37 new reports added on May 20, 2003, S Germans

Tags: Germany, Adolf Hitler, Stalin, Bomber Command, Sudeten Germans, America, the Red Army, London, Soviet Union, National Socialist, National Socialist Germany, National Socialists, Der Staat Hitlers, German Christians, England, German history, Protestant churches, Central Christian Church, David Irving, Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church, Destruction of Dresden, Soviet Foreign Office, German hyperinflation, Hitler, Soviet premier, Soviet Russia, Sudeten German, British naval blockade, team Harris, Dutch government, German government, Soviet aggression, Bomber Harris
Content: Hidden Historical Fact: The Allied Attempt to Starve Germany in 1919. Fred Blahut. If one word could describe Germany during the immediate aftermath of World War I, it would be "starvation." Even after an armistice ended World War I, some 900,000 German men, women and children were starving to death - a tragedy deliberately caused by the continuation of a wartime British naval blockade for eight months after the end of the war! [56Kb / 1 page] Germany's 1923 Hyperinflation: A "Private" Affair. Stephen Zarlenga. The great German hyperinflation of 1922-23 is one of the most widely cited examples by those who insist that private bankers, not governments, should control the money system. What is practically unknown about that sordid affair is that it occurred under control of a privately owned and controlled central bank! [73Kb / 1 page] Stalin's Secret War Plans: Why Hitler Invaded the Soviet Union. Richard Tedor. When the German armed forces invaded the USSR on June 22, 1941, Berlin described the offensive as preemptive in the face of imminent Soviet aggression. The claim was generally dismissed as Nazi propaganda. Recently disclosed evidence from Soviet sources, however, indicate that Moscow's foreign policy was indeed anything but governed by neutrality when Europe went to war in 1939. [97Kb / 1 page] 37 new reports added on May 20, 2003: Documents on the Expulsion of the Sudeten Germans: Survivors speak out. Edited by the Study Group for the Preservation of Sudeten German Interests. The end of the war in 1945 marked the beginning of one of the most gruesome genocides in history: the expulsion and destruction of the Sudeten Germans. In a scandalous perversion of every sense of justice, the Federal German government now keeps this Holocaust secret: the truth about this genocide is considered undesirable!!! Here almost 400 survivors of this ethnic cleansing expose this crime against humanity in its entire horrible extent - a long-overdue memorial to our expelled and murdered fellow Germans. Concentration Camp Money: 'Lagergeld' used to Pay Prisoners for Their Work. Jennifer White. Far from being the "death camps" as you have heard so often, places like Auschwitz, Dachau and Buchenwald were not in the business of extermination. They were work camps, critical to the German war effort. But did you know that the Jewish workers were compensated for their labor with scrip printed specifically for their use in stores, canteens and even brothels? Here is the story of the money the court historians do not want you to even suspect existed. [82Kb / 1 page] The Facts About the Origins of the Concentration Camps and Their
Administration. Stephen A. Raper. Here's a fascinating look at the concentration camp system inside Third Reich Germany, devoid of the hysteria often associated with the subject in Hollywood films and in the "mainstream" media and academia. This article may be the first-ever detailed examination of the concentration camp system, presenting a far different picture from what we've been told. [75Kb / 1 page] Germans helped build America - and how has America repaid them? Heinrich Piebrock. This booklet describes the contribution of German immigrants to the United States and to America's struggle for independence and development - and it also shows how the American leadership elite betrayed this ethnic group that contributed so much to the American rise to world power. [212Kb / 6 pages] The Great Patents Heist. John Nugent. One of the greatest ripoffs of all time was the theft of German patents after World War II. From saccharin and aspirin to refrigeration, radio and space flight technology, the victorious Allies ensured their post-War scientific lead and prosperity by simply stealing German inventions - literally thousands of tons of patents. As one gloating Washington bureaucrat put it, it was "the first orderly exploitation of an entire country's brain power." [93Kb / 1 page] Holocaust at Dresden. George Fowler. A half century has passed since February 13-14, 1945. Overnight, one of Europe's great meccas of art and culture, a city that had become a hospital center for German, American and British wounded that housed many thousand Allied prisoners of war, and that had become a haven to refugees fleeing the Red Army, was bombed into oblivion. But the perpetrators of one of history's great outrages were to receive the laurels of glorious victory rather than a place in the war crimes dock. [174Kb / 1 page] "the holocaust never happened"... says Lea Rosh! National Journal. Don't be fooled by this title - what's behind it is something quite different from tired old "Holocaust denial"! Rather, the socalled "Holocaust-Lobby" itself is now making use of this slogan to finance their memorial projects... [24Kb / 1 page] The Jewish Declaration of War on Nazi Germany: The Economic Boycott of 1933. M. Raphael Johnson, Ph.D. Who "fired the first shot" of the Second World War? Long before the government of the Third Reich began restricting the rights of the German Jews, the leaders of the worldwide Jewish community formally declared war on the "New Germany" at a time when the U.S. government and even the Jewish leaders in Germany were urging caution! [71Kb / 1 page] The National Socialist Stand on Christianity and Hitler and the Church. Article by Rev. Thomas D. Schwartz, and a speech by Adolf Hitler. The Nazis are sometimes portrayed as ardent foes of Christianity. But what were the true facts in this controversial matter? This article, as well as the Fьhrer's speech of January 30, 1939 (added by The Scriptorium as a supplement to Rev. Schwartz's study), reveal some facts on this topic which are just as surprising as they are little-known. [83Kb / 1 page] Sudeten German Inferno. The hushed-up tragedy of the Sudeten Germans. Ingomar Pust. This book sheds light on the deeply shocking tragedy of what happened to the Sudeten Germans, an ethnic minority in Czechoslovakia, after the end of World War Two. Following a concise introduction to the history of German-Czech relations, it describes the genocide committed by the Czechs on the Sudeten Germans after 1945. The horror of this sadistic danse macabre that took place in Czechoslovakia in full view of an uncaring world can perhaps never be conveyed in its full extent. [826Kb / 20 pages] The Unknown History of the 1939 German-Polish Conflict: A Brief Synopsis. W. R. An overview of the roots of Polish Germanophobia and its role in the outbreak of World War Two. [63Kb / 1 page] Was Hitler Really a Dictator? Friedrich Christian, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe. This is the
first-hand account of a nobleman who knew Adolf Hitler personally and who paints a picture of the German Fьhrer and his time that stands in glaring contrast to that painted by the Establishment. Translation of issue 86 of the series "Kritik: Die Stimme des Volkes". [261Kb / 11 pages] Who Broke the Disarmament Treaty of Versailles? Declaration of the Government of the German Reich. Fichtebundblatt No. 741. [17Kb / 1 page] Why 7000 Children Had to Die: The Cruel Fate of German Refugees in Denmark. Article from the Hamburger Abendblatt. So much for the Danish claims that German civilian refugees at the war's end were treated decently! [6Kb / 1 page] Worm in the Apple: German traitors and other influences that pushed the world into war - The little-known story of the men who destroyed Adolf Hitler's Germany. Friedrich Lenz. Entire books have been written on the topic of "why Germany lost the War" - or, conversely, "why the Allies won". This booklet exposes a vitally important, but often underestimated factor: the German traitors who worked to destroy the German Reich from within. Their attempted assassination of Adolf Hitler on July 20, 1944 was only the tip of the iceberg. More and more, it appears that the Allies would not have been victorious without their help - and that, in fact, the war might never even have come about without their machinations! [685Kb / 21 pages] The Case for Germany: A Study of Modern Germany. A. P. Laurie, M.A.Cantab., D.Sc., LL.D.Edin., F.C.S., F.R.S.E. This rare 1939 treatise by a Scottish scholar gives a view of National-Socialist Germany that was denied the English-speaking peoples by their politically and financially controlled mainstream press. Czecho-Slovakia: the Naked Truth about the World-War Plot. G. Lane-Fox Pitt-Rivers. A Captain of the Royal Dragoons' 1938 account of the situation in Czechoslovakia and the Sudetenland, addressing the questions of who wanted war; why; who would profit by it; and how was England concerned? This is the exposй which might have triggered popular resistance in England to the British involvement in the War - if only more Englishmen and -women had read it! Death in Poland. The 1939 Martyrdom of the Ethnic Germans in Poland. Edwin Erich Dwinger. The expulsion and mass murder of the ethnic Germans before and at the start of World War Two in Poland was by no means restricted to the Bloody Sunday of Bromberg, a massacre that is all too often downplayed or even denied outright today. This book, dating from 1940, lets the reader experience almost first-hand the terrible fate of tens of thousands of ethnic Germans in Poland in September 1939. A shameful blot on the pages of Polish history, for all Polish post-War generations to bear for all time! An Examination of British War Crimes During World War Two. Vivian Bird. What Germany has paid under the treaty of Versailles. Prof. Lujo Brentano. Some links to other rare or banned books on the Net: Bombing Vindicated, J. M. Spaight.
The Crime of Our Age, Rev. Dr. Ludwig A. Fritsch. Foundations of Contemporary History: A Handbook on Controversial Questions of the Twentieth Century, ed. Ernst Gauss. Germany Must Perish, Theodore N. Kaufman. The High Cost of Vengeance, Freda Utley. PDF format. The Image of the Germans in Polish Literature, Else Lцser. Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler. The "Morgenthau Plan", Henry Morgenthau. Polish Atrocities Against the German Minority in Poland, pub. Foreign Office. The Second Babylonian Captivity: the Fate of the Jews in Eastern Europe since 1941, Steffen Werner.
Quote of the Week:
[Deutsch]
If you don't see a ticker here, your browser does not support Java. (earlier Quotes of the Week) In politics and history - two disciplines linked closely by cause-and-effect relationships - there is a mainstream school of thought which is shaped and guided by vested interests such as, for example, lobby groups and the behind-the-scenes forces whose purpose they serve. In either discipline - or in any other subject, for that matter - an incomplete understanding of more than just the officially sanctioned side prevents one from making the correct decisions and drawing informed conclusions.
Obviously, where a mainstream school of thought is useful to an Establishment, any nonmainstream views are detrimental to those who benefit from the status quo. From this perspective, people who would rather think for themselves, and/or who have something to say that does not support these mainstream views, are undesirable - and all too often are silenced. We at The Scriptorium believe that this is classically evident in publishing, education and any other endeavor related to the presentation of history to the "consumer public", and that a distinct pattern of stressing one side while distorting and hushing-up the other has become standard practice with regard to the fairly recent history of Germany and of the Second World War in particular. After all, when was the last time you or your children heard about crimes committed by Nazi Germany, and when was the last time you saw a book about the Holocaust on your local bookstore shelf? We're willing to bet that it wasn't very long ago. In contrast, when was the last time your public education system taught about the expulsion, butchery and mass murder committed against the German women, children and civilians in the Sudetenland or the Banat, and when was the last time you saw a movie or TV program about life and death in the American post-War(!) concentration camps along the Rhine and elsewhere? What about the Valentine's Day cremation of the undefended hospital city Dresden by the British and Americans? What's that you say - you've never even heard of these things? Well, that's our point exactly.
For our efforts towards making these things public, we have been accused of "racism", "Holocaust denial", "re-writing history", "hatemongering", "stretching the limits of free speech", and the list goes on. Yet how is it "racism" or "hate" to point out that ethnic Germans were at the receiving end of unspeakable brutalities in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, and other nations? If anything, that shows "racism" and "hate" directed at us!
Do we advocate criminal retaliation for these crimes? No! All we want is for these facts to be acknowledged. - How is it "denial" to point out, for example, that some early 20th-century British writers, statesmen etc. had good things to say about Hitler and the Third Reich, or to show that Germans too were victims of genocides and atrocities? Saying that "ABC happened" does not equal or even imply that "XYZ did not happen". - And how is it "rewriting history" to point out uncomfortable historical facts such as "ABC" that can be verified elsewhere by anyone who cares to take the time and to go to the extra effort to look beyond his standard-issue schoolbooks? Do the "limits of free speech" exclude the accounts of certain victims because they happen to be German? Excuse us for saying so, but isn't that... um... racist? Corroborating information about all we publish on this site this exists aplenty, but on the whole it is not openly accessible, and for good reason. The Establishment that benefits from the public ignorance about these matters takes great care to keep it from trickling into public awareness, as such a trickle might start a flood that could wash the foundations out from under it. More often than not, it takes idealists who have resisted the lure of the Big Money to be made in the mainstream media, to publish this forgotten history for the sake of a truthful and balanced world view, and for the sake of doing justice to the memory of the forgotten victims whose suffering was no less real than that of those who enjoy a forum in the mainstream spotlight. We at The Scriptorium are proud to do our part by making some of this information publicly available via the Internet. Our online archive is intended as a resource for honest and introspective minds who prefer to leave the mainstream of the masses in favor of calmer waters where they can come to their own conclusions and understanding. Are you one of these freethinkers? Are you tired of having the same old black-and-white view of history shoved down your throat day in and day out by the Establishment whose vested interests it appeals to? A prejudiced view of history that more often than not tramples our German history into the dirt and resorts to falsification and suppression of information in order to defame our fathers and grandfathers as criminals - lock, stock and barrel? Would you too prefer to trade the politically correct disinformation that the Establishment and its mainstream media are spoonfeeding you, for information that looks beyond totalitarian taboos and simplistic pre-set thought patterns? Do you wish to exercise what should be every mature citizen's right, namely to inform yourself of the many shades of grey that are so generally suppressed, and to draw your own conclusions from them? The following pages offer you the opportunity to do so! The information we present here on our WebSite is intended to give a glimpse of that little-known "other side of the coin". Voices that are all too often stifled and hushed up elsewhere - here they shall be heard! Uncomfortable and controversial information that does not fit the mold of politically correct agenda-history, and which for that reason is to remain safely in an Orwellian memory-hole - we sweep it out from under the carpet!
For the moment, our online bookstore is specialized on Germanlanguage books, and the only English books we offer for sale online at this time are the translations or originals of some German volumes in our catalog (The Dissolution of Eastern European Jewry, Falsehood in Wartime, Pearl Harbor: the Story of the Secret War, Truth for Germany, and the bilingual When all our brothers are silent). This may change in the future, but for now, our main focus in this English half of our site will be on the provision of full-text documents in our Archive - historical documents, many of which have never been available in the English language before now. These translations are made and © by The Scriptorium; donations in support of this work are gratefully accepted. Click on Spitzweg's Librarian to visit our "Archive" and browse through our free online documents! Here you will find alternatives to the standard view of history. Draw your own conclusions, independently of what's officially decreed.
Lesen Sie dieses Dokument in deutscher Ьbersetzung! Hidden Historical Fact: The Allied Attempt to Starve Germany in 1919 Article from The Barnes Review, April 1996, pp. 11-14. The Barnes Review, 645 Pennsylvania Ave SE, Suite 100, Washington D.C. 20003, USA. By Fred Blahut, assistant editor of TBR; published here with kind permission from TBR: eMail TBR - subscribe to TBR here
Even after an armistice ended World War I, the rapacious victors continued a devastating blockade of Germany.
If one word could describe Germany during the immediate aftermath of World War I, it would be "starvation." And yet, while some 900,000 German men, women and children were starving to death, the American and British public knew nothing about the reason for this holocaust, deliberately caused by the continuation of a wartime British naval blockade.
Britain's post-war naval blockade of food to Germany
in 1919 matched the then current blockade of news by
the American and British press. Even today, only a few
non-Germans know the truth, and American and
British historians, for the most part, have participated in the coverup of this most appalling crime.
This drawing, done in 1924 by Kдthe Kollwitz, is titled "Germany's Children
Are Starving". It speaks for itself.
The guilt of the world press in covering up the atrocity
is compounded by the fact that the American and British public were told of the starvation
itself, but were kept ignorant of the criminal policies of the Allies which produced it.
Newspapers carried stories of relief efforts to rescue the starving. The most famed of these efforts was directed by Herbert Hoover, later to become the 31st president.
As told by Otto Friedrich in Before the Deluge: A Portrait of Berlin in the 1920s, John Maynard Keynes cited the testimony of an observer who accompanied Herbert Hoover's mission to help the starving:
You think [this] is a kindergarten for the little ones. No, these are children of seven and eight years. Tiny faces, with large, dull eyes, overshadowed by huge
puffed, rickety foreheads, their small arms just skin and bones, and above the crooked legs with their dislocated joints the swollen, pointed stomachs of the hunger edema... "You see this child here," the physician in charge explained, "it consumed an incredible amount of bread, and yet it did not get any stronger. I found out that it hid all the bread it received underneath its straw mattress. The fear of hunger was so deeply rooted in the child that it collected the stores instead of eating the food: a misguided animal instinct made the dread of hunger worse than the actual pangs."
Meanwhile, the armistice terms dictated by the Allies at Versailles would assure that Germany could not recover economically even to the point of providing a subsistence livelihood for the majority of its citizens.
France was to get Alsace-Lorraine outright; she would occupy all German territory west of the Rhine for 15 years and she would take possession of the rich coal mines of the Saar district, which was to be governed by the League of Nations. Poland would get the important industrial region of Upper Silesia, most of Posen Province and West Prussia, thus establishing a "Polish Corridor" to the sea and cutting off East Prussia from the rest of Germany.
Denmark and Belgium would slice off several border regions and the League of Nations would take charge of Germany's African colonies.
If Germany did not sign, the Allies were ready to invade and occupy the country. After a number of resignations, the German government at Weimar agreed to the "unheardof injustice" of the Treaty of Versailles.1
Immediately following the war, Germany was
wracked with insurgencies, coups and counter-
coups. The Bolsheviks attempted a takeover
similar to the revolution in Russia. The Allies, meeting in Versailles, celebrated the unrest and destruction. And the people - particularly
Elderly German women search through piles of garbage for something to eat in Berlin in 1919.
the American people - were kept in the dark about the continuing blockade.
Communist agents, sent by the Bolshevik regime in the fledgling USSR, were fomenting revolutions throughout the prostrate country. As Gen. Leon Degrelle points out in his Hitler: Born at Versailles:
While the murder of defenseless civilians was carried out in Bavaria, the delegates at the Paris Peace Conference had their first meeting. Far from being horrified at such massacres, the Allies could not contain their glee. The Bavarian bloodbath was a gift from the gods, which meant that Germany would be split and more Germans would be killed. Allied diplomatic envoys were rushed to Munich to kowtow to the bloodthirsty trio [three agents sent by V. I. Lenin named Levine, Levien and Axelrod]. They offered food and money to bolster their opposition to Berlin.2
And then, Degrelle says what few historians will admit: "Although the war had ended, Germany was still under Allied blockade [editor's emphasis], which was ruthlessly enforced. The first state of Germany to benefit from a lifting of the blockade would be communistcontrolled Bavaria."3
One must search diligently for historical references to the continued, devastating blockade. And when mention is found, it is usually just that - a mere mention. Diether Raff confirms the peace-time blockade in his A History of Germany - From the Medieval Empire to the Present:
"The Allied peace terms turned out to be extremely severe, far exceeding the worst fears of the German government... The peace treaties of Brest-Litovsk and Bucharest were declared invalid and the food blockade around Germany was to continue... Thus Germany's capitulation was accomplished and an end set to four years of enormous bloodshed."4
The effectiveness of the blockade, initiated years before the entry of the United States into the war, and which led to the sinking of the Lusitania,5 has been well documented.
"It was the blockade that finally drove the Central Powers to accept defeat," says Richard Hoveth in his study of the struggle on the high seas during World War 1.6 "At first mild in its application, the blockade's noose gradually tightened until, with the American entry, all restraint was cast aside. Increasingly deprived of the means to wage war, or even to feed her population, the violent response was insurrection; apathy and demoralization the mute consequence of dashed hopes and thin potato soup."7
Basil Liddell Hart is quoted by Hoveth to the effect that, revolution and internal unrest notwithstanding, the blockade was "clearly the decisive agency in the struggle."8
The Marshall Cavendish Encyclopedia has
two poignant photos taken in Germany during
the final year of the war. In one, Berliners
exchange potato peelings for firewood. "As
the grip of the Allied blockade tightened,
waste materials became valuable commodities
to be processed and reused."9 Another photo
shows a large crowd of people at an outdoor
soup kitchen with the caption: "Berliners
crowd 'round a mobile municipal kitchen for a
cheap meal - hot dinners, 35 pfennigs a
portion.'"10 The Allies clearly intended to starve the German people to death, foreshadowing the Morgenthau Plan of the latter days of World
Berliners exchange potato peelings for firewood. As the grip of the Allied blockade tightened, waste materials became valuable commodities to be processed and reused.
War II - a plan that actually went into operation to starve and exterminate one third of the
German population.
After confiscating the German merchant navy, the Allies proceeded to confiscate German private property all over the world, contrary to all precedent from previous wars when private
property had been held in escrow until the ratification of peace treaties, when it would revert to its legitimate owners. Degrelle writes: "The Allied powers reserve the right to keep or dispose of assets belonging to German citizens, including companies they control [Article 167 B]. This wholesale expropriation would take place without any compensation to the owners [Articles 121 and 279 B]."11 And, Germany remained responsible for the liabilities and loans on the assets that were taken from them. Profits, however, remained in the hands of the Allies. Thus, private German property and assets were confiscated in China (Articles 129 and 132), Thailand (Articles 135137), Egypt (Article 148), Liberia (Articles 135-140) and in many other countries.12 Germany was also precluded from investing capital in any neighboring country and had to forfeit all rights "to whatever title it may possess in these countries."13 The Allies were given free access to the German marketplace without the slightest tariff while products made in Germany faced high foreign tariff barriers. Articles 264 to 267 established that Germany "undertakes to give the Allies and their associates the status of most favored nations for five years."14 Germany, of course, had no such equal status. Germany was experiencing near famine conditions. It was at this moment the Allies decided to confiscate a substantial part of what was left of Germany's livestock. The American representative at Versailles, Thomas Lamont, recorded the event with some indignation: "The Germans were made to deliver cattle, horses, sheep, goats, etc.,... A strong protest came from Germany when dairy cows were taken to France and Belgium, thus depriving German children of milk."15 Food shortages were such that 60,000 Ruhr miners refused to work overtime unless they were paid, even in the form of butter. When it became obvious that Germany would not be able to deliver the coal ordered by the treaty, the Allies lowered the amount from 43 million tons to 20 million tons. Degrelle points out that the virtual confiscation of German coal production led to the deaths of German children for lack of fuel for heat. John Williams, in the epilogue of his story about the war on the home front, has this one sentence: "In Germany... still subject to the blockade, blank misery prevailed."16 In his biography of Woodrow Wilson, Arthur Walworth says that the British command in Germany reported that food shortages raised a specter of anarchy. "Herbert Hoover, who had gone abroad after the armistice eager to use American surpluses to feed the hungry of Europe, soon had found that the idealistic professions of individuals at London and Paris did not square with their actions as officials of electorates that were swayed by war hatred and economic necessity. Shipments had been delivered to Allies and to neutrals, but British officials had refused to break their blockade to let cargoes go into Germany. Moreover, Germany had failed to act on an agreement to turn over merchant
ships before receiving food [eventually forced on the Weimar government. -Ed.] and showed no desire to pay for shipments in gold - a possibility that French financiers were thought to be opposing so that their nation might get what gold there was as indemnity."17 There is evidence that Wilson actually thought the European powers would accept his "14 Points" and feed starving Germans now that the war was over. But, of course, that was not the case as discovered by Wilson's humanitarian point man, Hoover. England's Lloyd George, meanwhile, thought that the starvation was being ameliorated. He favored - although quietly feeding his ex-enemy. "Frustrated by apathy and obstruction, Hoover was brought on the carpet by [British Prime Minister] Lloyd George, who was inclined to brush him off as 'that Salvation Army man.' The prime minister, distressed by reports of famine in Germany, wanted to know why Hoover had not done his job. At this the American let him have the bitter truth. Lloyd George, feeling that tact was not one of Hoover's great qualities, asked him to give the council an expurgated version of his remarks. This was done, and a stormy and wordy session ensued."18 The food blockade was not terminated until July 12, 1919. On May 7 of that year, Count von Brockdorf-Rantzau had indignantly referred to this fact in addressing the Versailles assembly. "The hundreds of thousands of noncombatants," the German chief delegate had stated, "who have perished since November 11, 1918, as a result of the blockade, were killed with cold deliberation, after our enemies had been assured of their complete victory."19 The murderous Allied blockade, which continued for eight months after the end of the war, was one reason why a German war veteran who decided to go into politics a decade later was able to revive the seared memory of a German nation which had suffered greatly and vault himself to absolute power. His name, of course, was Adolf Hitler. Notes: 1Friedrich, Otto, Before the Deluge: A Portrait of Berlin in the 1920s. New York: Harper & Row, 1972. ...back... 2Degrelle, Gen. Leon, Hitler: Born at Versailles. Torrance, CA: Institute for Historical Review, 1987. P. 341. ...back... 3ibid. ...back... 4Raff, Diether, A History of Germany - From the Medieval Empire to the Present. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988. (First English edition.) ...back... 5The Barnes Review will detail the story of the Lusitania in next month's issue. ...back...
6Hoveth, Richard, The Great War at Sea 1914-1918. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983. ...back... 7ibid. ...back... 8ibid. ...back... 9Cavendish, Brigadier Peter, ed. The Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War I. vol. 8. New York: Young Corp., 1984. ...back... 10ibid. ...back... 11Degrelle, op.cit. (Note 2), p. 510. ...back... 12ibid. ...back... 13ibid. ...back... 14ibid. ...back... 15ibid., pp. 511-512. ...back... 16Williams, John, The Other Battleground - The Home Front: Britain, France and Germany 1914-1918. Chicago: Henry Regnery & Co., 1972. ...back... 17Walworth, Arthur, Woodrow Wilson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1965. ...back... 18ibid., p. 283. ...back... 19ibid. ...back... Hidden Historical Fact The Allied Attempt to Starve Germany in 1919 www.wintersonnenwende.com
Lesen Sie dieses Dokument in deutscher Ьbersetzung! Germany's 1923 Hyperinflation: A "Private" Affair Article from The Barnes Review, July-Aug. 1999, pp. 61-67. The Barnes Review, 645 Pennsylvania Ave SE, Suite 100, Washington D.C. 20003, USA. By Stephen Zarlenga, researcher in monetary history and theory; published here with kind permission from TBR: eMail TBR - subscribe to TBR here
Discussions of the dangers of inflation
inevitably end up at the worst-ever case
known - the German hyperinflation of 1923.
Accompanied by economists' moralizing
warnings of the dire results of governments'
printing paper money, the German
hyperinflation is used as a horror story by
those who advocate a plutocratic control over
money. However (as in other cases), when
the monetary facts are actually examined,
the argument falls apart as it becomes clear that the bankers themselves and speculators were the primary cause of the German hyperinflation, which was not stopped until the government took decisive action against
Hjalmar Schacht (second from left), president of the Reichsbank, at a 1928 banquet. Schacht resigned his post following the unveiling of the 1929 Young Plan, named for American banker and railroad president Owen D. Young. It set Germany's annual
them.
payments almost 20 percent lower than those of the Dawes Plan, but it stipulated that they should last
Lagging behind other European nations, Germany had no central government until the formation of the German Federation in 1815.
for 59 years - until 1988. This would have the effect of pledging Germany's entire wealth as reparations security.
The major "German" finance houses of the medieval period had been quick students of Italian
finance methods at Venice's Foundacio De Tedeschi, and some, like the Fuggers of southern
Germany, had grown to international prominence as factors in financing the election of
emperors.
In 1900 the Deutsche Bank financed construction of the Turkey-Baghdad Railway. This meant German industry, already linked to Istanbul (the famous Orient Express line), could be directly linked to farther eastern markets, circumventing Britain's naval supremacy. Hjalmar Schacht, one of 20th-century Germany's key financial figures, noted that this railway disturbed England's rulers.
There are other reports of British concern over German dynamism. Francis Neilson, a former British member of Parliament and author of The Makers of War, presented the viewpoint that
England's "old boy network" didn't consider itself up to competing with Germany industrially. In 1907 the widely respected American diplomat Henry White was instructed to ascertain British views. He met with his friend Arthur Balfour. White's daughter "overheard" one of White's conversations with Balfour as follows (it was probably White's way of not directly violating secrecy pledges): Balfour: We are probably fools not to find a reason for declaring war on Germany before she builds too many ships and takes away our trade. White: If you wish to compete with German trade, work harder. Balfour: That would mean lowering our standard of living. Perhaps it would be simpler for us to have a war... Is it a question of right or wrong? Maybe it is just a question of keeping our supremacy.1 European heads of state were still largely hereditarily selected. Court intrigue and the system of secret treaties played a larger role than today, and lent itself to warmongering. According to Neilson, the British Parliament had not been informed that England was committed to a continental war to defend France, if necessary.2 Adding to the problem, the Schlieffen Plan for the emergency military mobilization of Germany did not have the foresight to allow time for diplomatic negotiations. Thus the assassination of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo by anarchists was given the power of a trigger in starting World War I. Alfred E. Zimmern's rare 13-page monograph, The Economic Weapon,3 written during World War I, deserves attention because of its content and its source. According to Prof. Carroll Quigley [himself a notable member of the Establishment; -Ed.], Zimmern was a member of what he called the "Anglo-American Establishment."4 Zimmern sums up the situation on page 1: What is the economic situation? It can be stated in one sentence: The Central Powers are being besieged by practically the entire world, and they have no means at their disposal for bringing the siege to an end. Zimmern pointed out this was the first time in history that such a large "siege" had been attempted, and Germany didn't think it was possible. "In December 1915, the chancellor remarked: 'Does anyone seriously believe that we can lose the war on account of a shortage of rubber?' Germany's war preparations were made on an estimate 'of a war of one year's duration at the outside.'" Then Zimmern raised the veil on what was planned for Germany: What will happen in the normal course when peace is signed?... [W]ill the cessation of the physical blockade of German harbors by itself involve the raising of the siege?... But without raw materials there can be no industrial employment; and demobilization without employment ready to hand for the disbanded soldier spells social disorder... The Allies... by their command of essential supplies control the demobilization of the German army and therewith the whole process
of German recuperation. The whole civilized world will be faced... with the prospect of a shortage, if not a famine over a period calculated... at no less than three years. And: "Some will have to go short. Who more naturally than Germany? It is not as if the boycott had to be organized. It will come about almost of itself unless special provision is made in the peace." But Lord Lothian (who Quigley lists as a fellow member with Zimmern of the AngloAmerican Establishment), was the co-author of the Treaty of Versailles.5 The treaty would provide for the opposite of a just peace. The Treaty of Versailles turned out to be an instrument of continuing aggression. Even at the time, it drew strong condemnation. The American Secretary of State Robert Lansing wrote: The impression made by it is one of disappointment, of regret, and of depression. The terms of the peace appear immeasurably harsh and humiliating, while many of them seem to me impossible of performance... The League [of Nations] as now constituted will be the prey of greed and intrigue. Lansing noted that: On May 17, I received Mr. Bullitt's letter of resignation and also letters from five of our principal experts protesting against the terms of peace and stating that they considered them as an abandonment of the principles Americans had fought for.6 Francisco Nitti, the prime minister of Italy, wrote: It will remain forever a terrible precedent in modern history that, against all pledges, all precedents and all traditions, the representatives of Germany were never even heard, nothing was left to them but to sign a treaty at a moment when famine and exhaustion and threat of revolution made it impossible not to sign... In the old canon law of the church it was laid down that everyone must have a hearing, even the devil... the new society of nations did not even obey the precepts which the dark Middle Ages held sacred on behalf of the accused.7 The cost of the war of all participants totaled three times the value of all property in Germany. She was ordered to pay an impossible 1.7 billion marks a year (in foreign exchange) for 59 years, until 1988. Even worse, according to the normally circumspect banker, Hjalmar Schacht:: "The Treaty of Versailles is a model of ingenious measures for the economic destruction of Germany," adding: Every natural economic advance, every step toward the restoration of economic confidence was made impossible by the influence of the foreign political factor.8 Further complicating matters, immediately after the surrender, on November 9, 1918, the threatened leftist and communist coup was carried out, when the Revolutionary Council of Commissioners of the People overthrew the German government and temporarily took power.
England had financed 20 percent of World War I through taxation, France zero percent and Germany 6 percent. Schacht wrote that Germany's money supply rose from 7.2 billion marks in December 1914, up to 28.4 billion marks on November 7, 1918; the end of the open warfare. This meant circulation went from 110 to 430 marks per person.
An index of wholesale prices had risen from 100 in 1913, to 234 in late 1918, performing close to British indexes. The effect on working people was cushioned as workmen's wages rose from 100 to 248 during the period. Thus World War I seriously damaged but didn't destroy Germany's monetary system. That came under the auspices of the occupying forces.
The great German hyperinflation of 1922-23 is one of
the most widely cited examples by those who insist that private bankers, not governments, should control the money system. What is practically unknown about
Germans pulp bank notes that were no longer legal tender following the November 1923 currency reform that
that sordid affair is that it occurred under control of a privately owned and controlled central bank.
ended hyperinflation. The extremely vicious Versailles Treaty [of 1919] had compounded Germany's economic chaos,
The Reichsbank had a form of private ownership, but with public control; the president and directors being officials of the German government, appointed by the emperor, for life. There was a sharing of the revenue of
with Britain's continuing blockade of German ports causing awful suffering among the people. The year 1919 was marked by waves of strikes and right-left political turmoil, as well as the
the central bank between the private shareholders and the government. Unfortunately, the League of Nations experts delegated to guide the economic recovery of Germany wanted a more free market orientation for the German central bank.9
beginnings of an inflation spiral that raged beyond control by the summer of 1922. At the center of this deadly economic condition was the nation's immense debt; incurred as a result of the war but due primarily to the awesome
reparations imposed at Versailles.
Schacht relates how the Allies had insisted that the
Reichsbank be made more independent from the government: "On May 26, 1922, the law
establishing the independence of the Reichsbank and withdrawing from the chancellor of the
Reich any influence on the conduct of the bank's business was promulgated."10 This granting
of total private control over the German currency set the stage for the worst inflation of all
time.
How does the value of a currency get destroyed? In a sentence, by issuing or creating tremendously excessive amounts of it. Not just too much of it, but way too much. This excessive issue can happen in different ways; for example, by British counterfeiting, as occurred with the U.S. continental currency. The central bank itself might print too much currency; or the central bank might allow speculators to destroy a currency, through excessive short selling of it, similar to short selling a company's shares.
The destruction of a national currency through "speculation" is what concerns us in this case. It is also a timely topic considering how speculation was recently allowed to destroy several
Asian currencies, which have dropped over 50 percent against the dollar, in a few months time, threatening the lives of millions. It works like this. First, for whatever reason, there is some obvious weakness involved in the currency. In Germany's case it was World War I, and the need for foreign currency for reparations payments. In the case of the Asian countries, they had a need for dollars in order to repay foreign debts coming due. Such problems can be solved over time and usually require some national contribution toward their solution, in the form of taxes, or temporary lowering of living standards. However, because currency speculation is still erroneously viewed as a legitimate activity, private speculators are allowed to make a weak situation immeasurably worse; to take billions of dollars in "profits" out of the situation, by selling short the currency in question. Not just selling currency which they owned, but making contracts to sell currency which they didn't own - to sell it short. If done in large enough amounts, such short selling soon has self-fulfilling results, driving down the value of the currency, faster and further than it otherwise would have fallen. Then at some point, panic strikes, which causes widespread flight from the currency by those who actually hold it. It drops precipitously. The short selling speculators are then able to buy back the currency which they sold short, and obtain tremendous profits, at the expense of the industrialists and working people whose lives and enterprises were dependent on that currency. The free market gang claim that it's all the fault of the government that the currency was weak in the first place. But by what logic does it follow that speculators take this money from those already in trouble? And they call this business? It should be viewed as a form of aggression, no less harmful than dropping bombs on the country in question. The recent outrage expressed on this by the prime minister of Malaysia got it right. The proper reaction would be to help strengthen the currency, not promote its destruction. Industrialists should realize that when they allow such vicious activity to be included under the umbrella of "business activity," they are cutting their own throats. They should help isolate such sociopathic speculators, so that they can be stopped by the law. Back to Germany. Far too many German marks were being created under the privately controlled Reichsbank. Exactly how, will be discussed shortly. These excessive issues drove down the value of the mark: By July 1922, the German mark fell to 300 marks for $1; in November it was at 9,000 to $1; by January 1923 it was at 49,000 to $1; by July 1923, it was at 1,100,000 to $1. It reached 2.5 trillion marks to $1 in mid-November 1923, varying from city to city.11 In the monetary chaos, Hamburg, Bremen and Kiel established private banks to issue money backed by gold and foreign exchange. The private Reichsbank printing presses had been unable to keep up, and other private parties were given the authority to issue money. Schacht estimated that about half the money in circulation was private money from other than Reichsbank sources. Hjalmar Schacht's 1967 book, The Magic of Money, presents what appears to be a
contradictory explanation of the private Reichsbank's role in the inflation disaster. First in the hackneyed tradition of economists, he is prepared to let the private Reichsbank off the hook very easily, and blame the government's difficult situation instead, and minimized the connection of the private control of the central bank with the inflation, as mere coincidence: The Reichsbank upon which this responsibility (to control inflation) fell could not make up its mind to take action. It held the view that it was useless to attempt to stabilize the currency so long as the Ruhr was occupied and the war debts remained unfixed. Schacht lamented: [To an] ever-growing extent the Reich had to resort to the Reichsbank if it was to prolong its existence, and because the point at issue was the survival of the Reich, the Reichsbank did not regard itself justified in refusing, even after the passing, in 1922, of the law which gave it formal autonomy. The legislation of 1922, which was intended to free the Reichsbank from the claims of the state, came to grief at the decisive moment because the Reich could not find any way of holding its head above the water other than by the inflationary expedient of printing bank notes.12 In other words, they did it to save the government; assumedly making the new issues of Reichsmarks available for government expenditures. After a few pages, Schacht gave the real explanation. Schacht was a lifelong member of the banking fraternity, reaching its highest levels. He may have felt compelled to give his banker peers and their PR corps something innocuous to quote. But Schacht also had a streak of German nationalism, and more than that, an almost sacred devotion to a stable mark. He had watched helplessly as the hyperinflation destroyed "his mark." For whatever reasons, after 44 years he then proceeded to let the cat out of the bag, writing in German, with some truly remarkable admissions that shatter the "accepted wisdom" the financial community has promulgated on the German hyperinflation. But first, some background to the events of 1923 is needed: As the hyperinflation wreaked destruction many plans were put forward to stabilize the currency. In 1923, a conservative monetary theorist, Karl Helfferich, advanced a plan of basing the currency on agricultural grains and putting its administration into the hands of a private bank run by agricultural interests. The support of the farming community was not sufficient to have this plan adopted. Because the mark had been so badly ruined for 18 months, it was felt that, psychologically, an altogether different currency was necessary. Plans centered on a new currency to be called the Rentenmark. The plan was simple: introduce the new currency, in a limited quantity and don't overissue it, so that the notes keep their value and thereby reestablish confidence. In order to create a largely psychological separation from the Reichsbank, the Rentenbank was set up to loan Rentenmarks, to the Reichsbank; and the Reichsbank issued Rentenmark credits. The Rentenbank was not truly independent of the Reichsbank.
