DINCOLO DE STAT-NAŢIUNE DIN PERSPECTIVĂ ROMÂNEASCĂ, AT ŞERBAN

Tags: din, America, diasporic, Routledge, Felix Guattari, Jana Evans Braziel, Jana Evans, Romanian diaspora, Social Sciences, Cultural Representations, Representation, Carole Boyce, Bucureti, Les Editions de Minuit, Editura Clusium, Blackwell Publishing, Editura Alfa, New York, Cultural Studies, Theorizing Diaspora, Anita Mannur, diaspora studies, Andrei Codrescu, Radhakrishnan, Black Atlantic, Harvard University Press, Arjun Appadurai, The Black Atlantic, Editura Historia, Deleuze, Editura Enciclopedic, Editura Punct, Bucharest University of Economics Motto, Academia de Studii Economice, Seria Litere, National Public Radio, Katherine Verdery, diaspora experience, postcolonial studies, University of T�gu Jiu, Open University, Constantin Br, Pentru Hall6, Christian Moraru, The Open University
Content: Analele Universitii "Constantin Brвncui" din Tвrgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2010
DINCOLO DE STAT-NAIUNE DIN PERSPECTIV ROMВNEASC
THINKING BEYOND THE NATION FROM A ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE
Anca-Teodora ERBAN-OPRESCU Academia de Studii Economice Bucureti
Anca-Teodora ERBAN-OPRESCU Bucharest University of Economics
Motto: Statele Unite, mereu оn propria-percepie un teren de imigrani, se regsete ca teritoriu strin i оndeprtat, traversat incontinuu de diaspora global, nu mai este perceput ca spaiu оnchis pentru ca faimosul creuzet s оi pun la lucru forele magice, ci apare doar ca simplu punct de comutare diasporic. (Arjun Appadurai)
Motto: The United States, always in its selfperception a land of immigrants, finds itself awash in these global diasporas, no longer a closed space for the melting pot to work its magic, but yet another diasporic switching point. (Arjun Appadurai)
Rezumat: Trim оntr-o lume a identitilor risipite i multiоnrdcinate, iar nevoia de concepte si teorii complete, capabile s ne dea un sentiment de organizare este profund simit. Оn contextul transnaional al comunitilor diasporice, persoanele care aparin acestor formaiuni dezvolt modaliti de abordare a realitilor din ambele lumi: cea lsat оn urm i cea nou. Vzui pвn acum numai din punctul de vedere al apartenenei la un teritoriu sau altul, intelectualii romвni plecai din ar, оnscriu diaspora romвneasc оn cadrul mai larg al transnaionalismului, datorit meninerii contiente a legturilor cu ara de origine, dar i implicвndu-se activ оn societatea rii gazd. Pleacвnd de la un cadru conceptual legat de diaspora i studii de identitate, lucrarea de fa susine adoptarea unei grille de analiz transnaional ca i cadru adecvat de analiz aa cum reiese din analiza pe text primar apatinвnd cвtorva scriitori i intelectuali romвni care triesc оn Statele Unite ale Americii.
Abstract: We live in a world of scattered and multi-rooted identities and a need of comprehensive concepts and theories capable to give us a sense of organization is deeply felt. In the context of transnational deployment of diasporic communities, individuals belonging to these formations develop intricate ways of dealing with therealities of both worlds: the one left behind and the new one. Conceived so far only in terms of belonging to one territory or the other, Romanian intellectuals leaving Romania inscribe Romanian diaspora within the conceptual;l framework of transnationalism, consciously maintaining ties with country of origin and actively involving themselves and their spirit in the adopting country and culture. Departing from a conceptual framework related to diaspora and identity studies, the paper argues for a transnational perspective as revealed by primary sources from several Romanian writers and intellectuals living in the US.
