A declining trend in the abundance of Notothenia rossii marmorata and Notothenia gibberifrons observed in fjords in two sites in the South Shetland Islands, E Barrera

Tags: gibberifrons, Potter Cove, Notothenia rossii, trammel nets, South Shetland Islands, isla Media Luna, Notothenia rossii marmorata, iles Shetland du Sud, Notothenia gibberifrons, en, Fildes Bay, Admiralty Bay, Discovery Bay, proportion, Moon Bay, toma de muestras
Content: WG-FSA-90/14 A DECLINING TREND IN THE ABUNDANCE OF NOTOTHENIA ROSSII MARMORATA AND NOTOTHENIA GIBBERIFRONS OBSERVED IN FJORDS IN TWO SITES IN THE SOUTH Shetland Islands E. Barrera-Oro and E. Marschofr Abstract A declining trend observed in the abundance of Notothenia rossii marmorata and Notothenia gibberifrons in fjords in two sites in the South Shetland Islands (Subarea 48.1), is analyzed by a nested ANOVA and demonstrated as significant. The material for the current study was obtained with trammel nets at Potter Cove, King George/25 de Mayo 1., over a period of eight years from 1983 to 1990 and in waters around Half-Moon 1., Moon Bay, in 1989. The analysis was based on the proportion of catches of the abovementioned species in relation to Notothenia neglecta, a species with similar ecological habits in the fjords. Since sampling by this method did not utilize a consistent amount of effort between years, the analysis made use of standardized catch data by expressing the catches of N. rossii and N. gibberifrons in proportion to the catches of N. neglecta. A similar declining trend had been reported in the 1960s and 1970s for neighbouring sites in the South Shetland Islands. This phenomenon might be explained as a consequence of the depletion of the stocks due to commercial exploitation in the area in the early 1980s. Resume La tendance au declin observee dans l'abondance des especes Notothenia rossii marmorata et Notothenia gibberifrons dans les fjords de deux sites des iles Shetland du Sud, fait l'objet d'une analyse par emboitements ANOVA et se revele significative. Le materiel etudie a ete obtenu par filets tremails a Potter Cove, ile du Roi George/25 de Mayo, sur une periode de huit ans, entre 1983 et 1990 et dans les eaux entourant l'ile Half-Moon, baie Moon, en 1989. L'analyse etait basee sur la proportion de captures des especes mentionnees par rapport a Notothenia neglecta, une espece aux habitudes ecologiques similaires dans les fjords. L'echantillonnage par cette methode ne necessitant pas une valeur constante d'effort entre annees, l'analyse a utilise des donnees de capture standardisees en exprimant les captures de N. rossii et de N. gibberifrons proportionnellement aux captures de N. neglecta. Une pareille tendance a la baisse a deja ete signalee dans les annees 60 et 70, en des sites proches, dans les iles Shetland du Sud. Le present phenomene peut etre explique comme etant une consequence du declin des stocks dfi a l'exploitation commerciale dans cette region depuis le debut des annees 80. * Instituto Anmrtico Argentino, Direcci6n Nacional del Antartico, Cerrito 1248, 1010 Buenos Aires, Argentina 263
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Resumen Se ha utilizado el ANOV A anidado para analizar la disminuci6n observada en la abundancia de Notothenia rossii marmorata y Notothenia gibberifrons en fiordos situados en dos zonas distintas de las islas Shetland del Sur (Subarea 48.1), concluyendose que esta disminuci6n es muy marcada. El material de estudio fue recogido mediante redes de trasmallo en Caleta Potter, isla Rey Jorge/25 de Mayo, durante un periodo de ocho alios, de 1983 a 1990 y en las aguas que circundan la isla Media Luna, Bahia Luna, en 1989. El amHisis consisti6 en una comparaci6n de las capturas de las especies mencionadas anteriormente, y Notothenia neglecta, especie de habitos ecol6gicos similares en los fiordos. Debido a la diferencia anual que existe en el esfuerzo pesquero empleado en la toma de muestras por este metodo, el amHisis utiliz6 datos estandar de capturas y los expres6 como proporci6n de capturas de N. rossi y N. gibberifrons, en relaci6n aN. neglecta. Una disminuci6n similar se observ6 en las decadas de los alios 60 y 70, en localidades cercanas, en las islas Shetland del Sur. Este fen6meno puede ser interpretado como una consecuencia de la merma en las poblaciones debido a la explotaci6n comercial en el area a principios de los afios 80.