Schacht, with 23 years of banking experience, agreed to be made the government's commissioner of currency, a new position created to stabilize the currency. At the time, monetary theorists such as Helfferich were arguing that the state wasn't powerful enough to "create money which would command public confidence, and that only the business elements of the country acting of their own free will were competent to accomplish this task."13 Schacht knew better. This process took time, to convince the population that the new currency would not be overissued: "The invention of the Rentenmark did not stabilize the mark. The battle for stabilization continued for a year, passing through many a difficult phase," he wrote, asserting that it was not the Rentenmark but the subsequent credit restrictions on how many were created that stabilized the currency.14 The formal structure of the Reichsbank had apparently not been altered in this stabilization period; but it was clearly the government and society that now actively exercised the monetary control: The concurrent political and economic difficulties of the Reich threatened rapidly to culminate in a catastrophe, when the government at length braced itself to the resolve to take into its hands once more the control of the [destiny] of the German people. In this policy the principal item was the endeavor to stabilize the mark.15 The Rentenmarks were put into circulation in three days, from November 15, 1923. They were not legal tender; there was no fixed relation to the fallen Reichsmark; and the Rentenmarks could not be used for international payments. Schacht stopped all other money issuers and sent all Reichsbank holdings of private money back to their source for immediate payment, despite great howls of pain from all these private moneyers; such as the Hugo Stinnes group. The Rentenmarks were expressly forbidden to be transferred to foreigners. This meant that speculators could not trade them for foreign exchange to support their speculations when prices went against them. Schacht's initial actions thus crushed the speculators, a necessary first step in most monetary reform: The speculators had learnt that the Reichsbank was now able, if it decided to do so, to put an end to all speculation on the foreign exchange market. The success of the campaign meant an immeasurable increase in the confidence of the public in the stabilization of the mark.16 How did Schacht determine the value of the Rentenmarks? By the seat of his pants. On November 20, 1923, it was set at $1=4.2 trillion Rentenmarks. Fixing it there was convenient because in peacetime it had been $1 to 4.2 marks. He remarked that: There was no mathematical formula which could provide the solution. It was a question of instinct, and ultimately of experiment; but the form of the experiment remained one and the same - namely, the contraction of the legal currency.17
It was in describing his 1924 battles in stabilizing the Rentenmarks that Schacht made his revelation; giving the real mechanism of the hyperinflation. Schacht was obviously very upset when the speculators continued to attack the new Rentenmark currency. By the end of November 1923: The dollar reached an exchange rate of 12 trillion marks on the free market of the Cologne Bourse. This speculation was not only hostile to the country's economic interests, it was also stupid. In previous years such speculation had been carried on either with loans which the Reichsbank granted lavishly, or with emergency money which one printed oneself, and then exchanged for Reichsmarks. [Emphasis added.] Now however, three things had happened. The emergency money had lost its value. It was no longer possible to exchange it for Reichsmarks. The loans formerly easily obtained from the Reichsbank were no longer granted, and the Rentenmark could not be used abroad. For these reasons the speculators were unable to pay for the dollars they had bought when payment became due (and they) made considerable losses.18 Thus Schacht is telling us that the speculation against the mark, the short selling of the mark, was financed by lavish loans from the private Reichsbank. The margin requirements which the anti-mark speculators needed, and without which they could not have attacked the mark, was provided by the private Reichsbank. This contradicts Schacht's earlier explanation, for there is no way to interpret or justify "lavishly" loaning to anti-mark speculators as "helping to keep the government's head above the water." Just the opposite. Schacht was a bright fellow, and he wanted this point to be understood. He waited until he wrote The Magic of Money in 1967. His earlier book, The Stabilization of the Mark (1927), discussed inflation profiteering, but did not clearly identify the private Reichsbank itself as financing such speculation; making it so convenient to go short of the mark. Thus we now realize that it was a privately owned and privately controlled central bank, which made loans to private speculators, to enable them to put up the necessary margin to speculate against the nation's currency. Such speculation helped create a one-way street, down, for the German mark. Soon a continuous panic set in, and not just speculators, but everyone else had to do what they could to get out of their marks, further fueling the disaster. This factor has been largely unknown, and "the government" typically gets the blame for this mother of all inflations, in economic propagandizing. Why did Schacht give these details after 44 years, when he could have easily "forgotten" about them? Probably because his sense of justice was deeply offended over the destruction of the mark by Germany's plutocracy - especially her bankers. For hundreds of years Schacht's family lived in the Ditmarschen area, between the Elbe and Eider rivers. This is a land of free farmers, notably lacking the castles found in most parts of Germany. Schacht studied German philology, then did his doctorate on the English mercantilists, demonstrating how they were aware of the quantity aspect of money from the 1500s and 1600s.19
Finally, Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht was his full name; his father was a naturalized American citizen who had returned to Germany as a newspaper editor. In December 1923, Schacht was made president of the Reichsbank. Before assuming office, he went to England for a meeting with Montagu Norman, governor of the Bank of England. Schacht wrote: I have never engaged in academic controversy either with the nominalists or with the advocates of an index currency. I have invariably said frankly that I do not set great store by currency theories, but should be prepared at any moment to accept any currency adopted by America and England.20 Legitimate credit demands led to a rapid growth of credit extended by the Reichsbank and the Rentenbank from 609 million Rentenmarks at the end of 1923, to 2 billion at the end of March 1924. Sensing weakness, the speculators moved in for a kill, ignoring the law regarding foreign exchange purchases. In March of 1924 Schacht's regulations (he calls them "instructions") were being violated by the banks: "[W]hereby foreign exchange purchase orders were to be executed by the banks only if full cover in German currency was provided by the purchaser, this had not been heeded by various banking firms." These banks, including one of the largest, impudently ignored Reichsbank reminders, so their bills were denied re-discounting by the Reichsbank, effectively blocking them, and ending the violations. From April 7, 1924 the Reichsbank refused to issue new credits for two months. "The Reichsbank plumped for the stability of the mark," wrote Schacht. The speculators had to turn their foreign holdings over to pay their debts, as their trading positions against the Rentenmark lost money. In this way the Reichsbank increased its foreign exchange reserves from 600 million marks worth, at beginning of April 1924, to more than double that by August 7, 1924.21 This indicates a still immense amount of anti-mark speculation: "...[A]nd the country was still filled with numbers of such speculators, who were not in the least concerned as to whether their good name and reputation suffered so long as they could pocket the profits," wrote Schacht.22 The contraction pursued by Schacht was brutal. One-month money rates went from 30 percent to 45 percent. Overdraft charges rose from 40 percent to 80 percent! After July 1924 they began falling. Schacht's restriction of money was so harsh that the German governmentoperated post office and railways formed their own banks and began building capital much faster than the private sector. By the end of 1924, merchants and others were treating the Rentenmark and the old Reichsmark as equal, and Schacht converted the Rentenmarks into Reichsmarks. He had always been against the Rentenmarks, considering them a monetary error: "I made every endeavor to take the Rentenmark out of circulation as quickly as possible. To this end the Reichsbank gave the Rentenmark parity with the new Reichsmark" and converted them into Reichsmarks.
In 1923 the League of Nations had invited Gen. Charles Gates Dawes to chair a committee to deal with the controversial problem of German reparations payments. The Dawes Report recommended reducing the reparations from 132 billion marks to 37 billion marks. America would lend Germany money for reparations payments to France and England, which countries would then be able to pay some of their war debts. Dawes was a banker and owned the Central Republic Bank and Trust Co. of Chicago. The Allies implemented the plan; Dawes shared the Nobel Peace Prize for 1925 with Austen Chamberlain and then became vice president of the United States from 1925 to 1929, under Calvin Coolidge. In 1932 Dawes became chairman of Hoover's depression-era Reconstruction Finance Corp., but then Dawes's bank failed and became the largest loss of the Reconstruction Finance Corp., costing the U.S. taxpayers $90 million.
When the Dawes experts, in structuring a new Reichsbank law, wanted to lengthen from 10 to 50 years the length of time between the German government's periodic renewal of the note issuing power of the Reichsbank, Schacht managed to convince them of the need for some government approval of Reichsbank leadership. The Dawes committee proposed a revenue sharing arrangement of roughly 40 percent to the private bank's shareholders, and 55 percent to the government. But eventually it was agreed the shareholders got half the first 50 million marks profit, 25 percent of the second 50 million profit; and 10 percent of profits thereafter.
Later in 1924 there was a Dawes Plan loan to the
Reichsbank, after which foreign credits began to pour
in. Foreign bankers had confidence in Schacht. He was against the loans, and insisted that any foreign borrowings only be to finance production, not luxury, or consumption. This policy, from 1924 to 1929,
In 1929, prior to the onset of the Great Depression, the airship "Count Zeppelin" passed over the Wilhelmsplatz and an economically vibrant Berlin as it began an unprecedented around-the-world
resulted in Germany establishing Europe's most
voyage. The 1924 Dawes Plan, forged in
modern factory system of the period.
Paris by a group of economic experts
under the chairmanship of American
In July 1925, laws were passed to go back and examine
banker Charles G. Dawes, had proven a giant step towards German stability. It
and adjust inflation transactions. Injured parties could
provided a loan of 200 million 1924
receive up to 25 percent of the real value of property
dollars to the German government for
they had exchanged for the bad paper. Schacht would industrial recovery. It also alleviated the
resign the Reichsbank presidency in 1930, in protest over some economic rulings of the Allies. He was later reappointed when the National Socialists came to power.
awful burden of Germany's reparations payments to Allied nations. Although the total amount was not reduced, it was made payable in 2.5 billion mark annual installments over an indefinite period of
time.
When the war ended, a destitute Adolf Hitler was
given an assignment by German army intelligence: to watch a tiny political group called the
German Workers Party. He attended a small meeting where the ideas of Gottfried Feder made
a deep impression on him.
In Mein Kampf Hitler wrote: When I listened to Gottfried Feder's first lecture on breaking down the thralldom of interest [in June 1919], I knew at once that here we had a theoretic truth which will be of immense importance for the future of the German nation.23 Feder's captivating ideas were about money. At the base of his monetary views was the idea that the state should create and control its money supply through a nationalized central bank rather than have it created by privately owned banks, to whom interest would have to be paid. From this view was derived the conclusion that finance had enslaved the population, by usurping the nation's control of money. Feder's monetary theories could easily have originated from the work of German monetary theorists such as George Knapp, whose book The State Theory of Money (1905) is still one of the classics in the monetary area. Right on page one, Knapp nails it: Money is a creature of the law. A theory of money must therefore deal with legal history. Knapp describes the invention of fiat money in these terms: "the most important achievement of economic civilization." For Knapp, the determination of whether something was money or not was: "our test, that the money is accepted in payments made to the state [i.e., government] offices."24 Near the end of that book, Knapp casually mentions how German monetary theorists of his day, and earlier, would study and discuss American monetary theories. Thus the ultimate source of Feder's viewpoint was probably the American Populist movement of the 1870s and the ideas that movement promoted to establish a permanent greenback system. When the National Socialists came to power, Schacht was reappointed head of the Reichsbank, partly to reassure German big business and foreign bankers. Schacht ridiculed Feder's monetary views: Nationalization of banks, abolition of bondage to interest payments and introduction of state Giro 'Feder' money, those were the high-sounding phrases of a pressure group which aimed at the overthrow of our money and banking system. To keep this nonsense in check, [I] called a bankers' council, which made suggestions for tighter supervision and control over the banks. These suggestions were codified in the law of 1934... In the course of several discussions, I succeeded in dissuading Hitler from putting into practice the most foolish and dangerous of the ideas on banking and currency harbored by his party colleagues.25 Konrad Heiden noted that: Industry did not want to put economic life at the mercy of such men as Gregor Strasser or Gottfried Feder, who, marching at the head of small property owners incited to revolution, wanted to hurl a bomb at large-scale wealth. Feder announced that the coming Hitler government would create a new form of treasury bill, to be given as credits to innumerable small businessmen, enabling them to re-employ hundreds of thousands and millions of workers. Would this be
inflation? Yes, said Walter Funk, one of the many experts who for the past year or two had advised Hitler - an experienced and well-known finance writer, collaborator of Hjalmar Schacht and, in Hitler's own eyes, a guarantee that big business would treat him as an equal... Hitler decided to put an end to the public squabble by appointing Gцring to [oversee the questions]. Feder's faction was then given the four-year plan, to keep them busy.26 Feder quickly lost the battle with Schacht and the German business establishment. Perhaps he was in over his head monetarily. He wrote of his monetary plan: "Intensive study is required to master the details of this problem... a pamphlet on the subject will shortly appear, which will give our members a full explanation of this most important task..."27 But this was 1934, which means he hadn't clearly reduced the problem to written form since 1919, over 15 years. "When the time comes, we shall deal with these things in further detail..." Feder wrote, but indeed his party was in power, and the time had come. Feder was put out to pasture by the National Socialists, serving as an under secretary in the Ministry of Economic Affairs, later to be transferred to commissioner for land settlement and then completely sidetracked as a lecturer at the Technische Hochschule in Berlin. Hitler and the National Socialists came to power on January 30, 1933. Germany's foreign exchange and gold reserves had dropped from 2.6 billion marks in late 1929, down to 409 million in late 1933 and to only 83 million in late 1934.28 According to classical economic theory, Germany was broke and would have to borrow. But classical economic theory is not very accurate. Notes: 1Allan Nevins, Henry White, Thirty Years of American Diplomacy. New York: Harper Bros., 1930, pp. 25758. ...back... 2Francis Nielsen, The Makers of War, Appleton, Wisconsin: Nelson Publishing Co., 1950. ...back... 3A. E. Zimmern, The Economic Weapon. New York: George Doran, 1913-17. ...back... 4Prof. Carroll Quigley, The Anglo-American Establishment. New York: Books in Focus, 1982. ...back... 5Konrad Heiden, Der Fuehrer. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1944 (written 1934), pp. 639-49. ...back... 6Robert Lansing, The Peace Negotiations. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1921, pp. 272-75. ...back... 7Francisco Nitti, The Wreck of Europe. As quoted by Nielsen, op.cit. (Note 2), p. 151. ...back... 8Hjalmar Schacht, Stabilizing the Mark. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1927, pp. 46-51. ...back... 9ibid., pp. 116-7. ...back...
10ibid., p. 50. ...back... 11ibid., pp. 50-51. ...back... 12Hjalmar Schacht, The Magic of Money. London: Oldbourne, 1967. Trans. by P. Erskine; pp. 65-6. ...back... 13Schacht, op.cit. (Note 8), p. 84. ...back... 14Schacht, op.cit. (Note 12), p. 68. ...back... 15Schacht, op.cit. (Note 8), p. 89. ...back... 16ibid., p. 112. ...back... 17ibid., p. 102. ...back... 18Schacht, op.cit. (Note 12), p. 70. ...back... 19Norbert Muhlen, Schacht - Hitler's Magician. New York: Alliance/Longmans Green Co., 1939. Trans. by E. W. Dickes. ...back... 20Schacht, op.cit. (Note 8), p. 208. ...back... 21Schacht, op.cit. (Note 12), p. 72. ...back... 22Schacht, op.cit. (Note 8), p. 159. ...back... 23As quoted in Hitler's Official Program by Gottfried Feder. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1934; New York: Howard Ferbig Press, 1971, p. 56. ...back... 24George Knapp, State Theory of Money. 1909. London: Macmillan, 1924, pp. 92-95. ...back... 25Schacht, op.cit. (Note 12), p. 49. ...back... 26Heiden, op.cit. (Note 5), p. 480. ...back... 27Feder, op.cit. (Note 23), pp. 59, 92. ...back... 28Stephen M. Roberts, The House That Hitler Built. New York: Harper Bros., 1938, pp. 146-47. ...back... Germany's 1923 Hyperinflation A "Private" Affair www.wintersonnenwende.com
Lesen Sie dieses Dokument in deutscher Ьbersetzung! Stalin's Secret War Plans Why Hitler Invaded the Soviet Union Article from The Barnes Review, Nov./Dec. 2000, pp. 27-33. The Barnes Review, 645 Pennsylvania Ave SE, Suite 100, Washington D.C. 20003, USA. By Richard Tedor, researcher in the European theater of World War II; published here with kind permission from TBR: eMail TBR - subscribe to TBR here
When the German armed forces invaded the USSR on June 22, 1941, Berlin described the offensive as preemptive in the face of imminent Soviet aggression. The claim was generally dismissed as Nazi propaganda. Recently disclosed evidence from Soviet sources, however, suggests that Moscow's foreign policy was not governed by neutrality when Europe went to war in 1939.
Challenging established social and political
structures through internal subversion, armed
violence and terrorism, the Soviet Union was
considered an outlaw state. It advocated the
overthrow of all capitalist regimes and supported anti-colonial "independence movements" in underdeveloped territories. "This will invariably provoke the ruling classes of the Great Powers against us," the
Above is a German cemetery in Lithuania. From June to September of 1944, the Germans lost more than 1 million men - some to the Soviet army, some to the bitter cold.
Communist Party's general secretary, Josef Stalin, told its Central Committee in 1925.1
During the 1930s, Stalin, now dictator of the USSR, observed how Germany, revitalized under Adolf Hitler's leadership, worked to revise the post-World War I structure of Europe imposed by the United States, England and France. Stalin and Hitler, therefore, were both at odds with the West.
The USSR was an agrarian state, rich in natural resources, struggling with transition into an industrial power. More than half the necessary factory machinery was purchased from the United States. Germany survived economically by exporting manufactured goods and industrial equipment in exchange for raw materials. Fertile ground existed for German-Soviet cooperation.
On May 3, 1939, Stalin sacked the USSR's foreign commissar, Maxim Litvinov. Having
previously concluded an alliance with Czechoslovakia and France, Litvinov was identified with Moscow's anti-German foreign policy of the decade. His replacement by Stalin with Vyatsheslav Molotov was recognized as a gesture toward Germany. Only days later in Berlin, Georgi Astachov, the Soviet Union's diplomatic advisor, thanked the German Foreign Office for the respectful tenor the Reich's press had recently adopted toward the USSR. That spring, London and Paris invited Moscow to co-sign an Anglo-French guarantee to protect Poland and Romania from German aggression. The Soviets made commitment contingent upon permission from Lithuania, Poland and Romania to allow the passage of Soviet troops in the event of war. Poland refused. The protracted Soviet-Allied negotiations were conducted halfheartedly by the West; its military advisors had a negative appraisal of the Red Army. Moscow hosted an Anglo-French military mission August 12. The Soviet Union was represented by the chief of the general staff, Boris Shaposhnikov, Defense Commissar Kliment Voroshilov and the naval minister, Adm. Nikolai Kusnezov. The West sent secondrate negotiators with limited authority. The Soviets were insulted. In August, Stalin decided on an agreement with Hitler. A non-aggression pact with Germany assured the Soviet Union tangible advantages. The Soviets would recover eastern Poland, which had formerly belonged to Imperial Russia. The Germans pledged support in the USSR's claims on Bessarabia and agreed to define Eastern Europe's Baltic and Balkan states as belonging to the Soviet "sphere of interest." Germany was preparing to invade Poland in case a territorial dispute and related grievances defied peaceful settlement. England and France supported Poland. Stalin reasoned that were he to conclude a military compact with the West, the powerful coalition would probably discourage Hitler from war. A German-Soviet non-aggression pact, however, would give Hitler a free hand to invade Poland. England, as Poland's ally, would declare war on Germany, drag a reluctant France into the conflagration, and Italy would rush to Hitler's side. The Soviet formula for National security rested with aggravating the conflicting interests among the "imperialist" nations and maintaining neutrality as these states expended their resources in a prolonged struggle. Stalin had defined the premise during his March 10, 1939, speech in Moscow: Nonintervention represents the endeavor... to allow all the warmongers to sink deeply into the mire of warfare, to quietly urge them on. The result will be that they weaken and exhaust one another. Then... (we will) appear on the scene with fresh forces and step in, naturally "in the interest of peace," to dictate terms to the weakened belligerents.2 On August 23, 1939, the German foreign minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, was in Moscow. He and Molotov signed the historic German-Soviet non-aggression pact. The following evening, Stalin hosted prominent members of the Soviet Political Bureau in his apartment. Among the dinner guests were Molotov, Voroshilov, Lavrenti P. Beria and Nikita Khrushchev. Stalin explained, as Khrushchev later recalled, that he considered war with Germany
unavoidable, but had momentarily tricked Hitler and bought time. The Soviet premier described the treaty with Germany as a game of "who outwits whom."3 He concluded that the Soviet Union held the advantage both morally and militarily. A few months later, the Soviet Foreign Office explained Stalin's decision in a telegram to its embassy in Tokyo: "The ratifying of our treaty with Germany was dictated by the need for a war in Europe."4 On August 25, 1939, the Swiss periodical Revue de droit international published the text of a speech Stalin delivered on August 19 to a closed session of the Political Bureau in Moscow. He was quoted as follows: It must be our objective that Germany wage war long enough to exhaust England and France so much that they cannot defeat Germany alone.... Should Germany win, it will itself be so weakened that it won't be able to wage war against us for 10 years.... It's paramount for us that this war continues as long as possible, until both sides are worn out.5 In November, Stalin responded in Pravda that the Swiss article was a "heap of lies."6 (The Russian researcher T. S. Bushuyevoy discovered Stalin's original text in the former Soviet archives in 1994; it conformed to the Swiss version.) Inside the USSR, an intensive armaments production program was under way. During 1938, it had increased by 39 percent, compared to 13 percent in civil industry. Emphasis was placed on armor, development of artillery and aeronautics. In September 1939 the USSR defense committee contracted the construction of nine aircraft production plants, and seven more to manufacture aircraft engines. This was supplemented by the conversion to fabrication of aviation components of a number of consumer goods factories. In 1940, Soviet production of modern combat airplanes increased over 70 percent from the previous year. The ground forces experienced a parallel upgrading of weaponry. Between January 1939 and June 1941, the Red Army received over 7,000 new tanks and 82,000 artillery pieces (including mortars). On June 26, 1940, a law was enacted extending the Soviet workday from seven to eight hours, and to seven days per week. Disciplinary action for tardiness or slothfulness in the factories was imposed on the work force. These are measures normally introduced during wartime. Conscription swelled the ranks of the Red Army. A force numbering 1 million men in the spring of 1938 surpassed 5 million by June 1941. The growth was summarized by the historian Roger Reese: "There were 198 rifle divisions in 1941, compared to fewer than 30 in 1927; 31 motorized rifle divisions in 1941 and none in 1927; 61 tank divisions in 1941 and none as late as 1939."7 The spirit imbued in the military was illuminated in the revised, 1939 edition of the Red Army's field service regulations. It stated that should war be "forced" on Soviet Russia, "We will conduct the war offensively and carry it onto enemy territory."8 In December 1939, the U.S. military attachй in Sweden reported to the War Department in Washington his assessment of the Red Amy:
The soldiers are practically all peasants or common laborers... fed with a constant stream of propaganda extolling the virtues of Communism and assuring them that they are making some sacrifices in the present in order that it may eventually triumph throughout the world. Being unbelievably simple-minded and kept in total ignorance of conditions outside Russia, many of them are actually almost fanatical in their zeal for what they have been led to believe is a holy crusade to rescue their own class from villainous oppressors.9
The war in Europe did not develop as Stalin had
predicted. In the spring of 1940, the British
withdrew from the continent. The German army conquered France in June without suffering
This absurd propaganda poster reads: "Soldiers of the Red Army save us!" The
appreciable losses. The ground war was wrapping up without England and Germany becoming "sufficiently worn down." Khrushchev later
Russian people were gullible and tended to believe communist propaganda. As a result, they fought valiantly against the invaders.
described how Stalin became unusually agitated following the Franco-German cease-fire in
June 1940. He cursed the French for letting themselves be beaten and the English for fleeing
"as fast as their legs could carry them."10
The Soviets seized a generous portion of Eastern Europe only days before France's surrender. In September and October 1939, the Soviet government had negotiated permission with Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia to establish military bases at their Baltic ports. In June 1940, Molotov reproached the Lithuanian prime minister, Anastas Merkys, for the alleged poor security provided the Soviet garrison; a Red Army soldier had supposedly been bushwhacked. On June 14, Molotov presented Lithuania's foreign minister with an ultimatum demanding reinforcement of the Soviet military contingent to prevent further "provocation." The diminutive republic acquiesced.
Similar ultimatums were presented to Latvia and Estonia. On the 21st, the Baltic states were declared Soviet republics, following sham elections. Molotov told the Lithuanian foreign minister on June 30, "Now we're convinced more than ever that the brilliant comrade Lenin was not wrong in asserting that World War II will bring us to power in Europe, just as World War I helped us to power in Russia."11
When Moscow presented its demand on June 23 to reoccupy Bessarabia, the formerly Russian eastern province of Romania, Ribbentrop pledged Germany's support. He asked only that the sovereignty of Romania's remaining territory be respected, to safeguard the Reich's economic interests.
Apologists for the USSR, and they abound among historians and sociologists in democratic countries, excuse these Soviet land grabs as defensive measures. The threat of potential German aggression supposedly compelled Moscow to extend the USSR's frontiers to blunt the impetus of a German offensive. The premise ignores the fact that the Soviet operations in
the Baltic and into Bessarabia occurred opposite a virtually undefended German border. Four German infantry divisions and six militia divisions protected the demarcation line shared with the Soviet Union. Two were transferred to the western front in June. Stalin possessed a splendid espionage network, which consistently forewarned him of German plans. His spies could not have failed to observe (and report) that there were no German deliberations regarding an invasion of the USSR at that time. The atmosphere in Foreign Armies East, the German general staffs section assigned to matters related to the Red Army, was described by Maj. Erich Helmdach, who was posted there in July 1940: I found genuinely peacetime conditions in the department. The air war against England generated far greater interest. There was no trace of "war preparations," except that a Soviet film, The Breakthrough into the Mannerheim Line, a documentary about the Soviet winter war in Finland, was screened for the general staff officers. The post-film summary by Col. (Eberhard) Kinzel was limited solely to disparaging observations on the military achievements of the Red Army and its antiquated combat ordnance.12 How little the Soviets themselves promoted the "national security" pretext is illuminated by Molotov's remarks in an address to the Supreme Soviet on August 1, 1940. Citing the USSR's successful foreign policy, he stipulated that the Soviet Union should not be content with what had been achieved. In Stalin's words, the foreign commissar proclaimed, the nation must maintain a state of mobilization to wrest further successes: "Well achieve new and even more glorious victories for the Soviet Union."13 That summer, diplomatic relations with Germany deteriorated. When the Soviets exerted political pressure to gain control of Finland's nickel production (the Germans had contracted to purchase 75 percent of the yield), Hitler garrisoned the Finnish nickel mines at Petsamo with elite mountain troops. After the Red Army occupied Bessarabia, the Fьhrer signed a treaty with Bucharest in August, pledging to protect Romania from aggression. In November 1940, Molotov traveled to Berlin to confer with Hitler and Ribbentrop. During the talks, the Soviet visitor belabored the German military presence in Finland and the Reich's guarantee to safeguard Romanian sovereignty. This, he protested, was an infringement on the Soviet Union's sphere of influence. All conciliatory arguments introduced by Hitler, Molotov resisted. The catalog of demands for Soviet preeminence in practically every region where Germany and the Soviet Union shared interests, which Molotov heaped on Ribbentrop during the final session, brought the diplomatic exchange to a fiasco. The question arises what Molotov, presenting patently unacceptable demands, expected to achieve through these negotiations. The contemporary German historian Walter Post offers this analysis: Moscow had to fear that England would either be finished off by a German amphibious operation, or, due to its military weakness and miserable financial situation, find itself ready to conclude a peaceful compromise with the Reich. The Soviet Union would then stand alone against a Germany that controlled the resources of the entire European continent. Moreover, the Soviet Union saw the danger of a cooperative effort among all the capitalist powers, including the
Anglo-Saxons, against the USSR. To prevent this possibility, England had to be encouraged to continue waging war... To reinforce this hope and prevent a German landing operation against England, Moscow had to seek a conflict with Germany. With the threat of Soviet expansion toward Scandinavia and the Balkans in his rear, Hitler could not risk operation Sea Lion (the invasion plan for England). Instead, he had to transfer strong formations of his armed forces to the east to protect Germany's supply sources of nickel lumber, oil and grain.14 In December 1940, Soviet intelligence obtained a copy of a top-secret directive drafted by the Fьhrer on the 18th. It opened with the words, "The German armed forces must be prepared, even before the conclusion of the war with England, to defeat Soviet Russia in a rapid campaign."15 The document contained general military objectives in the east and specified that preparations had to be completed by May 15, 1941. Late in 1940, the attention of Hitler and Stalin shifted to southeastern Europe. Germany was the only great power capable of protecting the Balkans from Soviet aggression. This was instrumental in Ribbentrop's persuading the governments of Hungary and Romania to join the Three Power Pact, the German-Italian alliance system, in November 1940. Bulgaria followed on March 1, 1941. Hitler's purpose was to arbitrate local border disputes and solicit permission to move an army through Romania and Bulgaria to invade Greece. Molotov bombarded the German embassy in Moscow with official protests. Germany, he scolded, had acknowledged in the August 1939 non-aggression pact that these states belonged to the Soviet sphere of interest. (The USSR's occupation of the Baltic states in June 1940 demonstrated how Moscow interpreted the classification, "sphere of interest.") A sharper confrontation developed over Yugoslavia. Though its cabinet yielded to German pressure to enter the Three Power Pact, factions within the government and the military received discreet encouragement from England, the United States and Soviet Russia. During a visit to Ankara, the British foreign secretary, Anthony Eden, was told by Yugoslavia's ambassador that Moscow had reassured him that were Yugoslavia attacked by the Germans, the USSR was ready to aid the defenders. On March 27, 1941, the pro-German Yugoslavian government was toppled by a coup. Hitler directed his general staff to prepare an invasion. The German army group poised in Bulgaria to strike Greece would simultaneously invade Yugoslavia, supported by another German force deployed in southern Germany. The new Yugoslavian government anticipated a military alliance with the USSR. Yugoslavia's ambassador in Moscow, Milan Gavrilovic, was told by Stalin, "I hope that your army can stop the Germans for a long time. You have mountains and forests, where tanks are ineffective."16 He urged the Yugoslavians to organize guerrilla warfare. Gavrilovic was then bounced to Molotov, who explained to him he was the "victim of a misunderstanding, since it had never been intended to conclude a military alliance with Yugoslavia, or support Yugoslavia militarily."17 Red Army formations along the western frontier were simply placed on combat alert four days after the Germans invaded Yugoslavia in April. This was calculated to force Hitler to beef up his defenses opposite the USSR and relieve pressure on the Yugoslavian army.
This saber rattling by the Soviets was a rare public manifestation of the Soviet military presence in the western zone. In general, the Soviet media denied rumors of troop concentrations along the frontier. The defense committee had been secretly transferring combat divisions there since the summer of 1940. In April 1941, the Ural and Siberian military districts were ordered to release more formations. On May 13, an additional 28 divisions, nine corps headquarters and four army headquarters were relocated from the Russian interior. By June, according to recent Russian archival estimates, the Soviet armed forces had deployed 2.7 million men near the western frontier; the equivalent of 177 divisions.18
This enormous fighting force was allocated 10,394 tanks, over 1,300 of which were the formidable types KV and T-34. The army was supported by nearly 44,000 field guns and mortars. Over 8,000 combat aircraft occupied forward airdromes. The western military districts established command posts close to the frontier. Army staffs and front administrative personnel were ordered transferred there in mid-June.
One hundred Soviet divisions were positioned in eastern Poland alone. A high proportion of armored and mechanized formations deployed near Bialystok and Lvov, behind geographic bulges protruding westward along the German-Soviet demarcation line. In a 1972 book, Marshal Ivan Bagramyan, in 1941 a colonel in the Red Army, commented on the troop disposition around Lvov: "We regarded it a favorable assembly area in case we had to initiate widespread offensive operations. It was no accident that two of our full strength, most combat ready mechanized corps, the Fourth and the Eighth, were concentrated there."19
As for the Bialystok area, the Soviet Maj. Gen. Pyotr Grigorenko later offered this perspective:
More than half the troops of the Western Special Military District were stationed around Bialystok and to the west, therefore in territory extending like a wedge deeply into that of the probable enemy. A troop arrangement of this kind would only have been justifiable... if these troops had been earmarked to launch a surprise attack. Otherwise, half of them would have been surrounded in a moment.20
The philosophy of the Red Army was attack oriented. The chief of staff, Georgi Zhukov, described the training at the Soviet general staff academy:
Participants in the course were instructed that wars are no longer declared; the aggressor strives far more to insure all the advantages of a surprise attack... The strategy of warfare is above all anchored in the correct thesis that the aggressor can only be beaten through offensive operations. Other variables of battle, such as counterthrusts, fighting to cover retreats and operations in case
Here, in "reactionary" classical Cyrillic, it is written: "Whosoever shall come to us with the sword shall perish by it. Upon this stood and stands the land of Russia." That was written by St. Alexander Nevsky (1220-1263). During World War II, Stalinist Russia briefly became the most
of encirclement, were, with few individual exceptions, only touched upon.21
conservative country in Europe.
During May 1941, Zhukov and the defense commissar, Marshal Semyon Timoshenko, prepared an operational study for Red Army deployment in case of war with Germany. It was based on an initial plan submitted to Stalin the previous September. The May document included the following recommendation:
In total, Germany and its allies can deploy 240 divisions against the Soviet Union. Considering that Germany, through the arrangement of its rearward services, can keep its army readily mobilized, it could deploy ahead of us and carry out a surprise attack. To prevent this and defeat the German army, I regard it as necessary to under no circumstances relinquish the initiative to the German high command; but to deploy ahead of the enemy and then attack the Germany army right when it is forming up, has not established a front and cannot organize the combat operations of its allied forces.22
On May 5, Stalin and assorted Soviet dignitaries attended commencement at the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow. During the following banquet, he proposed several toasts and talked volubly. An abridged transcript of Stalin's remarks that day, from Soviet archives, was ultimately published by the Russian historian Lev Besyemski in the March 1992 issue of the periodical Osteuropa.
Stalin lauded the modernization of the Red Army. He rebuffed Gen. Michail Chosin, the director of the Frunze academy, for proposing a toast to the USSR's peaceful foreign policy. The dictator substituted these words:
Now that we have become strong, one must go from defense over to the attack. To accomplish the defense of our country we are obliged to take the offensive.... We must reform our instruction, our propaganda, agitation, our press to pervade an attack spirit. The Red Army is a modern army, and a modern army is an offensive army.23
The Russian archives have never released the uncensored text of Stalin's commencement speech. The deleted portions may be revealed, however, by the testimony of four Soviet officers who attended the graduation ceremony. Captured by the Germans, Maj. Ivan Yevstifeyev, Maj. Pissmeny, Maj. Gen. Andrei Naumov and Maj. Gen. Vassili Malyshkin had no contact during captivity, but their recollections of Stalin's remarks are practically identical.
