Books in media ethics, CG Christians

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Content: BOOKS IN MEDIA ETHICS Compiled and annotated by CLIFFORD CHRISTIANS College of Communications University of Illinois The following bibliography includes major books devoted explicitly to media ethics. They are arranged chronologically. After a productive 1920s and early 1930s, no book on journalism or broadcasting ethics appears again until 1963; this 30- year interruption reflects the influence of positivism on the journalism enterprise. More than half of all the entries have emerged in the last decade. While contemporary books are not much more sophisticated than those of the 1920s, this compilation indicates it is precisely a highly productive time for media ethics. A professor in the College of Communications at the University of Illinois-Urbana, Christians has written widely on the subject of media ethics.
PUBLICATIONS IN MEDIA ETHICS Compiled by VERNON JENSEN Department of Speech-Communication University of Minnesota Vernon Jensen, now Professor Emeritus in the Department of Speech-Communication, was on the University of Minnesota faculty from 1959 until his retirement in 1993. He taught courses in the areas of argumentation, ethics, British public address, rhetorical criticism, and Asian communication. He is the author of four books, the latest being Ethical Issues in the Communication Process (1997), and has published approximately 75 articles and book reviews in various communication and related journals in this country and abroad. The following bibliography of articles and books on media ethics is arranged alphabetically by author.
BOOKS IN MEDIA ETHICS Crawford, Nelson A. The Ethics of Journalism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1924. A commentary on the press' moral deficiencies, aiming to guide students and to stimulate the formation of professional codes. Three chapters apply "the principle of objectivity" and four chapters emphasize the character and importance of setting professional standards. Flint, Leon Nelson. The Conscience of the Newspaper. New York: D. Appleton, 1925. The author begins with actual cases from various press activities (editorials, reporting, advertising, etc.) and gives suggestions on how ethical problems in each area should be treated. This textbook examines in parts two and three more general difficulties inherent in the newspaper's nature and in the forces shaping its future. Gibbons, William Futhey. Newspaper Ethics: A Discussion of Good Practice for Journalists. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Edwards Bros., 1926. This mimeographed volume discusses principial questions arising from ethical practice as a context for forming professional codes and organizations equivalent to those of medicine and law. Henning, Albert F. Ethics and Practices in Journalism. New York: Long and Smith, 1932. A textbook aiming to sensitize students ethically, built from 40 years of journalism experience. Emphasizes moral duty to one's colleagues and to citizens, and demonstrates how that principle operates across selected newspaper problems. Gerald, J. Edward. The Social Responsibility of the Press. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1963. Views the mass media as a social institution and attempts to evaluate how effectively they are serving society. The proposals for improvement which arise from Gerald's review of media performance are substantive and complex. Haselden, Kyle. Morality and the Mass Media. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1968. Attempts to apply an enlightened Christian moral perspective to mass media contents, dealing especially with censorship, sex, obscenity, commercialism, and violence. Thayer, Lee (Ed.). Communication: Ethical and Moral Issues. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1973. A compilation of addresses given at the University of Iowa in 1969-1970 by well-known academicians, several of them internationals. Concludes with an attempt to sketch out the direction an "ethics of communication" should take theoretically. Merrill, John C. The Imperative of Freedom: A Philosophy of Journalistic Autonomy. New York: Hastings House, 1974; New York: Freedom House, 1990. A provocative exploration of the philosophical roots of journalistic ethics in which the 1
author's dedication to libertarian ideals comes through strongly. Heine, William C. Journalism Ethics: A Case Book. London: University of Western Ontario Library, 1975. Twelve case studies gathered largely from British and Canadian (Ontario) press councils. They cover such topics as advertising, invasion of privacy, secret documents, sensational photos, and the reporting of scandal. Official responses and legal opinions are included for a few cases. Merrill, John C. And Barney, Ralph D. (Eds.). Ethics and the Press: Readings in Mass Media Morality. New York: Hastings House, 1975. A collection of articles and addresses concerned with ethical considerations in reporting news. Part One deals with philosophical and theoretical issues, and Part Two presents ethical dilemmas faced in everyday journalism. Johannesen, Richard L. Ethics in Human Communication. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press, 1975; 2nd ed., 1983; 3rd ed., 1990; 4th ed., 1996. Outlines several perspectives within which students can make ethical judgments about communication--political, dialogical, situational, and religious, for example. Ranges across interpersonal, organizational and mass media forms. Includes chapters on codes of ethics, feminist contributions and intercultural communications. Worthwhile case studies, footnotes and bibliography. Hulteng, John L. The Messenger's Motives: Ethical Problems of the Mass Media. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1976; 2nd ed., 1985. Surveys the standards by which today's media operate, and investigates how successfully they live up to these guidelines distilled from contemporary codes and accepted practices. Looks at news and the ethical problems of those who write, edit, produce, and report in print and broadcasting. Alley, Robert S. Television: Ethics for Hire? Nashville: Abington, 1977. Based on interviews with Norman Lear, Alan Alda, Earl Hammer and other prominent television producers. Provides insight into the aims and ethics of industry pacesetters in areas such as violence, pornography, and materialism. Casebier, Allen and Casebier, Janet (Eds.). Social Responsibilities of the Mass Media. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1978. Proceedings of a conference on mass media responsibility sponsored by the University of Southern California. Two or three general chapters on professional rights and obligations. The others deal with specific issues in journalism (presidential elections, coverage of women 2