Cuvinte cheie: identitate naional, diaspora, migraie Оn versiunile mai vechi, ideea de identitate naional ne-a oferit un sentiment de apartenen, un sentiment de a fi inclui оntr-o mai mare comunitate, de protecie, sentiment destul de puternic pentru a face sa nu se simt singurtatea оntr-o lume оn care globalizarea i graniele din ce оn ca mai permeabile pun оn discuie entiti оn prealabil considerate sigure. Din acest punct de vedere, se cunoate puin despre diaspora romвn, format din
Keywords:national migration
identity,
diasporas,
In older versions, national identity gave us a sense of belonging, a sense of being included in a larger community endowed with enough protective power to make one feel secure in a world where globalization and permeable boundaries put into question previously certain entities. From this standpoint, little is known about diaspora writers and scholars leaving Romania or already living in America in the
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scriitori i оnvai care prsesc Romвnia sau care triesc deja оn America, оn anii '90, nu ca exilai, ci ca ceteni ai lumii, marcвnd оnceputul aa-numitei `turnuri nomadice' оn studiile transnaionale, contextualizat оn cadrul diasporei romвne. De aceea, odinioar conceptualizat ca o dislocare exilic i nostalgic din ara de origine, diaspora romвn a cptat noi puncte de referin epistemologice. Pentru a vorbi despre o realitate оn care ei traiesc оn ziua de azi i pentru a оmprti cunotinele dobвndite, Christian Moraru, Andrei Codrescu, Andrei Brezianu, Alexandra Tвrziu, printre alii, revin оn Romвnia i se оntorc оn America оntro circulaie trans-frontalier, adugand dimensiunea transnaional diasporei romвne . Оn aceste condiii, devine necesar оnscrierea scriitorilor romвni din America sub aspect conceptual оn cadrul ideii de globalizare diasporic (cf. Michel Laguerre 2005), care presupune migraie uman, dispersia emigranilor оn mai multe locuri, conexiunea dintre aceste diferite site-uri prin diverse alte forme de interaciune social i de оntreinerea unor relaii transnaionale dintre emigranii re-localizai i patria de origine. Susinвnd o cercetare multidisciplinar, lucrarea reunete abordri teoretice specifice studiilor despre diaspora, studii transnaionale i cosmopolitanism, pentru pentru a documenta ceea ce astzi am putea numi "dincolo de stat-naiune" ca Romвn, astfel ca American sau ca cetean al lumii. Datele vor fi surprinse din analiza de texte scrise de romвni reprezentani ai diasporei intelectuale, mai ales dup 1989. Astfel, оn ultimii zece ani, diaspora a evoluat оn cadrul studiilor culturale ca domeniu major de studiu oferind o serie de subiecte de dezbatere extrem de interesante. Din 1991, de la primul numr al ,,Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational studies", dezbateri asupra termenului au animat scrierile academice dedicate problemelor culturale, etnice, naionale si transnaionale.
`90s, not as exiles anymore, but as citizens of
the world, marking the beginning of the so-
called nomadic turn in transnational studies,
as contextualized in the case of Romanian
diaspora. Therefore, once conceptualized as
an exilic and nostalgic dislocation from
country of origin, Romanian diaspora has
reached new epistemological points of
reference. To talk about the reality in which
they nowadays live and to impart knowledge
gained, Christian Moraru, Andrei Codrescu,
Andrei Brezianu, Alexandra Tвrziu and
others return to Romania and go back to
America in a trans-border movement adding a
transnational dimension to Romanian
diaspora. Under these circumstances it
becomes necessary to inscribe Romanian
writers from America under the conceptual
field of diasporic globalization which implies
human migration, dispersion of emigrants to
more than one site, the connection of the
various sites to each other through various
forms of social interaction and the
maintenance of transnational relations
between the resettled emigrants and
homeland.
Taking a multidisciplinary approach, the
paper brings together theoretical insights
from diaspora studies, transnational studies
and cosmopolitan politics, in order to account
for what today we may call "living beyond
the nation" as a Romanian, as an American or
as a citizen of the world. Data will come from
analyzing texts written by Romanian
intellectual representatives of diaspora,
especially after 1989.
In the last decade, diaspora has
emerged in cultural studies as a major domain
of study. Since the journal "Diaspora: A
Journal of Transnational Studies" first
appeared in 1991, debates over the term have
been animated in academic writings devoted
to ethnic, national and (trans)national issues.