The witnesses testified that Stalin had described the German army's "occupation" of Bulgaria and transfer of troops to Finland as "reasons for a war against Germany."24 Discussing the preparedness of the Red Army, Stalin heralded its intended employment:
For us, the war plans are ready... In the course of the next two months we can begin the struggle against Germany. It may surprise you that I'm telling you our war plans, but it has to be. We must take this step for our protection and take revenge for Bulgaria and Finland. There is a peace treaty with Germany, but that's just an illusion, a curtain behind which we can work.25
That same May 5, the military propaganda section received guidelines for "the tasks of political propaganda for the Red Army in the immediate future." The outline stated that "members of the Red Army must be prepared for a justifiable, offensive war." It further stipulated, "the present perception among many Red Army soldiers, commanders and political cadres that the German army... must be destroyed."26 Ten days later, Stalin dictated a personal directive for the Red Amy: The present international situation, which is filled with unforeseeable possibilities, demands revolutionary decisiveness and constant readiness to launch a crushing advance upon the enemy... The soldiers are to be schooled in the spirit of an active hatred of the enemy and to aspire to take up the struggle against him, to be ready to defend our fatherland on the territory of the enemy and deal him a mortal blow.27 Along the frontier, the German and Soviet field armies were massing for an imminent confrontation. German reconnaissance aircraft flew frequent sorties to monitor the Red Army. Stalin issued standing orders forbidding his troops to fire on them. The Soviet host, grossly underestimated by German military intelligence, continued to augment. "All the spare capacity of the entire national rail transport system had been taken up with this major and secret operation," observed the former Soviet staff officer Viktor Suvorov. He points out that this large Soviet force could not, as Molotov would claim, have assembled in the west for summer training exercises. The mobilized divisions could not have returned to the distant lands from whence they came. Such a move again would have absorbed the entire resources of the rail network for many months and would have resulted in economic catastrophe.28 The nature of these formations was illuminated in Suvorov's 1990 book, Icebreaker: The basis of Soviet strategy was the "operation in depth" theory.... The shock army was to... deliver those strikes in depth. Set up purely to solve offensive tasks, these shock armies had... a considerable quantity of artillery and infantry whose purpose it was to break the enemy's defense, and one or two mechanized corps with 500 tanks each... On June 21, 1941, all the Soviet armies on the German and Romanian borders... were of shock army standard.29 It was unfeasible to maintain such an overwhelming military presence to protect against a potential German invasion. The region lacked sufficient shelters for winter, and there was a dearth of training facilities, such as firing ranges, to maintain the army's combat preparedness. Shaposhnikov himself had stressed the necessity of committing soldiers to action shortly after deployment on the frontier; not only does their sense of readiness otherwise lapse, but such a troop buildup can only remain concealed from the potential enemy for a limited time. Neither political nor military documents fixing the date for a surprise offensive against Germany are available. Soviet officers captured during the fighting testified that many anticipated the order to attack in August or September 1941. Some said that combat
operations were scheduled to begin early in July.
The Soviet leadership, however, faced a serious concern. Stalin received reports that the Germans were preparing to invade the Soviet Union in June. His army on the front was undergoing feverish reorganization. Units were receiving new ordinance, recruit training was under way, many formations were understrength. Other divisions were still en route by rail. It was estimated that the army would not be combat ready before the end of August. The dilemma is illuminated by Walter Post:
The rapid progress of the German deployment and the reports piling up about the Germans' intention to attack in the latter half of June confronted the Soviet command with
A wounded Russian, captured in a skirmish, is treated by a Finnish nurse in a field hospital. Soviet soldiers were told by communist political officers that they would be shot or tortured by the Finns if taken prisoner. Despite these lying warnings, many soldiers surrendered to the Finns, and were alive
the problem of either changing the
and unharmed when the war ended.
entire war plan to the strategic
defensive, or advancing its own timetable for attack... A strategic defense would
have required a total revision of the troop disposition, which because of the poor
rail network could not be carried out in a short time.... The Soviet command had
at this late hour no other choice but to maintain poise, camouflage its own
deploying of forces as much as possible and hope for enough time to complete the
concentration of its troops and attack according to plan.30
The Soviets hoped that were the German army to strike first, the initial thrust need not be decisive. "They felt the covering armies were fully sufficient to repulse an enemy attack while Soviet main forces were mobilizing and deploying to launch a counteroffensive."31 The Red Army, as the German historian Max Klьver relates, "was in every branch schooled in attack and trained for the capability of responding to an enemy attack with an immediate counterblow."32
The Soviet general staff, however, had failed to appreciate how quickly the German army, upon arriving on the frontier, could launch an offensive. Shaposhnikov had estimated 10 to 15 days. To the Red Army's unpleasant surprise, the German armored and motorized divisions, right after reaching the border, struck with full fury. The captive Gen. Andrei Vlasov's remarks on the subject in 1942 were summarized by a German intelligence officer:
The Soviets had been forming up since the beginning of the year, which, due to the bad Soviet railroad lines, went rather slowly. Hitler judged the situation perfectly and plowed right into the Soviets while they were deploying. This is how Vlasov explains the Germans' enormous initial success.33
Like any novel concept assailing accepted views, the premise that Hitler may have only technically been the aggressor in the German-Soviet war has encountered resistance. Among the opponents of the revisionist position is David Glantz, who introduces new evidence to
defend established views. An authority on Soviet military affairs, Glantz provides a comprehensive analysis of the 1941 Red Army in his study, Stumbling Colossus. He argues that rapid expansion since 1939, among other factors, made the USSR's fighting forces unprepared to conduct a military operation in the scope of the purported preemptive offensive against Germany. Soviet commanders, as reflected at that time in their military periodicals, "demonstrated a clear Soviet appreciation of the superb German military performance... and an unmistakable realization that the Soviet military in no way matched German military standards."34 Glantz provides evidence that troops were unfamiliar with new ordnance, service branches of the army lacked experience in coordinated operations, and the level of training among inductees was inadequate. In the 37th Tank Division, for example, "About 60 percent of the enlisted personnel had joined the army in May 1941, and none had any general or specialized training."35 Glantz publishes a July 1941 analysis of the Soviet 15th Mechanized Corps on the first day of fighting by its acting commander, in which the officer states that personnel in the corps' motorcycle regiment had never fired a rifle.36 Stumbling Colossus also mentions that the "majority of KV and T-34 [tank] drivers had from three to five hours of service driver training."37 Aware of the military's predicament, Glantz concludes, Stalin sought diplomatic solutions to problems with Germany. The American professor Roger Reese summarizes that expansion of the army "was pursued at a frantic if not altogether paranoid pace" since 1939, largely out of fear of Germany. The Red Army "inconsistently changed unit organization and reshuffled its leaders, creating a great deal of confusion, instability and systemic incoherence."38 Glantz's book in particular is worthwhile for balancing the perspective of recently available information. However, related factors should also be considered. The fact that the Red Army was experiencing a difficult period of reorganization, modernization and expansion from 1939 to 1941 did not prevent Stalin from employing it as an instrument of foreign policy. The invasion of Poland and the occupation of the Baltic republics and Bessarabia delayed progress in improving the army. A 1939-40 winter war against Finland cost the troops a quarter of a million casualties and widespread demoralization. Stalin was not deterred by the disastrous impact Soviet imperialism exercised on the struggling military establishment. The question arises, did the Soviet general staff really consider the fighting forces inadequate? Why would Zhukov and Timoshenko, who overestimated German strength, prepare an operational study for invading central Europe? "There is no direct evidence that Stalin ever saw it," Glantz maintains.39 The study was dated May 15, 1941, and addressed to Stalin. The Russian historian Col. Valeriy Danilov argues that it would be absurd to presume that the Soviet defense commissar and the chief of staff would have prepared such a document to set before Stalin without authorization. Such arbitrary conduct by officers would have represented a rebuke against Soviet policy and implied that Stalin was in error. Considering the 1937 purge of the military hierarchy, it is doubtful that staff officers would have risked antagonizing him.40 It is more plausible that the study was accomplished on his orders. The controversy will continue, at least until the former Allied powers Britain, the United
States and Russia, whose governments have liberally exposed Germany's wartime records, release the relevant material in their own archives. The Austrian newspaper Die Presse of April 4, 1997 quoted the Moscow journalist Konstantin Preobrashenskiy about use of the Russian archives. "Once again, the archivists only approve access to the documents when they feel like it. It is regrettable to see how what was accessible yesterday is today closed once more."41
Notes: 1Thadden, pp. 26-27 ...back... 2ibid., p. 29. ...back... 3Post, p. 123. ...back... 4Thadden, p. 88 ...back... 5ibid., pp. 89-90. ...back... 6ibid., pp. 99-100. ...back... 7Reese, p. 35. ...back... 8Klьver, p. 112. ...back... 9Glantz, p. 33. ...back... 10Post, p. 145. ...back... 11Klьver, p. 106. ...back... 12Helmdach, p. 15. ...back... 13Klьver, p. 282. ...back... 14Post, p. 184. ...back... 15ibid., p. 390. ...back... 16Klьver, p. 259. ...back... 17ibid. ...back...
[Bibliography]
18Glantz, p. 293. ...back... 19Klьver, p. 110. ...back... 20Post, p. 293. ...back... 21ibid., p. 260. ...back... 22ibid., p. 282. ...back... 23ibid., p. 276. ...back... 24Thadden, p. 105. ...back... 25ibid., p. 106. ...back... 26Post, p. 277. ...back... 27Thadden, p. 119. ...back... 28Suvorov, Viktor, "Who Was Planning to Attack Whom in June 1941, Hitler or Stalin?" ...back... 29Suvorov, Viktor, Icebreaker, pp. 141, 144. ...back... 30Post, pp. 298, 281. ...back... 31Glantz, p. 96. ...back... 32Klьver, p. 282. ...back... 33Post, p. 298. ...back... 34Glantz, p. 259. ...back... 35ibid., p. 142. ...back... 36ibid., p. 136. ...back... 37ibid., p. 135 ...back... 38Reese, p. 163. ...back... 39Glantz, p. 95. ...back... 40Thadden, p. 133. ...back... 41Ertl, p. 9. ...back...
Bibliography: Ertl, Karl Hans, Das Unternehmen Barbarossa, Rosenheim: dvg, 1997. Glantz, David, Stumbling Colossus, Lawrence, KS: Kansas UP, 1998. Helmdach, Erich, Ьberfall? Berg am See: Vowinckel, 1983. Klьver, Max, Prдventivschlag 1941, Leoni: Druffel, 1986. Post, Walter, Unternehmen Barbarossa, Hamburg/Berlin/Bonn: Mittler, 1996. Reese, Roger, Stalin's Reluctant Soldiers, Lawrence, KS: Kansas UP, 1996. Suvorov, Viktor, Icebreaker, London: Harnish Hamilton, 1990. Suvorov, Viktor, "Who Was Planning to Attack Whom in June 1941, Hitler or Stalin?" The Journal of the Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, v. 130 no. 2, London, June 1985, pp. 50-55. Thadden, Adolf von, Stalins Falle, Rosenheim: dvg, 1996. Stalin's Secret War Plans Why Hitler Invaded the Soviet Union www.wintersonnenwende.com
Lesen Sie dieses Buch im deutschen Original! Documents on the Expulsion of the Sudeten Germans Survivors speak out. Original: self-published by the Study Group for the Preservation of Sudeten German Interests, 1951 Edited and with an introduction by Dr. Wilhelm Turnwald. Translated by Victor Diodon and Arnim Johannis Small location maps for each report were added by The Scriptorium; click for a more detailed map Ancestral German soil in Europe's East! To those whose final resting place it became, and to those who in their hearts still call it their own, this publication is humbly dedicated. Table of Contents After the war ended in 1945, one of the most gruesome genocides took place that the history of mankind has ever seen: the expulsion and destruction of the Sudeten Germans. The German government has kept knowledge of this Holocaust and the huge files of documentary evidence a secret, in other words, this chapter of history is supposed to remain tucked away in the hindmost corners of the Federal German archives, there to gather dust and be forgotten. Its publication is not desired. The poor souls who were tortured to a gruesome death can no longer tell their story but the survivors can. Driven into a truncated Germany of rubble and ruins, where the people had enough to do to get their own lives back under control, the Sudeten Germans soon gave up trying to tell of their suffering; they buried the knowledge deep within themselves - but nevertheless their story has not been lost, as it was summarized (at least in part) in a book titled Dokumente zur Austreibung der Sudetendeutschen Documents on the Expulsion of the Sudeten Germans - and it is our moral duty to those who were tormented to death, to tell the world about this death march of a people now that the Internet has made such a publication possible. Hushing-up these events has resulted in the fact that many members of even their own ethnic group do not know the truth about the expulsion, much less the younger generation of the nation that expelled them. On the contrary, misinformation from sources with vested interests has left the younger Czech generations with the mistaken belief that they were made to suffer injustices and thus have a claim to restitution. They feel that the Benes Decrees and the expulsion were warranted. It's hard so see, however, how this can be justified in light of Czechoslovakia's admission to the European Union. The German government, instead of backing its own people, is on the side of the perpetrators' nation and supports its demands. In times of economic hardship even the expellees themselves send "care parcels" to those people whose parents and grandparents robbed them of their home and all they had. Just one case in point is the
extensive aid that was sent when the "flood of the century" wrought havoc in parts of Czechoslovakia because the expellers had neglected maintenance on the Oder River. The expellees have ever dispensed with revenge and are satisfied if they can just pay the occasional visit to their old homeland and the present "owners" of what had been their and their forefathers' own possessions.
An ethnic group that has been psychologically browbeaten into cultural illness for half a century is beginning to beg the murderers of its ethnic siblings for forgiveness. For what, may we ask? Perhaps for the things you will read about here? Think about it.
Everyone has a right to one's homeland, and every people has the right to honor its dead - except for the Sudeten Germans, who evidently have neither.
Table of Contents
Scriptorium July 2002
Foreword Preface Regarding the Translations of these Reports Introduction Concerning these Reports Major cities and towns:
Aussig 1. The explosion on July 30, 1945 - A. U. 2. Eyewitness account of the blood bath of July 30, 1945 Therese Mager 3. Massacre - Herbert Schernstein 4. Ill-treatment and murder of German workmen - Max Becher 5. The robbing of a blind man - Franz Habelt 6. Transport of the blind - Martha Rauscher 7. Concentration camps Lerchenfeld and Schцbritz Heinrich Michel Brьnn 8. Death march to Pohrlitz - M. v. W. 9. Death march and concentration camp: an old woman's account - M. K. 10. Death march from Brьnn to Pohrlitz - Ed. Kroboth 11. Kaunitz College - Katharina Ochs 12. Kaunitz College - Josef Brandejsky 13. Internment camp Klaidovka - Martha Wцlfel 14. Severe maltreatment of German soldiers returning from Russian captivity - Emil Hulla 15. Luggage allowances for the Brьnn transport -
Franz Exler 16. The Kleidovka camp: report about the trial of Jan Kouril before the jury court of Karlsruhe Brьx 17. Camp at Maltheuern - Dr. med. Carl Grimm 18. Father and brother were murdered - Anni Wagner Budweis 19. Coal pit Lignit-Mylovar, maltreatment - Karl Stelzig 20. Maltreatment, rape, murder - A.R. Gablonz/Neisse 21. Robbed in June 1945 - Bruno Hofmann 22. Fatal maltreatment of an old man - Adolf Vogel 23. Resettlement - Anton Nitsche Iglau 24. Shooting of women in May and June 1945 - Else Kцchel 25. Reign of terror - Franz Kaupil 26. Maltreatment, withholding of personal belongings, father was murdered - Robert Pupeter 27. State of the luggage in the Iglau camp - Alfred Chlad Jдgerndorf 28. Concentration camp Jдgerndorf, severe maltreatment of a 71-year-old man - Josef Kramlovsky 29. Abuse during transport and in the camp - Johann Korsitzke 30. Attempted rapes - Erika Kunisch 31. Burgberg concentration camp, maltreatment resulting in death - Olga Arnt 32. Cases of severe maltreatment in the court prison Otto Langer, veterinarian Karlsbad 33. Arbitrary arrest - F. Danzer 34. Severe abuse in the camp - Josef Mцrtl 35. Karlsbad Court prison, Neurohlau - Hedwig Nao 36. Severe harassment by an administrator - Wilhelm Meindl 37. Abuse of a 65-year-old woman by Czech youths in the street - Leopoldine Schneider 38. Severe abuse of a police constable - Alfred Mьller 39. Karlsbad-Lenitz, severe abuse on the grounds of a false accusation on July 4, 1945 - Anton Riedl Kladno 40. Kladno concentration camp, the march to the border, and rapes - engineer Eugen Scholz
41. Persecution of the Germans from the Protectorate Erika Griessmann Komotau 42. The concentration camp - Ottokar Kremen Landskron 43. The Massacre on May 17, 1945 - Julius Friedel Mдhrisch Ostrau [Moravian Ostrau] 44. Arrest, expulsion, death march - Rudolf Schneider 45. Inhuman brutalities in the Hanke concentration camp in 1945 - Ernst Schorz 46. The Hanke concentration camp - Alfred Kutschker 47. Severe ill-treatment and murder of prisoners of war Heinz Lapczyna Mдhrisch Schцnberg [Moravian Schцnberg] 48. Severe maltreatment in the prison of Moravian Schцnberg, February-March 1946 - Hans Wisur 49. Elderly people maltreated while withdrawing savings at City Hall - Moritz Hilscher Olmьtz 50. Concentration camp Hodolein: maltreatment, robbery - K. S. 51. Camp Hodolein: Cases of maltreatment and murders - K. S. 52. Camp Hodolein: Shooting of elderly people - Hermine Pytlik 53. The concentration camp, maltreatment - Dr. Hein 54. Camp Hodolein: Withholding mail from England Walburga Lindenthal 55. Concentration camps Olmьtz and Stefanau, harassment of elderly people - Hermann Komarek 56. The Hodolein camp, maltreatment - Dipl. Ing. Kurt Domes Pilsen 57. Experiences in the district court prison of Pilsen Oskar Gellrich, Franz Reich 58. Prison Bory, May 1945 to March 1946 - Karl Oberdцrfer 59. A German family's account - Maria Schцber 60. Severe abuse, death, dysentery, typhus, dropsy Franz Pilfusek Prague 61. Events in May and June 1945 - K.F., physicist 62. Prague-Theresienstadt, maltreatment of old women Anna Seidel 63. Inhuman atrocities in Prague - Marianne Klaus 64. The fate of German women in 1945 - Helene Bugner 65. The ordeal of an inventor - Johann Schцniger
66. Blood bath in the Scharnhorst School concentration camp - Hildegard Hurtinger 67. Inhuman atrocities - Alfred Gebauer 68. Prague-Wokowitz, penal camp Kladno - Ing. Franz Rцsch 69. Concentration camp Prosetschnitz - Dr. Pohlner 70. The camp at Rusin, the march to Dresden - Hans Freund 71. My experiences in Czechoslovakia, 1945-46 - W. L. 72. The Motol camp - Schreiber 73. Execution of 18 prisoners of war on August 9, 1945 - Eduard Flach, lieutenant colonel (ret'd.) 74. Prague-Raudnitz - A.W. 75. Prague, 1945-1947 - Dr. Hans Wagner, M.D. 76. Pankratz, mass graves, mutilations - Sebastian Herr 77. The transport of Modrany - border superintendent of Wiesau Reichenberg 78. Report about the events of 1945-46 - Emil Breuer 79. Massacre on Tuch Square, May 3, 1945 - T. M. 80. Expulsion of Reich Germans on May 30, 1945 Heinrich Ackerhans and 8 other Germans from the Reich 81. Treatment of sick people - Justine Pilz 82. Imprisoned one year for no reason - Franz Fiedler 83. Maltreatment of women - Marianne Chytil 84. Treatment of Jews - Dr. Rudolf Fernegg Saaz-Postelberg 85. Czech reign of terror - Dr. jur. Franz Freyer, district judge Teplitz-Schцnau 86. Woman brutally abused - Julia Kдthe Tseng 87. Maltreatment in prison - A. B. 88. Deportees robbed on June 1, 1945 - Walter Weichert 89. Mental patient murdered - Theresia Wiegand 90. A woman's fate - Kдte Leitenberger Theresienstadt 91. Internment camp "Little Fortress" - Dr. E. Siegel, M.D. 92. Severe abuse in the camp - Hans Strobl 93. A prisoner's eyewitness account - Eduard Fritsch Troppau 94. Gross abuse of a woman, 1945 - Elfriede Hanke 95. Collection camp, torture of a sick man in autumn 1945 V. Skolaut 96. Severe abuse in the camp - Emma Bittner 97. Severe maltreatment in the camp - Rundt 98. Woman fatally injured on or about November 20,1945 Alois Leckl
99. Abuse and rape - M. T. 100. Confiscation of a family tomb - Wilhelm Loy 101. Eye injury as result of abuse - Dr. Karl Prokop 102. Concentration camp Schimrowitz, woman maltreated after giving birth - Maria WeiЯhuhn Smaller towns, in alphabetical order: Alt-Bьrgersdorf 103. Severe maltreatment in the course of house searches Adolf Lux Althart near Slabings 104. Slave labor, inspection of personal belongings Reinhold Meiniger Altrohlau 105. Sick old woman robbed - Anna Drцsler Altrothwasser 106. Maltreatment of a farmer's family - Emilie Reinhold Altsattel 107. Tormenting of an invalid - Anton Stockner Arlsdorf 108. 72-year-old man harassed - Albert Geppert Arnau/Sudeten Mountains 109. Murder of a husband and wife - Marie Rumler Arnsdorf near Hennersdorf 110. Confession extorted by means of maltreatment - Karl Ehrlich Asch 111. Maltreatment for the purpose of intimidation - Anna Koch Auherzen-Lihn 112. Abuse of Germans in May 1945 - Anton Woeschka Auschine-Raudnai, District Aussig 113. Blind woman robbed - Marie Schlechte Barzdorf 114. Juveniles in the coal mines - Rudolf Koppe Bautsch, Northern Moravia 115. After release from Russian imprisonment, internment in the Czech camp Gurein - Erich Granzer
Bennisch 116. Concentration camps Hodolein and Stefanau: severe harassment of old people - Valerie Klos 117. Girl severely maltreated by employer - Hildegard Maschke 118. Abuse in the coal pits of Ostrau - Johann Januschke 119. Abuse in the camp's cold store room - Erwin Plisch Beraun 120. Murder of German soldiers - Franz Tengler Bergesgrьn, District Brьx 121. Murder of women and children, amputee killed with his own crutches - Eduard Kaltofen Berkowitz 122. Harassment of a farmer's family - Anna Schneider Bilin 123. Invalids shot during the expulsion - Anton Watzke Bischofteinitz 124. Concentration camp Taus: Robbery and maltreatment Robert Hartl 125. Concentration camp Taus: 35 Germans vanished without a trace - Maria Bьchse 126. Massacre of 35 Sudeten Germans on July 11th, 1945 Ludwig Schцtterl Blatna 127. Maltreatment of Germans - Alois MeiЯer Blauendorf-Neutitschein 128. Farmer's wife abused - Amalie Gцdrich Bodenbach 129. Beatings, women and girls raped - N. N. Bцhmisch Kamnitz [Bohemian Kamnitz] 130. Maltreatment and killing of prisoners of war Rudolf Schьtz 131. Prison at Bцhmisch-Kamnitz and concentration camp Rabenstein, mistreatment and murder - Albin Mьbisch Bцhmisch Krummau [Bohemian Krummau] 132. Looting - Klara Kretschmer 133. Concentration camp Welleschin, maltreatment Hedwig Feyerer 134. Expulsion, looting, conditions of hygiene - Franz Janovsky
Bцhmisch Leipa [Bohemian Leipa] 135. The concentration camp - F. Fiedler Bцhmisch Meseritsch [Bohemian Meseritsch] 136. Maltreatment during slave labor - Adolf Mader Bцhmisch Trьbau [Bohemian Trьbau] 137. Railroad camp - Karl Schilling Braunau 138. Maltreatment and robbery in May 1945 - Josef Lausch Bretterschlag 139. Groundless arrest of all the men in a village Wenzel Parth, sacristan Brunnersdorf near Kaaden 140. Shootings and maltreatment - Wenzel Parth, sacristan Brьsau 141. Looting, maltreatment - Franz Langer Bьrgersdorf 142. Severe abuse - Adolf Aust Butschafka near Jдgerndorf 143. Harassment of a farmer's family - Marie Breier 144. The Pardubitz-Kцniggrдtz concentration camp, looting of luggage - Heinrich Furch 145. Maltreatment - Hilda Breier Chodau near Karlsbad 146. Husband murdered - Fanny Karner 147. Baggage inspection and looting in May 1946 - Marie WeiЯ 148. Baggage inspection and looting - Josef Zillich 149. Baggage inspection - Emilie Dotzauer 150. Severe maltreatment - Karl Kempf Chrastawitz near Taus 151. 35 SA-men murdered on July 11, 1945 - Eduard Polz Chrostau camp, District Zwitau 152. Maltreatment of young people - Herbert Heinz Datschitz/Moravia 153. Murder of German Forestry Commissioners - Herrmann Hьbner, forestry official Deutsch-Beneschau near Kaplitz
154. 71-year-old man abused - Johann Schmoz 155. Maltreatment in the Women's Camp - M. Swoboda-Frantzen Deutsch-Jassnik 156. Severe maltreatment - Josef Schneider Deutsch-Lodenitz, District Sternberg 157. Farmer maltreated on September 16, 1945 - Richard Sirsch Dittersdorf, District Bдrn 158. Freudenthal, maltreatment, expulsion with insufficient luggage allowance - Max Schindler 159. Looting of the parsonage and church, shootings and maltreatment - Rev. Johann Hofmann Dobraken 160. Ill-treatment of a former concentration camp inmate - Franz Wagner Dobris 161. Women body-searched - Elisabeth Lomitschka Dolawitz 162. Looting - Karl Ullsperger Domeschau 163. Severe maltreatment and torture - Johann Rцsner Duppau near Kaaden 164. Shootings and murders - Eduard Grimm 165. Severe abuse of a woman, deportation into the coal mines Friedrich Liebner 166. Severe maltreatment in the course of house searches Alois Zцrkler Eipel 167. Treatment of Jews: excluded from the family business - Dr. Rudolf Fernegg Eisenstein 168. Maltreatment of an invalid - Alois Sperl Eisenstein-Grьn 169. Ill-treatment of a little boy - Klara Obermaier Elbogen 170. Cases of severe maltreatment - Franz Weinhard 171. Fortress Elbogen, treatment in Czech prisons on April 11, 1946 - Heinrich Meier 172. Concentration camp (Neurohlau, Kladno), maltreatment -
Karl Haberzettel 173. Concentration camp, maltreatment - Karl Jessel Ernstbrunn near Bцhmisch Krummau 174. Looting and abuse - Rudolf Baier Falkenau/Eger 175. Robbery and theft - Adalbert Sturm Fischern 176. Luggage inspection - Raimund v. Wolf Frankstadt near Mдhrisch Schцnberg 177. Maltreatment in Frankstadt and during labor in the mines in June 1945 - Rudolf Dobias 178. Conditions in the prisoner-of-war camp Frankstadt Adolf Hauk Freiwaldau 179. Unlawful confiscation - Ida Frцhlich 180. The ordeal of an artist - G. M. 181. Severe abuse during farm labor - Else Mьller 182. District Freiwaldau, the Jauernig and Adelsdorf camps Alfred Latzel 183. District Freiwaldau, the Thomasdorf and Adelsdorf camps, murders and abuse - Karl Schneider 184. District Freiwaldau, the Thomasdorf camp, description of the camp - Karl Froning Freudenthal 185. Report on events at Freudenthal in 1945 - Dr. Carl Gregor 186. Executions in the Freudenthal camp in 1945 - Johann Partsch Friedland 187. Treatment of Jews: Prevented from recovering own law office - Dr. Rudolf Fernegg Friedrichswald near Gablonz 188. Arrest, concentration camp, farm labor - Franz Simon GieЯhьbl-Sauerbrunn near Karlsbad 189. Expropriation, robbery - Maria Pichl Graslitz 190. Luggage inspection - Margarete Poppa GroЯ-Hermersdorf, District Neutitschein 191. Maltreatment, abduction into coal pits - Hugo Ehler
GroЯ-Schцnau 192. Murder of a 13-year-old schoolboy - Franz Josef Hille and Emilie Hille GroЯsichdichfьr 193. 70-year-old woman maltreated - Marie Adler Grulich 194. Severe maltreatment and shootings of Germans - Alfred Schubert Haida 195. Murders in May 1945 - F. Fiedler Haindorf, District Friedland 196. Murder of two young girls at Easter 1946 - Ernst Jesensky Hakelsdorf near Hohenelbe 197. Daughter was raped - Anna Stanek Hals near Tachau 198. Maltreatment on the grounds of false information Dr. Hampel Hannsdorf 199. Maltreatment in the Hannsdorf concentration camp Emil Tegel Heinzendorf near Olbersdorf 200. Barbarous treatment of an old man - Marie Menzel Hennersdorf, District Jдgerndorf 201. Rapes, extortion of false confessions - Rudolf Knauer Hermannstadt 202. Shooting of a German girl - J. Schцppel Hermersdorf/Zwittau 203. Looting, maltreatment - Franz Kreissl Hinterkotten 204. The Kuttenplan camp, expulsion from own farm Engelbert Watzka Hloubetin 205. Rescue of a German soldier by the commandant of a camp in 1945 - Erwin Rebel Hohenfurth-Kaplitz 206. Sudeten Germans arrested by Czech gendarmes in Austria - Johann Staudinger
207. Arrested for no reason at all - Dr. Josef Mдrz 208. Arrested for no reason, sent to deportation camp, luggage for deportation denied - Karl Leuchtenmьller Holleischen-Staab 209. Treatment of inmates in May 1945 - Robert Zьrchauer Hostau 210. Luggage inspection - Franz Stadtherr Jauernig and Wichstadtl, District Grulich 211. Maltreatment, murders - Elisabeth Bцse 212. Torture in the camp - Heinz Girsig 213. Concentration camp Jauernig, maltreatment - Alfred Lorenz Josefstadt 214. Maltreatment of free laborers - Johann Seidler Jungferndorf 215. Luggage inspection - Anna Nitschek Kaaden 216. Detainment of German skilled workers - Dr. Julius Geppert Karlsthal 217. Maltreatment of a pregnant woman - Ida Tauber Karlsstadt near Hermannstadt 218. Maltreatment of an old woman - Anna Czasch Karthaus 219. Report on the convict camp - Franz Lehmann Karwin 220. Forced labor in the coal mines - Dr. Paul Schmolik 221. Labor in the mines, abuse - cert. engineer Brancik Klattau 222. Deportation camp - Ferdinand Bruxdorfer 223. "Correction-cell" at the prison - Rudolf Payer 224. Prisoner-of-war camp, maltreatment and murders Franz Neumayer Klein-Herrlitz, District Freudenthal 225. Shooting of a German farmer's wife on September 1st, 1945 - Martha Kral Kleinbocken, Bцhmisch Leipa 226. Looting, murder, rape - Franz Limpдcher Kleinmohrau
227. Maltreatment of war-disabled ex-servicemen Rudolf Klamert Klцsterle, Kaaden 228. Maltreatment of young people - Josef Jugl, forestry official Kohling-Schindelwald, Schцnlind 229. Maltreatment, executions - Karl Sandner Kojetitz near Prag 230. Slave labor on farm - Erna Zicha Kolin 231. Labor camp Kolin, maltreatment - Ernst Hahn 232. Internment camp, maltreatment - Anton Kragl Komoschau near Prag 233. Inhuman brutality of a Czech farmer in February 1946 Antonia Stanek Kцniginhof 234. Maltreatment and murder in 1945 - Julius Herrmann Kцnigshof 235. Iron-works at Kцnigshof, labour groups - engineer Ernst Deinl Krautenwalde 236. Severe maltreatment of a Social Democrat by the gendarmerie - Richard Stanke Kremsier 237. Rapes - M. S. Kunzendorf near Mдhrisch Trьbau 238. Administrator Matonoha of Boskowitz, looting - Josef Zeche Kurim near Brьnn 239. Prisoner-of-war camp - Dr. Kurt Zamsch 240. Camp, report of the camp physician - Dr. Alfred Schenk Langenlutsch 241. Murder of a war invalid - Aloisia Ille Liblin 242. Woman maltreated - Herta Kaiser Libochowan, District Leitmeritz 243. 75-year-old man abused, July 12, 1945 - Josef, Adele and Elfriede Pomps
Liebenau near Reichenberg 244. Execution threatened, handed over to the Russians Oskar Tiel Liebesdorf near Oberhaid 245. German shot at on the street - Grьner Liebeznice near Prag 246. Murder of 318 German soldiers on May 9, 1945 Ludwig Breyer Littau near Iglau 247. Maltreatment in the camp - Franz Mauder Lyssa near Prague 248. Women severely maltreated - Hermine Henkel Mдhrisch Rothwasser [Moravian Rothwasser] 249. Maltreatment - Oskar Minarsch Mдhrisch Trьbau [Moravian Trьbau] 250. Maltreatment in the internment camp - Franz Wolf Malschin near Kaplitz 251. Presbytery broken into - Johann Hutter Maschau, District Podersam 252. 4 family members murdered - Rosa Kцnig Meierhцfen near Karlsbad 253. Luggage inspection in deportation camp - Hans Feigl Melnik 254. German post-war prisoners put to work as farm laborers Elfriede Mattausch Mies near Marienbad 255. Forced labor in Tschaslau, Knezice/East Bohemia, Stoky (Stecken) near Havlickuv Brod 1945-1947 Dr. Wilhelm Weschta 256. Shootings in the camp - Helmut Kommer 257. Starvation-related typhus at Bory - Irmgard Gцrner 258. Mies and Horni Pocernice: Denial of medical assistance to a child - Margarethe Singhartl 259. Internment camp, luggage inspection in deportation camp Mies Heinrich Hornung Modrany 260. Prague - Karls Square, luggage allowance for the Modrany transport, abuse - engineer A. Lendl
Motol near Prag, Mдhrisch Neustadt 261. Maltreatment, inadequate luggage allowance for deportation - Alois Zwatschek Mьhlbach near Eger 262. House searches - Alois Mannl Mьnchengrдtz 263. Cases of ill-treatment - Otto Skrbeck Neudek 264. Severe abuse of a man with a heart condition - Anna Grimm Neuhof Pinke, District Sternberg 265. Maltreatment - Eduard Geitler Neurohlau 266. Maltreatment of invalids - parish priest Oskar F. K. Hahn 267. Cases of ill-treatment in the concentration camp at Neurohlau - Johann Schmelzer 268. Permanent physical disability as result of maltreatment Adolf Trдgner 269. Maltreatment and death - Marie Georgi 270. Shooting of an old German man in the Neurohlau camp, 1945/46 - Josef Heller Neutitschein 271. Expropriation of anti-Fascists - Josef Schramm, retired public school director 272. Gross maltreatment and torture - Franz Bordirsky Nieder-Mohrau, Olmьtz 273. Abuse of young people - Johann Stanzl Niemes, Grottau 274. Women severely abused - Elfriede Borckelt Nikolsburg 275. Maltreatment, torture to extort a confession Johann Gerlinger 276. Severe maltreatment in the Nikolsburg concentration camp to extort a confession - M. Krebs Ober-Lipka near Grulich 277. Horrible atrocities, murder, abuse - Johann Peschka, Dean Oberpaulowitz/Jдgerndorf 278. Harassment of German farmer by Czech administrator Max Pohl
Oderfurt 279. Internment camp Oderfurt near Moravian, May 1945 Steffi Lejsek Pardubitz-Kцniggrдtz 280. Maltreatment in the prisoner-of-war camp - Josef Fuchs 281. Abuse, treatment of prisoners-of-war - Franz Bieberle Parschnitz 282. Treatment of Jews - Dr. Rudolf Fernegg Pattersdorf 283. Conditions in the collection camp - Prof. Rudolf Pohl Pickau near Jдgerndorf [367.] Expatriate German severely maltreated - Josef Schickling Pisek-Brьnn 284. A German woman's ordeal - Friedrich Sinzig Plan 285. Maltreatment during inspection of identification papers, February 15, 1946 - Ignaz Bцhm Podmoky, Kreis Caslau 286. Mail withheld from agricultural slave laborers Franz Seidel Pohorsch-Karwin 287. Slave labor, maltreatment, death - Ferdinand Mьnster Polepp and Leitmeritz 288. Maltreatment - Franz Richter Possigau-Taus 289. Maltreatment of women in May 1945 - Anna Zitzmann Pribrans, Prague 290. Maltreatment - engineer Dr. Kurt Schmidt Qualisch near Trautenau 291. Treatment of Jews - Dr. Rudolf Fernegg Radl near Gablonz 292. Husband was murdered; maltreatment, May 1945 to November 1946 - Margarete Kaulfersch Radonitz near Kaaden 293. Report about the events of May 1945 - Friedrich Merten Radwanitz
294. Abduction of an American citizen - Josef Horbas 295. In the mines: Maltreatment, murders - Josef Langenickel Reichenau near Moravian Trьbau 296. Women severely maltreated - Franziska Hьbl Reinowitz, camp near Gablonz 297. Imprisonment in this camp, confiscation of money Alfred Porsche Riegersdorf, District Tetschen 298. Report of an anti-Fascist, Social Democratic representative Josef Willkomm Riesengebirge (Sudeten Mountains) 299. Overview of murders 1945 - excerpts from the publication "Riesengebirgsheimat" Rokitnitz in the Adler Mountains 300. Maltreatment and murders - Director Pischel Rцmerstadt 301. Daughter raped by Czech officer on October 14, 1945 Ottokar Montag 302. Objections about the transport to First Lt. Lambert, American border official for Furth im Walde - Wank, border commissar for the refugees from Furth im Walde RoЯhaupt 303. District Court Tachau - Pilsen 1945 - Franz Voit Sankt Joachimsthal 304. Eyewitness account (the Kroupa case) of an execution Rudolf Berthold 305. House searches, brutal ill-treatment, public executions Otto Patek Schankau-Karlsbad 306. Blinded in the camp - Josef Dцrfl Schildberg 307. Murder - Ottilie Smrtschka Schlackenwerth, Karlsbad, Kaschlitz, Spickengrьn 308. Maltreatment to extort statements - Josef Czech Schlag 309. The Reichenau concentration camp, maltreatment - A. Heinl Schlaggenwald 310. Looting during luggage inspection - Josefine Otto
311. Elbogen, Karlsbad, Neurohlau - Maltreatment Helmut Nordmann Schцnbach, District Deutsch-Gabel 312. Severe abuse of a German in September 1945 Antonia Honsek Schцnhengst mine 313. German miner murdered - Emma Prudl Schцnlinde 314. Young people murdered, deportation camp, rape - N. N. Schwarzental und Hohenelbe 315. Maltreatment - N. N. Schwarzwasser 316. Maltreatment of an apprentice boy - Karl Volkmar 317. Freiwaldau: severe maltreatment of young people Lothar Latzel 318. Freiwaldau: maltreatment prior to expulsion - Max Ehrlich Setzdorf 319. Maltreatment of agricultural laborers - Emma Latzel Sцrgsdorf-Jauernig 320. Concentration camp Jauernig, maltreatment during an interrogation - Gustav Keller Spillendorf 321. Harassment by the Employment Office - Maria Kьhnel Stecken, camp near Iglau 322. Slave market - Hermine Kunzer Stefanau 323. Severe injuries inflicted - Karl Ottahal Sternberg 324. Gross abuse of women, 1945 - Marie Mittmann 325. Severe maltreatment in the Sternberg-Olmьtz camp engineer Rudolf Pauler 326. Woman abused - Marie Wilhelm 327. Maltreatment in the camp - Ludwig Englisch Stimmersdorf, District Tetschen-Bodenbach 328. Inhumanity towards old women - Hugo Kleinpeter Strakonitz and Brьnn 329. Concentration camp Klaidovka: Sadistic punishment of an invalid - Johann Bцhm
Tabor 330. Robbery, maltreatment - Marie Kuhn 331. Maltreatment in prison - Ernst Mahl Tachau 332. Conditions in the expulsion camp Tachau, May 1945 Anton FleiЯner 333. Negligent use of firearms, November 9, 1945 Franz Voit Tannwald 334. Maltreatment in order to extort a confession Arthur Januschek Tepl 335. Concentration camp Tepl, maltreatment - Engelbert Haber 336. Severe maltreatment in the internment camp - Josef Mayer Tetschen-Bodenbach 337. Severe maltreatment - Max Griehsel 338. Maltreatment - engineer Karl PleЯ Totzau, District Kaaden 339. Maltreatment, murders - H. K. W. Trautenau 340. Concentration camp, execution of 20-30 people in June 1945 - N. N. Tremosna-Pilsen 341. Camp, maltreatment of sick Germans - Dr. Brandl Triebendorf, Moravian Trьbau 342. Woman robbed - Erna Mildner Tschachwitz, District Kaaden 343. Multiple murders of Sudeten Germans in June 1945 Josef FaЯl Tschenkowitz 344. Two Germans hanged - Erna Peschke Tschirm, District Troppau 345. Daughter murdered, June 17, 1945 - Franz Schreier Tьppelsgrьn 346. Death as result of maltreatment, Altrohlau - Emma Eigler Tuschkau 347. Death by starvation in Bory Prison, August 20, 1945 -
Eleonore Hochberger 348. Discharged soldiers forced into camp in autumn 1945 - Franz Zitterbart Udritsch, estate near Lubenz 349. Luditz, conditions along the linguistic border Max Hilscher Unterparsching near Marienbad 350. Harassment of a farmer's family - M. Sch. Vollmau 351. Attack on a village in the Bohemian Forest - B. Zeisel, ex-locum tenens of Vollmau Vorderheuraffel near Kaplitz 352. Maltreatment in the internment camp - Franz Moherndl Waldau 353. German war invalid murdered - Josef Sonnberger Wallern 354. Maltreatment - Emil Havlik Warnsdorf 355. Maltreatment of a blind man - Otto Mьller 356. Nachod, Blood bath in the prisoner-of-war camp, June-July 1945 - Adam Ehrenhard Weidenau 357. Maltreatment of an old woman - Josefine Titz 358. Pastoral activities curtailed, Jauernig, Adelsdorf, casualties - Dr. Adolf Schreiber Weidsiefen, community Thomasdorf 359. Concentration camp Weidsiefen, maltreatment - Hans Tautz Wekelsdorf 360. List of persons executed - Ch. S. 361. Execution of 26 persons, June 28-29,1945 - N. N. Welpet 362. Gross maltreatment in May 1945 - Josef GrцЯl Willens 363. Treatment of sick people and victims of political persecution in June 1945 - Emma Trдgner Witeschau near Hohenstadt 364. The murder of the German men of Witeschau Martha Kramer
Witkowitz and Auschwitz 365. Sudeten Germans shipped off to forced labor in Poland Rudolf Heinisch Wockendorf 366. Maltreatment - Anna Seichter Zittau [actually: Pickau] near Jдgerndorf 367. Expatriate German severely maltreated - Josef Schickling Zlin 368. Maltreatment during forced labor - Rudolf Kunert Znaim 369. Maltreatment in the prisoner-of-war camp - Franz Hausenbigl Zwittau near Brьsau 370. Captivity, maltreatment - Ullrich Reinhold Appendices 1. Chapter 6 of Mйmoire III of the Czech Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 ("The Problem of the Germans in Bohemia: the Fate of the Germans in the Czech Republic") 2. Map: Les Allemands de Bohкme, supplement to the Mйmoire III 3. Linguistic map of the Sudeten Germans; based on the official census of December 1, 1930 4. Letter from Jan Masaryk to research director Max Weinreich, dated May 5, 1942 5. Order of the Military Commandant of Bohemian Leipa, June 14, 1945 6. Food ration card for the Germans in Czechoslovakia, ration period from May 28 to June 24, 1945 7. Proclamation of the Nбrodni vэbor (National Committee) in Saaz from 1945 8. Article by R. R. Stokes, October 1945, in the "Manchester Guardian", about the Czech concentration camps 9. Chapters VIII and IX of the Kaschau government program of April 5, 1945 (Program of the new Czech government, the Czech and Slovak National Front, passed in the First Council of State on April 5, 1945) 10. Decree of President Dr. Benes of May 19, 1945, Sb. No. 5 - concerning the invalidity of certain legal transactions affecting property during the time when liberty was lost, and concerning the national administration of property assets of Germans, Magyars, traitors and collaborators and of certain organizations and institutions 11. Decree of President Dr. Benes of June 21, 1945, Sb. No. 12 - concerning the confiscation and speedy distribution of agricultural property of Germans, Magyars, and also of traitors and enemies of the Czech and Slovak people 12. Decree of President Dr. Benes of June 19, 1945, Sb. No. 16 - concerning the punishment of Nazi criminals, traitors and their accomplices, and the Extraordinary People's Courts 13. Decree of President Dr. Benes of August 2, 1945, Sb. No. 33 - concerning the regulations governing the Czechoslovak citizenship of persons of German and Magyar nationality 14. Mandates of the German (Magyar) occupation power which had regulated the citizenship of the Czechoslovak citizens on Czech territory
15. Decree of President Dr. Benes of Ocober 25, 1945, Sb. No. 42 - concerning the confiscation of enemy property and the Funds of National Renovation 16. Overview of the value of German property in Czechoslovakia 17. Text of the Atlantic Charter 18. Text of the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 19. Text of the Agreement of August 4, 1950, concluded between the Study Group for the Preservation of Sudeten German Interests and the Czech National Committee in London Back to top
Lesen Sie dieses Dokument in deutscher Ьbersetzung! Concentration Camp Money 'Lagergeld' used to Pay Prisoners for Their Work Article from The Barnes Review, Jan./Feb. 2001, pp. 7-9. The Barnes Review, 645 Pennsylvania Ave SE, Suite 100, Washington D.C. 20003, USA. By Jennifer White, administrative director of TBR; published here with kind permission from TBR: eMail TBR - subscribe to TBR here
Far from being the "death camps" as you have heard so often, places like Auschwitz, Dachau and Buchenwald were not in the business of extermination. They were work camps, critical to the German war effort. But did you know that the Jewish workers were compensated for their labor with scrip printed specifically for their use in stores, canteens and even brothels? The prisoner monetary system was conceived in ghettos such as Lodz, carried to camps such as Auschwitz and Dachau and still existed in the displaced persons camps that were established by the Allies after World War II. Here is the story of the money the court historians do not want you to even suspect existed.