and ethnic groups) and entertainment programming (pro- and anti-social images, controversial content, responsibility of producers). Rubin, Bernard (Ed.). Questioning Media Ethics. New York: Praeger, 1978. Collection of general articles on journalism ethics, plus coverage of specific problems such as the fairness doctrine, stereotyping of women, the third world, and small-town journalism. Two comprehensive chapters describe the ways journalists have been portrayed in motion pictures. Swain, Bruce M. Reporters' Ethics. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1978. Readable summary of the ethical problems faced by 67 reporters from 16 metropolitan dailies who were interviewed by the author. Christians, Clifford G. And Covert, Catherine L. Teaching Ethics in Journalism Education. New York: Hastings Center Monograph, 1980. Surveys the state-of-the-art in ethics teaching and reviews the substantive issues in journalism ethics today. Outlines four instructional objectives. Volume in the series on professional ethics done for the Hastings Center. Phelan, John M. Disenchantment: Meaning and Morality in the Media. New York: Hastings House, 1980. Phelan proposes that a public philosophy ought to arise from the humanities which can address issues of new media technology and cultural freedom. He contends that media ethics ought not to be reduced to codes and to professional dilemmas, while neglecting theoretical foundations. Rivers, William L.; Schramm, Wilbur; Christians, Clifford G. Responsibility in Mass Communication. 3rd ed. New York: Harper and Row, 1980. A classic text on media ethics first published in 1957. Argues for social responsibility theory, which means freedom from government and from business constraints in order to serve society through principles of fairness and truth. Includes a case study on minorities and makes recommendations for the government, media, and public. Thayer, Lee (Ed.). Ethics, Morality and the Media. New York: Hastings House, 1980. Twenty-seven essays and speeches--mostly by practitioners--on the current status of media ethics. Includes a long introduction by the editor, "Notes on American Culture." Covers film, newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and advertising. Among the contributors are Edwin Newman, Christopher Lasch, Ben Bagdikian, and George Gallup. Tompert, Hella (Ed.). Ethik und Kommunikation: Vom Ethos des Journalisten. Stuttgart, Germany: 3
Katholische Akademie, 1980. Lectures from a conference on journalism ethics organized by the Katholische Akademie at Stuttgart. Includes parochial discussions about the best Christian strategy for influencing the media. However, most of the material addresses journalism as a social institution and confronts in a sophisticated way structural issues regarding ownership and obligation. Vander Meiden, Anne (Ed.). Ethics and Mass Communication. Utrecht, Netherlands: State University of Utrecht, 1980. Fourteen original essays from selected authors in such countries as the Netherlands, Korea, United States, Finland, Belgium, Britain, and Germany. Covers news, television effects, advertising, ethics in developing countries, an overview of the United States, and specialized topics. Christians, Clifford G. and Gjelsten, Gudmund (Eds.). Media Ethics and the Church. Kristiansand, Norway: International Mass Media Institute, 1981. Proceedings of an International Conference represented especially by third world countries. Contributions in three areas: "Christian Perspectives on Media Ethics," "Debates in Secular Media Ethics," and "Practical Models for Christian Professionals." Includes theory, print media, broadcasting, advertising, performing arts, and the New International Information Order. Hulteng, John L. Playing It Straight: A Practical Discussion of the Ethical Principles of ASNE. Chester, Conn.: Globe Pequot Press, 1981. The author examines the Statement of Principles of the American Society of Newspaper Editors through a discussion of cases. The principles include freedom of the press, responsibility, impartiality, and fair play. Vander Meiden, Anne. Reclame en Ethiek [Advertising and Ethics]. Leiden/Antwerp: H.E. Stenfert Kroese, 1981. This Dutch book deserves translation into English. It sets advertising as a system in its larger cultural context and includes stimulating material on such macro issues as modern consumption, hedonism and image-building. The author is sympathetic to the vigorous critiques leveled against advertising from political and academic viewpoints, yet insists that an ethically justified system is possible. Truthfulness emerges as the primary ethical standard. Can be used as a textbook for advertising and society courses. Christians, Clifford G.; Fackler, Mark; Rotzoll, Kim B.; McKee, Kathy Brittain. Media Ethics: Cases and Moral Reasoning. New York: Longman, 1983; 2nd ed., 1987; 3rd ed., 1991; 4th ed., 1995; 5th ed., 1998. Seventy-eight case studies and commentaries are presented on the major ethical issues in 4
news, advertising, public relations and entertainment. Includes an introductory chapter on "Ethical Foundations and Perspectives," and an annotated bibliography. The Potter Box is used as a device for reaching ethically justified conclusions. Goodwin, H. Eugene and Smith, Ron F. Groping for Ethics in Journalism. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1983; 2nd ed., 1987; 3rd ed., 1994. Explores a variety of issues such as conflicts of interest, deception and misrepresentation, privacy, sources, and compassion. Based on interviews with a wide-ranging sample of professionals and academics, and a review of the codes and literature. Calls for a set of principles that can guide the journalism profession. Merrill, John C. and Odell, Jack S. Philosophy and Journalism. New York: Longman, 1983. Eight chapters in which substantive issues regarding the journalism profession are treated philosophically: Logic, semantics, epistemology, morality, axiology, rhetoric, political theory, and metaphysics. Meyer, Philip. Editors, Publishers and Newspaper Ethics. Washington, D.C.: American Society of Newspaper Editors, 1983. Report of comprehensive research into publishers' attitudes toward ethics as compared with those of editors. Discovers four types of publishers--politician, partisan, statesman, absentee--and investigates their values regarding selected ethical issues and case studies. Includes a generous amount of data in the final section. Elliott, Deni. Toward the Development of a Model for Journalism Ethics Instruction. Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard University, 1984. Provides a detailed description of three methods for teaching journalism ethics. The author proposes a tri-foundational theory based on moral obligations to society, peers, and to oneself. Includes an assessment of the literature in journalism ethics. Boventer, Hermann. Ethik des Journalismus: Zur Philosophie der Medienkultur. Konstanz: Universitatsverlag Konstanz Gmbh, 1984. Boventer lectures on journalism ethics at Bonn and Munich. This massive book of 506 pages includes highly theoretical material on "The Hermeneutics of Understanding," for example, and generous attention also to professional concerns such as "The Journalist in Self Reflection" and "Good and Bad in Journalism." McCulloch, Frank (Ed.). Drawing the Line. Washington, D.C.: American Society of Newspaper Editors, 1984. A joint project of the Poynter Institute for Media Studies and the American Society of Newspaper Editors. Contains 31 case studies written by editors who describe their most 5
difficult moral dilemmas. Schmuhl, Robert (Ed.). The Responsibilities of Journalists. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1984. Papers and speeches presented at a Notre Dame Conference. Mixture of media professionals, journalism educators, and ethicists. Includes the Michael Miller hypothetical case with important commentary. Schmuhl introduces the volume with an essay on the history and nature of responsibility. Goldstein, Tom. The News at Any Cost: How Journalists Compromise Their Ethics to Shape the News. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985. Examination of the techniques used by the press when gathering news. The author's experience as a veteran reporter and journalism educator produces a wealth of inside detail about plagiarism, deception, credibility, money, and inaccuracy. Lambeth, Edmund B. Committed Journalism: An Ethic for the Profession. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986; 2nd ed., 1992. The author uses his background in political theory to argue for enduring principles as the framework for journalistic practice--such as truthtelling, justice, stewardship, humanness, and freedom. Includes references throughout to moral philosophers. Elliott, Deni (Ed.). Responsible Journalism. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1986. Chapters on theory and practice with an extensive bibliography. Elliott and Hodges define the concept of responsibility in the opening chapters. The other contributors (Barney, Christians, Dennis, Glasser, Linsky, Merrill, Ziff) then apply this notion to important issues in contemporary journalism. Klaidman, Stephen and Beauchamp, Tom L. The Virtuous Journalist. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. A veteran journalist and philosopher collaborate in this volume on news reporting in the context of First Amendment freedom. While not implying "that virtues can or should replace rights and duties" (p. 20), the chapters present a set of virtues essential for ethical practice in journalism: "Reading for Truth," "Avoiding Bias," "Avoiding Harm," "Serving the Public," "Maintaining Trust," "Escaping Manipulation," and "Inviting Criticism and Being Accountable." Meyer, Philip. Ethical Journalism. New York: Longman, 1987. Represents a systematic attempt to understand the decision-making process in the news business. It is based on research originally done for ASNE of 300 newspaper staffs nationwide. The framework is established in the first two chapters from the values and 6
ideals represented in the First Amendment, and in written and unwritten codes of ethics. Four major problems are analyzed: advertiser influence, objectivity, conflict of interest, and privacy. A section on media organizations is included, and Part IV investigates possible solutions through readers, ombudspersons and news councils, the market, and a company's ethical audit. Cooper, Thomas W. (Ed.). Television and Ethics: An Annotated Bibliography. Boston: G.K. Hall/McMillan Co., 1988. Compiled and annotated by the staff at Emerson College, with inspiration from their biannual Television and Ethics Conference. Includes over 1,200 citations, 400 annotations, and several overviews of the field. Organizes the entries under such headings as news, entertainment, children and television, regulation, and political coverage. Fink, Conrad C. Media Ethics. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1988; 2nd ed., Allyn & Bacon, 1995. As with the 1988 edition, Fink uses real life examples -- some of them from his own extensive experience with the Associated Presss. Part 1 establishes a systematic decisionmaking process based on the Potter Box, journalistic principles, and ethical theorists. Parts 2-4 examine journalistic practice, the marketplace economy, and media audiences. Part 5 focuses on the public relations industry. Codes of ethics and policy statements are added as 11 appendices. Gjelsten, Gudmund. Mote eller manipulasjon? Om etikk I massemedia. Forlaget, Norway: NKS, 1988. The opposite of manipulation is a normative model for mass communication built on the principles of promoting mental health and social adjustment. The author develops his perspective historically and theoretically, and uses illustrations from audio-visual instruction in schools, print journalism, religious organizations, broadcasting, and family communication. It concludes with the account of a Swedish newspaper that grew dramatically through "quiet reporting with a human face." Gross, Larry; Katz, John Stuart; Ruby, Jay (Eds.). Image Ethics: The Moral Rights of Subjects in Photography, Film and Television. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988; 2nd ed., 1991. A series of original essays on visual ethics that together shift the moral focus to the rights of those photographed. Explores such issues as informed consent, minority representation, bias, and documentaries. It includes several case studies: Westmoreland's libel suit against CBS; Arabs and gays on television; the films "Witness," "The Gods Must Be Crazy," and Wiseman's "Titicut Follies." Isaacs, Norman E. Untended Gates: The Mismanaged Press. New York: Columbia University Press, 7