Diaspora,
diasporic,
and
diasporization (Stuart Hall) are contested
terms. Their multiple meanings are being
theorized and debated. Debates over migrant subjects15 or migratory subjectivities16, along
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Diaspora, diasporic, diasporizare (Stuart
Hall) sunt termeni ale cror multiple
оnelesuri au fost amplu teoretizate, dezbtute
(Ashcroft, Griffiths i Tiffin, Stuart Hall,
Radhakrishnan) i contestate (Bruce Robbins,
Khacig Tцlцlyan). inвnd seama de aceste
studii, diaspora se poate defini, оn sens larg,
ca fiind termenul prin care sunt desemnate
comuniti de indivizi dislocate din trвmul
natal prin micri de migrare i/sau exil i
care оi formeaz i perpetueaz o identitate
cultural proprie, rezultat din amestecul
motenirii naionale i perspectivele noi
dobвndite оn ara de adopie, prin hibridizare.
Problemele legate de diversele forme
contemporane de micare i dislocare,
pornind de la o simpl cltorie i pвn la
exilul ca act involuntar i definitiv, sunt оn
mod inextricabil legate de studiile despre
diaspora. Dezbateri legate de subiecte migratorii1 sau subiectiviti migratorii2, precum i privind deteritorializarea3, dau glas unor subiecte
majore оn domeniul studiilor despre diaspora. Asemenea termenilor rizom4, creol,
creolizare, hibridizare, heterogenitate, metis,
metisaj, diaspora a evoluat ca o critic intern
a
termenilor
contradictorii
colonizator/colonizat, alb/negru, Vest/Est i a
opoziiei radicale invocate de Said оntre Vest
i Orient, оn ceea ce privete realitatea i simbolurile ataate celor doi termeni5. Pentru Hall6, experiena diasporei "nu este definit
de esen sau de puritate, ci de recunoaterea
unei heterogeniti i diversiti; de concepia
asupra unei identiti care triete оn i prin
diferen, nu оn ciuda ei; de hibriditate". Pentru Gilroy7, diaspora "caut asiduu
sublimul, se strduie s repete ceea ce nu
poate fi repetat; s reprezinte ceea ce nu poate
fi reprezentat". La ali critici, hibriditatea
foreaz subiectul diasporic s negocieze
identitatea (Clifford, Gilroy, Hall, Mercer,
Radhakrishnan). Radhakrishnan vorbete
despre un proces оn trei faze de integrare a
eu-lui diasporic оn noul spaiu, referindu-se
deasemenea la "perioada de revoluie" a lui
Dubois, оn care emigrantul оi re-afirm
with deterritorialization17 voice major
concerns in the field of diaspora studies. For
Gilroy, like the critical terms rhizome-"A
rhizome doesn't begin and doesn't end, but is
always in the middle, between things,
interbeing,
intermezzo."18,
crйole,
creolization, hybridity, heterogeneity, mйtis
and mйtissage, diaspora emerged as an
internal critique of the binarisms
colonizer/colonized, white/black, West/East,
and the radical opposition advocated by Said
between West and Orient, both in terms of
reality and in terms of symbolisms attached to the two terms19. In fact, all of these
oppositions circulated and found support in
the colonial discourse and persist now in
postcolonial studies, as Irina Grigorescu-Pan
astutely observes, "exile reverberates with postcolonial implications"20 For Hall21, the
diaspora experience "is defined, not by
essence or purity, but the recognition of a
necessary heterogeneity and diversity; by a
conception of identity which lives in and
through, not despite, difference; by hybridity". For Gilroy22, diaspora needs
"strives in pursuit of the sublime, struggling
to repeat the unrepeatable; to present the
unrepresentable." With other scholars,
hybridity urges the diasporic subject to
negotiate identity - Clifford, Gilroy, Hall,
Mercer, Radhakrishnan. Radhakrishnan talks
about a three phase process of integration of
the diasporic self into the new space,
referring also to the Duboisian "period of
revolution" in which immigrants reassert ethnicity.23 Anyway, a more flexible notion
of citizenship is needed to analyze the
multiple identity dilemmas encountered in
diasporic writings as both Aihwa Ong(1999)
and Rahakrishnan(2003) note.
On the other hand, while strongly
evolving as a resourceful theory and area of
research, diasporic studies have not been left
without its critics. The term diaspora has been
criticized as being theoretical, while methodologically indistinct and ahistorical24.