Piles of incinerated corpses were indicting images at
The Barnes Review,
Nuremberg, used to prove that the German-run concentration
issue Jan.-Feb. 2001
camps during World War II were intended for purposes of exterminating the Jews of Europe.
However, a plethora of documentary evidence, long suppressed, shows that prisoners were
relatively well-treated, compensated for their hard work and allowed to purchase luxuries to
which even the German public did not have ready access. This is not the image of abject
deprivation that the Holocaust lobby would like you to entertain.
The irrefutable proof is the existence of a means of exchange for goods and services: Money. There were at least 134 separate issues, in different denominations and styles, for such notorious places as Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dachau, Oranienburg, Ravensbrьck, Westerbork and at least 15 other camps. (See Paper Money of the World Part I: Modern Issues of Europe by Arnold Keller, Ph.D., 1956, pp. 23-25 for a complete listing.)
A monetary system was also in existence in the ghettos, most notably Theresienstadt and Lodz, which The above collage, taken from the cover
produced beautiful notes (veritable works of art) that of Das Lagergeld der Konzentrations-
make U.S. currency look dull.
und D.P.-Lager: 1933-1945 by Albert Pick and Carl Siemsen, shows just a
There are numerous dealers in rare currency and numismatics who specialize in selling "concentration
sample of the money printed for camps and ghettos. The predominantly-white note on the right says: "Jewish Money.
camp money" or "Holocaust money" as it has been
Only legal as a means of payment for
sometimes called. But the very fact of its existence does not seem to have raised questions - as it should
Jewish work within the ghetto Sokolka. City Treasury of Sokolka, The Mayor."
have - about what really did (and did not) happen inside the so-called "death camps" where
the Holocaust scrip was circulating in the first place.
This scrip was not negotiable outside of the camp for which it was issued. This decreased the chance of a successful escape and made it impossible for the general public to purchase some of the rare luxuries available in the camps. According to Albert Pick in Das Lagergeld der Konzentrations- und D.P.-Lager: 1933-1945:
Inmates were not paid for the work but were given "coupons" now and then to buy things in the "Kantine".... As the war progressed badly and the number of workers declined, the KZ worker potential became important. Offers of "premiums" and other advantages were made to the inmates, tobacco was offered and even visits to bordellos.... In order that these scrips could not be used outside the camps, special money was printed.
Letter from Prisoner No. 11647 Block 28/3 Dachau KIII on September 8, 1940 to his relative in Litzmannstadt (Lodz):
I must write you something about
myself. I am very well. In the canteen I
buy honey, marmalade, cookies, fruit
and other food. If you worry about me,
you'll indeed be committing a sin. I have
more reason to worry about
you....(Letters from the Doomed:
Concentration Camp Correspondence 1940- Oranienburg was the first known camp to have
1945, Richard S. Geehr.)
Lagergeld for its prisoners. The issues for this particular camp were in 5 Pfg. (green), 10 Pfg.
(blue), 50 Pfg. (brown) and 1 Mark There was a payment schedule at Theresienstadt denominations. (Printed 1933 - August 1934, utilizing Th. kr. (Theresienstadt kroner) as the unit when the camp closed.) Unlike Theresienstadt,
of exchange. (The Shekel Vol. XVI, No. 2, March- these notes were fairly plain without multiple
April 1983 p. 29). The breakdown looked like this: colors and watermarks. Yet even these demonstrate the care and attention given to the
Working men, according to their jobs:
design of money for the workers.
105-205 Th. kr.
Working women, according to their jobs: 95-205 Th. kr. Part-time workers: 80 Th. kr. Caretakers: 70 Th. kr. War-wounded and holders of the Iron Cross, First Class degree or higher: 195 Th. kr. Prominente (doctors, professors, scientists, well-known cultural artists and politicians): 145 Th. kr. To put this in perspective, a cup of coffee cost 2 Th. kr. The circulation in Theresienstadt was such that it was necessary to print over 5 million notes. See Papirove Penize Na Uzemi Ceskoslovenska 1762-1975, Second Edition, 1975, Hradek Kralove, trans. by Julius Sem, pp. 134-135. The first worker's camp to have its own scrip was Oranienburg. Before using the camp scrip they used German currency in nearby towns, but the authorities decided to centralize. Currency was exchanged for camp money, less 30%. (The Shekel, Vol XVI, No. 2, MarchApril 1983, p. 40: "Concentration Camp Money of the Nazi Holocaust" by Steven Feller.) Similarly at Buchenwald: Each prisoner was allowed up to 10 marks per week to be used for the purchase of cigarettes at the camp canteen, other canteen purchases, brothel visits, or credit to a savings account. The regulations went on to specify that a visit to a brothel would cost 2 marks for which 1.5 marks would be kept by the SS and 0.5 marks would be used for "expenses."(Ibid., p. 41.) Was there a similar situation at all of the other camps - at least those that issued currency? As this includes Auschwitz, it would be shocking indeed to even consider marmalade and cigarettes being purchased in this "death camp." Even the existence of money in camps gives us a look at what life was really like there, yet this information has yet to make it to the History Channel.
Infamous and Intricate Camp Money
Dachau "... [W]e must remember that like most other Concentration Camps, Dachau also functioned as a work camp. This explains the appearance of paper tokens printed in 1944.... Dachau's tokens were of three different values: 1, 2 and 3 marks. The prisoner's identification number is written on the front of this green note, alongside the date when it was issued, January 31, 1945. In fact, all of Dachau's tokens list the
A Dachau camp note.
prisoner's identification numbers." Stahl, pp. 18- 19.
Auschwitz "At a death camp it would seem that there was very little need for money." (The Shekel, Vol. XVI, No. 2, March-April 1983, p. 43.)
An Auschwitz camp note.
Theresienstadt Print runs for Theresienstadt Kroner
Denomination 1 Th. kr. 2 Th. kr. 5 Th. kr. 10 Th. kr. 20 Th. kr. 50 Th. kr. 100 Th. kr.
Size 100 x 50 mm 110 x 55 mm 120 x 58 mm 125 x 63 mm 135 x 66 mm 140 x 77 mm 150 x 77 mm
Color Green Rose Blue Brown Green Dk. Green Red-brown
Qty Printed 2,242,000 1,019,000 530,000 456,000 319,000 159,000 279,000
See: The Shekel Vol. XVI, No. 2, March/April 1983, p. 33.
These beautiful Theresienstadt notes, complete with watermarks, demonstrate the highquality artwork and printing of the money.
Lodz Colors of the different types of currency in Lodz. In print runs in 1940, 1942 and 1944: 50 Pfg. Violet 1 RM Olive-green 2 RM Light Brown 5 RM Dark Brown
Lodz ghetto money.
Information from Das Lagergeld der Konzentrations- und D.P.-Lager: 1933-1945 by Albert Pick and Carl Siemsen.
Bibliography: American Israel Numismatic Association (Temarac, Florida). Pick, Albert. Das Lagergeld der Konzentrations- und D.P.-Lager: 1933-1945, Munich, Battenberg Publishers, 1976. Schцne, Michael H., Das Papiergeld im besetzten Deutschland 1945-1949, Regenstauf: Gietl, 1994.
Stahl, Zvi, Jewish Ghettos and Concentration Camps' Money, 1933-1945, London: D. Richman Books, 1990. See also: Campbell, Lance K., Dachau concentration camp scrip, Margate, Florida: American Israel Numismatic Association, 1992. The Numismatist, April 1981, by Steven Feller. Numismatic Scrapbook Magazine, 1965, 1996, "POW Money and Medals" by Slabaugh, R. Arlie. Schultze, Manfred, Unsere Arbeit - unsere Hoffnung: Das Ghetto in Lodz 1940-1945, Schwalmtal: PhilCreativ, 1995. Sem, Julius, Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, 1977 (Theresienstadt notes). Shtarot, Vol. I, No. 2, Oct. 1976. Yasha L. Beresiner. Concentration Camp Money 'Lagergeld' used to Pay Prisoners for Their Work www.wintersonnenwende.com
Lesen Sie dieses Dokument in deutscher Ьbersetzung! The Facts About the Origins of the Concentration Camps and Their Administration Article from The Barnes Review, Jan./Feb. 2001, pp. 11-16. The Barnes Review, 645 Pennsylvania Ave SE, Suite 100, Washington D.C. 20003, USA. By Stephen A. Raper, BS (hist/pol.sc.); published here with kind permission from TBR: eMail TBR - subscribe to TBR here
Here's a fascinating look at the concentration camp system inside Germany, devoid of the hysteria often associated with the subject in Hollywood films and in the "mainstream" media and academia. TBR and The Scriptorium are pleased to present what may be the first-ever detailed examination of the concentration camp system, presenting a far different picture from what we've been told.
In propagating a politicized view of German history many in the media and academia have attempted to portray the German system of imprisonment in concentration camps as some sort of precursor to genocide, as a living hell where it was official German policy to make life miserable and to victimize, beat, torture, rape and murder innocent civilians simply because of religious or political persuasion or SEXUAL ORIENTATION.
A German concentration camp officer (right) is shown congratulating a prisoner (left) upon the prisoner's release from the camp. This rarely seen photograph casts a new light upon the reality of what the concentration camp system was all about: reform, not torture and repression. The devastation in Dachau and other camps came about at the end of the war as a result not of a mass extermination policy by the Germans but because of a lack of food and medical supplies, the spread of typhus and a breakdown in sanitation.
Is this sensational view of history correct? No, the role of German concentration camps was much different and probably better in many ways than the American prison system today. German concentration camps had a much more positive role to play in Hitler's new and progressive National Socialist state.
The facts will bear out that the Establishment historians have purveyed a view of concentration camp life that cannot be substantiated.
The daily life in a concentration camp was much different than most historians will admit.
In 1948, Paul Rassinier, a former Socialist and critic of National Socialist Germany who had himself been interned in the concentration camps of Buchenwald and Dora, published Crossing the Line (Le Passage de la Ligne). In this work, Rassinier claimed that the Germans had been benign, if not positive, in their motives for putting enemies of Hitler's National Socialist state in concentration camps. Rassinier claimed that the concentration camps were a "gesture of compassion" since inmates had been placed where they could "not hurt the new regime and where they could be protected from the public anger." Not only did the concentration camps protect anti-social elements in Rassinier's view, but they were also designed to "rehabilitate the strayed sheep and to bring them back to a healthier concept of the German community."1 According to Rassinier, the German government was helping those whom it committed to concentration camps by putting them in a setting so that they could be rehabilitated into more productive members of the German community. Those who fell into the categories of persons assigned to concentration camps included any person condemned for treasonable activities, as well as Communist Party officials and anyone who incited a German citizen to refuse military service.2 Persons who were considered by the authorities of the Third Reich as being an anti-social malefactor were also sent to the camps. Anti-social malefactors consisted of professional and habitual criminals, that is, those people who had been sentenced to a minimum of six months imprisonment or hard labor on at least three separate occasions. Anti-social malefactors also specifically included beggars, prostitutes, homosexuals, drunkards, psychopaths and lunatics.3 Persons who were "work shy" were also sent to concentration camps. According to Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS, work shy meant unemployed men who "could be proved to have refused without adequate reason employment offered to them on two occasions."4 The first persons arrested and sent to concentration camps were communists who had taken part in efforts to undermine the fabric of the German state. Most of these communists arrested were denounced to local authorities by fellow workers and neighbors who were concerned about their activities. During March and April 1933, the German people reported the activities of over 10,000 communists in Germany. Given the large membership and well-organized activities of the German Communist Party (KPD), the local jails were soon filled, and the National Socialist government in Berlin was forced to decide where to house these persons, who were a clear and present danger to the continuation of Germany as an independent and sovereign nation. With the jails and prisons filled to capacity, local officials began to take over abandoned warehouses and factories to hold the communists. These makeshift holding facilities have since become known as "wild concentration camps" since they were spur-of-the-moment inventions. The name "concentration camp" simply means an area where dangerous elements are concentrated. Hitler once said the idea for concentration camps came from his studies of the Boer War in South Africa.5 During that war, the British built camps and concentrated women and children of Dutch ancestry. During their confinement in British concentration camps, over 26,000 died mainly of starvation, since the British made no effort to feed the unarmed and helpless women, nor did they allow them to leave and go back to their farmsteads. This action of the British
against unarmed women and children mainly goes overlooked by Establishment historians, who instead accuse the German concentration camps of being death camps whose sole purpose was killing unarmed civilians. But this is not the case. The first official concentration camp set up in Germany was established about 12 miles from Munich in the town of Dachau, inside a former gunpowder factory, on March 22, 1933. Unlike what Allied propaganda would have us believe, the Germans were not ashamed of this camp. In fact, Heinrich Himmler held a press conference to announce its opening two days before the first inmates were scheduled to arrive. His announcement was carried in German newspapers,6 and the camp was opened with the arrival of 200 communists. But the camp was built to hold 5,000 and was mainly established to act as a deterrent to further communist activity. Himmler stated that it was his promise not to wait until crimes were committed before arresting criminals, and pledged that, in order to protect the populace, professional criminals who had been sentenced many times would be pursued more ruthlessly than before and isolated away from the German people by being incarcerated in concentration camps. Himmler also added that his camps were to be models of cleanliness, order and instruction. It was through this instruction that Himmler hoped to re-educate minor criminals as well as communists. Himmler had ordered strong disciplinary measures to be employed, but the treatment inmates received was just, and they learned trades through their work and training. In the concentration camps, the motto was: "There is one way to freedom. Its milestones are: obedience, zeal, honesty, order, cleanliness, temperance, truth, sense of sacrifice and love for the Fatherland."7 In the Soviet Union's "model" of socialism, the German communists found what they were looking for: liberalism, urbanism, and modernism - all of which rejected the traditional AryanGerman way of life. For this reason, the German communists looked at Hitler's appointment to the chancellorship by President Paul von Hindenburg as a signal for an uprising aimed at creating a German soviet state, closely modeled on the Soviet Union and taking its orders from the Comintern in Moscow. But Hitler saw the threat the communists posed to German society, and after the burning of the Reichstag by a communist, he reacted swiftly to take them into custody. Hitler now decided to build the first concentration camps. However, instead of being vindictive or out to do harm to the communists, the concentration camp at Dachau was designed to reform them and make them into citizens that the Germans could be proud of - citizens who could return to German society at large and live out their lives as peaceful and proper German men and women. Instead of being an institution aimed at punishment, the German system of concentration camps was designed to reform and to reeducate enemies of the new German state. A correspondent for The New York Times was allowed to visit Dachau shortly after it was opened and came away with the impression that the commandant of the camp, Theodor Eicke, and the men under his command took their job of reeducation seriously. "They honestly and sincerely believed that their task was pedagogic rather than punitive.... They felt sincerely sorry for the misguided non-Nazis who had not yet found the true faith."8 Not only had the inmates not yet found faith in the leadership of Adolf Hitler, but they also took part in or supported subversive activities aimed at overthrowing the state. An internal document written in 1934 and circulated at Gestapo headquarters stated that
National Socialist Germany would not be complete until its opponents learned to support it and identify with the goals of the German community at large. The writer of the document reiterated the educational value and ideological indoctrination that the camps were to instill in the inmates, and suggested imbuing the inmates with the knowledge that upon their release they would be able to become full members of German society.9 Just a short time later, another Gestapo document warned all state authorities not to harass released inmates so as not to make their complete re-integration into German society difficult.10
The Germans themselves often referred to these camps as "education camps." In the summer of 1942, three years after World War II began, Himmler was still emphasizing the reeducational aspects of the camps when he wrote a letter to Oswald Pohl.11 The language that he used in this letter was also given as part of official instructions to guards at the camps. Himmler instructed each guard to make his behavior a personal example to the prisoners, in order to imbue them with respect for the National Socialist state and to teach them how to behave properly.12 This re-education at the camps was to stress traditional Aryan virtues, such as hard work, strict discipline, a belief in law and order, support for the complete family and respect for traditional German society, as well as encouraging them to respect the National Socialist state and the Nazi movement in general.
Over the years, tens of thousands of inmates were released from the camps once they had shown that they had chosen to reform themselves. On many occasions the commandants of the camps had determined that inmates had abandoned their old ways and had chosen to become loyal members of German society. As late as October 1944, inmates were being released, and many of these were communists who had abandoned their previous beliefs.13
Of the persons sent to the concentration camps, many
were sent there by court order for fixed terms. Other
persons were arrested because of the danger they
presented to German society. Some prisoners, who had
been convicted during the Weimar era, were sent to the
concentration camps after their release from prison.
Since some of these prisoners were murderers, rapists
and pedophiles, the National Socialist state refused to
allow them to return to German society until the
authorities were sure that they had abandoned their old
ways. Contrary to modern political myth, German
newspapers frequently carried stories on the
concentration camps and often reported on the internment of dangerous persons.
This World War II-era woodcut sought to convey the impression that German
concentration camps were hardly more
Many of the camps were open to inspection by foreign diplomats and even by German civilians. Often the curious persons would travel to the camps only to be met by friendly guards and escorted through the camps on a personal tour. Of the tens of thousands of
than mass torture chambers. The truth is that the German authorities maintained strict rules against mistreatment of prisoners and punished those found in violation of the rules. After the war, many Jews who had been held in the camps
prisoners who were released, most probably told their relatives, friends and neighbors of the conditions present in the camps. Over the years, judges, lawyers, members of the clergy, social workers and repairmen
complained that Jewish guards inside the camps were actually far more brutal than the Germans and others who were stationed on the periphery of the camps.
were allowed into the camps for official business. Merchants often visited the camps to bring
new stocks of supplies, and local civilians were often employed in the camps. If conditions in the camps had been deplorable, German society would have learned of it and would have been outraged. The Germans were and still are a decent people whose only crime in establishing the camps was showing leniency to persons who wanted to do them harm. In a book written on the camp established at Oranienburg, Werner Schafer claimed that some citizens in the local communities asked permission to send some of their rebelling children to the camps to learn self-discipline. Schafer also said that there were some prisoners who were offered release who refused since they could not remember doing work since the beginning of the Great Depression.14 Schafer listed the types of food eaten by the prisoners and computed how much weight they had gained during their internment in the camp. Citizens of National Socialist Germany therefore had good reason to support the officials who administered the camps. The nature of imprisonment in concentration camps can best be guessed by a document signed by Himmler, in which the principles of internment in a concentration camp were clarified. The document was not meant for public distribution and was classified "secret" before being sent to senior officers of the Gestapo on 27 May 1942. It reads: Recently, various officials in the party and the government have begun threatening to lodge complaints with the police against citizens, or to have them imprisoned in concentration camps, in order to give greater force to various orders and decrees. In this manner, for instance, one officer threatened a citizen that he would be sent to a camp for "police interrogation" if he did not produce within five days a certain form, as he had been told to do by one of the officials. I request in all seriousness that the parties involved be instructed to cease this practice immediately, and if this is not done I will take upon myself to declare publicly that citizens are not liable in such instances to either police investigation or imprisonment in a concentration camp. The most severe punishments lose their deterrent ability when they are threatened at every opportunity, or when the impression is given that every official, in every office, is authorized to make use of it. Imprisonment in a concentration camp, involving as it does separation from one's family, isolation from the outside world, and the hard labor assigned to the prisoner, is the most severe of punishments. Its use is reserved exclusively for the secret police, in accordance with precise regulations which specify the form of imprisonment and its term. In this matter I have retained for myself a large measure of authority and exclusive discretion. All in all the German people are uniquely fair-minded. Most Germans obey the instructions of the authorities of their own free will and desire. Instructions accompanied by threats will, however, be received with disrespect and will be obeyed only unwillingly, not to mention that the multiplication of threats of this type will give a completely false impression, both here and abroad.15 Not only does this document illuminate the fact that the concentration camp system was not vindictive or there to terrorize the civilian population, but it also shows that the leaders of the state had concern for the prisoners. Himmler recognized that imprisonment involved isolation and separation from loved ones and was determined to allow the German people to know that the only persons imprisoned in the camps were extreme cases. But more importantly, as the value of hindsight allows us to [see], the document also allows us to understand where some
of the Allied propaganda came from; minor officials were eager to add threats to their orders in an attempt to give the impression that they were more powerful than they actually were. Because of the actions of these minor officials, the Allies had the propaganda to claim that the concentration camps were there to terrorize the civilian population and to force them to become subservient to a state that only cared about itself. This was exactly what Himmler was afraid would happen: that the concentration camps would be seen to be a punitive punishment and not the center of re-education that they really were. To meet the needs of re-education, the camp command in each camp was divided into several departments, which dealt with matters of administration, personnel, transport, communications, mail, equipment, kitchen work, supplies, health and sanitation and so forth. The camp commandants were assisted by a deputy, an adjutant, a master sergeant, a medical officer and education officer, a legal officer, a fire officer and others. The commandants were held personally responsible for the re-education of those prisoners who were not considered to be "lost cases." Because the camps were often open for public inspections, the commandants were also required to have some amount of political sensitivity. Starting in 1942, the commandants were also responsible for the work of the camp doctor and the medical staff. The camp commandants had full responsibility for almost everything that happened in the camps, except for the work of the political departments. The political department operated in the camp as an extension of the Gestapo, and a plainclothes officer of the secret police headed it. This department dealt with the reception and registration of inmates, and was also in charge of their release. This department: q Kept files on each inmate that included personal details about the inmate, the inmate's picture and fingerprints; q Was responsible for filing death notices and was responsible for passing this information on to government authorities; q Corresponded with the relatives of the inmates in cases where there was a need for guardianship of underage children, insurance claims and so forth; q Had the authority to decree special conditions of imprisonment; q Was responsible for all interrogation that went on in the camps; and, q Supervised prisoner informers, censorship, field security, and the prevention of rebellion. Not all members of the command had direct and daily contact with the inmates. The inmates were kept in a special compound within the camps, overseen by their own commanding officer and his staff. Some staff officers were responsible for head counts, others for work arrangements; others actually accompanied prisoners when they went out to work, while other officers were responsible for each of the living quarters, which were themselves referred to as a block. The personal deputy of the camp commandant usually oversaw the prisoner division of the camp. The camp commandants were also required to prevent cruelty to inmates. A training manual for camp guards asked the following question: "What is completely prohibited a camp guard? Answer: Under all circumstances he is forbidden to strike prisoners at his own initiative, outside the framework of the disciplinary regulations." In 1935 Reinhard Heydrich wrote to the camp guards stating that "it is not becoming an
interrogator to insult a prisoner, demean him, or behave with rudeness and brutalize or torture him when there is no need to do so." Heydrich went on and warned the camp men that if they beat prisoners they would be court-martialed.16 Eicke himself wrote in 1937 that "the guards should be instructed to abstain from mistreating prisoners.... Even if a guard had done no more than slap a prisoner's face, the slap will be considered an act of brutality and the guard will be punished."17
The SS actually punished a number of its own men for their conduct while serving in the concentration camps. Two concentration camp commandants, Adam Gruenwald and Karl Chmielewshi, were placed on trial and found guilty of the deaths of prisoners as a result of brutality in their camps. The SS tried over 700 staff members throughout the course of the Third Reich for their conduct toward inmates. This was because the SS and the National Socialist state always considered concentration camps to be re-education camps first and foremost. It is true that persons who were considered to be hopeless cases such as habitual offenders were sent to the camps, but most prisoners always could earn their release by conforming to traditional AryanGerman standards of conduct. Unfortunately, many guards could not tell the difference between the habitual criminals and those who were there to be re-educated. This problem plagued the camp administration throughout the history of the Third Reich.
This grotesque sculpture of "Jews Being Gassed" is displayed at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. Although the NBC television extravaganza "Holocaust" - then one of the most-watched events in TV history featured a scene which implied there were photographs taken of Jews dying in the gas chambers, no such images have ever been found, despite the fact that the Germans did photograph executions of Jews and other antiGerman partisans on the Eastern Front. Why Jews seem to revel in such distasteful imagery remains a mystery to many non-Jews who are unable to understand why Jews are not pleased to learn that the extent of the tragedies that befell the Jewish people during World War II was not quite as severe as long believed. For this reason, even many Jewish philosophers question placing the Holocaust at the center of Jewish existence.
Oswald Pohl complained that "As a result of my personal attention to the matter, and the repeated irregularities recently noted, I have learned that many of the guards at the camps are aware only in the faintest way of the obligations imposed upon them."18
But historians must take into consideration the fact that tens of thousands of individuals served in the camps. If 700 committed crimes and were punished for it, it only highlights the fact that the other tens of thousands of Germans serving in the camps took their responsibilities seriously. Most camp men understood that their personal behavior was a way of encouraging inmates to aspire to be upstanding and proud citizens of Germany According to an SS booklet: "The prisoner must know that the guard represents a philosophy superior to his, an unblemished political approach and a higher moral level, and the prisoner must take these as a personal example as part of his efforts to correct himself so that he may once again be a loyal citizen in his community."19
In April 1939, Adolf Hitler celebrated his 50th birthday. To celebrate this occasion, plans were drawn up for a pardon for several thousand prisoners in the camps. The instructions that
determined who was to be freed and who would remain as an inmate reveal the different kinds of prisoners in the camps as well as revealing Hitler's generosity and good will. The intention of the pardon was to free inmates who were brought to the camps in 1933, six years before.
It was determined to at least consider releasing repeat offenders who were arrested in the years 1933 to 1934 for short sentences and who had at least served a year in the camps; political and white-collar offenders who had been convicted on minor offenses and who had served at least six months; prisoners of 60 or more years of age, including Jehovah's Witnesses whose faith would not allow them to swear loyalty to the German state; first-time homosexuals who had not been convicted of sexual relations with minors; as well as prisoners who had in the past been members of the Nazi Party.20
Then in 1941 the camps were classified into four groups, in accordance with the severity of the discipline and conditions of imprisonment imposed upon the inmates. Those prisoners who had been imprisoned for minor offenses and whom the SS considered to be possible to reeducate had the conditions of their imprisonment eased.
The workdays in the camps were formalized in 1938. On weekdays, the inmates worked from 0730 to 1200 and from 1230 to 1700, for a total of nine hours a day. On Saturdays work was from 0730-1200, for a total of four and one-half hours. Not only were Saturday afternoons free, but Christian inmates had all of Sunday to attend their own services within the camp and to contemplate the reasons for their imprisonment.21
Inside the camp, the barracks were
segregated by sex, but in many cases
prisoners were allowed to marry,
even other prisoners. Registration in
such cases was carried out by SS
officers.22 The heirs of any prisoner
who died while being held at one of
the camps were eligible to collect
their life insurance. Since the life
insurance policies would expire if the
premiums were not paid, and the inmates were incarcerated and without any substantial income, the
Shown above are concentration camp inmates at their work stations. Clean, orderly working conditions were the norm. War materiel and other products vital to the war effort were
SS came up with a solution that
among the items produced in the concentration camps and, as
Establishment historians will not give a consequence, camp administrators made strenuous efforts to
them credit for. The SS set up its own fund to pay the insurance
assure that internees were healthy. In many instances, during wartime, the living conditions of camp inmates were sometimes superior to the conditions in which German
premiums of prisoners until the day
civilians were living.
they died.23 In this way, the loved
ones of incarcerated inmates would not be overly burdened if their relative died while in
custody.