264
1. INTRODUCTION At the Eighth Meeting of the Scientific Committee the Chilean Delegation reported a recent decline in the abundance of Notothenia rossii marmorata and Notothenia gibberifrons caught in fjords of South Bay, Doumer I., Palmer Archipelago. Since the implementation by the Instituto Antartico Argentino of routine sampling of fish a similar situation has been observed in neighbouring sites in the South Shetland Islands: Potter Cove (Jubany Station), King George/25 de Mayo I. and Moon Bay (Climara Station), Livingston I. This paper presents an analysis on the abundances of fjord N. rossii marmorata and N. gibberifrons in relation to the abundance of Notothenia neglecta, a species with similar ecological habits. Comparisons with earlier data taken from the literature, are also made.
2. METHODS
Samples were obtained using trammel nets (length 25, 35 and 50m; width 1.5m; mesh 2.5cm) at Potter Cove from 1983 to 1990 and in waters around Half Moon I. (Moon Bay, Livingston I.) in 1989 (Figure 1. A). At Potter Cove, the net was always located in the same site (Figure 1. B) at depths from 5 to 50m. The same procedure was followed at Moon Bay, covering a depth range from 5 to 35m.
Since sampling was not aimed at monitoring the abundance of fjord-fish, fishing effort was not controlled, with the result that various yields were obtained per haul (Figure 2). Potter Cove data from 1990 were obtained as part of an ecological study requiring continuous sampling with a limited fishing period for each net. All sampled fish were used for other studies (Barrera-Oro, 1989; Casaux et al., 1990; Barrera-Oro and Casaux, 1990) where morphometric and meristic data, sex, maturity stages, ages and Stomach contents were detennined.
In order to have a measure of abundance of N. rossii marmorata and N. gibberifrons standardized for all samples, the proportion of these species in relation to N. neglecta was calculated as follows:
Proportion(b) = Nn~b Nb
(1)
where Nb is the number of specimens of the species considered (N. rossii marmorata or N. gibberifrons), and N n is the number of specimens of N. neglecta. Differences between years have been tested with a nested ANOVA design (Table lA) using the arcsin of the square root transformation, which is recommended for the analysis of proportions (Sokal and Rohlf, 1981). Data from Half Moon I. obtained in 1989 are presented in Table lB. As the trammel net is a passive sampling device, catches depend on fish activity. Our assumption is that changes in population sizes will be reflected in proportional changes in catches. Trammel nets of different length and different sampling periods were used in the study. Nevertheless, as the location of nets was kept constant, the same fraction ofthe population was sampled over the years. The resultant increase in variance was dealt with by the nesting observations. It forms part of the error term. As variations between hauls are considered as replicates within months, the sum of squares due to the possible changes in fishing gears and sampling periods are used for the comparison of the higher levels. Thus, the effect will be a decrease in the power of the test.
265
3 . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION As expected, all N. rossii marmorata specimens collected were juvenile. N. gibberifrons individuals were mainly juvenile, with a limited number of adults. This catch composition, found at a water depth of 5 to 50 m, is in agreement with the known pattern of depth distribution of N. gibberifrons. Figure 3 shows the yearly total catches of N. rossii marmorata and N. gibberifrons at Potter Cove, expressed as proportions (Equation 1). An overall declining trend is evident for both species, and its significance is demonstrated by the ANOVA results (Table 2). Published information on fjord-fish taken at similar depths in sites close to Potter Cove and Moon Bay contain data on accumulated catches for non-comparable