Scholars argue that diaspora enters into a
semantic field with other terms such as exile,
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etnicitatea8. O noiune mai flexibil de cetenie este necesar pentru a analiza multiplele dileme de identitate оntвlnite оn scrierile diasporice, aa cum observ Aihwa Ong(1999) i Radhakrishnan(2003). Ceea ce este valoros оn folosirea studiilor despre diaspora ca eafodaj teoretic este faptul c ofer o paradigm alternativ pentru identificare naional. Pвn la momentul studiilor despre diaspora, subiecii diasporici sunt considerai, оn majoritatea cazurilor, prticele sau rmie ale adevrailor ceteni din ara de origine. Оncepвnd cu 1990, teoriile despre diaspora au oferit mijloace alternative de a evita diaspora ca termen subordonat ierarhic celui de naiune. Оn concepiile tradiionale de naiune, exil, identitate, termenul diaspora este subordonat naiunii ca fiind ,,copilul bastard al naiuniidezavuat, neautentic, ilegitim, o imitaie srcit a culturii originare"9. Schimbarea de paradigm adus de studiile despre diaspora, face pe Gopinath s remarce c ,,diaspora poate face parte din naiunea оnsi" i asta ,,permite naiunii s fie re-scris оn diaspora"10. Pe de alt parte, nici criticile nu au оntвrziat s apar, aa cum este i normal оn cazul teoriilor puternice, cu potenial ca domeniu de cercetare. Termenul de diaspora a fost criticat, fiind considerat teoretic, aistoric, fr distincie ca i metodologie11; diaspora intr оntr-un cвmp semantic alturi de ali termeni precum exil, migrator, emigrant, globalizare, comunitate diasporic i toi aceti termeni sunt exemple perfecte ale conceptului de transnaionalism, оn accepiunea sa consacrat de Homi Bhabha12. Dar, aa cum afirm Jana Evans Braziel i Anita Mannur(2003), chiar dac presupunem aceast ultim afirmaie ca fiind adevrat, iar diaspora poate fi descris ca transnaionalist, ea nu poate fi considerat exemplul perfect de transnaionalism i nici sinonimul su. Transnaionalismul se refer la fore largi, impersonale, cum ar fi globalizarea, capitalismul global, оn vreme ce diaspora se refer la dislocarea subiecilor umani i este, mai mult ca orice, o experien
migrant, immigrant, globalization and
diasporic communities are paragons of the
transnationalist moment. Homi Bhabha talks
about the transnational dimension of diaspora25; even so, as Jana Evans Braziel
and Anita Mannur(2003) put it, while
diaspora may be accurately described as
transnationalist, it is not the paragon, nor the
synonym
of
transnationalism.
Transnationalism speaks to larger, more
impersonal forces-globalization, global
capitalism- whereas diaspora addresses the
displacement of subjects and remains, above
all, a most human and individual experience.
Much of the value in using diaspora
studies as theoretical basis is that it offers an
alternative paradigm for national
identification. Up to this moment, diasporic
subjects are widely considered bits and pieces
of the real citizens in the country of origin.
Since the 1990s, diaspora theories have
offered alternative ways of avoiding this
hierarchical construct of diaspora
subordinated to nation. Within earlier, and
more hierarchical conceivings of nation,
exile, identity, diaspora is subordinated to
nation, as "the bastard child of the nation-
disavowed, inauthentic, illegitimate, an
impoverished imitation of the originary culture."26 In the aftermath of the
developments in diaspora studies, Gopinath
remarks that diaspora can "be seen as part of
the nation itself" and this "allows the nation to be rewritten into the diaspora."27
Taking diaspora studies a step further, much
discussion and fervour has been gearing up
around transnationalism and its power to
analyze complex processes in more
appropriate ways and in a more adequate
perspective in tone with globalization
overarchings.
