies books should present images that help students reach their potential (O'Donnell, 1973). When checking pictures, see how many women are the main or dominant characters in illustrations or photographs. Lack of women results in a form of bias that Sadker and Sadker (1982) have classified as "invisibility" and that omitting half of the world's population cheats young women as "women have had among them many wise and brave leaders...."
30 Another problem with pictures is that they commonly only show women in the traditional role of housewife, nurse, secretary and waitress while men are shown in prestigious positions like general, explorer or athlete. This form of bias is known as stereotyping. It is also stereotyping when women are shown with character traits like passiveness and weakness while men are characterized by traits of strength and competitiveness (Bally and Smith, 1987). Another suggestion in examining gender bias in social studies texts is to look at the index. The fact that many indexes of social studies books have a category entitled "women" but no social studies books have an index that contains a category entitled "men" points out a form of bias that the Sadkers (1982) have labeled as "imbalance". Texts tend to be written from a one-sided male perspective, which give students a limited point of view on the contributions and participation of women throughout history. Frequency tabulations can be totaled on the number of men and women cited in the index. The main text should be examined by looking at the page numbers given under the index entry "women" to see if it deals with any issues sensitive to women like division of labor, suffrage or discrimination. If there are issues sensitive to women, check to see if the issue is developed or glassed over in what the Sadkers (1982) have called "unreality". The main text can also be examined for sexist language in what the Sadker's have labeled "linguistic bias". Masculine terms like caveman, forefathers and mankind deny any major contributions of women. Occupational titles like mailman and policeman deny participation by women in those fields (Sacker, et al., 1993). The main written text should also be examined for omission of individual contributions of women. This would be considered a form of invisibility because individual women are not noted and without any important contributions (Bally & Smith, 1987). Special highlighted sections can be checked for the inclusion of women but these sections can sometimes be compensatory insertions and are obvious attempts to make the text seem more equitable. This type of bias is what the Sadkers have referred to as "fragmentation" and tends to communicate to readers that women are "interesting diversions" but not important enough to be included in the main part of the text (Sadker, et al., 1993). Textbooks Analyzed To examine the textbooks, an instrument was developed to tabulate some of the above mentioned forms of bias and the results of that tabulation can be found in the tables below. Eight texts were examined in all covering grade levels of 3rd through 8th grade. Two of the 7th grade texts were from the earlier study from the 1990s and had copyrights of 1978 and 1990. The remaining six are more recent and several are still in use in local school districts. Photos, illustrations, art images of men and women were documented and we specifically looked for the dominant figure in each image. If no gender was apparent, the image was not counted. Equal representation of both men and women in an image was counted as neutral. We also looked specifically at the index, and noted the
number of contributions of women compared to those noted for men. Each textbook was analyzed from the first page of the first chapter, to the last page of the last chapter.
It was surprising to see how little improvement there was in both photographs and index citations over a thirty-year span. The problem of visibility for women in all of the texts was easily evident. In the newer texts, modern or contemporary photos tended to show more females doing more active types of things. However, anytime the newer texts dealt with an illustration or picture from a historical section, it often reverted back to that old tradition of exclusion and stereotyping. It was also interesting to note that the disparity in the amount of written text on the two genders is even greater than the disparity in the number of photos. Numbers from the textbook analysis also indicate that the higher the grade level and more advanced the content was, the female to male representation ratio gap got wider.