1988. Isaacs was a long-time voice for journalism ethics and he exposes shortcomings in the press from top to bottom--from owners, publishers and senior editors down to rookie reporters. He is especially concerned in this book over scoops, anonymous sources, lowest common denominator audiences, and maximum profit. Jaksa, James A. and Pritchard, Michael S. Communication Ethics: Methods of Analysis. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1988; 2nd ed., 1994. Based on ten years of team teaching. A variety of case studies are included in each chapter, ranging from interpersonal to organizational communication (the Challenger explosion, for example). A central issue is the current crisis of confidence in spoken and written words as it affects the professions, public figures, and institutions. Applies and develops the moral reasoning of such authors as Lawrence Kohlberg, Carol Gilligan, and Sissela Bok. Olen, Jeffrey. Ethics in Journalism. Old Tappan, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988. This volume was authored by a philosopher, and emphasizes moral arguments on the broad issues rather than detailed accounts of practical problems. Within that framework, Olen's first chapter compares the journalistic process with moral reasoning; he devotes chapter four to fair play, and five to truth and objectivity. Chapter two analyzes codes of ethics, while three discusses the roles. This volume is intended to be used in the classroom with either a book of cases or one on descriptive ethics. Rivers, William L. and Mathews, Cleve. Ethics for the Media. Old Tappan, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988. Noting the similarities between various mass media professions, the authors have designed a single volume covering journalism, public relations and advertising. Each chapter contains exercises for classroom use. Extensive quotations, profiles of scholars, and cases are included throughout. While some chapters focus on ethical issues (sexism, objectivity, truth), others concern media functions (investigative reporting, persuasion, editing.) The introductory chapter provides a background in ethical theory. Cooper, Thomas W. Communication Ethics and Global Change. New York: Longman, 1989. Media ethics scholars representing thirteen countries summarize the state-of-the-art in their area--from Peru to Spain to Russia to Japan. The opening and concluding chapters provide a general framework for assessing this international material. Truth, responsibility, and free expression emerge as common universal appeals. Codes of ethics from across the globe receive major emphasis in the chapters and appendices. Dicken-Garcia, Hazel. Journalistic Standards in nineteenth century America. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989. The author contends that current debates over media ethics have ignored the historical 8
perspective. She examines original sources to describe the development of journalistic standards in the nineteenth century. The focus is on press criticism in order to determine the rules, institutional practices, policies, goals, and codes which characterize media morality. One central research question, for example, is the degree to which truth was important to press critics and journalists. Merrill, John C. The Dialectic in Journalism: Toward a Responsible Use of Press Freedom. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989; 2nd ed. 1993. The most advanced statement of a well-known ethics scholar on the relationship between freedom and responsibility. These two polarlities are synthesized in terms of intellectual history from Heraclitus to Hegel, and from the Greeks generally to contemporary existentialism. The philosophical framework is interwoven with current struggles in the press itself. Nordenstreng, Kaarle and Topuz, Hifzi (Eds.). Journalist: Status, Rights and Responsibilities. Prague: International Organization of Journalists, 1989. A series of surveys of journalistic codes and practices in various countries undertaken in 1984-85 for UNESCO. Section I reviews industrialized countries such as the U.K., U.S.A., Germany and Japan. Section II is an overview of European socialist countires. In Section III, developing countries are selected from Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia. Includes a summary chapter of overall conclusions and an appendix of 10 different codes of ethics. Pippert, Wesley G. An Ethics of News: A Reporter's Search for Truth. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1989. Analysis of ethical issues in news, based on the author's personal experiences with UPI as a U.S. congressional and White House correspondent, and as a reporter in Israel and the Middle East. Focuses on the issue of truthtelling, both its definition and application to journalism. Wunden, Wolfgang (Ed.). Medien Zwischen Markt und Moral: Beitrage zur Medienethik. Stuttgart: J.F. Steinkopf Verlag, 1989. Chapters from twenty academics and practitioners on the ethics of media institutions and professionals. News reporting, children's programming, entertainment film, teaching of ethics, and biblical perspectives are included. Specific emphasis on new technologies, telematics, and global information systems. Benhabib, Seyla and Dallmayr, Fred (Eds.). The Communicative Ethics Controversy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1990. Dallmayr and Benhabib focus on communicative ethics and adapt European views of the 9