periods. To make these data comparable with ours, we calculated from them the proportion of catches of N. rossii marmorata and N. gibberifrons in relation to N. neglecta, with the following results: 0.12 N. rossii marmorata and 0.044 N. gibberifrons in summer 1965/66 at Moon Bay (Bellisio, 1967); 0.38 N. rossii marmorata in December 1969 at Fildes Bay, King George I. and 0.48 N. rossii marmorata in January 1971 at Discovery Bay, Greenwich I. (Moreno and Bahamonde, 1975); 0.43 N. rossii marmorata in summer 1979/80 at Admiralty Bay, King George I. (Linkovski et aI., 1983). It should be noted that data from Fildes Bay and Discovery Bay were obtained by hook and line gears, while at Admiralty Bay gill nets were used. For Half Moon I., combined catches of hook and line gears and trammel nets were reported. Although this information is not fully comparable in significance tests, it is clear that before 1980 the proportion of N. rossii marmorata was well above the Starting point of our series at Potter Cove (1983). Around Half Moon I., the proportion of N. rossii marmorata obtained by Bellisio (1967) in 1965/66 is three times greater than in 1989 (0.038). In this year, there was not a single capture of N. gibberifrons, while a proportion of 0.044 was obtained for this species in 1965/66. The data series obtained at Potter Cove seems to start after the onset of a declining trend (Figure 2). In this area the abundances of N. rossii marmorata and N. gibberifrons attained a minimum during 1985/86. The six to seven years preceding this were characterized by commercial catches in the Antarctic Peninsula, Subarea 48.1 (Kock, 1986; Nast et.al., 1988; Tiedtke and Kock, 1989). This decline was demonstrated as highly significant (Pcommercial fisheries will be low, and recovery to levels close to maximum sustainable yield (MSY) might well take more than two or three decades. REFERENCES BARRERA-ORO, E.R. 1989. Age determination of Notothenia gibberifrons from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula Subarea (Subarea 48.1). In: Selected Scientific Papers 1988, Part II (SC-CAMLR-SSP/5). Hobart, Australia: CCAMLR. pp. 143-160. BARRERA-ORO, E.R. and CASAUX. RJ. 1990. Feeding selectivity in Notothenia neglecta, Nybe1in, from Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 2 (3): 207-213. 266
BELLISIO, N.R. 1967. Peces antarticos del sector argentino (Parte IV): Parachaennichthys charcoti, P. georgianus y Harpagijer bispinnis antarcticus de Bahfa Luna. Publ. Serv. Hidrogr. Nav. 904: 1-57. CASAUX, R.J., A.S. MAZZOTTA and E.R. BARRERA-ORO. 1990. Seasonal aspects of the biology and diet of nearshore nototheniid fish at Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Polar Bioi. 11: 63-72. KOCK, K.-H. 1986. The state of exploited Antarctic fish stocks in the Scotia arc region during SIBEX (1983-1985). Arch. Fischwiss. 37 (Beih. 1): 129-186. LINKOWSKI, T.B., P. PRESLER and C. ZUKOWSKI. 1983. food habits of nototheniid fishes (Nototheniidae) in Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands). Polish Polar Research, 4 (1/4): 79-95. MORENO, C.A. and N. BAHAMONDE. 1975. Nichos alimentarios y competencia por alimento entre Notothenia coriiceps neglecta Nybelin y Notothenia rossii marmorata Fischer en Shetland del Sur, Antartica. Serie Cientfjica del Instituto Antartico Chi/eno, 25/26: 33-34. NAST, F., K.-H. KOCK, D. SAHRHAGE, M. STEIN and J.E. TIEDTKE. 1988. Hydrography, kriU and fish and their possible relationship around Elephant Island. In: SAHRHAGE, D., (Bd.). Antarctic Ocean and Resources Variability. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 183-198. TIEDTKE, J.E. and K.-H. KOCK. 1989. Structure and composition of the demersal fish fauna around Elephant Island. Arch. Fischwiss. 39: 143-169. SOKAL, R. R. and J.F. ROHLF. 1981. Biometry. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. p.859. 267
Table 1: Summary of specimens of each species caught at A) Potter Cove and B) Moon Bay.