In 1936, the question was raised for the first time as to who would take care of the children when both parents were prisoners in concentration camps. Instead of taking the children away from their loving parents as is now done in countries such as the U.S. and Great Britain, the National Socialist authorities in Germany decided it would be better for the children if the
parents were released on a rotating monthly basis so at least one parent would always be there to care for their needs. This rotating release continued until one of the parents was released for good.24 Needless to say, this program did pose a slight security risk to Germany, but Hitler apparently was more concerned about the welfare of young German children than he was with anything else. Even though Allied war-time propaganda concerning the German concentration camps paints a bleak picture with ritual murder, rape, assault and other crimes, the facts of the period do not support this view. The efforts of the National Socialist authorities to rehabilitate and re-educate incarcerated criminals and communists show a dedication and a firm belief in their convictions that, in comparison, the United States and Great Britain are sorely lacking in their own prison administrations. Those Germans, tens of thousands of patriotic citizens, who served in the camps as doctors, nurses, cooks, clerks, bookkeepers, and guards, were much maligned and viciously attacked by Allied authorities in post-war Germany. Notes: 1See Pierre Hofstetter, Introduction to Paul Rassinier, Debunking the Genocide Myth: A Study of the Nazi Concentration Camps and the Alleged Extermination of European Jewry (Torrance, California, 1978), p. x. ...back... 2Heiniz Hoehne, The Order of the Death's Head (New York, 1966), p. 225. ...back... 3Ibid., p. 226. ...back... 4Ibid., quoted in, p. 226. ...back... 5Max Domarus, Hitler Reden, v. 3 (Wiesbaden: R. Loweit, 1973), p. 58. ...back... 6Becker, Hitlers Machtergreifung, pp. 149-50. ...back... 7Ibid., Frs. 2494-5. ...back... 8"Nazi Prison Camps to be Permanent," The New York Times, July 27, 1933, p. 7. ...back... 9BAKO R 58/264 fol. 1309 u. 198a. ...back... 10Ibid. ...back... 11BAKO NS 19 320, May 29, 1942. ...back...
12BAKO NS 3 426, July 27, 1943. ...back... 13BAKO NS 3 vol. 401. ...back... 14Schafer, Konzentrationslager Oranienburg, p. 247. ...back... 15BAKO R 58 1027 fol. 1-291. ...back... 16BAKO R 58 264 fol. 309 u. 198a RSHA, January 8, 1935. ...back... 17TV Befehlsblдtter 1937, no. 5, p. 12, TV file, Berlin Document Center. ...back... 18BAKO NS 3 442, November 7, 1944. ...back... 19Aufgaben und Pflichten der Wachposten, July 27, 1943, BAKO NS 3 426. ...back... 20BAKO R 58/1027 fold. 1-291. ...back... 21Natzweiler Routine Orders, February 25, 1943, American Historical Association, Captured German Documents, Microfiled at the Berlin Document Center, 7. 75 R. 216 2/755081. ...back... 22BAKO NS 3 Vol. 426, May 1943. ...back... 23Weiterversicherung von Hдftlingen, BAKO NS 3 405. ...back... 24BAKO R 58 246 fol. 1 309 u. 198a. (RSHA), April 21, 1936. ...back... The Facts About the Origins of the Concentration Camps and Their Administration www.wintersonnenwende.com
Lesen Sie diese Schrift im deutschen Original! Series knapp + klar, Issue 25; Grundlagenverlag © 1999. Translated by Victor Diodon and published here with kind permission from the author. Heinrich Piebrock 1. Preface 2. A New World in the Making 3. The German Ethnic Group During the Revolution 4. The Westward Movement 5. The Forty-Niners 6. The Germans in the Civil War, and Immigration After 1870 7. The German Element Around the Turn of the Century 8. The First World War and its Consequences 9. World War Two and Afterwards - Critical Voices 10. In Closing 11. Typesetter's Epilogue 12. Literature Germans helped build America ...and how has America repaid them? www.wintersonnenwende.com
Lesen Sie dieses Dokument in deutscher Ьbersetzung! The Great Patents Heist Article from the The Barnes Review, March/April 1999, pp. 27-33. The Barnes Review, 645 Pennsylvania Ave SE, Suite 100, Washington D.C. 20003, USA. By John Nugent, freelance writer and NYC estate planner. Published here with kind permission from TBR: eMail TBR - subscribe to TBR here
One of the greatest ripoffs of all time was the theft of German patents after World War II.
It is quite acceptable to American pride to
acknowledge that immigrants have
contributed to our prosperity and greatness.
It's a little harder to swallow that a good deal
of our scientific lead and prosperity - despite
the ever-increasing burdens of non-skilled
illegal immigrants and unproductive home-
growns - has come from simply seizing
German patents and inventions after World War I and far more so after World War II.1
German aircraft designer and manufacturer Claudius Dornier's Super Whale (shown below a
There are those who claim the key to
1920s Zeppelin). First built in 1926, it proved an important milestone in the development of flying
America's felicity has been its Jewish citizens. boats, and it pioneered regular flight between
After all, this is now a "service economy" of stockbrokers and financial and entertainment services. Could America dispense with actually manufacturing or growing anything, and instead focus on the essentials like
Europe and South America. Germany's motor, jet and rocket aerial creativity from early in the century until 1945 was considered remarkable. Few realize that at the end of World War I, after some 1,000 days of combat, Germany's 35 aircraft manufacturers and 20 aero-engine plants had
Broadway shows, Hollywood sitcoms and
18,500 planes in inventory. The Versailles Treaty
currency speculation?
forced severe curtailment of German aviation. The
nations of the Inter-Allied Control commission took
The message of Bernt Engelmann's 1974
their pick of advanced German planes and technology, while destroying all remaining military
Deutschland ohne Juden, published in English
aircraft.
by Bantam Books, New York in 1984 as
Germany Without Jews, is clear: You Germans were mediocre until we Jews came, and now
that we're gone, you have sunk back into mediocrity.
Engelmann cites endless lists of great Jewish MDs of German or Austrian domicile, several of whom, such as bacteriologists Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) and Robert Koch (1843-1910), won the Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology (Ehrlich, 1908; Koch, 1905). Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), of dubious credentials, is one of Engelmann's prize examples.
Engelmann also slays entire forests with pages of printed paeans to forgotten Jewish playwrights, songsters, operetta producers, critics, publishers etc. How could one forget the immortal Meyerbeer? To the wary eye, it smacks of ethnic self-congratulation. One gifted Jew writes a piece, another publishes it, yet another reviews it favorably, a fourth sits at the box office counting out his money and a fifth takes his 10 percent as agent - an unconvincing proof that the nation of Mozart, Bach and Beethoven needed music lessons. Gottlieb Daimler (1834-1900) and Karl Benz (1844-1929) invented the modern gasoline engine in 1878-1887. Other Germans took the lead in 19th-century chemistry and created the first contact lens (in the 1880s), X-rays (Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895), quantum physics (discovered in 1900 by Max Planck, 1858-1947), aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and last (and least), saccharin in 1913. As for previous centuries, the Germans got no credit for inventing the croissant or "Kipferl," as the Germans call it, in Vienna to celebrate defeating the Turks in 1683; one notes the Turkish religious logo, the crescent (a baked good then snatched up by the French as the "croissant"). Equally, they receive zero credit for baking the first quiche, which in Lorraine and Rhinelander dialects ("Kiisch") simply means "kitchen leftovers baked into a pie." Baked goods aside, the facts reveal that the most creative period in world history may have been Germany between 1932 and 1945, and that much of America's scientific lead came from looting German patents by the ton, both in World War I and far more so after World War II. And because Germany was so devastated after World War II, there has been a brain drain ever since of the top young German scientists - to Massachusetts and California for computers and genetics and to greater Los Angeles, Houston and Cape Canaveral for aerospace. As one German scientist remarked: "Since the war, we have not had the financing capabilities for basic research for the long-term future. That kind of serious money only the Americans have. In Germany, and in Japan, also, we do applied and clinical research for immediate applications. But to be on the cutting edge, the money and the positions are now in America and we have to go there."2 An astounding admission of the stripping of German inventiveness after the war came in an October 1946 article by C. Lester Walker in Harper's magazine. Entitled "Secrets by the Thousands,"*** it presents some problems for the Bernt Engelmanns of this world who imply that German science in the 1932-45 period would have been "nothing without the Jews." In fact, the article suggests in deadly seriousness that German Chancellor Adolf Hitler had been right, from his point of view, to prolong the war to the last gasp. According to the deputy commanding general of Army Air Forces Intelligence, Air Technical Service Command, in a speech to the American Society of Aeronautical Engineers, "The Germans were preparing rocket surprises for the whole world in general and England in particular which would have, it is believed, changed the course of the war if the invasion had been postponed for so short a time as half a year." Even without its brilliant Jewish minority, the Germans' "V-2 rocket which bombed London was just a toy compared to what the Germans had up their sleeve." They had 138 types of guided missiles in various stages of production or development, using every kind of remote control device or fuse: radio, radar, wire-guided, continuous wave, acoustics, infrared, light beams and magnetism. And for power the Germans were years ahead in jet propulsion at both subsonic and supersonic speeds - even creating a "jet helicopter" wherein tiny jets spun the
helicopter blade tips at blinding speeds.
Just as the war was ending, and President Franklin Roosevelt was ordering both Gens. George Patton and Dwight David Eisenhower to pull back and let "Uncle Joe" (Josef Stalin) have Berlin and Eastern Europe, the Germans had been readying their giant A-4 rocket for production. Forty-six feet in length, it weighed over 24,000 pounds and could travel 230 miles - rising 60 miles over the earth to a blistering top speed of 3,375 miles per hour. Its secret was a rocket motor running on liquid nitrogen and alcohol. It was either radar controlled or self-guided by a gyroscope. Since it flew faster than the speed of sound (by many times), it could not be heard before it struck.
Today, Hermann Oberth (white smock, center) is virtually forgotten outside related scientific circles, although he pioneered Germany's (and therefore the world's) space flight movement. This photo was taken in Berlin on July 23, 1930, just before Oberth demonstrated his rocket engine. To the left of the rocket is 18-year-old Wernher von Braun. He would be central to Germany's World War II ballistic missile development at Peenemьnde, a remote coastal island in the Baltic Sea. During the Third Reich's earlier years, rocket technology was centered at Kummersdorf. Hitler visited that complex in September 1933, and it prompted him to grant the scientists more resources than they had expected.
Another rocket in the works was the A-9, still bigger at 29,000 pounds and equipped with wings. It had a range of 3,000 miles. Manufactured at Peenemьnde, it arced into the sky at an incredible 5,870 miles per hour.
But most Americans know about German
World War II rockets. A few even know
that in addition to the car engine the
Germans also invented the jet and
perfected the superhighway or autobahn
(the three most important inventions binding this vast country [i.e. America;
Technicians work on improving rocket technology in an underground factory.
Scriptorium ed.] together). Virtually no one knows that in Wright-Patterson Field in Ohio, in
the Library of Congress and in the Department of Commerce in Washington, a "mother lode"
of 1,500 tons of German patents and research papers were being mined furiously after the
war. One gloating Washington bureaucrat called it "the greatest single source of this type of
material in the world, the first orderly exploitation of an entire country's brain power."
Fortunately, it was for the benefit of the United States, which, having thwarted Hitler's crusade against the Soviet Union, had to take up the same gauntlet against a communism spread worldwide by the late 1940s.
The genesis of the project to grab German secrets was in 1944, when, amazed by German technology in everything from rockets and jets to Tiger tanks, a Joint Intelligence Objectives
committee was set up to confiscate German inventions the instant they were obtained, even before the surrender, for use against Japan. Even before reaching the German border, fascinating discoveries began to be made, including one with which every American is familiar: audio tape. The 1946 Harper's article shows the head of the Technical Industrial Intelligence Branch, in quaint excitement: ...[p]ulling some brown, papery-looking ribbon off a spool. It was a quarter-inch wide, with a dull side and a shiny side. "That's Magnetophone tape," he said.3 "It's plastic, metallized on one side with ferrous oxide. In Germany, that supplanted phonograph recordings. A day's radio program can be magnetized on one reel. [Then] you can demagnetize it, wipe it off, and put on a new program at any time. No needle, no noise or record wear. An hour-long reel costs 50 cents." A Short History of Recording and Its Effects Upon Music by Michael Chanan4 points out that even in the late 1920s, before the "12 darkest years of German history,"5 one Fritz Pfleumer had developed a plastic recording tape. It was launched commercially by BASF6 in 1934. The idea was based on the film strip, and its original application was for dictation in an office environment. In Britain, a project funded by the great radio genius Guglielmo Marconi was attempting the same thing. (On D-Day, the Americans played audio tapes of combat loudly at various locations to try to throw off the German defenders.) However, the great leap forward came when one A. M. Poniatoff, president of a small California company called Ampex (a trade name still familiar to the older generation), then wearing a U.S. Army uniform, helped seize German-held Radio Luxembourg in late 1944. Instantly grasping the gold mine in profits and quality which the Magnetophone tape represented, Poniatoff had the 3M Company rush the new tape into American production, and it swept the Los Angeles entertainment industry. Its major breakthrough came in 1947 when Bing Crosby first used it to record his network shows. The crooner not only preferred the Magnetophone sound but invested heavily in Ampex. Later, movie soundtracks went onto audio tape as well, improving mixing and dubbing efficiency as well, and avoiding the infuriating mishap where a successfully shot movie scene had to be retaken due to sound defects. Ampex later went on to introduce the first videotape recorders in 1956 (all now but a memory, sacrificed on the altar of free trade with Japan). The list goes on and on: synthetic mica, which increased American cold steel production by 1,000 percent; "the secrets for 50,000 dyes, many of [which] are faster and better than ours, colors we were never able to make"; milk, butter and bread preservation without chemicals; and refrigeration and air-conditioning for German U-boats so efficient that their subs could cruise from the Atlantic to the Pacific, fight there for two months and return to Germany without having to take on fresh water for the crew. In addition, there was the pilot ejector seat, the infrared rifle scope, and even the negative-air ionizer, which many Americans use for the fresh feeling it puts in the air, with claims of reduced blood pressure, allergy and asthma symptoms. In addition to official government looting of Germany (what GIs always called "liberating"), there was also the personal looting bonanza exemplified by Robert Maxwell, financier extraordinaire, and at one time the most hated man in Britain. The great contribution of this
Orthodox Jewish citizen, born Jan Hoch in what was then Czechoslovakia, was to found a scientific publishing empire in Britain, called Pergamon Press, based entirely on German research he had looted with British intelligence connivance. Maxwell came to dominate the British tabloid press and raided his own employees' pension fund to the tune of 90 million pounds. He finally perished mysteriously and nakedly in a plunge from his yacht in 1991 just a week after standing up to the Israeli secret police, the Mossad - who may have set him up in business in the first place. Interestingly, his main co-conspirator in the United States, Robert Rubin, formerly of Goldman Sachs, is now secretary of the treasury.7 When not gunning down a surrendering German mayor armed only with a white flag (as he boasted in a Der Spiegel interview) or bribing British officers to invent his heroic war record (for which war record Montgomery personally pinned a medal on him), Maxwell/Hoch8 was in the British Zone of Berlin in 1946 with the full backing of British intelligence, coercing the vast research findings of the Springer science publishing house from Springer's widow for pence on the pound. Ultimately, after Maxwell stripped $94 million from the pension funds of the 5,000 employees of the Mirror Group, his U.S. financiers at Goldman Sachs were stripped of an estimated $250 million to settle their claims - whereupon Maxwell's body was fished from the sea by an astonished Spaniard, to be buried with full honors in Israel and hopefully forgotten. Far from exemplifying that the Germans were nothing without Jewish scientific help, his life suggested that one Jew could become a billionaire exploiting German ideas. Which raises the justifiable question of the atom bomb, which European Jews did produce for America and German scientists did not provide in time for Germany. In his magisterial Verschwцrung und Verrat um Hitler ("Conspiracy and Treason Against Hitler"),9 Gen. Otto Ernst Remer details how anti-Hitler elements in the German scientific community maneuvered their own Werner Carl Heisenberg (b. 1901) into the key uranium-developing program at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (now succeeded by the Max Planck Institute of Physics). His clear mission, proudly proclaimed after World War II,10 was to bureaucratically delay the German A-bomb project until the Allies had won the war.11 As just one example, munitions minister Albert Speer pleaded with Heisenberg and his fellow conspirator von Weizsдcker (brother of a later West German president) to name whatever money or materials they required after they claimed they had been held up by shortages. Von Weizsдcker's reply asking for "40,000 marks" caused Speer to stare in amazement, and to later confess that he had himself planned to propose 100 million marks for starters. Not only did Heisenberg state explicitly to Der Spiegel, "We never tried to produce any atomic bombs and we are glad not to be responsible for having made any," he also admitted leaking the latest information on German uranium-splitting research to the half-Jewish Danish scientist Niels Bohr, who promptly informed his racial confreres in the U.S. Thus, Germany did not lack the bomb because it lacked Jews, but rather because a handful of key scientists hostile to Hitler wormed their way into the German atomic program. Heisenberg had even admitted to a shocked Luftwaffe audience in 1942, after the devastating British 1,000-bomber annihilations of the port cities of Kiel and Lьbeck, that Germany could produce a bomb with material "the size of a banana" (gesturing with his hands) to wipe out an entire enemy city, but then he caught himself and said this of course would be economically impossible.12
One of Gen. Remer's most interesting assertions is that just as the Americans were racing in the final days to convert German inventions for use against Japan, Hitler was sending a U-boat packed with secrets to that same nation at Emperor Hirohito's explicit request.
In Verschwцrung und Verrat um
Hitler, Remer first notes the criticism Gen. Alfred Jodl, Wehrmacht chief of staff (center with pen)
that propaganda minister Joseph
representing post-Hitler head of state Adm. Karl Dцnitz, signs
Goebbels had received for his "stand-
unconditional surrender documents at Rheims, France on May 7, 1945. On that date the submarine U-234 was en route to
fast, the miracle weapons are
Japan with 12 cylinders containing microfilm material on
coming" message after Stalingrad.
Germany's most advanced weaponry, including advanced
Ironically, while many of these
atomic research. In fact, Germany was capable of producing
weapons came too late to save Germany from its fate of occupation, government decapitation and
an A-bomb. On May 17 Adm. Dцnitz ordered the U-boat's captain to surrender to the U.S. Navy without destroying its top-secret cargo.
dismemberment, Remer reports that a member of U-234 sent him the following:
In the spring of 1945 I was ordered to report to serve on U-234. The sub was a specially redesigned former mine layer of the type XB with 1,760 tons, 4,200 horsepower and a 52-man crew. The commander was [a] Capt. Fehler. On March 23, 1945 the boat steamed out of Kiel toward southern Norway unsubmerged. On April 15, 1945 it dove at South Christiansand with an immediate goal of proceeding between Iceland and the Faroe Islands. The destination was Japan. Our orders stated that we were to bring air force Gen. Kessler as a Luftwaffe attachй with his staff and technicians to Tokyo. The [emperor] had asked us to help build up Japan's air defenses with the weapons developed in Germany. Also on board to this end were, besides the general, two air force officers, a navy anti-aircraft specialist, an underwater demolitions specialist, a lowfrequency specialist from the staff of Prof. Kьpfmьller as well as two Messerschmitt engineers (specialists for the construction of Me-262s)13 and two Japanese frigate captains. One of them was [a] Capt. Tomonaga, who had collaborated with us in his capacity as a specialist for one-man torpedoes14 when we were developing our own small combat boats. Our cargo consisted of 12 steel cylinders, of the sort used for storing in mines, containing comprehensive microfilm material on the latest developments in German offensive and defensive weaponry, especially in rocket and rocket defense [anti-rocket rockets; TBR ed.] warfare, as well as our research findings in the areas of high- and low-frequency technology, and finally a decisive contribution to the development of nuclear energy and atomic warfare. After passing through the Straits of Iceland and 28 days submerged at an average depth of 260 feet, a message reached us in the night of the 12th to the 13th of May15 during snorkel travel, in which Grand Admiral [Karl] Dцnitz ordered us to capitulate. At this point in time we were located in the middle of the Atlantic, southeast of the banks of Newfoundland. The order to our captain was couched in a very personal tone, telling him to
hand the U-boat over without destroying its valuable cargo.16 After 12 hours of debate and reflection, Capt. Fehler decided in harmony with Gen. Kessler and after informing the two Japanese frigate captains that he would be carrying out Dцnitz's order and surface to surrender. The two Japanese officers took their own lives before the boat surfaced. Eight hours later, U-234 was taken as a prize of war by the American destroyer Sutton and brought to the U.S. Navy base at Portland, Maine. The American officers and officials who subsequently interrogated us were evidently horrified over the contents of our U-boat. They criticized us for supposedly having no idea how valuable our cargo was. At the end of July 1945 the officer in charge of the investigation team declared to me that the microfilm evidence and the testimony of our technicians had proved that in decisive technical developments, we were "100 years" ahead of the United States.
Which raises the nagging question of where
all these continual "UFO" sightings come
from, which began a few short years after
World War II - and the capture of German
high tech. The same government which gave
us the Warren Commission cover-up, the
public silent treatment of the Israeli assault on
the USS Liberty,17 and a blithe nonchalance
about the social significance of the
black/white/Asian racial differences proven in
the best-selling Harvard study The Bell Curve,
seems anxious to keep the public in the dark
about all such "unconfirmed" sightings.18
A December 1947 photo of a captured German A-
It is at least interesting that it was just two years after the seizure of "50 tons"19 of
4/V-2 rocket being prepared for launch during the early stages of the U.S. guided missile program. The author notes that just two years after the
German aerospace and physics papers that the first major UFO story, the 1947 Roswell, New Mexico incident, broke. After all, what has fascinated researchers ever since (particularly government skeptics monitoring Area 51 at
seizure of some 50 tons of German aerospace and physics papers by the United States (including highly advanced work regarding spacecraft), an alleged UFO incident occurred near Roswell, New Mexico.
Groom Lake, north of Las Vegas) is things the Germans were working on: spacecraft which
use new, tough, but lightweight materials, make 180 degree turns at Mach 4 without spilling
the drinks and generally defy the laws of gravity, perhaps by the use of gyroscopes within
gyroscopes.
One of the most interesting sources of information is Tom Mahood's website at http://www.sky.net/~wings/groom.htm [Scriptorium notes: this page no longer exists - try here instead], featuring photographs of Area 51, including the very serious orange border sign, pictures and information on the round-trip Vegas-to-Groom Lake air service "Janet," as well as photos taken of the MII-60 "Pave Hawk" all-weather helicopter which patrols Area 51, and information on the hush-hush security service EG&G Corporation in Las Vegas, and even a newsletter on Groom Lake by singer Glen Campbell. What's going on?
It is well known that the German SS sent expeditions to Tibet, reputedly a land of mind-overmatter marvels - in the late 1930s.20 The purpose was both to delve into evidence of Indo-
European origins in the Himalayas and secret techniques used there, possibly including antigravity levitation. What ties this together with Europe, ancient America and Egypt is the finding of blond mummies or Nordic remains in or near many sites of architectural miracles. As any reader of the three articles on Egypt in the September-October 1998 issue of TBR, or anyone who has seen the excellent programs on Egypt on the cable History Channel, can testify, both the people living in Ancient Egypt and the rulers of Macchu Picchu were doing virtually gravity-defying feats in constructing their pyramids and temples. One can only speculate as to what secrets the Germans may have revived or discovered anew during the Third Reich, and which are now being utilized by the current government in Washington. It is well known from excavations of blond mummies in Egypt and in South America by Thor Heyerdahl as well as the statements of Mexican Emperor Montezuma (welcoming the Spanish "back" as their fabled "white gods") that some sort of ancient white scientists or advanced physicists were involved with the origins of these cultures. Even the Chinese admit the existence of red-haired, blue-eyed tribes constantly infiltrating into ancient China (of which pictorial evidence is presented in a recent National Geographic). The great teacher Confucius himself (roughly 551-479 B.C.), of the noble K'ung family, was said to be a man of unusually tall stature for a Chinese, and Genghiz Khan (A.D. 1167-1227), the Mongol conqueror, had red hair and green eyes. But the historical blackout continues. The government appears to be willing to hint that "aliens" from outer space are behind all this high tech. God forbid it should turn out that ancient Indo-Europeans were doing these things thousands of years ago, or especially Germans researching without the benefit of the Jews in the Third Reich.
"Operation Paper Clip"
According to the U.S. Zone Report of October 1945, 66,500 "prominent Nazis" had been interned in the American Zone as of September 1945. By the end of that year, another 70,000 "prominent Nazis" had been interned in the British Zone. In addition, 156,000 persons were "dismissed" from public service in the British Zone between May, 1945, and September, 1946, and 86,000 applications from other persons who tried to obtain employment in one of the restricted occupations were rejected.* Concerning the fate of German prisoners of war, it should be noted that more German soldiers died or were murdered while in Soviet captivity than were killed or wounded on the
Just three days after the end of World War II, German soldiers dig earth shelters at Dallien in the U.S. zone. As cold weather set in, these shelters (and
Western front from D-Day to the May 7, 1945 food supplies) proved inadequate, with a
surrender. Hundreds of thousands of Germans
death rate of 30 percent per year.
soldiers and civilians suffered the same fate in Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and
Poland.** And in the French sector, 40,000 German POWs were coerced into joining
the French Foreign Legion. Ironically, these veterans again found themselves facing
a communist-inspired adversary as most were sent to French Indochina (Vietnam) to
fight against the Vietminh insurgents seeking to "free" the region from French
colonial rule.
By 1944, the western Allied "Operation Paper Clip" was under way, named after
the clips on the file cards of German scientists. Those engaged hunted "living
science," and also pursued German patents and business secrets. They finally
succeeded in stealing both. According to a statement released by the U.S.
Department of Defense in February 1950, 24,000 German scientists and technicians
were "questioned in detail," and 523 of them were "brought into the U.S.A." Of
these, 362 were "requested" to take steps for the acquisition of U.S. citizenship.
These German scientists, according to the manager of Operation Paper Clip, "saved
at least $1 billion in weapons expenditures and at least 10 years in development time
already by May 1949."
Although the Americans were the initiators of the intellectual plundering of
Germany, it was practiced by all the victors - the United Kingdom, France and the
Soviet Union.
When World War II came to an end, the experts of the French, the Soviets and
the British were just as ready as the Office of Technical Services in Washington
(OTS). The London office of the British Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee said
proudly, "The production secrets we take away from Germany are a bigger blow than
the loss of East Prussia." Even the prime minister of Australia, Joseph B. Chifley,
admitted in a radio address in September 1949 that "the booty of 6,000 German
industrial reports and of 46 German scientists given to Australia" possessed a value
that could not be calculated in money and now enabled Australian producers to also
play a prominent role in industrial world production.
This booty was so great that very soon one was unable to count the documents,
and they were measured by weight of paper. The U.S. Air Research and
Development Command at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio in this way
received "without doubt the greatest collection of captured secret methods in the
world," and it weighed 1,554 tons.
An official of the OTS called this office with the mission to distribute the techno-
scientific progress of Germany "the first organization in the world with the purpose
to bleed dry the inventive power of an entire people." It disposed of more than 3,000
tons of documents seized in Germany.
So that nobody could come along and denounce all this wholesale robbery and
plunder as a war crime, it had to be arranged that all Germans of those times would
be continuously defamed and treated as criminals, barbarians, "war criminals,"
"militarists," "fascists" (with the propaganda-meaning of satanic evil) - so that none
of these undesirable people who might hold such opinions should occupy any
position from which the public could be reached. That is the reason for Allied control
officers at German universities, for Allied writers or assistants in the rewriting of
German historical textbooks, and for as many as possible foreign lecturers for history
and political sciences at German universities.
And while the certainly not timid Nazis had removed 1,628 university teachers
(with pensions), the anti-Nazis in 1945 victimized no less than 4,289 professors and
teachers. And they did not receive any pensions. As Christ und Welt calculated in
1950, the Nazis removed 9.5 percent of the university personnel. The Allies removed 32.1 percent. Nearly every third German University Professor in the Western sectors was deprived of his teaching or research position by the victors. And in all of Germany, it was every second teacher. By 1946, 1,028 professors and teachers had come from the eastern territories and from central Germany into the area of the later Bundesrepublik as unemployed refugees, and later on thousands more followed. But in 1946 the denazification had just begun, which ordered, according to Control Council Directive No. 24 of January 1, 1946, the immediate removal of former National Socialists "from all offices and from numerous professions" alone in the American Zone. For example, 373,762 persons by the end of 1946 were found "unsuited for any public function or work in the economy except as laborers." (Zischka, Anton, War es ein Wunder, pp. 153-54.) ================== *M. Balfour, Viermдchtekontrolle in Deutschland, p. 266. ...back... **At the time the author of this sidebar, Udo Walendy, wrote these words, Eisenhower's criminal treatment of German POWs, wherein he deliberately penned them in barbed wire enclosures - an atrocity which, according to James Bacque's Other Losses claimed the lives of some 900,000 defeated German men - was unknown to him. [Udo Walendy, The Brainwashing of the German Nation, 1999, published by TBR.] -Ed. ...back... Notes: 1The most prominent war booty which Woodrow Wilson seized in 1917 was the patent on aspirin, that "miracle drug". ...back... 2In Anton Zischka's Und war es ein Wunder ("And It Was a Miracle"), pp. 153-154 we read: "If the surely not oversensitive Nazis had retired [with pension!] a total of 1,628 professors when they took power, the victims of the [Allied] anti-Nazis numbered no less than 4,289 professors and instructors, who received no pension whatsoever. As the newspaper Christ und Welt calculated in 1950, the Nazis dismissed 9.8 percent of their university teaching staff, the Allies 32.1 percent. Almost every third German professor lost his teaching or research post through the will of the victors. In Germany as a whole it was every second professor... In accordance with Control Commission Directive No. 24 of January 1, 1946, a total of 373,762 persons were found inappropriate for any public service or economic activity above that of manual laborer." Quoted in Remer, Otto Ernst, Verschwцrung und Verrat um Hitler ("Conspiracy and Treason against Hitler"), p. 267. See below (Note 9). ...back... 3Magnйtophone is still the French word for an audiotape player. ...back... 4London, Verso Publishing, 1995. ...back... 5The mantra-like phrase every modern German schoolchild learns about the Hitler period. ...back... 6A German chemical giant, which nowadays has a large plant for adhesives and audiotape in North Carolina. ...back...
7See Maxwell articles in The Spotlight newspaper of Nov. 18, 1991; May 16, 1994; April 10 and May 1, 1995; and Feb. 3, 1997. ...back... 8And, briefly, Du Maurier, after a popular cigarette. ...back... 9Verschwцrung und Verrat um Hitler, Urteil des Frontsoldaten ("Judgement by a front-line soldier"), Otto Ernst Remer, general, retired, Verlag K. W. Schьtz, Preussisch Oldendorf, 1981. Remer was a highly decorated combat officer, a ramrod straight old-style Prussian. Bearer of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (personally presented to him by Hitler), he instantly thwarted the July 20, 1944 officers' putsch against Hitler once he had heard Hitler's voice on the phone stating that he was alive and how to proceed. After the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany, he founded the highly popular Socialist German Reich Party (13 percent of the vote), which the Allies banned. He had to flee Germany in the early 1990s and died in Spanish political exile in 1996. ...back... 10Der Spiegel, Nov. 24, 1952. ...back... 11No more unbelievable than people calling themselves "Americans" parading the streets of Washington, D.C. during time of war in 1968, screaming: "Ho! Ho! Ho Chi Minh! Viet Cong are gonna win!" ...back... 12Remer, pp. 285-291. ...back... 13The German 500-mph fighter-bomber. ...back... 14One intact example of such a manned torpedo may be seen at the Mystic Seaport museum in Connecticut. ...back... 15After the German surrender and the arrest of all its officials, including Hitler's successor, Grand Admiral von Dцnitz. ...back... 16Dцnitz, who had been chosen as successor by Hitler because of his immaculate war record as well as his genuine National Socialist leanings, apparently felt that whatever his admiration for the fighting Japanese people, it would be better that the Americans get these secrets for use against the Soviets than for their ally (who had not notified Berlin before she attacked Pearl Harbor) to receive them in an obviously losing cause. ...back... 17U.S. Navy officers seem well aware of this outrage. The author spoke with a Navy captain (and, coincidentally, Mayflower descendant), who waved his hand and said, "Don't get me started." ...back... 18Which is the same as "unconfirmed sightings" of Vietnam-era American POWs, and the standard operating procedure when the Pentagon, CIA or White House has something to hide: "We will neither confirm nor deny..." ...back... 19Walker, p. 329. ...back... 20In fact, one expedition was trivialized into a movie, Seven Years in Tibet, about the real SS man Heinrich Harrer - played by Brad Pitt - and a young dalai lama. ...back... ***We (Scriptorium) have been trying to locate a copy of this article, "Secrets by the Thousands". Interestingly, in every collection of Harper's which we have found to date - even that held in a prestigious university Research Library - the October 1946 issue is missing. A coincidence? ...back...
The Great Patents Heist www.wintersonnenwende.com
Holocaust at Dresden
Lesen Sie dieses Dokument in deutscher Ьbersetzung!
Article from The Barnes Review, February 1995, pp. 3-13. The Barnes Review, 645 Pennsylvania Ave SE, Suite 100, Washington D.C. 20003, USA. By George Fowler, editor of TBR; published here with kind permission from TBR: eMail TBR - subscribe to TBR here
A half century has passed since February 13-14, 1945. Overnight, one of Europe's great meccas of art and culture, a city that had become a hospital center for German, American and British wounded that housed many thousand Allied prisoners of war, and that had become a haven to refugees fleeing the Red Army, was bombed into oblivion. But the perpetrators of one of history's great outrages were to receive the laurels of glorious victory rather than a place in the war crimes dock.
Part 1 Prelude to Holocaust After nearly three years of unremitting Allied air offensives against Germany's civilian population, plans for the destruction of the open city of Dresden, incinerating at least 135,000 people, took shape on March 30, 1942. However the seeds of such inhuman hate had long since found fertile soil at 10 Downing Street and within the White House. On the above date Prof. F. A. Lindemann, later, Lord Cherwell, the Prime Minister's Science Advisor and a Jewish refugee from Germany, delivered to Winston Churchill a fateful report. In his book Bomber Command Max Hastings stated that "Cherwell's Report provided the final rationalization for the program Bomber Command was undertaking, and it would henceforth be paper-clipped to the plans of the bomber offensive." Lindemann estimated that every 40 tons of bombs "dropped on built-up areas" would "make 4,000 to 8,000 people homeless." This report to the PM stated: "In 1938 over 22 million Germans lived in 58 towns of over 100,000 inhabitants, which, with modern equipment, should be easy to find and hit." Hastings concluded that Lindemann "[h]oped to create a nation of refugees, and no doubt also a good many corpses under the rubble, although he was too genteel to say so." There were of course discussions and disagreements regarding strategic and tactical
approaches to the bombing of Germany. But Lindemann's report is considered the basic text behind the wholesale bombing of civilian targets. Prior to the report's dispatch to Churchill, a February 14, 1942 Air Ministry directive to Bomber Command from Air Vice Marshal Sir Norman Bottomly contained the following Valentine's Day message: "You are accordingly authorized to employ your forces without restriction... [operations] should now be focused on the morale of the enemy civil population and in particular, of the industrial workers."
On February 22, while Churchill was staying at the White House, it was decided that Air Marshal Arthur Harris would leave his post as head of the RAF
The initial guiding hands that steered bomber command to the area bombing of Germany's urban population, F.A. Lindemann (left) and Winston Churchill
delegation in Washington (an assignment he had held
(right). Between them are Air Chief
in neutral America beginning June 12, 1941) to head Bomber Command. This fateful reassignment would
Marshall Sir Charles Portal and first Sealord Sir Dudley Pound.
team Harris with a PM of kindred instincts in one of Western history's most costly and
ghastly undertakings.
The first chapters of World War II, from Germany's Sept. 3, 1939 invasion of Poland to the May-June 1940 clash in the West when France capitulated and Britain was driven from the continent, saw a scarcity of bombing by the belligerents. This was largely the period of "Sitzkrieg" and "Bore War" during which Germany's bombing of Warsaw prior to Poland's surrender marked the only major incident; a relatively moderate attack that proved costly to Germany on the propaganda front.
Throughout the 1939-40 months of frontal stalemate in the West, Hitler didn't order the Luftwaffe to bomb Britain (while working continually for a negotiated peace with London that would allow him to concentrate on his plan for land acquisition in the East and the destruction of Bolshevism's Soviet bastion). The Royal Air Force confined its activities to the dropping of propaganda leaflets. The bombing of the open city of Freiburg-im-Breisgau on May 10, 1940, killed 22 children, 13 women, 11 men and 11 soldiers. Whether the bombers were French, British or even German has never been determined but the civilians killed and the property destroyed were real and gave Propaganda Minister Josef Goebbels grist to promise that the Luftwaffe would answer the destruction "in a like manner."