subject to Anglo-American styles of thought and relevance. Taking the form of a philosophical debate, the essays on communicative ethics are in turn responded to by the idea's critics. The editors then put the debate into an American perspective and bring the context up to date with links to today's topics. Ermann, M. David; Williams, Mary B.; Shauf, M.S. (Eds.). Computers, Ethics, and Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990; 2nd ed., 1997. Argues that computers are amoral, powerful tools that can be utilized for ethical or unethical purposes. With that in mind, Section I discusses the moral foundation for using computers ethically, it includes material from classical and contemporary ethicists. The issues of computers and the ideal life, including topics such as technology, Section II deals with employment, artificial intelligence, and the quality of life. Section III introduces legal issues that computer professionals must face, such as copyright, computer crime and liability. Gomes, Pedro G. Direto de Ser: A Йtica da Communicгo na Amйrica Latina (The Right To Be: An Ethics of Communication in Latin America). Sгo Paulo: Ediciones Paulinas, 1990. Gomes is the Director of the Center for Communication and of the MA program in Semiotics at the University of Unisinos in Brazil. He applies the principles of liberation theology to journalism in the Latin American context. Advocating justice for the poor is the central concept for media professionals, and only if they help sustain hope can the dignity of the oppressed be maintained. Introduces Catholic authors, documents and teachings. Lowenstein, Ralph L. and Merrill, John C. Macromedia: Mission, Message and Morality. New York: Longman, 1990. With a heavy emphasis on ethics in media, the authors explore principles from a historical and philosophical perspective. They examine challenging issues related to mass communication and society worldwide to stimulate thought about mass communication in general. Day, Louis A. Ethics in Media Communication: Cases and Controversies. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1991; 2nd ed., 1997. The three opening chapters introduce students to ethical theory and to a model of moral reasoning in three steps: definition, analysis, decision. Seventy hypothetical cases are included, each with a brief commentary. They are selected from across the media professions, including news, advertising, public relations, and film entertainment. The standard topics comprise eleven chapters, with stereotyping and juvenile audiences also given full-chapter treatment. Denton, Robert E. (Ed.). Ethical Dimensions of Political Communications. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991. 10
Discusses the different aspects of communication and ethical issues in today's political system. With contributions by Political scientists and communications scholars, this book covers campaigns, the media, politicians, speeches, and the nature of the public. Chapter topics include teledemocracy, ghostwriting, political advertising, and polling. Denton argues for an active citizenship based on a high level of information. Ferrй, John P. and Willihnganz, Shirley C. Public Relations and Ethics: A Bibliography. Boston: G.K. Hall and Co., 1991. This bibliography focuses on ethics in the field of public relations. Containing the annotated list of nearly three hundred works, the volume is the first exhaustive publication with its focus. About half of the books entered are from the eighties or beyond, but the bibliography contains entries from as far back as 1922. Over a dozen search engines were used. Greenberg, Karen Joy (Ed.). Conversations on Communication Ethics. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing, 1991. Communications ethics is divided into three parts: the history of systems of account making, individual and social systems of account making. In each section of the book, several authors give different opinions and develop different views on the topic, with the purpose of enhancing our ethical sensitivity rather than prescribing inflexible creeds. The contributions struggle with relativism, the tension between ends and means, balancing reason and emotion, entertainment in modern culture, God and devil terms, the credibility gap in government, freedom and fairness in reporting, and specific cases such as the Arab-Israeli conflict. Juusela, Pauli. Journalistic Codes of Ethics in the CSCE Countries. University of Tampere, 1991. Written shortly after some of the great changes in Europe--the reunification of Germany, etc.--Juusela discusses the codes and morality of journalism in contemporary Europe. He focuses on the 35 states that signed the Helsinki Act in 1975 (Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe). Twenty-four nations' ethical codes or systems are included. Matelski, Marilyn J. TV News Ethics. Boston: Focal Press, 1991. This work looks at the history and practice of television news from the perspective of relationism -- that is, Mannheim's approach connecting broad principles with social settings. Special problems in TV news ethics are covered in chapter 3: tragedy, international news, celebrities, and recreating news events. Other chapters focus on broadcast codes, the TV news director, and the future of TV news. Patterson, Philip and Wilkins, Lee. Media Ethics: Issues and Cases. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1991; 2nd ed., 1994; 3rd ed., 1998. Fifty-seven cases are arranged under nine problem areas, including persuasion, photojournalism, cyberspace and entertainment. Discussion starters are included with each 11
case, moving the discussion from particulars to the general and abstract. The book primarily aims to provide modules for newswriting, media and society, advertising, public relations, communication technology, and photojournalism courses. Chapter one provides a survey of ethical theory, and each chapter includes a short introduction to the relevant theory. Besley, Andrew and Chadwick, Ruth (Eds.). Ethical Issues in Journalism and the Media. New York: Routledge, 1992. Ethics is a major dimension of journalism and the media because they are built on such fundamental values as democracy, freedom, truth, honesty, objectivity, and privacy. This textbook for students emphasizes the idea that the press's role is to provide information, and therefore, its ethical purpose is maintaining the quality of its content. Belsey and Chadwick teach at the University of Wales College of Cardiff; they use contributors for this volume from the United Kingdom. Hausman, Carl. Crisis of Conscience: Perspectives on Journalism Ethics. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1992. Through the use of philosophy and logic, and by making connections across history and literature, the author develops the basic principles of journalistic ethics: accuracy, objectivity, social responsibility, fairness and professional conduct. These guidelines are then applied to conflicts and everyday dilemmas in news reporting, such as profit versus responsibility, privacy versus the public's right to know. The aim is critical self-examination among practitioners. Thomassen, Niels. Communicative Ethics in Theory and Practice. Trans. John Irons. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. This book is grounded in the belief that ethics is irrevocably linked to people's lives, that it cannot be understood unless in the context of experience. Thomassen, a professor of philosophy in Denmark, looks at a wide range of interpersonal settings to develop the principles of love and solidarity. The work of philosophers Lшgstrup and Habermas are discussed in depth, with more cursory examinations of Hegel and Sartre. Baker, Lee W. The Credibility Factor: Putting Ethics to Work in Public Relations. Homewood, Illinois: Business One Irwin, 1993. For those who work in public relations and related fields, credibility is needed in order to maintain good standing. With extensive use of cases, Baker teaches that ethics and moral values are the foundation for achieving credibility. Chapters include pressures and challenges, reacting to crisis, restoring and implementing credibility, and the pros and cons of ethical codes. 12
Black, Jay; Steele, Bob; Barney, Ralph. Doing Ethics in Journalism: A Handbook With Case Studies. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1993; 2nd ed., 1995; 3rd ed., 1998. This handbook for students in journalism teaches them how to make ethical decisions in the many choices and problems journalists confront every day. It treats ethics as a skill that is learned and acquired, not as a universal answer to every situation. Takes the form of three sections: codes of ethics and ethical decision making, case studies/checklists (accuracy and fairness, privacy, deception, diversity, plagiarism, etc.), and survey/bibliography. Done in cooperation with The Society of Professional Journalists. Christians, Clifford G.; Ferrй, John P.; Fackler, Mark. Good News: Social Ethics and the Press. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. This book develops a communitarian model as the press' framework in democratic societies. It is designed as a theoretical alternative to the individualistic approach to media ethics that has dominated since the Enlightenment. Communitarian theory (ch. 3) is applied to be the content (ch. 4) and institutional structure (ch. 5) of the news media. McElreath, Mark P. Managing Systematic and Ethical Public Relations. Dubuque, Iowa: Brown and Benchmark Publishers, 1993. 2nd ed., 1996. This book introduces both general systems theory and ethical guidelines for managing PR programs. It emphasizes research priorities and ethical theories for guiding public relations practice. It contains a very detailed outline of the eleven chapters and excellent case studies. An appendix includes several codes of ethics and the United Nations Bill of Rights. Hurst, John and White, Sally A. Ethics and the Australian News Media. South Melbourne, Australia: Macmillan Education Australia, 1994. Discusses the ethics and morality of the Australian Press, in terms of the roles that the media and journalists play in Western society generally. Hurst and White cover all aspects of reporting and journalism, including topics such as privacy, business pressures, the press' role in guarding and informing society, the confidentiality of sources, and reporting on gender and race. Several codes of ethics are included as appendices. Kasoma, Francis P. (Ed.). Journalism Ethics in Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: African Council for Communication Education (ACCE), 1994. Contains commentary by several authors on various aspects of journalism ethics in Africa. It is divided into two parts, one containing theoretical approaches to exploring journalism ethics in African nations, and the other including practical issues (photojournalism, news selection, nudity, and coverage of rituals, for example). Knowlton, Stephen R. and Parsons, Patrick R. (Eds.). The Journalist's Moral Compass: Basic Principles. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1994. 13
The authors' purpose is to describe the basic moral and intellectual principles that form the foundation of contemporary American journalism. There are three sections: the relation of the press to the state, problems of truth and objectivity, and the economics of journalism. This is an anthology of 24 readings that to varying degrees give journalism its sense of direction, from Milton, Hobbes, Locke, Mill, Plato, Adam Smith, Upton Sinclair, Marx, Francis Bacon, Pulitzer, and others. Limburg, Val E. Electronic Media Ethics. Boston: Focal Press, 1994. Critical issues in broadcast ethics are examined -- in radio, television, entertainment, broadcast news, advertising and telecommunications. Includes specific examples such as violence and advertising alcohol, and refers to important individuals as illustrations pro and con (Murrow, Limbaugh, Stern, and Aimee Semple McPherson, for example). Uses historical and theoretical approaches, as well as professional codes, for ethical guidelines. Moore, Roy L. Mass Communication Law and Ethics. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, 1994. Update, 1996. Media law and ethics are irrevocably tied, but this is the first book to combine them explicitly. It discusses legal restraints on journalists and the media, as well as moral restraints from the ethics of journalism. Chapters include prior restraint; government policy; broadcasting; libel; right of privacy; public access to records, JUDICIAL PROCESS, and meetings; intellectual property; and indecency and obscenity. Russell, Nicholas. Morals and the Media: Ethics and Canadian Journalism. Vancouver, British Columbia: University of British Columbia Press, 1994. Public concern over the media and journalism's proper roles is discussed in this handbook. Russell addresses various issues -- such as sensationalism, misquoting sources, violence, commercialism, and reporting only bad news -- while staying focused on ethical codes and standards. At various points, Canadian journalism is compared to U.S. news practices. Sieb, Philip. Campaigns and Conscience: The Ethics of Political Journalism. New York: Praeger, 1994. The relationship between journalists and politicians, and the ethics that apply to the relationship between them, is given an inside look. The author examines the ways that reporters and politicians perform their jobs and responsibilities, including such topics as: screening candidates in deciding who to cover, the campaign bus, covering the character issue, election night projections, and truth-testing political ads. Nordenstreng, Kaarle (Ed.). Reports on Media Ethics in Europe. University of Tampere Publications, 1995. A collection of empirical studies on the way self-regulation is done in the European region. 14