Textbook: 3rd Grade Houghton Mifflin, Social Studies: Communities (2005)
Index category/number listed Individual Contributions Fragmented Text Photos, Illustrations, and Art Images
Women/Girls no 11 4 46
Men/Boys no 25 8 63
Textbook: 4th Grade Harcourt Horizons, States and Regions (2005)
Index category/number listed Individual Contributions Fragmented Text Photos, Illustrations, and Art Images
Women/Girls Yes/5 10 4 32
Men/Boys no 40 19 66
Textbook: 5th Grade, Houghton Mifflin, Social Studies: United States History (2005)
Index category/number listed Individual Contributions Fragmented Text Photos, Illustrations, and Art Images
Women/Girls Yes/15 48 22 74
Men/Boys no 195 14 193
Textbook: 6th Grade, Scott Foresman, Social Studies: The World (2005)
Index category/number listed Individual Contributions Fragmented Text Photos, Illustrations, and Art Images
Women/Girls Yes/20 34 11 48
Men/Boys no 85 17 167
Textbook: 7th Grade, Harcourt Horizons, Ancient Civilizations (2003)
Index category/number listed Individual Contributions Fragmented Text Photos, Illustrations, and Art Images
Women/Girls Yes/16 17 4 29
Men/Boys no 111 10 68
Textbook: 7th Grade, Silver, Burdett and Ginn Inc., The World Yesterday and Today (1990)
Index category/number listed Individual Contributions Fragmented Text Photos, Illustrations, and Art Images
Women/Girls Yes/12 12 4 36
Men/Boys no 109 8 105
Textbook: 7th Grade, Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., The Old World (1978)
Index category/number listed Individual Contributions Fragmented Text Photos, Illustrations, and Art Images
Women/Girls Yes/4 4 0 21
Men/Boys no 70 0 89
Text: 8th Grade, McDougal Littell, Creating America: A History of the United States (2005)
Index category/number listed Individual Contributions Fragmented Text Photos, Illustrations, and Art Images
Women/Girls Yes/24 111 12 77
Men/Boys no 577 20 299
33 Women in History Women have always been a part of our pre-history and written histories, but Hickey and Kolterman (2006) state that "our society has not always recognized their contributions." Women of the past and present have not played passive roles in the hidden shadows of half-truths. "Women have contributed and continue to contribute to the nation, through important economic, cultural and social roles, and are leaders on the forefront of social change movements" (Hickey & Kolterman, 2006). The following are three examples of women who have all made significant contributions during their time, though not a single one was mentioned in any of the analyzed textbooks. These are only three extraordinary women out of millions who have contributed to society and the world. Mary Edwards Walker (1832-1919): American Civil War surgeon for the Union Army. Walker is the only woman ever to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor. (http://www.northnet.org/stlawrenceaauw/walker.htm) Sarah Winnemucca (1844-1891): Born a member of the Paiute tribe, she was a prominent Native American activist and writer. Winnemucca was the first Native American woman known to have a published book. (http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/winnemucca.cfm) Hedy Lamarr (1913-2000): Austrian-American accomplished actress and co-inventor of a radio transmission system used in WWII, which would later be the foundation for wireless communication. (http://www.inventions.org/culture/female/lamarr.html) The point is that these women have all contributed to our histories in the United States and the world, yet they are not be included in any of these social studies texts! Persistence of Gender Bias in Textbooks Textbooks are costly to create and also to purchase, thus publishers will only make additions or minor changes to consecutive series. According to Blumberg (2009), carrying out a complete overhaul of textbooks "to eliminate this bias is quite unlikely, partly because it is very costly." Unfortunately, cost and lack of funding have shown to play a large role in the slow pace of revisions in educational materials. Due to a decline in federal funding, research in developing equity in curricula has dropped off the radar and resources have been allocated elsewhere (Blumberg, 2007). Blumberg also notes the focus of high-stakes testing--focus on meeting AYP and teaching students to pass state assessments, is the overriding force in today's classroom. There may also be a general belief that equity in schools is not an issue, and as research has found, there is a "commonly held belief that gender equity has been realized" (Blumberg, 2007). If the general public feels that there is no longer a problem of equity in the classroom, then there will no longer be a push for change. Recent studies also show that men are filling social studies teaching positions, now more than ever (Blumberg, 2007). It may for hard for a male educator to address said bias if he hasn't experienced it before. If gender bias