Four days later the Germans bombed Rotterdam. From northern German airfields some 100 Heinkel III bombers were poised to attack remaining resistance zones in the city. However, surrender negotiations with the Dutch government were in progress. The raid, planned for 1500 hrs. (3 pm), was ordered postponed after takeoff on a flight of about 100 minutes to target areas. The Dutch government had been stalling during negotiating sessions. German terms were finally agreed to five minutes before the time set for the attack.
But the recall could not be signaled to those bombers that had crossed the Netherlands border. At that point they had reeled in their trailing aerials allowing long range reception. A swift fighter was dispatched to head off the bombers, and from a German panzer position on the ground at Rotterdam, where the mission-scrub signal had been received, signal flares were fired to ward off an attack that began just as the flares went up. The signal was received in
time to disengage 40 of the Heinkels. The city's main water supply system was hit, and considerable fire ensued in one area (no incendiaries were dropped) due largely to hits on a margarine plant from which streams of burning oil flowed. In 1962 the Rotterdam government released figures showing that 980 people had been killed in the raid. The considerable devastation in the city gave Allied propagandists a field day, and Rotterdam became the greatest war atrocity story since Japan's "Rape of Nanking" in the 1930s. In his 1963 book The Destruction of Dresden David Irving noted that "Ninety four tons of bombs had been dropped... By comparison, close to 9,000 tons of high explosives and incendiaries were dropped on the inland Ruhr port of Duisburg during the triple blow of 14th October 1944." With Germany's bombing of Britain following France's surrender, strategic targets were singled out and hit with a high degree of accuracy. But on the night of August 24, 1940 (the main London targets being the vital East End dock-shipping-industrial areas), the target was the oil storage depot at Thames Haven. A navigational error led to the bombing of parts of the East End, the City and St. Giles. The bombing of central London drew the immediate retaliatory response of the Royal Air Force. The following night it bombed Berlin, with slight effect. This enraged Hitler, who issued a command that may have cost Germany victory. He ordered that the Luftwaffe switch its attacks to London and away from RAF installations and radar sites. This allowed the severely depleted Fighter Command a short but much-needed period to regroup. The Luftwaffe's incredibly costly (most particularly in terms of seasoned pilots and crew) London "Blitz" is dated from September 7, 1940 to May 16, 1941. Luftwaffe figures show that throughout this period 35,177 tons of bombs were dropped during 71 major attacks on London and other areas of industrial concentration, such as Hull, Liverpool and Manchester. The British calculated that, by the end of 1940, 13,339 Britons had been killed in raids. The German raid ranking with Rotterdam in terms of propaganda value was the bombing of Coventry in November, 1940. In bombing this industrial city Coventry's Cathedral was nearly demolished. Pictures of its ruins filled America's newspapers and newsreel screens. In his 1975 book The First Casualty (the title evidently taken from U.S. Sen. Hiram Johnson's 1917 observation that "The first casualty, when war comes, is truth."), Philip Knightly noted that the London Times editorialized on the "butchery at Coventry... The wanton slaughter by a people pretending to be civilized who, it would seem, kill mostly for the joy of destroying." Of this Knightly wrote: "Coventry was actually a legitimate military target, one of the keys to the British war effort" containing such plants as the Standard Motor Co., the British Piston Ring Co., the Daimler motor works and Alvis aero-engine factory. The British had known of Germany's intent to bomb Coventry due to an early intercept of Germany's Enigma code system by way of its Ultra codebreaking device. But Churchill vetoed interception of the Luftwaffe attack for fear that it would tip the Germans to the fact that their main code had been broken. Thus Coventry entailed a double deception on the part of the British. But this did not deter Churchill from ordering "Operation Rachel." This was the codename for the December 12, 1940 Bomber Command attack on Mannheim. On the PM's direct order it was to be a reprisal for the considerable damage done to Coventry and the
first occasion in the relatively brief annals of air warfare that an entire city was to be the deliberate target of attack. Britain had begun the war with a somewhat antiquated bomber capacity. But by 1942 and with America's full material support, Bomber Command was a formidable force. In the spring of 1942 Harris sold Churchill and Chief of Air Staff Sir Charles Portal on a 1,000-plane raid. Stretching all human and material resources, 1,047 planes, largely with inexperienced crews, were gathered. When Churchill and Harris discussed potential casualties, the PM said he was prepared for the loss of 100 planes. Hamburg, Germany's second largest city, was to be the target. But weather conditions dictated a switch to the secondary target and Germany's third largest city, Cologne. The raid was carried out May 30 and it was a success. The city along the Rhine burned deep red well into the sky, the great Cathedral's twin spires (one of which would subsequently be destroyed) clear silhouettes to the airmen above. The raid had wrought instant devastation unequaled since biblical lore. Over 12,000 structures had been totally or partially destroyed, with 45,000 people left homeless. Remarkably, only 496 dead were counted. The water, power, gas and telephone complexes were in shambles and 36 factories were destroyed, 70 more badly damaged. Bomber Command was delighted at the loss of only 40 aircraft. Max Hastings noted in Bomber Command that "It was a mere token of the destruction Bomber Command would achieve in 1942 and 1943..." In the latter months of 1942 U.S. Army Air Corps B-17s and B-26 Liberators began limited daylight operations against targets in France and Germany. The Air Corps' top brass under Gen. H.H. "Hap" Arnold, in conjunction with Bomber Command's leaders, were pushing for an all-out campaign of U.S.daylight / RAF-night operations. The American airmen had an added incentive. They wanted the postwar establishment of a separate armed service co-equal with the Army and Navy. The bomber offensive was their prime opportunity to show what they could do, and it would lead to many an unnecessary but destructive mission. The efforts of the Air Corps Bomber Command lobbying were fully rewarded at the Roosevelt-Churchill Casablanca conference in January, 1943. A Casablanca directive read: "Your primary aim will be the progressive destruction and dislocation of the German military, industrial and economic system, and the undermining of the morale of the German people to the point where their capacity for armed resistance is fatally weakened..." Following Casablanca, America's bomber presence escalated markedly, with USAAF (U.S. Army Air Force) fields increasingly dotting the fields of eastern England. The stage was fully set for one of history's darkest dramas, and one that would place gold stars signifying a family member killed in action in the front windows of tens of thousands of American homes. The physical punch to achieve what "Bomber" Harris had envisioned was now in place. Max Hastings wrote: "Long before Casablanca, or even before Cologne, Harris had conceived his campaign for the systematic laying-waste of Germany's cities, and he never had the slightest intention of being deflected from it." In the summer of 1943 Bomber Command was to unleash its most lethal strike of the war save for Dresden, and it would provide the first major instance of British and American public doubt and criticism. Although Hamburg had "weathered" Harris's initial 1,000-plane raid, it would be visited in a manner that can only be recalled as a determined atrocity. In
Bomber Harris author Dudley Saward states that the obliteration of Hamburg, "which went by the ominous code name of 'Gomorrah,' was planned to take place over a period of four nights." Before his crews took off on the first assault the night of July 24-25, Harris told them: "The Battle of Hamburg cannot be won in a single night. It is estimated that 10,000 tons of bombs will have to be dropped to complete the process of elimination. To achieve the maximum effect of air bombardment this city should be subjected to sustained attack. On the first attack a large number of incendiaries are to be carried in order to saturate the fire service." Few could misunderstand these words or the intent behind them. This was not a surgical or even carpet bombing strike against military or industrial targets. Clearly, this was the premeditated murder of a city and its people. In the series of four Hamburg raids, July 24 to August 3, Bomber Command dropped 8,621 tons of bombs on the city, 4,309 tons being incendiaries. Eighth Air Force B-17s dropped 771 tons of explosives during the third raid. Initial deaths were estimated at 41,800, but many thousands more died subsequently or were never counted due to incineration, burial beneath rubble or having been blown to bits. The four-raid total may have equaled Great Britain's official total losses for the war of 51,509. The Bomber Command Diaries, published in 1985 by Penguin Books, London, states that the August 2-3 raid largely failed due to thunderstorms. Thus most of the destruction was wrought in three raids. In The Destruction of Dresden Irving wrote that "When rescue teams finally cleared their way into hermetically sealed bunkers and shelters, after several weeks, the heat generated inside had been so intense that nothing remained of their occupants: only a soft undulating layer of gray ash was left in one bunker, from which the number of victims could only be estimated as 'between 250 and 300'..." Despite the highly restrictive censorship regulations applied to Allied war correspondents (already deemed supportive of the Allied cause as a condition of clearance) fairly large bits and pieces of what the bomber offense was about leaked to some prominent civilian figures. In England, among the most telling critics were the country's two premier military historians, Maj. Gen. J.F.C. Fuller and Captain Basil Liddell Hart. In August, 1943 Fuller drafted an article (evidently not published) to the London Evening Standard in which he stated: "The worst devastation of the Goths, Vandals, Huns, Seljuks and Mongols pales into insignificance when compared to the material and moral damage now wrought..." Following the thousand-plane Cologne raid Hart drafted a private "reflection" that observed: "It will be ironical if the defenders of civilization depend for victory upon the most barbaric, and unskilled, way of winning a war that the modem world has seen... We are now counting for victory on success in the way of degrading it to a new low level..." As stated in The Army Air Forces in World War II, plans were drawn up in early June, 1944 to define the post-D-Day invasion bomber campaign. The recommended priorities to both Bomber Command and the U.S. 8th and 15th Air Force (in Italy) were, in order of priority, oil production, jet and V-weapons, ball bearing plants and tank factories. As Supreme Allied Commander, Dwight D. Eisenhower left both the American commanders (Gens. Spaatz and Doolittle) and Harris free to develop independently their strategic bombing campaigns as they saw fit. It was clearly an opportunity to curtail Harris's incredible excesses. But Eisenhower,
essentially a high political functionary in uniform, based higher decisions on the wishes of the President and the Prime Minister.
On the scorched road to Dresden
there were many occurrences similar
to what happened at Hamburg. The
Bomber Command Diaries, for the
city of Darmstadt on the night of
September 11-12, 1944, tell that 226
Lancasters and 14 Mosquitoes (light
bombers, the four-engined Lancaster
being Bomber Command's equivalent
of the B-17), "produced an outstandingly accurate and concentrated raid on this almost intact city of 120,000 people. A
The RAF's four-engined Lancaster war Britain's counterpart to America's B-17, and the mainstay of bomber command's air offensive. On the night of Feb. 13-14, 1945, Lancasters hit Dresden with fire and explosives.
fierce fire area was created in the center and in the districts immediately south and east of the
center. Property damage in this area was almost complete. Casualties were very heavy. The
deaths of 8,433 people were actually reported to police stations. This figure was made up of
German civilians - 1,766 men, 2,742 women and 2,129 children, 936 service personnel, 492
foreign workers and 368 prisoners of war."
The United States Strategic Bombing Survey, compiled after the war, concluded that deaths in Darmstadt that night may have exceeded the RAF figures (taken from initial German figures) by 5,000 because all deaths were not reported by the 49,200 made homeless by the raid and evacuated from the city. Today, the city of Darmstadt has final figures of 12,300 dead and 70,000 homeless.
. Part 2 The Infernal Firestorm - A Glimpse of Hell Thus a long pattern of operational intent, in which everything on German soil that stood, moved or breathed was considered a legitimate recipient of the bomb bay payloads, had been established long before it became Dresden's turn. To begin with, the city was not an industrial center of even moderate importance. It had been bombed once, some 20 USAAF planes hitting with considerable accuracy the city's small industrial area as a secondary target at midday on October 7, 1944 during an attack on the Ruhland oil refinery. This raid was at least consistent with both the publicly stated purpose and propaganda regarding the bombing campaign, in that it was a basically surgical strike against valid targets. The essence of pre-holocaust Dresden was described in David Irving's book: "Not endowed with any one great capital industry like those of Essen and Hamburg, even though Dresden
was of comparable size, the city's economy had been sustained in peacetime by its theaters, museums, cultural institutions and home industries." Irving noted that "for the British prisoners of war... life could not easily be bettered. The Dresdeners were familiar with the English from pre-war days, when the city had been a cultural center and many made friends among the prisoners - a large section of which were from 1st Airborne Division contingent captured at Arnhem." The factor of pre-war English familiarity with Dresden, generations of students having visited it on the Grand Tour, would play a major part in the raid's aftermath. Dresden's fate had been sealed at the February 4-11, 1945 FDR-Churchill-Stalin conference at Yalta. Reports about the Dresden decision center on Stalin's desire to see it savaged as a means of enhancing the Red Army's offensive by jamming up German troop movements. U.S. Chief of Staff George C. Marshall announced publicly that Dresden had been attacked at Stalin's specific request, although after the war the Soviets and East Germans repeatedly referred to the raid as a "diabolical plan" of Churchill's "to kill as many people as possible." Roosevelt and Churchill were of course well aware of Dresden's particulars, including the fact that it was a hospital, prisoner of war and, now, refugee center. The concession was allegedly made to soothe the increasingly arrogant and intransigent Kremlin dictator. But given the fact that at Yalta Stalin achieved control over Eastern Europe, in-effect control of Mongolia, Japan's Kurile Islands, an occupation zone in Korea and a guarantee of $20 billion in eventual German reparations, one might have thought that the bear had been amply fed. After Yalta and the war, Churchill of course went into his "deeply suspicious of Stalin" act just as he had feigned surprise at FDR's unconditional surrender announcement at Casablanca. However, just before flying from Russia on February 14, at the very moment of Dresden's awesome trauma, he lauded his hosts' "great leader." And the ever theatrical PM, who certainly ranked with fellow dipsomaniac thespians John Barrymore and Richard Burton, lauded "The redeemed Crimea, cleansed by Russian valor from the foul taint of the Huns." Dresden had once been a pivotal communications and rail center important to the Wehrmacht. But as Irving notes, by the time it received its fatal blow, "The city's strategic
significance was scarcely marginal..." It was home to 630,000 permanent residents, its numbers swelled by German and Allied wounded, Allied POWs and hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing areas in the path of the Red Army's advance. The city's authorities were convinced that a non-strategic city with a large number of military hospitals, POW compounds, etc., would not receive anything approaching the annihilative smashing so many other cities and towns had undergone. Therefore most of the air defense and flak batteries that would otherwise be in Dresden were transferred to areas where it was assumed they'd be needed. In The Bomber Command War Diaries the basic facts of the February 13-14 Dresden raids were recounted: "796 Lancasters and 9 Mosquitoes were dispatched in two separate raids and dropped 1,478 tons of high explosives and 1,182 tons of incendiary bombs... 311 American B17s dropped 771 tons of bombs on Dresden the next day, with the railway yards as their aiming point. Part of the American Mustang (P-51) fighter escort was ordered to strafe traffic on the roads around Dresden to increase the chaos. The Americans bombed Dresden again on the 15th and on March 2 but it was generally accepted that it was the RAF night raid which caused the most serious damage." Of the American strafing Irving noted: "British prisoners who had been released from their burning camps were among those to suffer the discomfort of machine gun attacks... Wherever columns of tramping people were marching in or out of the city they were pounced on by the fighters, and machine-gunned or raked with cannon fire." On February 12 the last pre-attack refugee train had pulled into Dresden. People continued to flow into the city from the East, on foot or packed into horse drawn carts. Dresden had not been declared an open city, but few who would attempt to justify its devastation could deny its in-effect status as such. One RAF Flight Engineer recalled that the brightness of the fires below allowed him to fill in his log sheet by the light that shot skyward. A crewman of another plane wrote: "I confess to taking a glance downward as the bombs fell, and I witnessed the shocking sight of a city on fire from end to end. Dense smoke could be seen drifting away from Dresden, leaving a brilliantly illuminated view of the town. My immediate reaction was a stunned reflection on the comparison between the holocaust below and the warnings of the evangelists in Gospel meetings before the war." David Irving noted that "In many cases during the night raids, people, finding that dense suffocating fumes from above were rolling down into the unventilated basements, broke down the wall breaches. Thus the smoke had access to the next-door cellars as well." One survivor wrote: "The detonations shook the cellar walls. The sound of the explosives mixed with a new, strange sound, which seemed to come closer and closer, the sound of a thundering waterfall; it was the sound of the mighty tornado howling into the inner city."
Retired Major James "Knobby" Walsh was an Army Air Corps bombardier in WWII and is a subscriber to The Barnes Review. He forwarded the following passage from Edward Jablonski's Airwar - Wings of Fire (Doubleday & Co.): "The horror and the terror on the ground was incredible, destruction was extensive, and the loss of life was frightful. The beautiful little city, its population swollen by an influx of refugees from the east fleeing before the Russians bent on revenge, pillage and rape, and its predominantly wooden buildings, ideal for incendiaries, all but vanished in a howling whirlwind of incineration. Although it is unlikely that the true toll will ever be known, the number of people probably killed at Dresden was about 135,000 [as compared with the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, which killed 71,379]." In the 1966 book Ordeal by Fire author Roul Tunley described the Dresden experience of an American woman from New Jersey, Anne Wahle, who had gone to prewar Europe as the wife of an Austrian diplomat. She had survived the Hamburg raids and she and her three children would eventually walk and ride hundreds of miles from Dresden to safety. She recalled: "I had never seen anything like it. Howling gusts of hurricane force whipped flames in all directions. Nothing seemed to be spared. I watched little trains of flame race along garden paths and ignite a tree or even a stone ornament." In The First Casualty Knightly wrote: "The flames ate everything organic, everything that would bum. People died by the thousands: cooked, incinerated or suffocated. Then American planes came the next day to machine-gun survivors as they struggled to the banks of the Elbe." Knightly added that "Precise casualty figures will never be known. The German authorities stopped counting when the known dead reached 25,000 and 35,000 were still missing. Some post-war sources put the number of dead at from 100,000 to 130,000, which would greatly exceed the number killed in the atom-bombing of Hiroshima... Dresden was merely a staging center for a half million refugees from Silesia. The [rail] yards were not even attacked. There were no ammunition workshops and factories, only a small works making optical lenses for gunsights." . Part 3 Aftermath: Coverups and Lies The horror extended well into the aftermath, with countless thousands lacking a bare subsistence food ration in addition to adequate winter shelter. Tens of thousands with various degrees of burns and other injuries went unattended.
Dresden had 19 major hospitals, all of them damaged to some degree during the raids and three of them totally wiped out. As the Allied air brass knew, Dresden was a center for convalescing Wehrmacht personnel from all fronts as well as for Allied wounded, a large number of them airmen. Fully realizing the extent of the destruction and the circumstances under which it was meted out, London moved to cover its position even before the follow-up American raid. At 9 am on February 14 the Air Ministry released a full-length bulletin. Irving wrote: "In a statement describing the target city in unusual detail, the Air Ministry stressed the vital importance of Dresden to the enemy: As the center of a railway network and as a great industrial town it had become of the greatest value for controlling the German defenses against Marshal Koniev's Armies." Knightly pointed out that Ministry of Defense records show that no war correspondents flew with the bombers, and that there were no eyewitness accounts save for "a few air crews interviewed on their return, and they were given various concocted explanations as to why they were bombing the city - they were attacking German army headquarters, destroying an arms dump, knocking out an industrial area, or even 'wiping out a large poison gas plant.'" From The First Casualty: "The truth first came out in Sweden. At 10:15 am on February 15 a Swedish news bulletin transmitted in Danish to occupied Denmark said that the death toll in Dresden was already between 20,000 and 35,000." Then newspapers in neutral countries began printing stories of the raid. On February 17, the Associated Press
reported throughout America: "Allied air chiefs have made the longawaited decision to adopt deliberate terror bombing of German population centers as a ruthless expedient of hastening Hitler's doom."
Despite the incredible chronological
inaccuracy of the "long-awaited
decision," the Dresden story,
basically, was out. But British
censors placed a solid clamp on the
true nature of Dresden. They fed the Fleet Street press the official "major
Statue of Martin Luther cultural monument before and after the Allies.
strategic target" line. Thus following
the raid, readers of the Evening Standard read the lead story, under the headline "The
Blasting of Dresden" and accompanied by a front page picture of bombs dropping on
indistinguishable targets, without learning anything the government wished withheld.
In America, however, millions registered feelings of rage, disillusion and concern. Marshall's statement that the raid was staged at Stalin's request set off some anti-administration sentiments in Congress. But overall, Roosevelt's bitter enemies were wary of exposing themselves to accusations of criticism during wartime, a factor that had severely curtailed the Dewey-Bricker Republican ticket in 1944 when FDR won his fourth term. In volume three of The Army Air Forces in World War II, published by the University of Chicago press, it was stated that "General Arnold was disconcerted about the publicity" that the AP story had generated and that "Eisenhower heard all about the issue, and AAF headquarters, aware of the damaging impression the recent publicity had made, took steps to prevent another break." England's Fleet Street blackout did not prevent members of Parliament from becoming privy to Dresden's slaughter. Many MPs, especially those who had fond memories of the city, reacted with outrage. Churchill, the holocaust's ultimate button-pusher, became the target of considerable friendly fire. In Bomber Harris Saward noted that "The whole question of the Allied bombing policy suddenly came under question." In March, Churchill wrote the Chiefs of Staff: "It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing the German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed." Saward found it amazing that "Churchill, of all people" would reach this conclusion in the wake of severe criticism. He noted that the PM "had been the greatest proponent of destroying Germany city by city..." Few today realize that in early 1945 the U.S. carried out from England six robot missions of B-17s, each loaded with 10 tons of explosives. The planes were "war weary" craft that had been stripped of armor and armament. Pilots got the drone bombers airborne and pointed toward their German targets, then bailed out. None had been successful in hitting specific targets, and the project was scrapped due to British objections. Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal had expressed fears that the Germans, with a great number of planes but few surviving pilots, would be tempted to reply in kind. As to the German V-1 and V-2 rocket bombs that fell on England in 1944, few dispute that they were aimed at strategic targets but that there were a large number of civil casualties. Following the war, involved American and British air commanders would fudge and rationalize the years of day-night civilian slaughter. A B-17 navigator, now a lawyer in Northern Virginia, recalls that in raiding Munich their PMI (Point of Maximum Impact) target was the large fountain in the center of the city's business district at high noon, "in order that we could catch the most people out at lunchtime." But "Bomber" Harris remained unmoved by the slaughter, devastation of cultural landmarks and public criticism. The Cromwellian commander raged against any diversions of Bomber Command's mission. In a March 29, 1945 letter to Air Vice Marshal Sir Norman Bottomly, Harris wrote: "The [public] feeling, such as there is, over Dresden could easily be explained by a psychiatrist. It is connected with German bands and Dresden shepherdesses." And in writing Bottomly, a man who knew all the grim details of the Dresden reality, Harris prompted the question of who might better benefit from the ministrations of a psychiatrist:
"Actually Dresden was a mass of munitions works, an intact government center, and a key transportation point to the East. It is now none of these."
Writing of Harris after the war, the compilers of the official British history of WWII wrote: "Sir Arthur Harris made a habit of seeing only one side of a question, and then exaggerating it. He had a tendency to confuse advice with interference, criticism with sabotage and evidence with propaganda."
However, Harris was seen quite differently by
America's two most celebrated figures of that
period. In a July 13, 1945 letter that went well
beyond cordial recognition, Supreme Allied
Commander Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote
Sir Arthur Harris's Knights Grand Cross of the
Harris: "My gratitude to you is a small token for the magnificent service which you have rendered, and my simple expression of thanks sounds totally inadequate. Time and opportunity prohibit the chance I should like
Order of the Bath installation at Westminster Abbey in October 1972. To the Queen's left is the Dean of Westminster, who might well have been at Harris's side prior to a much graver passage, had Britain lost the war.
to shake you and your men by the hand, and thank each of you personally for all that you
have done."
On October 17, 1944 Harris had been awarded America's Legion of Merit with the degree of Chief Commander. The citation concluded: "He performed his complex task with inspiring leadership and with outstanding cooperation, skill and determination, reflecting great credit upon the service he represents and upon the Armed Forces of the United Nations. [Signed] Franklin D. Roosevelt."
And of the long and terrible bombing offensive that emanated from Cherwell and Churchill, and that cost 50,000 American and 55,000 British and Commonwealth lives, Max Hastings observed: "It is almost beyond belief that the German army continued to resist so effectively even amidst the rubble of a nation. The Wehrmacht's dogged retreat, and the continued output from the factories until the final weeks, rendered the concept of morale bombing finally absurd."
As with Cromwell in Ireland and Roberts and Kitchener in South Africa, Sir Arthur Harris had broken their walls. But he had not broken their courage.
Holocaust at Dresden www.wintersonnenwende.com
Lesen Sie dieses Dokument in Deutsch! "the holocaust never happened" ... says Lea Rosh! Article from the National Journal. Republished here with kind permision from NJ.
Democratic Germany has become a cul-de-sac to the official holocaust story.
Mrs. Lea Rosh, head of the Foundation for the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, has taken on a task that is anything but easy. She is expected to persuade the Germans to make the holocaust not only their purpose in life
but also their religion. But in times when even the German Chancellor "knows that it helps the sex-appeal of a SPD-Chancellor to make the people understand that the ongoing remembrance of the holocaust gets a little on his wick," (Die Welt, Aug. 17, 1999, p. 3) Mrs. Rosh seems to be fighting a lost cause.
The dramatic apostasy from the
holocaust-faith left Lea Rosh's
donation chest for the planned holocaust memorial empty. However, since money alone makes the holocaust go around, Lea had to think of something very peculiar in order to squeeze fresh money out of
Above: The slogan "the holocaust never happened" will be plastered on billboards across Germany. The slogan, which appears over a picture of a serene mountain lake and snowcapped mountain, is intended to squeeze fresh money out of the holocaust-tired Germans in support of Lea Rosh's great project, the Berlin-Holocaust-Memorial. Mrs. Rosh knows
the holocaust-tired Germans.
that Germans nowadays prefer to donate money for a campaign titled "the holocaust never happened", than
With the help of promotion experts from the holocaust industry she was
supporting typical old holocaust promotional mottos like "remembrance of holocaust suffering".
eventually able to present a brand new fundraising concept to the public.
Mrs. Rosh's experts learned from polls that "the ongoing remembrance of the holocaust" does not only "get on the German Chancellor's wick" but also on the nerves of the German public. Moreover, the majority of the Germans are now increasingly interested in revisionist holocaust-slogans and not in pompous phrases about so-called Jewish suffering. The Finkelstein effect!
Being aware of her serious financial situation, Mrs. Rosh opted for the revisionist holocaust
promotional concept, thought up by a large team of shakedown pundits. Thus, the very original revisionist motto "the holocaust never happened" is going to be plastered on billboards across Germany as part of a fundraising campaign for Lea Rosh's Berlin holocaust memorial project. "If you want to achieve something with a slogan, it's got to be provocative," Berlin's governing Mayor, Klaus Wowereit, explained the new fundraising idea. (Sьddeutsche Zeitung, July 21, 2001, p. 1.) The motto "the holocaust never happened" is based on the realization that "in 20 years from now there will be many more who deny the holocaust" (ZDF German TV, primetime news Journal, July 19, 2001) which is printed in small letters beneath the inflammatory theme-slogan. So, Lea Rosh and the specialists from the holocaust industry know very well that the public is drifting towards the conviction "the holocaust never happened", despite that this claim is illegal in Germany and punishable with jail.
Lea Rosh
Striving for the shakedown of a totally new target group, the holocaust industry proves once again to be the avant-garde of daring ideas. If money can't be made with "holocaust suffering" anymore, it's no problem for the professionals, they continue to spin it with "holocaust denial". The heads of the holocaust industry are too spoiled with huge amounts of money flooding in to give up the holocaust as a fountain of financial bliss.
The new concept was extremely cunningly fiddled together. It is being suggested to the Germans if they dial the given phone number it would be in support of the idea "the holocaust never happened".
Many people may wish to object and argue that no-one donates money, when told, by calling the number "the holocaust never happened", the donations are used for holocaust promotion. Wrong, this new holocaust trick works on a different level: "The given donation number on the billboard is automatically charged to the caller. Those who only briefly dial this number will be billed 5.00 Marks by German Telecom. And if they do not hang up immediately there will be calling charges above the lump sum of 5.00 Marks, much more expensive than normal charges." (Sьddeutsche Zeitung, July 21, 2001, p. 1.)
The Jewish Director of German-Telecom, Aaron Sommer, is going to forward the expected huge sums of calling charges (according to 0190 number agreements) to Lea Rosh's memorial chest. This is what we call Jewish genius!
More about Lea Rosh, the Berlin Holocaust Memorial, the "Finkelstein Effect" and related topics is available under this link!
"the holocaust never happened"... says Lea Rosh! www.wintersonnenwende.com
Lesen Sie dieses Dokument in deutscher Ьbersetzung! The Jewish Declaration of War on Nazi Germany The Economic Boycott of 1933 Article from The Barnes Review, Jan./Feb. 2001, pp. 41-45. The Barnes Review, 645 Pennsylvania Ave SE, Suite 100, Washington D.C. 20003, USA. By M. Raphael Johnson, Ph.D., assistant editor of TBR; published here with kind permission from TBR: eMail TBR - subscribe to TBR here
Long before the Hitler government began restricting the rights of the German Jews, the leaders of the worldwide Jewish community formally declared war on the "New Germany" at a time when the U.S. government and even the Jewish leaders in Germany were urging caution in dealing with the new Hitler regime.
The war by the international Jewish
leadership on Germany not only sparked definite reprisals by the German government but also set the stage for a little-known economic and political alliance between the
Few people know the facts about the singular event that helped spark what ultimately became known as World War II - the international Jewish declaration of war on Germany shortly after Adolf Hitler came to power and well before any official German
Hitler government and the leaders of government sanctions or reprisals against
the Zionist movement who hoped that the tension between the Germans and the Jews would lead to massive emigration to Palestine. In short, the result was a tactical alliance between
Jews were carried out. The March 24, 1933 issue of The Daily Express of London (shown above) described how Jewish leaders, in combination with powerful international Jewish financial interests, had launched a boycott of Germany for the express purpose of crippling her already precarious economy in the hope of bringing down the
the Nazis and the founders of the
new Hitler regime. It was only then that Germany struck back
modern-day state of Israel - a fact that many today would prefer be forgotten.
in response. Thus, if truth be told, it was the worldwide Jewish leadership - not the Third Reich - that effectively fired the first shot in the Second World War. Prominent New York attorney Samuel Untermyer (above right) was one of the leading
agitators in the war against Germany, describing the Jewish
To this day, it is generally (although
campaign as nothing less than a "holy war."
incorrectly) believed that when Adolf
Hitler was appointed German chancellor in January of 1933, the German government began
policies to suppress the Jews of Germany, including rounding up of Jews and putting them in concentration camps and launching campaigns of terror and violence against the domestic Jewish population. While there were sporadic eruptions of violence against Jews in Germany after Hitler came to power, this was not officially sanctioned or encouraged. And the truth is that anti-Jewish sentiments in Germany (or elsewhere in Europe) were actually nothing new. As all Jewish historians attest with much fervor, anti-Semitic uprisings of various degrees had been everpresent in European history. In any case, in early 1933, Hitler was not the undisputed leader of Germany, nor did he have full command of the armed forces. Hitler was a major figure in a coalition government, but he was far from being the government himself. That was the result of a process of consolidation which evolved later. Even Germany's Jewish Central Association, known as the Verein, contested the suggestion (made by some Jewish leaders outside Germany) that the new government was deliberately provoking anti-Jewish uprisings. The Verein issued a statement that "the responsible government authorities [i.e. the Hitler regime] are unaware of the threatening situation," saying, "we do not believe our German fellow citizens will let themselves be carried away into committing excesses against the Jews." Despite this, Jewish leaders in the United States and Britain determined on their own that it was necessary to launch a war against the Hitler government. On March 12, 1933 the American Jewish Congress announced a massive protest at Madison Square Gardens for March 27. At that time the commander in chief of the Jewish War Veterans called for an American boycott of German goods. In the meantime, on March 23, 20,000 Jews protested at New York's City Hall as rallies were staged outside the North German Lloyd and Hamburg-American shipping lines and boycotts were mounted against German goods throughout shops and businesses in New York City. According to The Daily Express of London of March 24, 1933, the Jews had already launched their boycott against Germany and her elected government. The headline read "Judea Declares War on Germany - Jews of All the World Unite - Boycott of German Goods Mass Demonstrations." The article described a forthcoming "holy war" and went on to implore Jews everywhere to boycott German goods and engage in mass demonstrations against German economic interests. According to the Express: The whole of Israel throughout the world is uniting to declare an economic and financial war on Germany. The appearance of the Swastika as the symbol of the new Germany has revived the old war symbol of Judas to new life. Fourteen million Jews scattered over the entire world are tight to each other as if one man, in order to declare war against the German persecutors of their fellow believers. The Jewish wholesaler will quit his house, the banker his stock exchange, the merchant his business, and the beggar his humble hut, in order to join the holy war against Hitler's people.
The Express said that Germany was "now confronted with an international boycott of its trade, its finances, and its industry.... In London, New York, Paris and Warsaw, Jewish businessmen are united to go on an economic crusade." The article said "worldwide preparations are being made to organize protest demonstrations," and reported that "the old and reunited nation of Israel gets in formation with new and modern weapons to fight out its age old battle against its persecutors." This truly could be described as "the first shot fired in the Second World War." In a similar vein, the Jewish newspaper Natscha Retsch wrote: The war against Germany will be waged by all Jewish communities, conferences, congresses... by every individual Jew. Thereby the war against Germany will ideologically enliven and promote our interests, which require that Germany be wholly destroyed. The danger for us Jews lies in the whole German people, in Germany as a whole as well as individually. It must be rendered harmless for all time.... In this war we Jews have to participate, and this with all the strength and might we have at our disposal. However, note well that the Zionist Association of Germany put out a telegram on the 26th of March rejecting many of the allegations made against the National Socialists as "propaganda," "mendacious" and "sensational." In fact, the Zionist faction had every reason to ensure the permanence of National Socialist ideology in Germany. Klaus Polkehn, writing in the Journal of Palestine Studies ("The Secret Contacts: Zionism and Nazi Germany, 1933-1941"; JPS v. 3/4, spring/summer 1976), claims that the moderate attitude of the Zionists was due to their vested interest in seeing the financial victory of National Socialism to force immigration to Palestine. This little-known factor would ultimately come to play a pivotal part in the relationship between Nazi Germany and the Jews. In the meantime, though, German Foreign Minister Konstantin von Neurath complained of the "vilification campaign" and said: As concerns Jews, I can only say that their propagandists abroad are rendering their co-religionists in Germany no service by giving the German public, through their distorted and untruthful news about persecution and torture of Jews, the impression that they actually halt at nothing, not even at lies and calumny, to fight the present German government. The fledgling Hitler government itself was clearly trying to contain the growing tension both within Germany and without. In the United States, even U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull wired Rabbi Stephen Wise of the American Jewish Congress and urged caution: Whereas there was for a short time considerable physical mistreatment of Jews, this phase may be considered virtually terminated.... A stabilization appears to have been reached in the field of personal mistreatment.... I feel hopeful that the situation which has caused such widespread concern throughout this country will
soon revert to normal.
Despite all this, the leaders of the Jewish community refused to relent. On March 27 there were simultaneous protest rallies at Madison Square Garden, in Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cleveland and 70 other locations. The New York rally was broadcast worldwide. The bottom line is that "the New Germany" was declared to be an enemy of Jewish interests and thus needed to be economically strangled. This was before Hitler decided to boycott Jewish goods.
It was in direct response to this that the German
This New York Daily News front page
government announced a one-day boycott of Jewish businesses in Germany on April 1. German Propaganda Minister Dr. Joseph Goebbels announced that if, after the one-day boycott, there were no further attacks on Germany, the boycott would be stopped. Hitler himself responded to the Jewish boycott and the
headline hailed the massive anti-German protest rally held in Madison Square Garden on March 27, 1933. Despite efforts by the German government to alleviate tensions and prevent the escalation of name-calling and threats by the international Jewish leadership, the
threats in a speech on March 28 - four days after the original Jewish declaration of war - saying:
rally was held as scheduled. Similar rallies and protest marches were also being held in other cities during the same
time frame. The intensity of the Jewish Now that the domestic enemies of the nation campaign against Germany was such that have been eliminated by the Volk itself, what the Hitler government vowed that if the
we have long been waiting for will not come campaign did not stop, there would be a
to pass.
one-day boycott in Germany of Jewish-
The Communist and Marxist criminals
owned stores. Despite this, the hate
and their Jewish-intellectual instigators, who,
campaign continued, forcing Germany to take defensive measures that created a
having made off with their capital stocks
situation wherein the Jews of Germany
across the border in the nick of time, are now became increasingly marginalized. The
unfolding an unscrupulous, treasonous
truth about the Jewish war on Germany
campaign of agitation against the German Volk as a whole from there....
has been suppressed by most histories of the period.
Lies and slander of positively hair-raising perversity are being launched
about Germany. Horror stories of dismembered Jewish corpses, gouged out eyes
and hacked off hands are circulating for the purpose of defaming the German
Volk in the world for the second time, just as they had succeeded in doing once
before in 1914.