It includes surveys of European media councils, examination of media codes of ethics in general and regarding racism and xenophobia in Europe, and a study of the Finnish journalists' adoption of their own code of ethics. Sieb, Philip and Fitzpatrick, Kathy. Public Relations Ethics. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1995. The ethics of public relations professionals and the ideas surrounding them are discussed. Discusses honestly why PR practitioners are seen as lacking in ethics. Issues such as truth, business constraints, working with the news media, facing crisis, and public relations in government are explored. The book ends with challenges toward a more ethical profession. Alia, Valerie; Brennan, Brian; Hoffmaster, Barry (Eds.). Deadlines and Diversity: Journalism Ethics in a Changing World. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing, 1996. A Canadian anthology in journalism ethics, with contributions from both practitioners and academics. Deals with broad issues such as objectivity, First Nations, ethnic diversity and codes, and with particular problems such as radio talk shows, sports journalism, art criticism and editorial cartoons. Bugeja, Michael J. Living Ethics: Developing Values in Mass Communication. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1996. Our inner values dictate our choices. This volume seeks to strengthen and improve the professional values of journalists. It begins by building an ethical base upon truth and responsibility. Second, this base is tested and applied to lies, bias, manipulation, and temptation. The book ends with enhancing ethics through fairness, empowerment and professional codes. Each chapter includes case studies and values exercises. Gordon, A. David; Kittross, John M.; Reuss, Carol. Controversies in Media Ethics. White Plains, New York: Longman Publishers, 1996; 2nd ed., 1998. An overview of media ethics in general, but focuses on real life issues and the specific responsibilities of those who work in the various forms of mass media. Topics include influence and manipulation for/by the media, political correctness and inclusiveness, as well as advertising privacy and censorship, infotainment, and pornography. The authors debate two sides of the issues and John Merrill offers commentary. Jaksa, James A. and Pritchard, Michael S. (Eds.). Responsible Communication: Ethical Issues in Business, Industry, and the Professions. Cresskill, New Jersey: Hampton Press, 1996. This book explores the way large and complex companies, organizations and professionals rely on communication to be successful and make responsible judgments in the process. The focus throughout is high-risk technology in terms of both ethical theory and practice. Lester, Paul Martin (Ed.). Images That Injure: Pictorial Stereotypes in the Media. Westport, 15
Connecticut: Praeger, 1996. Examines media messages and stereotypes that harm a broad range of cultural groups. Part I and VIII provide a general framework of moral responsibility in this area. The other major sections deal with ethnic stereotypes, and stereotypes based on gender, age, sexual orientation, and the physically disabled. 16 photographs are included in chapter 33 of "Images That Heal." Makau, Josina M. and Arnett, Ronald C. (Eds.). Communication Ethics in an Age of Diversity. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996. The collection of eleven essays in this book, all by leading scholars in the communications field, integrates cutting-edge research with real-world dilemmas. Cultural diversity is approached from the perspective of moral principles, new technologies, and demographic change. Casmir, Fred L. (Ed.). Ethics in Intercultural and International Communication. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997. Seven essays, plus a case study by Deni Elliott on the Hanshin earthquake in Japan. The editor introduces and concludes the book, and contributes a chapter on "the third-culture building model." An essay by Linda Steiner on feminist approaches to ethics is included, as well as chapters on the role of the media, a dialogic ethics for international business organizations, and on a region-based model of proto-norms. Cohen, Elliot D. and Elliot, Deni (Eds.). Journalism Ethics: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 1997. This book reviews the major issues of journalism morality today, including intrusion into privacy, graphic media, computer technology, misleading or manipulative reporting and objectivity. Reference chapters are included on important court cases, journalism codes of ethics, print and nonprint resources, and organizations. Christians, Clifford G. and Traber, Michael (Eds.). Communication Ethics and Universal Values. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Press, 1997. Essays from 13 countries on fundamental values (India, Nigeria, Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Poland, South Africa, Germany, Venezuela, Columbia, United Arab Emirates, for example). The sacredness of life is identified as a universal protonorm, which yields three ethical principles across cultures: human dignity, truthtelling, and non-violence. Jensen, J. Vernon. Ethical Issues in the Communication Process. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997. Develops the issue of ethics across the field of communications -- interpersonal, group, intercultural, organizational, and public settings. Jensen divides his book into the dimensions 16