34 in social studies textbooks and educational materials is to ever be fully be acknowledged and resolved, gender equity needs to be a topic of discussion in teacher education. Putting Equality into the Social Studies History and social studies are important. Addressing inequality of gender in social studies is important. Making a connection of history to students' experiences makes for a genuine source of awareness and understanding. As students become active participants in the "history-gathering process, their thinking and reasoning skills improve, their academic achievement
increases, their sense of self-worth is enhanced, and their curiosity is piqued (Hickey & Kolterman, 2006). Students are more apt to find importance in social studies materials when they can see themselves in the curriculum. According to Chapman (2012), "Using texts that omit contributions of women, that tokenize the experiences of women, or those that stereotype gender roles, further compounds gender bias in a schools' curriculum." Inequality of gender in social studies teaching materials is almost like teaching students only half of the histories of the world. Women are real, their histories are real, and they have made contributions to the social studies. Educators need to be aware of gender bias in educational materials so that it may be eliminated (Chapman, 2012). When gender bias does occur, "Teachers can help students identify gender bias in texts and facilitate critical discussions as to why that bias exists" (Chapman, 2012). Being conscious of said bias is the first step not only in schools to create equality, but also in society. Knowing bias is out there, and then addressing the inequality is the key to change in our future. Thompson (2003) discusses feminist's theories which state that the focus should be on bringing gender bias out of the dark so then it can be addressed and prevented from further occurring. "If there is a place to start to change how we think of ourselves in relation to one another, the public schools however hostile to change themselves may yet be that place" (Thompson, 2003). References Ada, A. F., Bacon, P., Hammond, W. D., & Hilliard III, A. G. (2003). Ancient Civilizations. United States: Harcourt Horizons. Arnsdorf, A. (1990). The World Yesterday and Today. New Jersey : Silver, Burdett & Ginn. Bally, G. D., & Smith, N. J. (1987). The Rural Administrator's Role in Achieving Sex Equity of Curriculum. The Rural Educator, 9 (1). Blankenship, G. (1984). How to test a textbook for sexism. Social Education, 48, 282284. Berson, M. J., & Bednarz, R. (2005). States and Regions. United States: Harcourt Horizons. Black, L. J. (2006). Textbooks, Gender, and world history
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. In K.Vandergrift (Ed.), Ways of Knowing: Literature and the Intellectual Life of Children. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. Female Inventors: Hedy Lamarr. (2005) Inventors Assistance League. Retrieved April 3, 2012, from http://www.inventions.org/culture/female/lamarr.html Garcia, J., Ogle, D. M., Risinger, C. F., & Stevos, J. (2005). Creating America: A History of the United States. Illinois: McDougal Littell. Hickey, G. M. & Kolterman, D. L. (2006). Special Women in My Life: Strategies for Writing Women into the Social Studies Curriculum. Social Education, 70(4), 190196. Hofelt. B. (2012). Where did all the women go? A literature review and textbook analysis of gender bias in educational materials within the social studies. Unpublished paper presented at the student Aperion, Washburn University, April 20, 2012 Lefferts, W., &. Soifer, I. (1978). The Old World. New York : Macmillan. Mary Edwards Walker: Civil War Doctor. American Association of University Women. Retrieved April 3, 2012, from http://www.northnet.org/stlawrenceaauw/walker.htm O'Donnell, R.W. (1973). Sex bias in primary social studies textbooks. Educational Leadership,31,137-141. Olser, A. (1994). Still Hidden from History? The Representation of Women in Recently Published History Textbooks. Oxford Review of Education, 20(2), 219-235. Sarah Minnemucca. Architect of the Capital. Retrieved April 3, 2012, from http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/winnemucca.cfm Sadker, M., Sadker, D.(1982). Sex equity handbook for schools. New York: Longman. Sadker, M., Sadker, D., Long, L. (1993). Gender and educational equality. In J.A. Banks and C.A. McGee Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Schenck, J. (1976). Sexism in textbooks: a guide to detection. American Vocational Journal, Oct., 42-44. Thompson, A. (2003). Caring in Context: Four Feminist Theories on Gender and Education. Curriculum Inquiry, 33(1), 9-65. Viola, H. J., Jennings, C., Bednarz, S. W., Schug, M. C., Cortes, C. E., & White, C. S. (2005). Social Studies: Communities . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Viola, H. J., Jennings, C., Bednarz, S. W., Schug, M. C., Cortes, C. E., & White, C. S. (2005). Social Studies: United States History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
36 Zittleman, K., & Sadker, D. (2003). Teacher Education Textbooks: The Unfinished Gender Revolution. Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://www.sadker.org/textbooks.html