Thus, the fact - one conveniently left out of nearly all history on the subject - is that Hitler's March 28, 1933 boycott order was in direct response to the declaration of war on Germany by the worldwide Jewish leadership just four days earlier. Today, Hitler's boycott order is described as a naked act of aggression, yet the full circumstances leading up to his order are seldom described in even the most ponderous and detailed histories of "the Holocaust".
Not even Saul Friedlander in his otherwise comprehensive overview of German policy, Nazi Germany and the Jews, mentions the fact that the Jewish declaration of war and boycott preceded Hitler's speech of March 28, 1933. Discerning readers would be wise to ask why Friedlander felt this item of history so irrelevant.
The simple fact is that it was organized Jewry as a political entity - and not even the German Jewish community per se - that actually initiated the first shot in the war with Germany.
Germany's response was a defensive - not an offensive measure. Were that fact widely known today, it would cast new light on the subsequent events that ultimately led to the world-wide conflagration that followed.
To understand Hitler's reaction to the Jewish declaration of war, it is vital to understand the critical state of the German economy at the time. In 1933, the German economy was in a shambles. Some 3 million Germans were on public assistance with a total of 6 million unemployed. Hyper-inflation had destroyed the economic vitality of the German nation. Furthermore, the anti-German propaganda pouring out of the global press strengthened the resolve of Germany's enemies, especially the Poles and their hawkish military high command.
Placard text: "Germans! Defend yourselves! Don't shop at Jewish stores!" Photo not part of original TBR article added by The Scriptorium.
The Jewish leaders were not bluffing. The boycott was an act of war not solely in metaphor: it was a means, well crafted, to destroy Germany as a political, social and economic entity. The long term purpose of the Jewish boycott against Germany was to bankrupt her with respect to the reparation payments imposed on Germany after World War I and to keep Germany demilitarized and vulnerable.
The boycott, in fact, was quite crippling to Germany. Jewish scholars such as Edwin Black have reported that, in response to the boycott, German exports were cut by 10 percent, and that many were demanding seizing German assets in foreign countries (Edwin Black, The Transfer Agreement - The Untold Story of the Secret Pact between the Third Reich and Jewish Palestine, New York, 1984).
The attacks on Germany did not cease. The worldwide Jewish leadership became ever the more belligerent and worked itself into a frenzy. An International Jewish Boycott Conference was held in Amsterdam to coordinate the ongoing boycott campaign. It was held under the auspices of the self-styled World Jewish Economic Federation, of which famous New York City attorney and longtime political power broker, Samuel Untermyer, was elected president.
Upon returning to the United States in the wake of the conference, Untermyer delivered a speech over WABC Radio (New York), a transcript of which was printed in The New York Times on August 7, 1933.
Untermyer's inflammatory oratory called for a "sacred war" against Germany, making the flatout allegation that Germany was engaged in a plan to "exterminate the Jews." He said (in part):
...Germany [has] been converted from a nation of culture into a veritable hell of cruel and savage beasts. We owe it not only to our persecuted brethren but to the entire world to now
strike in self-defense a blow that will free humanity from a repetition of this incredible outrage.... Now or never must all the nations of the earth make common cause against the... slaughter, starvation and annihilation... fiendish torture, cruelty and persecution that are being inflicted day by day upon these men, women and children.... When the tale is told... the world will confront a picture so fearful in its barbarous cruelty that the hell of war and the alleged Belgian atrocities pale into insignificance as compared to this devilishly, deliberately, cold-bloodedly planned and already partially executed campaign for the extermination of a proud, gentle, loyal, law-abiding people... The Jews are the aristocrats of the world. From time immemorial they have been persecuted and have seen their persecutors come and go. They alone have survived. And so will history repeat itself, but that furnishes no reason why we should permit this reversion of a once great nation to the Dark Ages or fail to rescue these 600,000 human souls from the tortures of hell.... ...What we are proposing and have already gone far toward doing, is to prosecute a purely defensive economic boycott that will undermine the Hitler regime and bring the German people to their senses by destroying their export trade on which their very existence depends. ...We propose to and are organizing world opinion to express itself in the only way Germany can be made to understand.... Untermyer then proceeded to provide his listeners with a wholly fraudulent history of the circumstances of the German boycott and how it originated. He also proclaimed that the Germans were bent on a plan to "exterminate the Jews": The Hitler regime originated and are fiendishly prosecuting their boycott to exterminate the Jews by placarding Jewish shops, warning Germans against dealing with them, by imprisoning Jewish shopkeepers and parading them through the streets by the hundreds under guard of Nazi troops for the sole crime of being Jews, by ejecting them from the learned professions in which many of them had attained eminence, by excluding their children from the schools, their men from the labor unions, closing against them every avenue of livelihood, locking them in vile concentration camps and starving and torturing them without cause and resorting to every other conceivable form of torture, inhuman beyond conception, until suicide has become their only means of escape, and all solely because they are or their remote ancestors were Jews, and all with the avowed object of exterminating them. Untermyer concluded his largely fantastic and hysterical address by declaring that with the support of "Christian friends... we will drive the last nail in the coffin of bigotry and fanaticism...." That his allegations against Germany were made long before even Jewish historians today claim there were any gas chambers or even a plan to "exterminate" the Jews, displays the nature of the propaganda campaign confronting Germany. However, during this same period there were some unusual developments at work: The spring of 1933 also witnessed the beginning of a period of private cooperation between the
German government and the Zionist movement in Germany
The Biggest Secret of WWII?
and Palestine (and actually
Why Germany Began Rounding Up Jews
worldwide) to increase the flow
and Deporting Them to the East
of German-Jewish immigrants and capital to Palestine.
Why did the Germans begin rounding up the Jews and interning them in the concentration camps to begin with?
The modern-day supporters of
Contrary to popular myth, the Jews remained "free" inside Germany - albeit
Zionist Israel and many
subject to laws which did restrict certain of
historians have succeeded in keeping this Nazi-Zionist pact a secret to the general public for decades and while most Americans have no concept of
their privileges - prior to the outbreak of World War II. Yet, the other little-known fact is that just before the war began, the leadership of the world Jewish community formally declared war on Germany - above and
the possibility that there could beyond the ongoing six-year-long
have been outright collaboration between the Nazi leadership and the founders of what became the state of Israel, the truth has begun to emerge.
economic boycott launched by the worldwide Jewish community when the Nazi Party came to power in 1933. As a consequence of the formal declaration of war, the German authorities thus deemed Jews to be potential enemy agents.
Here's the story behind the story: Chaim Weizmann (above),
Dissident Jewish writer Lenni Brennar's Zionism In the Age of the Dictators, published by a small press and not given the
president of both the international "Jewish Agency" and of the World Zionist Organization (and later Israel's first president), told British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in a letter published in The London Times on September 6, 1939 that: I wish to confirm, in the most explicit manner, the
publicity it deserves by the so- declarations which I and my colleagues have made during
called "mainstream" media (which is otherwise obsessed with the Holocaust era), was perhaps the first major endeavor in this realm.
the last month, and especially in the last week, that the Jews stand by Great Britain and will fight on the side of the democracies. Our urgent desire is to give effect to these declarations [against Germany]. We wish to do so in a way entirely consonant with the general scheme of British action, and therefore would place
ourselves, in matters big and small, under the coordinating
In response to Brennar and others, the Zionist reaction has usually consisted of declarations that their collaboration with
direction of His Majesty's Government. The Jewish Agency is ready to enter into immediate arrangements for utilizing Jewish manpower, technical ability, resources, etc. [Emphasis in red added by The Scriptorium.]
Nazi Germany was undertaken solely to save the lives of Jews. But the collaboration was all
the more remarkable because it took place at a time when many Jews and Jewish
organizations demanded a boycott of Germany.
To the Zionist leaders, Hitler's assumption of power held out the possibility of a flow of immigrants to Palestine. Previously, the majority of German Jews, who identified themselves as Germans, had little sympathy with the Zionist cause of promoting the ingathering of world Jewry to Palestine. But the Zionists saw that only the anti-Semitic Hitler was likely to push the anti-Zionist German Jews into the arms of Zionism.
For all the modern-day wailing by worldwide supporters of Israel (not to mention the Israelis themselves) about "the Holocaust", they neglect to mention that making the situation in Germany as uncomfortable for the Jews as possible - in cooperation with German National Socialism - was part of the plan.
This was the genesis of the so-called Transfer Agreement, the agreement between Zionist Jews and the National Socialist government to transfer German Jewry to Palestine.
Note to readers of this article who can also read German: a booklet discussing the emigration of Jews from
According to Jewish historian Walter Laqueur and many others, German Jews were far from convinced that immigration to Palestine was the answer. Furthermore, although the majority of German Jews refused to
Third Reich Germany, and the Transfer Agreement that facilitated their emigration, may be found here!
consider the Zionists as their political leaders, it is clear
that Hitler protected and cooperated with the Zionists for the purposes of implementing the
final solution: the mass transfer of Jews to the Middle East.
Edwin Black, in his massive tome The Transfer Agreement (Macmillan, 1984), stated that although most Jews did not want to flee to Palestine at all, due to the Zionist movement's influence within Nazi Germany a Jew's best chance of getting out of Germany was by emigrating to Palestine. In other words, the Transfer Agreement itself mandated that Jewish capital could only to go Palestine.
Thus, according to the Zionists, a Jew could leave Germany only if he went to the Levant.
The primary difficulty with the Transfer Agreement (or even the idea of such an agreement) was that the English [!!!; Scriptorium] were demanding, as a condition of immigration, that each immigrant pay 1,000 pounds sterling upon arrival in Haifa or elsewhere. The difficulty was that such hard currency was nearly impossible to come by in a cash-strapped and radically inflationary Germany. This was the main idea behind the final Transfer Agreement. Laqueur writes:
A large German bank would freeze funds paid in by immigrants in blocked accounts for German exporters, while a bank in Palestine would control the sale of German goods to Palestine, thereby providing the immigrants with the necessary foreign currency on the spot. Sam Cohen, co-owner of Hanoaiah Ltd. and initiator of the transfer endeavors, was however subjected to long-lasting objections from his own people and finally had to concede that such a transfer agreement could only be concluded on a much higher level with a bank of its own rather than that of a private company. The renowned Anglo-Palestine Bank in London would be included in this transfer deal and create a trust company for [this] purpose.
Of course, this is of major historical importance in dealing with the relationship between Zionism and National Socialism in Germany in the 1930s. The relationship was not one merely of mutual interest and political favoritism on the part of Hitler, but a close financial relationship with German banking families and financial institutions as well. Black writes:
It was one thing for the Zionists to subvert the anti-Nazi boycott. Zionism needed to transfer out the capital of German Jews, and merchandise was the only available medium. But soon Zionist leaders understood that the success of the future Jewish Palestinian economy would be inextricably bound up with the survival of the Nazi economy. So the Zionist leadership was compelled to go further. The German economy would have to be safeguarded, stabilized, and if
necessary reinforced. Hence, the Nazi party and the Zionist organizers shared a common stake in the recovery of Germany. Thus one sees a radical fissure in world Jewry around 1933 and beyond. There were, first, the non-Zionist Jews (specifically the World Jewish Congress founded in 1933), who, on the one hand, demanded the boycott and eventual destruction of Germany. Black notes that many of these people were not just in New York and Amsterdam, but a major source for this also came from Palestine proper. On the other hand, one can see the judicious use of such feelings by the Zionists for the sake of eventual resettlement in Palestine. In other words, it can be said (and Black does hint at this) that Zionism believed that, since Jews would be moving to the Levant, capital flight would be necessary for any new economy to function. The result was the understanding that Zionism would have to ally itself with National Socialism, so that the German government would not impede the flow of Jewish capital out of the country. It served the Zionist interests at the time that Jews be loud in their denunciations of German practices against the Jews to scare them into the Levant, but, on the other hand, Laqueur states that "The Zionists became motivated not to jeopardize the German economy or currency." In other words, the Zionist leadership of the Jewish Diaspora was one of subterfuge and underhandedness, with only the advent of German hostility towards Jewry convincing the world's Jews that immigration was the only escape. The fact is that the ultimate establishment of the state of Israel was based on fraud. The Zionists did not represent anything more than a small minority of German Jews in 1933. On the one hand, the Zionist fathers of Israel wanted loud denunciations of Germany's "cruelties" to the world's Jews while at the same time demanding moderation so that the National Socialist government would remain stable, financially and politically. Thus Zionism boycotted the boycott. For all intents and purposes, the National Socialist government was the best thing to happen to Zionism in its history, for it "proved" to many Jews that Europeans were irredeemably antiJewish and that Palestine was the only answer: Zionism came to represent the overwhelming majority of Jews solely by trickery and cooperation with Adolf Hitler. For the Zionists, both the denunciations of German policies towards Jews (to keep Jews frightened), plus the reinvigoration of the German economy (for the sake of final resettlement) was imperative for the Zionist movement. Ironically, today the Zionist leaders of Israel complain bitterly about the horrific and inhuman regime of the National Socialists. So the fraud continues. The Jewish Declaration of War on Nazi Germany The Economic Boycott of 1933
www.wintersonnenwende.com
The National Socialist Stand on Christianity
Lesen Sie dieses Dokument in deutscher Ьbersetzung!
Article from The Barnes Review, Nov./Dec. 1999, p. 55-57. The Barnes Review, 645 Pennsylvania Ave SE, Suite 100, Washington D.C. 20003, USA. By Rev. Thomas D. Schwartz. Published here with kind permission from TBR: eMail TBR - subscribe to TBR here
With a supplement added by The Scriptorium: "Hitler and the Church" - Adolf Hitler's speech of January 30, 1939.
The Nazis are sometimes portrayed as ardent foes of Christianity. What were the true facts in this controversial matter?
An oft-repeated canard suggests the German
National Socialists were hostile to
Christianity. Entire books, such as John S.
Conway's The Nazi Persecution of the
Churches, 1933-1946,1 have been written to
explicate this myth. However, nothing could
be further from the truth. Adolf Hitler and many of his supporters were friendly to the Christian churches and their cause.
Little remembered today is the Kapp putsch of March 1920. The photograph above shows mounted royalists in Berlin, led by Dr. Wolfgang Kapp. In an
attempt to end Germany's communist- and leftist-
The National Socialist Party program, officially published in February 1920, included a section on Christianity. Point 24 of the 25-point program stated:
created turmoil, the royalists succeeded in forcing the government to abandon Berlin for Stuttgart. But workers led by these elements converged against the royalists, and the coup failed after a few days. Most of these royalists were substantial and
religious people, and large numbers of them would
We demand freedom for all religious denominations in the State so far as they are not a danger to it and do not militate against the customs and morality of the German Volk. The
later move pragmatically into the anti-Bolshevik camp of Adolf Hitler. These practicing Christians were a mostly unrecognized factor in Hitler's rise to power. Within the positive side of Hitler's character was loyalty to those who had joined him in early struggles, and he didn't forget this Christian
Party as such stands for Positive
support.
Christianity, but does not bind itself
in the matter of creed to any particular denomination. It fights the spirit of
Jewish materialism within and outside of our ranks and is convinced our nation
can achieve permanent health from within only on the principle: "Common
welfare comes before individual welfare."2
The statement was carefully crafted, reflecting the general National Socialist principle of non-
interference in church matters. While refusing to endorse any particular Christian denomination or doctrinal perspective, it clearly endorsed "Positive Christianity" and religious freedom. Churches in a National Socialist-dominated German state would be free to fulfill their missions, as long as they did not threaten civil order or national security, or advance beliefs and causes that violated historic German ethics and morals. Certainly not all National Socialists shared this view. Within the party were two powerful forces. One, represented by men like Alfred Rosenberg (who later became Reichsminister for the Occupied Eastern Regions), wanted to see Germany become an atheistic state. The other, represented by men like Hanns Kerrl (who later became Reichsminister for Church Affairs), endorsed Christianity. But it was Kerrl, not Rosenberg, who was in the majority. In recognition of the party's partnership with churches in its effort to remake Germany, storm troopers were required to attend worship services in their uniforms. Although Hitler made no profession of faith, he refused to identify himself with the antiChristian views of some of his associates, such as Rosenberg. In addition, he frequently made mention of "the Almighty" and 'Providence" in his speeches, as well as attacking two of Christianity's opposites: Marxism and atheism. The National Socialists showed no direct interest in either theological matters nor those issues they considered relevant only to the internal life of the church. In 1938, therefore, the National Socialists rightfully could boast that they had not interfered in the religious life of the churches: The irrevocable truth is that religious life in Germany, under the protection of the National Socialist state, unfolds more freely and undisturbed. No form of Godlessness or blasphemy is tolerated and the churches as well as their religious affairs are secure, undisturbed, and free of problems in a way that is unprecedented in history and almost unknown in any other country on earth.3 In 1935, an article in a National Socialist publication made clear the distinction between what was "political", and what was "religious". According to the author: Political is everything which in the earthly forms of organization, word, picture and demeanor, appears for the benefit of the Volk, even if it has the least meaning. Religious is everything which in earthly form is incomprehensible, like belief in heaven, eternity, and longing for things which are beyond the visible world.4 Because of their commitment to a strict separation of church and state, the National Socialists insisted that churches should play no active part in the political developments of the Reich. As long as the churches confined themselves to religious matters, their freedom was guaranteed. If tension erupted between the churches and the National Socialist state, it was because the churches had overstepped their religious boundaries and entered into the world of politics, the National Socialists argued.5 To the majority of the Protestant clergy and laity, the National Socialist call for the separation of religion and politics was neither new nor unwelcome. It was something that was basic to
the Lutheran tradition of
"the Separate Kingdoms" -
one earthly, and the other
heavenly.6 Jesus's call to
"render to Caesar what is
Caesar's and to God what is
God's" historically had been
interpreted as meaning a
separation between politics
(Caesar) and religion (God).
At the beginning of 1932, there were 28 provincial
Berlin's centrally located Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church, as photographed in 1932. Like so much of Europe's grand and impossible-
Protestant churches in
to-replicate architecture (overwhelmingly replaced by the mundane and
Germany, all with similar patterns of organization. They were all headed either by bishops or superintendents with synods
the vulgar), it was a casualty of World War II saturation bombing raids, its burned hulk preserved as a reminder of war's devastation. Throughout the war, in common with the Western Allies and in total contrast to the National Socialists' mortal enemy, the Soviet Union, Catholic and Protestant chaplains served with units throughout the Wehrmacht.
serving as their governing
bodies. They were all independent of political government control.
Later that year, a group of pastors and lay
people within the Protestant churches formed
the Bewegung Deutscher Christen (Movement
of German Christians) with Pastor Joachim
Hossenfelder as their leader. Their stated aim
was to revitalize Protestant Christianity by
transforming the church into a German
Volkskirche (Folk-church). Control of this
church would rest with pastors and the laity,
rather than with the bishops and
superintendents.7 The Deutsche Christen
espoused "Positive Christianity" - a term used
by the National Socialists in their program.8 In
a speech in the Berlin Sports Palace on
November 13, 1933, Dr. Reinhold Krause
argued that God was fulfilling His plan for
Germany through the advent of Hitler:
In contrast to the situation in National Socialist
Germany, churches and Christians suffered terribly
That which a thousand years of
under Josef Stalin and his Soviet communists. In
German history could not accomplish, which Bismarck could not attain, has been realized by God through the strength of our leader, Adolf Hitler... When it comes to the
May 1943 units of the German army were stationed in the Ukrainian city of Vinnitsa, a community of 100,000. Officials in Vinnitsa told the Germans that five years earlier the Soviet secret police had buried the bodies of a number of executed political prisoners in a city park. The Germans investigated,
question of governing, we need only and within a month they had dug up 9,439 civilian
one power - the authority of Adolf Hitler and his advisers.9
corpses in the park and a nearby orchard (mostly farmers or workers). The men all had their hands tied behind their backs. The bodies of a number of
Disillusioned by the economic crisis of the
young women were naked. All the victims had been shot in the back of the neck with a .22 caliber pistol,
Great Depression, many Germans left the
the trademark of the NKVD executioners.
church, especially between 1930 and 1933. With Hitler's rise to power, however, this trend was reversed. National Socialist encouragement for and friendliness toward Christian faith found ready and receptive ears
Authorities estimated that in addition to the bodies exhumed, there were another 3,000 still in unopened mass graves in the same area. These were just a few of the approximately 60 [sixty] million Christians wiped out by the Reds. In 1933 and 1934, 7 million Ukrainians were systematically
in German communities, leading to revival in killed by starvation. Why is it that we hear so much
the churches.10 The presence of leading
about Auschwitz but we never hear about Vinnitsa?
National Socialist members at church services Above, a German WWII period poster of the
and Hitler's attacks on "godless Marxism",
tragedy.
"Jewish materialism," and decaying morality, together with the government's call for the
exercise of authority and leadership and the renewal of morals, provided clear evidence to
average Germans that the National Socialists were pro-Christian - so much so, in fact, that the
year 1933 became known as "The Year of the Church."11
Notes: 1John S. Conway, The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, 1933-1945 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968). ...back... 2Alfred Rosenberg, editor, Das Parteiprogramm: Wesen, Grundsдtze und Ziele der NSDAP, 21. Aufl. (Munich: Parteidruckerei, 1941), p. 15. ...back... 3Walther Hofer, Nationalsozialismus. Dokumente, 1933-1945 (Frankfurt/Main: Fischer Taschenbuch, 1961), p. 133. ...back... 4"Positives Christentum," Wille und Macht (April 15, 1935). ...back... 5Hofer, op.cit. (Note 3), p. 136. ...back... 6For a thorough discussion of Martin Luther's theology, including this aspect, see E. McGrath, Christian Theology: An Introduction (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994), pp. 55-75. ...back... 7Martin Broszat, Der Staat Hitlers (Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 1969), p. 285. ...back... 8A. J. Ryder, Twentieth-Century Germany: From Bismarck to Brandt (New York: Columbia UP, 1973), p. 281. ...back... 9Quoted in: Paul F. Douglas, God Among the Germans (Philadelphia: U Pennsylvania P., 1935), pp. 81-82. ...back... 10Broszat, op.cit. (Note 7), p. 286. ...back... 11Friedrich Zipfel, Kirchenkampf in Deutschland, 1933-1945: Statistiken fьr Berlin (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1965), p. 18. ...back...
About the Author: The Rev. Thomas D. Schwartz is a pastor of Central Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in Fairview, Oklahoma. He earned an Associate of Arts degree in history at El Reno Junior College in El Reno, Oklahoma; his bachelor of arts degree in history and Master of Education degree in social sciences at Southwestern Oklahoma State University in Weatherford, Oklahoma, and his Master of Divinity degree at Philipps Theological Seminary in Enid, Oklahoma. He is currently completing the requirements for his Doctor of Theology degree at Southwest Seminary in Jennings, Louisiana. Supplement by The Scriptorium: Lesen Sie dieses Dokument im deutschen Original! Hitler and the Church Adolf Hitler's Speech of January 30, 1939 Excerpt from: Max Domarus, Hitler - Reden und Proklamationen 1932-1945, p. 1058. Translated by Heather Clary-Smith; translation © 2002, The Scriptorium. "The accusations which the so-called democratic nations raise against Germany also include the allegation that National Socialist Germany is a state that is hostile to religion. To this charge I wish to declare solemnly, before the entire German people: 1. In Germany no-one has been persecuted for his religious convictions to date, nor will anyone be persecuted for them. 2. Since January 30, 1933 the National Socialist state, acting through its official organs, has put the following public tax revenue at the disposal of the two Churches: during fiscal year 1933: 130 million RM, during fiscal year 1934: 170 million RM, during fiscal year 1935: 250 million RM, during fiscal year 1936: 320 million RM, during fiscal year 1937: 400 million RM, during fiscal year 1938: 500 million RM. Added to this are an annual 85 million Reichsmark from Land [i.e. state or provincial, trans.] tax revenues and some 7 million Reichsmark from the local tax revenues from municipalities and municipal associations. Aside from that, the Churches are the nation's largest land-owners second only to the state. The value of their agricultural and forestry land holdings exceeds the sum of 10 billion Reichsmark. The income from these land holdings is estimated at more than 300 million annually. Added to this are the countless donations, testamentary transferences and, most of all, the revenues from Church collections. What is more, in the National Socialist state the Churches
enjoy various tax concessions, and where donations, bequests etc. are concerned they are entirely exempt from taxation.
It is therefore the height of impertinence - to put it mildly that politicians, especially from abroad, presume to allege that the Third Reich is hostile to religion.
If the German churches should really regard this situation as intolerable, then the National Socialist state is ready and willing at any time to institute a clear division of Church and state, such as is the case in France, America and other countries.
"Mutter Maria" ("Mother Mary"), oil painting Created in 1913 by... Adolf Hitler. This is not exactly the kind of artwork one would expect from an "enemy of religion"! From the book "Adolf Hitler als Maler und Zeichner. Ein Werkkatalog der Цlgemдlde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen und Architekturskizzen", pub. Billy F. Price, Amber-Verlag, 1983, p. 65.
I would like to ask: what sums from public revenues have the administrations of France, England or the United States put at the disposal of their churches during the same period of time?
3. The National Socialist state has
neither closed a church nor
obstructed any religious service,
nor influenced the form in which a
religious service was held. It has
not influenced the teachings, nor
the creed, of any denomination
whatsoever. In the National
Socialist state everyone is free to
find his salvation in whichever
way he chooses.
There were good reasons for this kind of display even by ethnic
However: clergy who believe that they see their mission not in being the servants of God but rather in
German churches outside the Reich proper. Banner on a church in the Sudetenland, 1938: "Gott schьtze Adolf Hitler"! ("God save Adolf Hitler"!)
slandering our present state, its
Photo credit: Federal Archives, Koblenz
institutions or its leaders, will find themselves sternly reminded by the National Socialist state
that a destruction of this state will be tolerated by no-one, and that if they step outside the
bounds of the law, members of the clergy will be held just as accountable for their actions
under the law as any other German citizen.
It is necessary here to stress that there are tens of thousands of clergymen of all Christian denominations who, without ever coming into conflict with the laws of the state, do equal or perhaps even better justice to their ecclesiastical duties than do those of their brethren who act as political agitators. The state regards it as its duty to extend its protection to the former; its duty is the eradication of enemies of the state.
4. The National Socialist state is neither prudish nor dishonest. But there are certain moral principles, adherence to which is in the interest of the biological health of a people and which we therefore will not permit to be undercut. Pederasty and crimes against children are punished as criminal offenses in this state, regardless who commits these crimes. Five years ago, when some leading figures in the National Socialist Party committed these crimes, they were executed. When other public or private individuals, or clergymen, commit the same offenses, they are punished with jail or prison terms. We take no interest in clergymen's transgressions against their other vows of chastity etc., and our media has never published anything on this subject. In other respects, this state has intervened in the internal order of the Churches only once, namely in 1933, when I myself attempted to unite the weak and divided Protestant Land churches in Germany into one large and powerful Protestant national Church. This attempt failed due to the resistance of individual Land bishops. And accordingly, the attempt was then abandoned; for after all it is not our task to forcibly defend the Protestant Church against its own representatives, or to strengthen it against its will. Now, if foreign countries and particularly certain democratic statesmen speak up so strongly for individual German priests, the reason can only be a political one. For these same statesmen remained silent when hundreds of thousands of clergy were massacred or burned in Russia; and they remained silent when tens of thousands of priests and nuns were brutally butchered or burned alive in Spain. They could not deny these facts, but they remained and continue to remain silent, while - and I cannot but point this out to the democratic statesmen - these massacres prompted numerous National Socialists and Fascists to put themselves voluntarily at General Franco's disposal in order to help prevent this Bolshevist blood frenzy from being spread further across Europe and thus from being visited upon the majority of civilized humankind. [...] It was the concern for European culture and for true civilization that prompted Germany to side with nationalist Spain in its battle against its Bolshevist destroyers. It is a sad indicator of the mentality prevailing in various countries, that taking action for such unselfish motives seems to be inconceivable there. But National Socialist Germany participated in General Franco's revolt solely with the sincere wish that he might succeed in saving his country from a danger which Germany herself once almost succumbed to. Therefore, sympathy or pity for persecuted servants of God cannot be what prompted the democratic citizens' interest in individual clergymen who have come into conflict with the law in Germany. Rather, it is the interest in the enemy of the German state. In this regard, it is important to note: the German priest acting as servant of God enjoys our protection, but the priest acting as political enemy of the German Reich will be rooted out. We believe that this is the best way to prevent a development which - as experience has shown in the case of Spain - may otherwise necessitate countermeasures of unforeseeable extent in the future. In this context I wish to state as a matter of principle:
Certain circles abroad seem to believe that the especially vociferous declaration of sympathy for elements which have come into conflict with the law in Germany could effect a relief of their situation. There is perhaps the expectation that certain journalistic measures in this regard may serve to exert a terrorist influence on the German state leadership. This belief is founded on a capital error. To us, the support which circles abroad lend to certain efforts directed against the German state is the final proof of their treasonous nature! For mere opposition to a regime has never yet drawn sympathy from these foreign democracies, and neither has the prosecution or punishment of a political offender. When has Germany ever had a stronger political opposition than the National Socialist one? Never has a political opposition been suppressed, persecuted and incited against with baser means than the National Socialist Party was. It is to our credit that we can say that we have never enjoyed the pity, much less the support, of such a foreign power for such a reason. Therefore, this kind of support seems to be reserved for those whose aim it is to destroy the German Reich. And for this reason, each and every instance of it only serves as one more compelling reason for us to tighten our measures [...]." The National Socialist Stand on Christianity & Hitler and the Church www.wintersonnenwende.com
The hushed-up tragedy of the ethnic Germans in Czechoslovakia Ingomar Pust Original edition: Schreie aus der Hцlle ungehцrt. Das totgeschwiegene Drama der Sudetendeutschen. Sersheim: Hartmann-Verlag, 1998. Translated by Victor Diodon. Permission for publication here kindly granted by the copyright owner. Die deutsche Originalausgabe dieses Buches ist durch unseren Versandbuchhandel erhдltlich! 1. Foreword 2. Prologue 3. Preface 4. Conspiracy of Silence 5. Self-Determination Drowned in Blood 6. The Dead of March 4, 1919 7. The Karlsbad Program 8. Munich Agreement - Protectorate 9. No Czechs were expelled in 1938 10. Establishment of the Protectorate 11. Lidice 12. Wenzel Jaksch's Appeal to Benes 13. The Czech Victims of Resistance 14. Because They Were German! 15. Stigma "N" Even for Anti-Fascists 16. Expulsion From the South Moravian Homeland 17. The Mass Crimes Against the Sudeten Germans Took Place in Public 18. The Holocaust of Prague 19. The Death March of Brьnn 20. The Expulsion From Brьnn 21. Acts of Violence During the 1945 Expulsion 22. Murder Gang Kokoff 23. Hounded to Death! 24. If You Make Yourself a Lamb, Don't Be Surprised When The Wolves Eat You 25. Concentration Camp Inmate Sandor Kovac, Hungarian, on the Czechs in 1945 26. Czech Clergymen Forget Their Christian Brotherly Love 27. The Conduct of Czech and German Clergy
During the Expulsion of the Sudeten Germans in 1945/46 28. Wounded as Living Torches 29. The Danse Macabre Began in Prague 30. Russians Came in German Uniforms 31. The "Crusaders" as Mass Murderers 32. A Million Men Sent Into Hell 33. Prague: Sea of Inhumanity 34. We Kissed the Rotting Corpses 35. Mass Murder By Women With Submachine guns 36. 50,000 Watched the Executions 37. First Tortured, Then Shot in the Grave 38. Gruesome "Czech Cocktail" 39. The Mass Dying in the Elbe River 40. The Baby's Head in the Latrine 41. Crucified on the Barn Door 42. "Cesarean Section", Czech-Style 43. Father lay in the Pile of Corpses 44. The Russians as Life-Savers 45. Toddlers Buried Alive 46. Theresienstadt: Living Corpses 47. "Murder Factory" Theresienstadt 48. Cucumber Salad With Glass Shards 49. Line Up to be Shot 50. Hydrochloric Acid on Sore Bodies 51. Ears Cut Off, Tongue Torn Out 52. Dismembered Alive 53. Shot in the Neck - Survived Thanks to Urine Cure 54. Amnesty For All Crimes 55. The Cruel Order Came at Night 56. The Flood of Degeneracy 57. The Ominous "Yes" to Genocide 58. Sudetenland: A Region of Decay 59. The Crime of Potsdam 60. Our Nameless Dead Call Out To Us 61. Appendix: Comments on Contemporary History 62. Appendix: Conventions on International Law 63. Appendix: God Lives: His Day Will Come! 64. Epilogue: Human Blood Dripped From the Knife of Hate Die deutsche Originalausgabe dieses Buches ist durch unseren Versandbuchhandel erhдltlich!
The Unknown History of the 1939 German-Polish Conflict
A Brief Synopsis By W. R. (Name initialized by The Scriptorium for security reasons.) Published here with permission. To understand how the war in 1939 between Poland and Germany, and consequently WW2, unfolded, it is not sufficient to look at - and accept - the widely-held view that peace-loving and weak little Poland was attacked by an ever-marauding National Socialist Germany. Rather, one must look much deeper into history. This conflict which cost many millions of lives did not originate with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, as is still claimed today by over-simplifying historians. It is not just a black-and-white story, but a complex one. It was also not caused by the Polish mobilization of her army two days previous, on August 30, 1939, although the mobilization of a country's army, according to international standards, is equal to a declaration of war on the neighboring country. German-Polish relations are even today poisoned by centuries-old, deep-seated hatred on the Polish side. For centuries the Poles have been taught from early childhood on
that Germans were evil and ought to be fought whenever there was a promise of success. Hate on such a scale, as it was and still is promoted
Comment added by The Scriptorium: This selfsame "centuries-old, deep-seated hatred on the Polish side" is still very much in evidence
in Poland today against her westerly neighbor, today. We invite the reader to consider the
eventually leads to a chauvinism that knows
vicious invective and threats that a (Polish? at
few constraints. In Poland, as in all countries, least rabidly pro-Polish!) visitor to our web site
the respective elites use the means accessible to saw fit to send us with reference to the article
them to shape public sentiment. Traditionally on this page.
these elites have been the Polish Catholic
Church, writers, intellectuals, politicians and the press. For a balanced understanding of the
forces which moved Poland inexorably ever closer to the war against Germany, it is essential
to investigate the role these components of the Polish society have played in the past. And it
is fairly easy to find abundant evidence for the above claim and to trace it from the present
time back into the distant past.