of the communication process: communicator, message medium, and receivers. Rather than a categorical yes or no, he argues for an ethical quality scale in which degrees of rightness are calculated. Kieran, Matthew. Media Ethics: A Philosophical Approach. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1997. Kieran, a professor at Leeds, uses the philosophical literature and a dialectical method to analyze the major aspects of ethics in all types of media. There are individual chapters on impartiality, deceit and lies, privacy, violence, sex, and media censorship. He also discusses the concepts of good news, responsibility, and information. Knowlton, Stephen R. Moral Reasoning for Journalists: Cases and Commentary. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1997. The American press and media are routinely discredited and frowned upon for moral lapses, but the majority of journalists daily deal with ethical issues on the job in an educated manner. Part one provides the political, philosophical, and economic bases for moral reasoning in journalism. In part two, more than two dozen real life cases are examined in order to apply the author's call for balancing competing elements. Mackin, James A., Jr. Community Over Chaos: An Ecological Perspective on Communication Ethics. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1997. In the postmodern era many experience a fundamental decline in moral values, and ethical standards become ambiguous. But with common sense and some classic concepts from Aristotle, Peirce and Burke, the author believes we can discuss, correct and add to our understanding of moral responsibility. Mackin argues for a pragmatist ecological reciprocity, that is, taking account of the larger "communicational ecosystems" within which individuals and smaller communities act. Merrill, John C. Journalism Ethics: Philosophical Foundations for News Media. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997. Discusses the philosophical foundations of journalism's morality. Rather than looking at specific cases, Merrill takes on the broader issues of ethical theory, truth and objectivity, propaganda, and sources. He proposes ethical mutualism as the best alternative, a synthesis of deontological and consequentialist models. Seeger, Matthew W. Ethics and Organizational Communication. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 1997. Ethics has a long tradition, extending all the way back to the Greeks. But, only recently has communication ethics been reinvigorated to begin examining human communication as a whole. Seeger takes an in-depth look at the many aspects of organizational communication ethics, including such topics as employee rights, privacy, free speech, whistleblowing, and leadership. The central argument revolves around the ways ethical equivocality can be 17
reduced through rules and cycles (and especially through communication as the basis of a cycle). Sieb, Philip and Fitzpatrick, Kathy. Journalism Ethics. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1997. Through various case studies and applications the duties of journalists are explored, including such issues as tabloids, conflicts of interest, deception and diversity. Each of the twenty-seven cases is followed by an analysis which asks questions and leaves room for discussion and interpretation by students. Willis, Jim and Okunade, Albert A. Reporting on Risks: The Practice and Ethics of Health and Safety Communication. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1997. This volume discusses issues in journalism that surround health, risk, disasters and safety. The book explores problems with accuracy in reporting as well as other ethical dilemmas that surround medical reporting, and the industries and companies related to health care policy, matters of life and death, sexual abuse, AIDS, and the environment. Emphasizes accuracy and compassion and warns against giving false hope. Cooper, Thomas W. A Time Before Deception: Truth in Communication, Culture, and Ethics. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Clear Light Publishers, 1998. Takes a detailed look at America's indigenous people groups and discusses the traditions and ideas of their ethical systems and forms of communication. It includes historical and theoretical issues, as well as looking at bias and stereotyping in the mass media. This work includes two detailed case studies of Native American nations (Shuswap people of British Columbia and the Navajo people of Arizona). The Foreword is written by Dr. Fox Tree of the Arawak Nation and the Epilogue by Chief Oren Lyons of the Onondaga Nation. Ettema, James A. and Glasser, Theodore L. Custodians of Conscience: Investigative Journalism and Public Virtue. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. This book is based on extensive interviews during the mid-90s with award winning newspaper and television reporters. The authors conclude that investigative journalists are custodians of the public conscience, that is, they call citizens to decide what is or is not an outrage to our sense of moral order. They examine the paradox that investigative reporting confronts vice and virtue without claiming a moral sense of its own. The intellectual foundations of journalism are developed in terms of political, social and moral philosophy. Iggers, Jeremy. Good News, Bad News: Journalism Ethics and the Public Interest. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1998. This volume argues that the traditional standards of journalism and morality (avoiding conflicts of interest, accuracy, objectivity, fairness, etc.) are outdated. Cases of false and controversial reporting ("Jimmy's World" and Lohbeck on Afghanistan, for instance) show 18
that the accepted journalism ethics of today do not help or prevent such situations from occurring in the American press. Develops a pragmatist ethical theory worked out in the context of public journalism. MacDonald, Barrie and Petheram, Michel. Key Guide to Information Sources in Media Ethics. London: Cassell Publishing, 1998. A reference handbook on media ethics around the world. Part I gives an overview, Part II is an annotated bibliography of books and other printed materials. Part III is a directory of organizations and institutions. In addition to the press and broadcasting, includes book publishing, advertising, film, and the new technologies. National Conference for the Study of Media Ethics and Law 1998. Twin Cities, Minnesota: Silha Center for the Study of Media Ethics and Law, 1998. This volume is the complete set of papers presented at a national conference in Minneapolis on the interaction of ethics and law. It is divided into three sections: New Technology and the Law, with presentations on the First Amendment and the Internet; Convergence of Legal and Ethical Issues including the debate over law versus ethics; and, Newsgathering, with papers given on "Food Lion" and other struggles over legal policy and journalistic practice. 19

CG Christians

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