A)
Level 1 (years) 1983 1984 1985 1986
Level 2 Number of (months) Replicates
Number of Specimens Caught in Each Replicate
N. neglecta
N. rossii N. gibberifrons
April May June October November
7
2,12,16,15
2,1,4
9
6,5,11,3,6
6,5,2,8
3
13,17,32
1 39
3
26,2,0
4,6,9,5,0 0,3 7,3,2,8,0 0,3,2,6 4,2,2 2 1,16,2
Not recorded
January February March April October November December
5
35,11,18,15 16,4,4,5,5
13
2
3,12
1,2
2
26,31
13,15
6
10,36,5,24
2,5,2,5,2
5,19
1
2
21,20
11,10
2
10,25
1,3
3
28,16,25
11,4,6
April May August September October
5
5,11,8,14,24 0,1,3,7,3
5
10,14,28,7
0,6,3,4,2
31
3
56,8,25
4,0,1
3
41,15,21
0,0,2
19
0
1,8,16,1,3 11,13,3,15 13 2,14,0 3,0,13 1
February March April May December
3
27,20,8
9,2,2
3,4,1
4
16,40,34,27 0,0,3,2
1,14,1,2
6
34,29,27,33 0,2,1,0,0,1
1,4,0,3,0,1
32,11
2
28,25
4,0
2,0
5
37,14,11,29 4,0,1,0,3
20
1,0,0,0,0
268
Table lA) (continued)
Level 1 (years) 1987 1988 1990
Level 2 Number of (months) Replicates
Number of Specimens Caught in Each Replicate
N. neglecta
N. rossii N. gibberifrons
January February March April May November December
2
35,12
2,2
3
6,17,22
1,1,0
3
23,37,18
0,0,0
4
27,33,48,31 0,0,2,0
2
12,26
1,3
1
70
6
4
2,26,21,44
0,0,2,1
0,0 0,0,0 0,0,0 1,0,1,1 0,0 °0,0,0,0
January October November December
3
18,51,13
2
7,48
2
21,9
2
23,33
1,1,0 6,0 4,0 0,0
0,0,0 0,2 0,0 0,0
January
10 26,5,25,16,7 0,0,1,0,0
9,2,7,21,5
0,0,1,1,0
0,0,1,0,0 0,0,0,2,0
B) Year 1989
Month January February
Number of Replicates
Number of Specimens Caught in Each Replicate
N. neglecta
N. rossii N. gibberifrons
2
57,52
2,1
0,0
1
95
5
°
269
Table 2: ANOVA of proportions of N. gibberifrons and N. rossii marmorata using the arcsin of square root transfonnation.
a) N. rossii marmorata
Source (Level) Years Months (Error)
DF
Sum of Mean Square
Squares
6 11908.306 27 6158.961 86 15503.397
1984.718 228.110 180.272
F 8.7007 1.2654
Probability Percentage of Variance
0.00003 0.20592
34.4055 5.0655 60.5291
b) N. gibberifrons
Source DF (Level)
Years
4
Months
17
(Error)
53
Sum of Squares 8458.203 2335.601 5388.212
Mean Square 2114.551 137.388 101.664
F 15.3911 1.3514
Probability Percentage of Variance
0.00002 0.19897
54.0275 4.8200 41.1525
270
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Figure 2: Annual mean catches-per-haul (number of specimens).
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Figure 3: Annual catches of N. rossii andN. gibberifrons expressed as proportions of N. neglecta catches (see text, Equation 1).
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Tableau 1: Tableau 2:
Liste des tableaux a Recapitulatif des specimens de toutes les especes capturees A) Potter Cove et B) dans la baie Moon. ANOVA des proportions de N. gibberifrons et de N. rossii marmorata, utilisant la transformation de l'arcsinus par racine carree.
Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3:
Liste des figures Emplacement des sites d'echantillonnage: (A) Baie Moon, (B) Potter Cove. Captures annuelles moyennes par trait (nombre de specimens). Captures annuelles de N. rossii et de N. gibberifrons exprimees proportionnellement aN. neglecta (voir texte, equation 1).
Ta6JIH~a 1: Ta6JIH~a 2:
CnHCOK Ta6JIH~ CBO,l{HOe onHcaHHe oco6eti Ka)l{.llOrO BH.lla, BbIJIOBJIeHHbIX B patioHax: A) 6yxTa lloTTep-KoYB H B) 3aJIHB MYH-Eati. AHaJIH3 ANOVA npo~eHTHoro OTHOrneHH5I N. gibberifrons H N. rossii marmorata npH HCnOJIb30BaHHH apKcHHyca npe06pa30BaHH5I KBa.llpaT- Horo KOpH5I.
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Tabla 1: Tabla2:
Lista de las tablas Resumen de ejemplares de cada especie capturados en: A) Caleta Potter y B) BahIa Luna. ANOV A de las proporciones de N. gibberifrons y N. rossii marmorata, utilizando la transformaci6n del arcoseno de la raiz cuadrada.
Figura 1: Figura2: Figura 3:
Lista de las figuras Lugares de recolecci6n de muestras: (A) Bahfa Luna; (B) Caleta Potter. Media anual de las capturas por lance (numero de ejemplares). Capturas anuales de N. rossii y N. gibberifrons expresadas en relaci6n alas capturas de N. neglecta (ecuaci6n 1, vease texto).
274

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