"Pуki swiat swiatem, Polak Niemcowi nie bedzie bratem." This is a Polish proverb, and translated into English it means: "As long as the world will exist, the Pole will never be the German's brother."1 While the age of this proverb cannot be traced precisely, it is reflected by a recent poll (1989) taken amongst students of three educational establishments in Warsaw, where only four of 135 fourth-graders [ten-year-olds!] declared having amicable feelings toward the German people. Half of the students questioned considered the Germans
to be cruel, spiteful and bloodthirsty. One of the students wrote: "The Germans are as bad as wild animals. Such a people oughtn't even to exist. And now they even want to unite!"2 One year later, in 1990, the then Polish Prime Minister Lech Walesa made his feelings towards his German neighbors publicly known: "I do not even shrink from a statement that is not going to make me popular in Germany: if the Germans destabilize Europe anew, in some way or other, then partition is no longer what will have to be resorted to, but rather that country will have to be erased from the map, pure and simple. East and West have at their disposal the advanced technology necessary to carry this verdict out."3 It can reasonably be assumed that these remarks of a public figure like the Nobel Peace Prize laureate and Polish president Lech Walesa reflect emotions that are very common in his country. While the three samples of hateful Polish sentiments against Germans were expressed in very recent times, there are many more outbursts of chauvinistic feelings and intentions against Germans in the not too distant past, only some 60 years ago. An example is this Polish slogan from Litzmannstadt, January 1945: "Reich Germans pack your suitcases, ethnic Germans buy your coffins!"4 It is especially important to know this in order to fully understand what this writer proposes: namely, that unrestricted expression of hate and disregard of the rights of others in International Affairs can lead to tragedies of unimaginable proportions. Many years before the differences between Germany and Poland escalated to the point of no return, numerous diplomatic efforts were made by the German government to defuse the ever more dangerous situation the two countries were facing. These efforts were all rejected by Poland. One of them comes to mind: on January 6th, 1939, the German Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop met with the Polish Foreign Minister Josef Beck in Munich to discuss the differences between the two countries. Von Ribbentrop proposed "the following solution: the return of Danzig to Germany. In return, all of Poland's economic interests in this region would be guaranteed, and most generously at that. Germany would be given access to her province of East Prussia by means of an extraterritorial highway and rail line. In return, Germany would guarantee the Corridor and the entire Polish status, in other words, a final and permanent recognition of each nation's borders." Beck replied: "For the first time I am pessimistic..." Particularly in the matter of Danzig I see 'no possibility of cooperation.'"5 The belligerent policy of the Polish leadership was, and is of course, echoed by the public in that country. It goes without saying that a diplomat cannot use the same language as the little man at home can. The desired goal, however, is the same. It is the destruction, and if need be, the extermination of the Germans as Mr. Walesa so clearly stated. A leading role in forging the public view in Poland is that of the Catholic Church. To read what she taught her followers is truly blood-curdling. In 1922 the Polish Canon of Posen, prelate Kos, recited a song of hate which he had borrowed from a 1902 drama by Lucjan Rydel, "Jency" (The Prisoners): "Where the German sets down his foot, the earth bleeds for 100 years. Where the German carries water and drinks, wells are foul for 100 years. Where the German breathes, the plague rages for 100 years. Where the German shakes hands, peace breaks down. He cheats the strong, he robs and dominates the weak, and if there were a path leading straight to Heaven, he wouldn't hesitate to dethrone God Himself. And we would even see the German steal the sun from the sky."6 This is by no means a single, individual case. On August 26th, 1920, the Polish pastor in Adelnau said in a speech: "All Germans residing in Poland ought to be hanged."7 And another Polish proverb: "Zdechly Niemiec, zdechly pies, mala to roznica jest" - "A croaked German, is a croaked dog, is just a small difference".8
Here is the text of another Polish-Catholic war song which was sung in 1848 at the PanSlavic Congress in Prague: "Brothers, take up your scythes! Let us hurry to war! Poland's oppression is over, we shall tarry no more. Gather hordes about yourselves. Our enemy, the German, shall fall! Loot and rob and burn! Let the enemies die a painful death. He that hangs the German dogs will gain God's reward. I, the provost, promise you shall attain Heaven for it. Every sin will be forgiven, even well-planned murder, If it promotes Polish freedom everywhere. But curses on the evil one who dares speak well of Germany to us. Poland shall and must survive. The Pope and God have promised it. Russia and Prussia must fall. Hail the Polish banner! So rejoice ye all: Polzka zyje, great and small!"9 Not only did these "Christian" priests excel in rhetoric aimed at cultivating deadly hate against Germans during the pre-1939 years, they also prayed in their churches, "O wielk wojn ludуw prosimy Cie, Panie! (We pray to you for the great War of Peoples, oh Lord!)"10 Later, when their wishes came true, they actively participated in murdering unsuspecting German soldiers. "...Cardinal Wyszynski confirmed the fact 'that during the war there was not one single Polish priest who did not fight against the Germans with a weapon in his hand.' The war lasted only three short weeks, the German occupation lasted several years. This explains the extraordinary high number of priest-partisans who even were joined by bishops."11 Further back in history, we find that "The Archbishop of Gnesen, around the turn of the 13th century, had the habit of calling the Germans 'dog heads'. He criticized a bishop from Brixen that he would have preached excellently, had he not been a dog-head and a German."12 To fully understand the implications that this and other hateful utterances about Germans have on the Polish psyche, one has to know that 'dog' is an abusive name that would be hard to top as insult to a German. It is obvious that through this centuries-long conditioning of the common people of Poland by the Catholic hierarchy, from the bishops down to the lowliest clergymen, Polish literature and the press would not be far behind in duplicating the stillcontinuing vilification of Germans. And indeed there is a plethora of well-documented hostile charges. In his Mythos vom Deutschen in der polnischen Volksьberlieferung und Literatur, Dr. Kurt Lьck from Posen explored this propensity to malign Germans. I will repeat here only a few examples in order to illustrate how deeply the Poles are influenced by their elites. In his novel Grazyna, which is used in Polish schools as a learning tool, Mickiewicz uses terms like "psiarnia Krzyzakow" - the dog-pack of the Teutonic Knights . In his novel Pan Tadeusz he writes of "all district presidents, privy councillors, commissaries and all dogbrothers", and in his book Trzech Budrysow he writes of "Krzyxacy psubraty" - "Knights of the Cross, the dog brothers". Henryk Sienkiewicz, in his novel Krzyzacy (Knights of the Cross), repeatedly uses the abusive term "dog-brothers". Jan Kochanowski, in his Proporzec (1569), calls the German Knights of the Cross "pies niepocigniony": unsurpassable dogs. K. Przerwa-Tetmajer, in the short story "Nefzowie": "The German manufacturer is called by the Polish workers rudy pies - red-haired dog."13 It is not difficult to imagine how this perversion of civilized human conduct eventually must
lead to a Fascist mentality that was also present in the Polish media. They did not mince words when it came to arousing public fanaticism without restrictions when it was time to go to war against Germany. They were the ultimate instrument for instilling in the public the view that Poland was the peerless power that would chasten Germany by defeating her in a few days. Characteristic of this was, for example, an oil painting that showed Marshal RydzSmigly, the Polish commander-in-chief, riding on horseback through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin.14 This painting was found by German troops in the Presidential Palace in Warsaw and was not even completely dry. When war finally came, the Germans in Polish territory suffered terribly. They had to bear the unspeakable hate of the Poles. Some 35,000 of them(German authorities then claimed 58,000 murdered Germans!) were murdered, often under the most bestial circumstances. Dr. Kurt Lьck (op.cit.) writes on page 271: "Poles had thrown dead dogs into many of the graves of murdered ethnic Germans. Near Neustadt in West Prussia, the Poles slashed open the belly of a captured German officer, tore out his intestines and stuffed a dead dog inside. This report is reliably documented."15 And a German mother grieves for her sons. She writes on October 12th, 1939: "Oh, but that our dear boys [her sons] had to die such terrible deaths. 12 people were lying in the ditch, and all of them had been cruelly beaten to death. Eyes gouged out, skulls smashed, heads split open, teeth knocked out... little Karl had a hole in his head, probably from a stabbing implement. Little Paul had the flesh torn off his arms, and all this while they were still alive. Now they rest in a mass grave of more than 40, free at last of their terror and pain. They have peace now, but I never shall..."16 And between 1919 and 1921 400,000 ethnic Germans fled their homes and crossed the German border in order to save their lives. I personally once knew a German who told me that after serving in the German army he was drafted into the Polish army after 1945, and that the Poles destroyed German cemeteries and looted the graves in order to get at the golden wedding bands the corpses were still wearing. What can one say of the hate that speaks from the pages of one of the more popular papers, the largest Polish newspaper Ilustrowany Kurjer Codzienny, which appeared on April 20th, 1929, in Cracow? "Away with the Germans behind their natural border! Let's get rid of them behind the Oder!" "Silesian Oppeln is Polish to the core; just as all of Silesia and all of Pomerania were Polish before the German onslaught!"17 "To absorb all of East Prussia into Poland and to extend our western borders to the Oder and Neisse rivers, that is our goal. It is within reach, and at this moment it is the Polish people's great mission. Our war against Germany will make the world pause in amazement."18 "There will be no peace in Europe until all Polish lands shall have been restored completely to Poland, until the name Prussia, being that of a people long since gone, shall have been wiped from the map of Europe, and until the Germans have moved their capital Berlin farther westwards."19 On October 1923, Stanislaus Grabski, who later was to become Minister of Public Worship and Instruction, announced: "We want to base our relations on love, but there is one kind of love for one's own people and another kind for strangers. Their percentage is decidedly too high here. Posen [which had been given to Poland after the First World War] can show us one way to reduce that percentage from 14% or even 20% to 1Ѕ%. The foreign element will have to see if it would not be better off elsewhere. The Polish land is exclusively for the Poles!"20
"(The Germans in Poland) are intelligent enough to realize that in the event of war no enemy on Polish soil will get away alive... The Fьhrer is far away, but the Polish soldiers are close, and in the woods there is no shortage of branches."21 "We are ready to make a pact with the devil if he will help us in the battle against Germany. Hear - against Germany, not just against Hitler. In an upcoming war, German blood will be spilled in rivers such as all of world history has never seen before."22 "Poland's decision of August 30, 1939 that was the basis for general mobilization marked a turning point in the history of Europe. It forced Hitler to wage war at a time when he hoped to gain further unbloody victories."23 Heinz Splittgerber, in his short book Unkenntnis oder Infamie?, quotes a number of Polish sources which reflect the atmosphere in Poland immediately before the hostilities commenced. On August 7th, 1939 the Ilustrowany Kurjer featured an article "which described with provocative effrontery how military units were continually foraying across the border into German territory in order to destroy military installations and to take weapons and tools of the German Wehrmacht back to Poland. Most Polish diplomats and politicians understood that Poland's actions would perforce lead to war. Foreign Minister Beck... tenaciously pursued the bloodthirsty plan of plunging Europe into another great war, since it would presumably result in territorial gains for Poland."24 He goes on to cite some 14 incidents where Polish soldiers aggressively crossed the border, destroying houses, shooting and killing German farmers and customs officers. One of them: "August 29th: "State Police Offices in Elbing, Kцslin and Breslau, Main Customs Office in Beuthen and Gleiwitz: Polish soldiers invade Reich German territory, attack against German customs house, shots taken at German customs officials, Polish machine guns stationed on Reich German territory."25 These and many more are the things one must take into account before making the fallacious accusation that Germany was the one to have started WW2. The following quotations are added here to show that not only Poland was bent on war against Germany, but also her ally Great Britain (and France). Although it is still widely believed that Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain on September 29th, 1938 (Munich) honestly tried for peace, one has to consider the possibility that his real goals were somewhat different. Only five months later, on February 22nd, 1939, he let the cat out of the bag when he said in Blackburn: "... During the past two days we have discussed the progress of our arms build-up. The figures are indeed overwhelming, perhaps even to such an extent that the people are no longer able even to comprehend them.... Ships, cannons, planes and ammunition are now pouring out of our dock yards and factories in an ever-increasing torrent..."26 Max Klьver writes: "Of the considerable body of evidence that gives cause to doubt whether Chamberlain actually wanted peace, one noteworthy item is a conversation [after Hitler's address to the Reichstag on April 28th,1939, W.R.] between Chamberlain's chief advisor Wilson, and Gцring's colleague Wohlthat... When Wohlthat, taking his leave, again stressed his conviction that Hitler did not want war, Wilson's answer was indicative of the fundamental British attitude that could not be a basis for negotiations between equals: 'I said that I was not surprised to hear him say that as I had thought myself that Hitler cannot have overlooked the tremendous increases which we have made in our defensive and offensive preparations, including for instance the very large increase in our Air Force.'"27 And on April 27th, 1939, England mobilized her armed forces. Heinz Splittgerber quotes
Dirk Bavendamm, Roosevelts Weg zum Krieg (Ullstein-Verlag, Berlin 1989, p. 593), who writes: "Since England had never yet introduced universal conscription during peacetime, this alone virtually amounted to a declaration of war against Germany. From 1935 to 1939 (before the outbreak of the war) England's annual expenditure on war materials had increased more than five-fold."28 In 1992 and 1993, Max Klьver, another German historian, spent five weeks in the Public Record Office in London searching through documents which, after fifty years of being hidden from public scrutiny, were now open to researchers. He writes in his book Es war nicht Hitlers Krieg: "How little the British cared about Danzig and the allegedly endangered Polish independence is also shown by the following brief prepared for Colonel Beck's visit of April 3 [1939]. The brief states: 'Danzig is an artificial structure, the maintenance of which is a bad casus belli. But it is unlikely that the Germans would accept less than a total solution of the Danzig question except for a substantial quid pro quo which could hardly be less than a guarantee of Poland's neutrality." But such a deal would be a bad bargain for England. "It would shake Polish morale, increase their vulnerability to German penetration and so defeat the policy of forming a bloc against German expansion. It should not therefore be to our interest to suggest that the Poles abandon their rights in Danzig on the ground that they are not defensible."29 Klьver concludes: "So there we have it clearly stated: in the own British interest, the matter of Danzig must not be solved and peace preserved. The British guarantee to Poland, however, had reinforced the Polish in their stubbornness and made them completely obdurate where any solution to the Danzig question was concerned."30 The American Professor Dr. Burton Klein, a Jewish economist, wrote in his book Germany's Economic Preparations for War: "Germany produced butter as well as 'cannons', and much more butter and much fewer cannons than was generally assumed."31 And again: "The overall state of the German war economy ... was not that of a nation geared towards total war, but rather that of a national economy mobilized at first only for small and locally restricted wars and which only later succumbed to the pressure of military necessity after it had become an incontrovertible fact. For instance, in the fall of 1939 the German preparations for provision with steel, oil and other important raw materials were anything but adequate for an intense engagement with the Great Powers."32 One only has to compare Mr. Klein's observations with what Mr. Bavendamm wrote about the British preparations for a major war at the same time, and the blurred picture that is painted by historians becomes much more transparent: the Germans were not the ones to provoke WW2. Besides Chamberlain, there were others in influential and powerful positions in England who were much more outspoken about their wishes. Winston Churchill, for instance, said before the House of Commons on October 5th, 1938: "... but there can never be friendship between the British democracy and the Nazi power, that Power which spurns Christian ethics, which cheers its onwards course by a barbarous paganism, which vaunts the spirit of aggression and conquest, which derives strength and perverted pleasure from persecution, and uses, as we have seen, with pitiless brutality the threat of murderous force."33 Hitler, of course, knew this very well. In Saarbrьcken, on October 9th, 1938 he said: "...All it would take would be for Mr. Duff Cooper or Mr. Eden or Mr. Churchill to come to power in England instead of Chamberlain, and we know very well that it would be the goal of these men to immediately start a new world war. They do not even try to disguise their intents, they state them openly..."34 As we all know, the British government under Chamberlain gave Poland the guarantee that
England would come to its aid if Poland should be attacked. This was on March 31st, 1939. Its purpose was to incite Poland to escalate its endeavors for war against Germany. It happened as planned: England declared war on Germany on September 3rd, 1939, but not on the Soviet Union who also attacked Poland, and this is proof enough that it was England's (and Chamberlain's) intention in the first place to make war on Germany. Thus WW2 was arranged by a complicity between Britain and Poland. It was not Hitler's war, it was England's and Poland's war. The Poles were merely the stooges. Some of them knew it too Jules Lukasiewicz, the Polish ambassador to Paris, for instance, who on March 29th, 1939 told his foreign minister in Warsaw: "It is childishly naive and also unfair to suggest to a nation in a position like Poland, to compromise its relations with such a strong neighbour as Germany and to expose the world to the catastrophe of war, for no other reason than to pander to the wishes of Chamberlain's domestic policies. It would be even more naive to assume that the Polish government did not understand the true purpose of this manoeuver and its consequences."35 Sixty years have passed since Poland got her wish. Germany lost large additional areas to Poland. Today these regions can hardly be compared to what they originally were. Houses, farms, the infrastructure, agriculture, even the dikes of the Oder river are decaying. Financial help from Germany goes to Poland as if nothing had happened between the two countries. The 2,000,000 Germans still remaining in Poland are largely forgotten by their brothers in the west. They now suffer the same fate as other Germans did in Poland in earlier times: "In earlier times the aim was already to eradicate all things German. For instance, in the 18th century, the Catholic Germans from Bamberg who had followed their Bishop and immigrated to Poland after the plague were forcibly Polonized; they were denied German church services, German confession and the German catechism, and were reeducated to become Poles. By the time of the First World War these Germans from Bamberg had become so thoroughly Polonized that despite their traditional Bamberg costumes, which they still wore and for which they were still called 'Bamberki', they could no longer speak German."36 Not only is today's German minority in Poland in danger of losing its identity; the same happened even to famous Germans of the past. Veit Stoss, who was born in Nuremberg and died there too, is now called Wit Stwosz, only because in 1440 in Cracow he created the famous high altar in the Marienkirche, 13 meters (39 feet) high and entirely carved from wood. Nikolaus Kopernikus, the famous German astronomer, is now called Mikolaj Kopernik. He lived in Thorn, never spoke a word of Polish, and published his works in Latin. His ancestors were all Germans. The last names of the surviving Germans have been Polonized: Seligman(n), a name also common in the English-speaking world, would now be Swienty! No comparable phenomenon exists in Germany. Poles who immigrated to Germany generations ago still bear their Polish names, and nobody pressures them to change them. They are considered Germans, and they are. As this map shows, Polish chauvinism literally knows no bounds. The world went through the Second World War largely because of Poland and her taste for lands that belong to others. Some of her aspirations she accomplished in 1945, but this map suggests that there may still be more to Polish desires. Even today's Czechia and Slovakia are on the list. As Adam Mickiewicz wrote: "But each of you has in his soul the seeds of the future rights and the extent of the future frontiers." As far as I as German am concerned, I wholeheartedly agree with what Freda Utley wrote in
1945 after she visited destroyed Germany:
"War propaganda has obscured the true facts of history, otherwise Americans might realize that the German record is no more aggressive, if as aggressive, as that of the French, British and Dutch who conquered huge empires in Asia and Africa while the Germans stayed at home composing music, studying philosophy, and listening to their poets. Not so long ago the Germans were, in fact, among the most 'peace-loving' peoples of the world and might become so again, given a world in which it is possible to live in peace.
"Mistaken as the Boeklers of Germany may be in believing that concessions can be won from the Western powers by negotiation, their attitude proves the willingness of many Germans to trust to peaceful means to obtain their ends."37
Source: Udo Walendy, Truth for Germany, map in diagram section between pp. 64-65.
Notes: 1Else Lцser, Polen und die Fдlschungen seiner Geschichte, p. 5, Kaiserslautern: self-pub., 1982. English translation available here. ...back... 2Kanada Kurier, August 2, 1990, p. 4. ...back... 3Lech Walesa, Polish Prime Minister and Peace Nobel Prize laureate, as quoted from an interview published April 4, 1990 in the Dutch weekly Elsevier. ...back... 4Else Lцser, op.cit. (Note 1). ...back... 5Charles Tansill, Die Hintertьr zum Kriege, p. 551, quoted in Hans Bernhardt, Deutschland im Kreuzfeuer groЯer Mдchte, p. 229, PreuЯisch Oldendorf: Schьtz, 1988. ...back... 6Else Lцser, op.cit. (Note 1). ...back... 7ibid., 11. ...back... 8Else Lцser, Das Bild des Deutschen in der polnischen Literatur, p. 12, Kaiserslautern: self-pub., 1983. ...back... 9Else Lцser, op.cit. (Note 1). ...back... 10ibid., p. 44. ...back...
11ibid., p. 46. ...back... 12Else Lцser, op.cit. (Note 8). ...back... 13ibid., p. 13. ...back... 14Dr. Heinrich Wendig, Richtigstellungen zur Zeitgeschichte, #2, pp. 31, 33, Tьbingen: Grabert, 1991. ...back... 15Else Lцser, op.cit. (Note 8). ...back... 16Georg Albert Bosse, Recht und Wahrheit, p. 13, Wolfsburg, September/October 1999. ...back... 17Bolko Frhr. v. Richthofen, Kriegsschuld 1939- 1941, p. 75, Kiel: Arndt, 1994. ...back... 18Mocarstwowice, Polish newspaper, November 5th, 1930, quoted in Kanada Kurier, September 2nd, 1999. ...back... 19Henryk Baginski, Poland and the Baltic, Edinburgh 1942. Quoted in Bolko Frhr. v. Richthofen, Kriegsschuld 1939-1941, p. 81, Kiel: Arndt, 1994. ...back... 20Gotthold Rhode, Die Ostgebiete des Deutschen Reiches, p. 126, Wьrzburg 1956. Quoted in Hugo Wellems, Das Jahrhundert der Lьge, p. 116, Kiel: Arndt, 1989. ...back... 21Henryk Baginski, Poland and the Baltic, Edinburgh 1942. Quoted in Bolko Frhr. v. Richthofen, op.cit. (Note 19), p. 81. ...back... 22Depsza, Polish newspaper on August 20th, 1939. Quoted from Dr. Conrad Rooster, Der Lьgenkreis und die deutsche Kriegsschuld, 1976. ...back... 23Kazimierz Sosnkowski, Polish General and Minister-in-Exile, August 31st, 1943. Quoted in Bolko Frhr. v. Richthofen, op.cit. (Note 19), p. 80. ...back... 24Heinz Splittgerber, Unkenntnis oder Infamie? Darstellungen und Tatsachen zum Kriegsausbruch 1939, pp. 12-13. Quoted from Oskar Reile, Der deutsche Geheimdienst im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Ostfront, pp.278, 280 f., Augsburg: Weltbild, 1990. ...back... 25ibid., p. 14. ...back... 26Foreign Ministry, Berlin 1939, Deutsches WeiЯbuch No. 2, document 242, p. 162. Quoted in Hans Bernhardt, op.cit. (Note 5), p. 231. ...back... 27Max Klьver, Es war nicht Hitlers Krieg, pp. 141, 147, Essen: Heitz & Hцffkes, 1993. ...back... 28Dirk Kunert, Deutschland im Krieg der Kontinente, p. 183, Kiel: Arndt, 1987. ...back... 29Max Klьver, op.cit. (Note 27), pp. 162-163. ...back...
30ibid., p. 162. ...back... 31Burton H. Klein, Germany's Economic Preparations for War, vol. CIX, Cambridge, Mass., 1959. Quoted in: Joachim Nolywaika, Die Sieger im Schatten ihrer Schuld, p. 54, Rosenheim: Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1994. ...back... 32ibid. ...back... 33Winston Churchill, Into Battle, Speeches 1938-1940, pp. 81,84. Quoted in: Udo Walendy, Truth for Germany, p. 53, Vlotho: Verlag fьr Volkstum und Zeitgeschichtsforschung, 1981. ...back... 34Foreign Ministry, Berlin 1939, Deutsches Weissbuch No. 2, document 219, p. 148. Quoted in Max Domarus, Hitler-Reden und Proklamationen, vol. I, p. 955. ...back... 35Jules Lukasiewicz, quoted in Bolko Frhr. v. Richthofen, op.cit. (Note 19), p. 55. ...back... 36Else Lцser, op.cit. (Note 1). ...back... 37Freda Utley, Kostspielige Rache, p. 162. [English original: The High Cost of Vengeance, Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1949.] Quoted in: Else Lцser, Polen und die Fдlschungen seiner Geschichte, p. 49, Kaiserslautern: self-pub., 1982. ...back... The Unknown History of the 1939 German-Polish Conflict A Brief Synopsis www.wintersonnenwende.com
Lesen Sie diese Schrift im deutschen Original!
Written in 1977. Published: Kritik: Die Stimme des Volkes, issue 86; Nordwind-Verlag © 1994. Translated by Victor Diodon. Republished here by kind permission of the copyright owner. Friedrich Christian, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe
1. Introduction 2. The masses readily become a hangman... 3. The "dictator" 4. The fatal lack of understanding of human nature 5. "Denazification Certificate trade" and self-deception 6. The system of slander 7. Slander: psychological genocide! 8. Art, culture and social innovations 9. The eternal ethical laws of nature 10. A word to the slanderers themselves 11. Conclusion 12. Epilogue
"I ask myself what other ruler was ever as celebrated, as revered, as loved and idolized as this man in the brown shirt..." Louis Bertrand, French journalist, at the Reich Party Convention of 1937 in Nuremberg
Lesen Sie dieses Dokument im deutschen Original! Who Broke the Disarmament Treaty of Versailles? Declaration of the Government of the German Reich Fichtebundblatt No. 741. © March 16, 1935 Deutscher Fichte-Bund e.V., established in January 1914. Reichsbund fьr Deutschtumsarbeit. In November of 1918, when the German people - trusting in the assurances given in Wilson's Fourteen Points - surrendered after 4Ѕ years of heroic resistance in a war whose outbreak they had never desired, they believed that in doing so they had done a service not only to tormented humanity but also to a great Idea per se. While they themselves were suffering the most under the consequences of this insane struggle, the millions of Germans trustingly reached out to the idea of a reconfiguration of international relations which was to be ennobled by the elimination of secret diplomacy as well as of the terrible means of war. Perhaps no other nation has welcomed the idea of a League of Nations as eagerly as the German one, deserted by all earthly happiness. Only in this context is it understandable that the at times downright senseless conditions of destruction of each and every means of defense was not only accepted but also carried out by the German people. The German people and particularly their government at that time were convinced that meeting the disarmament stipulations set out by the Treaty of Versailles would initiate and guarantee the beginning of international, general disarmament, as promised by the Treaty. For only such a bilateral fulfilment of this obligation imposed by the Treaty could justify a demand which, if imposed and carried out one-sidedly, could not but have turned into an eternal disparagement and thus a declaration of inferiority of a great nation. In light of this, however, such a peace treaty could never be the prerequisite for a true inner reconciliation of nations and thus a herald of global peace; it could only be the prerequisite for an eternally festering hatred. According to the assessment of the inter-Allied Control Commission, Germany has met the disarmament obligations imposed on her. The following are the works of destruction of the German defense forces and their means, as confirmed by this Commission: A. Army weapons that were destroyed: 59,897 artillery guns and barrels, 130,558 machine guns, 31,470 mortars and barrels,
6,007,000 rifles and carbines, 243,937 machine gun barrels, 28,001 gun carriages, 4,390 mortar carriages, 38,750,000 larger caliber shells, 16,550,000 hand and rifle grenades, 60,400,000 live fuses, 491,000,000 hand weapon munitions, 335,000 tons of cartridges, 23,515 tons of cartridge cases, 37,600 tons of gunpowder, 79,500 ammunitions dismantlers, 212,000 telephones, 1,072 flame throwers, 31 armored trains, 59 tanks, 1,762 surveillance vehicles, 8,982 wireless stations, 1,240 field bakeries, 2,199 pontoons, 981.7 tons of equipment for soldiers, 8,230,350 sacks of equipment for soldiers, 7,300 pistols and revolvers, 180 machine gun sleds, 21 mobile workshops, 12 anti-aircraft gun carriers, 11 heavy-duty gun carriers, 64,000 steel helmets, 174,000 gas masks, 2,500 machines of the former war industry, 8,000 rifle barrels. B. Air force weapons that were destroyed: 15,714 fighter and bomber planes, 27,757 airplane engines.
C. Naval weapons that were destroyed: 26 capital ships, 4 armored coastal patrol boats, 4 armored cruisers, 19 small cruisers, 21 training and special ships, 83 torpedo boats, 315 submarines. Further, the following had to be destroyed: Vehicles of all kinds, means for gas warfare and some for protection from gas, propellants and explosives, floodlights, sighting devices, distance and sound range finders, optical instruments of all kinds, horse harnesses, narrow gauge railway equipment, field printing presses, field kitchens, workshops, cutting and stabbing weapons, steel helmets, materials for the transport of ammunition, standard and special machines of the war industry, as well as jigs, blueprints of the same, ship and airplane hangars, etc. After this historically unparalleled fulfilment of a contract, the German people were entitled to expect the discharge of the obligations agreed upon by the other side as well. For: 1. Germany had disarmed. 2. The peace treaty had expressly demanded that Germany was to be disarmed as a prerequisite for a general disarmament, that is, it was thereby claimed that Germany being armed was the sole reason why the other nations were also armed. 3. In their governments as well as in their political parties, the German people were at that time of a mind-set which completely lived up to the pacifist-democratic ideals of the League of Nations. But while Germany had fulfilled her obligations, the other parties to the contract neglected to fulfil their own. That is, the high contracting officials of the former victor nations unilaterally broke away from the obligations of the Treaty of Versailles. It was not enough, however, that any disarmament comparable in any way to the German destruction of arms was dispensed with; no: the arming process was not even halted. Quite the contrary, further escalation became evident in a whole number of nations. In terms of new machinery of destruction, what had been invented during wartime was now being perfected with methodical, scientific work during peacetime. Continual improvements
were being made in the creation of powerful land tanks as well as new fighting and bombing machines. New and gigantic artillery was being built, new explosive, incendiary and gas bombs were being manufactured. Since then, the world has resounded with war-cries just as though there had never been a world war and as though a Treaty of Versailles had never been signed. In the midst of these nations heavily armed for war and availing themselves increasingly of the newest motorized forces, Germany was a defenseless power void and at the mercy of any threat. The German people remember the misfortune and tragedy of 15 years of economic impoverishment and political humiliation. It was thus understandable that Germany began to urge that the other nations should keep their own promise of disarmament. For this much is clear: A hundred years' peace would have to be an immeasurable blessing for the world. A hundred years' split into victors and vanquished, however, is something the world cannot bear. The urging of the people resulted in attempts to achieve, through conferences, a general decrease in the level of armament. In this way, the first proposals for international armament agreements developed, of which the Macdonald Plan was most significant. Germany was prepared to accept this plan and to make it the foundation for agreements. The Macdonald Plan failed because it was rejected by other nations. Since the equality that had been solemnly guaranteed the German people in the declaration of December 1932 did not come about under these circumstances, the new German government, in its role as the guardian of the German people's honor and natural rights, saw itself no longer able to participate in such conferences or to remain in the League of Nations. But even after leaving Geneva, the German government was still willing to not only consider proposals by other nations, but also to advance suggestions of its own. In doing so, it espoused the view coined by the other nations themselves, that the creation of short-term armies is unsuitable for attack purposes and is thus to be recommended for peaceful defense. Therefore the German government was prepared to change the long-term Reichswehr into a short-term army in accordance with the other nations' wishes. Its proposals of winter 1933/34 were feasible. However, their rejection, and the rejection of similar Italian and British outlines, showed that there was no longer any inclination among the other parties to the Treaty of Versailles towards even a belated fulfilment of the spirit of the disarmament stipulations of Versailles. Under these circumstances, the German government saw itself compelled to take the
initiative towards those necessary measures that could ensure an end to the no less degrading than dangerous condition of a great people's and nation's impotent defenselessness. It based this action on the same consideration that Minister Baldwin had expressed so aptly: "A nation that is not willing to take the necessary precautionary measures for its own defense will never have any power in the world, neither of the moral nor of the material kind." But the government of today's German Reich desires only one moral and material power, namely to be able to safeguard the peace for the Reich and thereby probably also for all of Europe. Thus, the German government has continued to do whatever was in its power and could serve to promote peace. 1. A long time ago already, the German government offered to conclude non-aggression pacts with its neighboring countries. 2. With its eastern neighbor, Poland, the German government has sought and reached a contractual settlement which, thanks to great accommodation and understanding, will hopefully have defused the menacing situation which the government was faced with at the time it took power, and which it hopes will lead to a lasting understanding and friendship between the two peoples. 3. Finally, the German government has given France the solemn assurance that after the question of the Saarland has been settled, it will make no further territorial demands or requests of France. The government believes that through this great political and material sacrifice of a historically uncommon kind, it has created the prerequisite for ending a centuries-old quarrel between two great nations. To its regret, however, the German government has seen that a continued escalation of the arms process is taking place in the rest of the world. In the creation of a Soviet-Russian army of 101 divisions, i.e. an admitted peacetime strength of 960,000 men, it discerns a danger that could not be anticipated at the time the Treaty of Versailles was drawn up. In the heightening of similar measures by the other nations, the German government sees further proof that these nations have rejected the once solemnly proclaimed disarmament contract. The German government does not wish to bring accusations against any one nation; but it must point out that by deciding to introduce a two-year period of military service, France has given up on the principle of short-term armies in favor of a long-term army. This principle, however, was one of the reasons for the earlier demand that Germany should relinquish her army. Under these circumstances, the German government feels that it is impossible to continue to
suspend the measures necessary for the security of the Reich, much less to keep the rest of the world from knowing of these measures. If, therefore, it complies with the British Minister Baldwin's wish and clarifies German intentions, this is done 1. in order to give the German people the conviction, and the other nations the understanding, that the preservation of the German Reich's honor and security is now again entrusted to the German nation's own power; 2. in order to refute, by declaring the extent of these measures, those assertions with which the German people are accused of striving for military supremacy in Europe. The German government as guardian of the honor and interests of the German nation desires to secure the necessary extent of those instruments of power that are required to preserve the intactness of the German Reich and to ensure the international regard for and consideration of Germany as fellow guarantor of general peace. At this time the German government reaffirms, both to the German people and to the world, its determination that its rearming shall not be for military aggression, but a pledge for its defense and thus for the preservation of peace. The German government hereby expresses the confident hope that as the German people find their way back to their honor, they will - in the spirit of independent equality - be granted the chance to make their contribution to the pacification of the world in free and open cooperation with the other nations and their governments. Who Broke the Disarmament Treaty of Versailles? Declaration of the Government of the German Reich www.wintersonnenwende.com
Why 7000 Children Had to Die Second World War: The Cruel Fate of German Refugees in Denmark Article from the Hamburger Abendblatt, May 26,1999; translated by Arnim Johannis and published here with permission. (dpa/fis) A new study about the deaths of more than 10,000 German refugees in Denmark shortly before and after the end of the Second World War has startled the public of this Scandinavian country. The discovery that the refugee casualties from 1945 to 1949 included more than 7,000 toddlers and babies who were denied not only adequate rations but also any and all medical aid was described by the Copenhagen newspaper Politiken as "shocking and inhumane". Equally bad, the newspaper said, is the "massive repression of awareness" of the refugees' fate in Denmark, since to date the Danish have considered it common knowledge and a point of national credit that the 200,000 to 250,000 people who fled to Denmark from the advancing Soviet troops had been accorded highly decent treatment. Senior physician Kirsten Lylloff has taken a closer look at this myth. Studying history is her hobby, and she had become curious about the great number of graves of German babies and children in a cemetery in Еalborg where she used to live. When she spent six months gathering information, the relevant archives were readily opened to her. The amateur historian was all the more surprised to find numerous shocking statistics and reports, which had never been mentioned in standard historiography to date. And this despite the fact that the time of German occupation of Denmark from April 1940 to May 1945 is more thoroughly researched than any other historical period. At first, the refugees - 85 percent of them women and children - had been quartered in schools or meeting houses; then, in 1945, 142 camps were set up for these people. The Danish civilians were strictly forbidden to have any contact with the German expellees. Lylloff's research has shown that in 1945 alone, 13,492 German refugees died in Danish refugee camps. More than 7,000 of them were children under five years of age; most of them died of malnutrition and dehydration and - according to Lylloff - of "perfectly curable" illnesses such as stomach and intestinal infections and scarlet fever. But until 1949 the Danish medical board, as well as the Red Cross, consistently denied the refugees interned in these camps any medical assistance. "How can one consider babies and toddlers to be enemies?" Kirsten Lylloff counters the argument, routine at war's end, that the Germans were enemies regardless of their age. Jцrgen Poulsen, the present Secretary General of the Danish Red Cross, commented on this new study: "It hurts to read this. I hope that we've grown smarter by now." The Copenhagen
medical board also stated that the refusal of all pleas for medical attention in those days "cannot be justified, no matter how good the excuses." Medical board spokesman Torben Pedersen nonetheless joined historians in warning against drawing rash conclusions. He says that after five years' occupation by National Socialist Germany, with a world war and ever-worsening reports about the systematic destruction of the Jews, the political mood in Denmark perforce played a powerful role in determining the attitude towards German refugees. However, according to Kirsten Lylloff's findings, there was also a pragmatic consideration to the merciless attitude the Danish authorities took towards the refugees: "The medical board stated officially that helping German refugees would harm Denmark's relations with the Allies." In fact, at the war's end Denmark found it very difficult to dissuade the victorious powers from classifying it as "collaborator". Instead of offering armed resistance, like its Norwegian neighbors for example, the government at Copenhagen had surrendered without a fight to the German Wehrmacht in 1940 and placed their country at Hitler's disposal as a willing supplier of foodstuffs for the Wehrmacht. In return, Denmark was treated relatively mildly by the occupiers and was spared any involvement in the war itself. Why 7000 Children Had to Die The Cruel Fate of German Refugees in Denmark www.wintersonnenwende.com
Worm in the Apple
Lesen Sie diese Schrift im deutschen Original!
German Traitors and Other Influences
That Pushed the World Into War:
The little-known story of the men who destroyed Adolf Hitler's Germany
Original edition: F. Lenz, self-published, 1952
Translated by Victor Diodon
Dedicated to all who were or are unconditionally willing to give their life for Germany.
Friedrich Lenz
1. Preface 2. Overview 3. The three main groups of Hitler's opponents 4. Major camps of the opposition, their plans for a coup, and measures taken 5. Germany's desire for a just peace 6. Munich, the Protectorate, and the British guarantee to Poland 7. Allied stalling maneuvers and incitement instead of a desire for peace 8. Ten leading personalities comment on the question of war guilt (Part 1) 9. Ten leading personalities comment on the question of war guilt (Part 2) 10. The ace up England's sleeve - Hitler's miscalculation 11. The importance of the Resistance from the English perspective 12. Assassination attempt of July 20, 1944: a shot in their own - and in Germany's foot 13. The morale of the people and the soldiers 14. Views on the assassination attempt and the would-be assassins 15. A few words to General Halder 16. The role of Admiral Canaris 17. The brothers Erich and Theodor Kordt 18. Hitler's striving for peace 19. Verdicts of the victors and the German justice system 20. Summary and Conclusion A note to our readers: this work, originally published in German in 1952, is a polemic written for the people, not a scholarly study for research purposes; in the interests of readability the author attempted quite deliberately to keep footnoting and other scholarly conventions to a minimum. As a result, however, there are a good number of quotations whose source is not clearly stated. From the perspective of documentation this is unfortunate. We shall attempt to fill in some of the gaps in the documentation, and until then, if a knowledgeable reader can help us with a reference or two, we would be grateful for an eMail to that effect. In the meantime, Lenz's arguments stand quite well on their own
merits.

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