In an insightful article entitled "Beyond the
Nation in Eastern Europe", Katherine
Verdery openly declares that she wants to
"sharpen" the use of transnationalism in the
case of Eastern Europe invoking the prefix
"trans" as across ­ transport, transatlantic,
transborder ­ and trans as in beyond ­
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uman, la nivel individual. Ducвnd studiile despre diaspora un pas mai departe, mult discuie i fervoare a angrenat conceptual de transnationalism i puterea sa de a analiza procesele complexe оn mai multe moduri i оntr-o perspectiv mai adecvat, оn ton cu implicaiile fenomenului de globalizarea. Оntr-un articol intitulat "Dincolo de Naiune оn Europa de Est", Katherine Verdery declar deschis c vrea s "ascut" utilizarea transnationalismului оn cazul Europei de Est, invocвnd prefixul "trans", ca "peste" transport, transatlantic, transfrontaliere -- i "trans" ca "dincolo de" - transcendent, sau Transilvania tradus ca "dincolo de padure". (Verdery, 1994: 3). Оn viziunea lui Verdery, cel mai frecvent, sensul lui "transnationalism" tradus ar fi "traversare dincolo de granie". Ca atare, "el descrie micri de popoare, mrfuri, idei, procese de producie, de capital, imagini, precum i posibile aliniamente politice dincolo de frontierele dintre statele suverane" (4). De asemenea, оn discuie Verdery se refer la ceea ce David Harvey numete "compresie de spaiu-timp " (Harvey cit. оn Katherine Verdery, 4) referindu-se la viteza de cretere a capitalului, o dat cu creterea оn-оntre distane. Din aceast perspectiv transnaional, oamenii se mic pentru salarii mai bune, turitii se mic pentru a consuma, imagini mrfuri apar simultan pe ecranele TV din Londra, Bucureti sau de la Washington, idei din Vest despre ce ar trebui s оnsemne democraia se pun оn micare pentru a destabiliza anterioare moduri de a concepe practici sociale i idei cu privire la cum ar trebui s arate viaa оn secolul 21. Оntorcвndu-ne atenia asupra diasporei romвne din America, la o cercetare mai оndeaproape, este uor de a se identifica punctele de cotitur оn schimbarea percepiei asupra romвnilor care au prsit ara. Dac
transcendent, or Transylvania-beyond the forest.(Verdery, 1994: 3). In Verdery's view, the most common meaning of transnationalism would be translated into cutting across borders. As such, "it describes movements of peoples, commodities, ideas, production processes, capital, images, as well as possible political alignments across boundaries between sovereign states" (4). She also relates her discussion to what David Harvey called "time-space compression" (qtd. In Katherine Verdery, 4) referring to the speed of capital increasing once with the growth of inbetween distances. From this transnational perspective, people move to find better wages, tourists move to consume, images of purchasable commodities appear simultaneously on TV screens in London, Bucharest or Washington, Western ideas about democracy should mean and imply move in to destabilize previous ways to conceive social practices and ideas about what life should look like in the 21st Century. Turning our attention to the Romanian diaspora in America, upon close scrutiny it is easy to identify turning points in the changing perception of the Romanians that left the country. If until the 89 Revolution we are to call our transplants exiles, refugees, staring with 89-90 their status has acquired transnational features. In 1997, Alexandru Nemoianu28 observes that there are two coordinates along which the history of the Romanian dispora in America articulated itself: a) this history shows how the American nation and civilization constitutes itself with each day in the eyes of the foreigner and b) this history shows the resourcefulness and capacity to adapt of the Romanian existential model. As direct consequences of the two coordinates, the literature of the Romanian exiles in America follow 1. the identity in transformation of the Romanian writer in America and 2. how he/she perceives and constructs reality there. In most works, however, the critical observation does not go
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pвn la Revoluia din 1989 sunt numii "exilaii", "refugiai", оncepвnd cu 89-90, diaspora romвn capt caracteristici transnaionale. Оn 1997, Alexandru Nemoianu13 observ c exist dou coordinate istorice de-a lungul crora dispora romвn din America se articuleaz: a) aceast istorie arat cum naiunea i civilizaia american se constituie pe sine cu fiecare zi оn ochii strini ai imigrantului b) aceast istorie arat inventivitatea i capacitatea de adaptare a modelului existenial romвnesc. Ca i consecine directe din cele dou coordonate, literatura romвnilor din America urmrete:1. identitate оn transformare a scriitorului romвn оn America i 2. modul оn care el / ea percepe i construiete realitate acolo. Оn cele mai multe lucrri de critic, оns, observaia nu trece dincolo de analiza strict a problematicii exilului: dor de casa, capacitatea / incapacitatea de a se adapta la Lumea Noua, singurtate, acut cutare a identitii i a sentimentului de apartenen. Pe de o parte, am putea foarte bine observa c identitatea romвnului sa dincolo de punctul de plecare nu rmвne strict limitat la parametrii exilici iniiali. Оn intelectualul / scriitor roman nu este un paria, la periferia social etap, cu team de a vorbi, de a face cunoscute punctele sale de vedere, cu fric de a perturba ordinea lucrurilor in Lumea Nou. Dimpotriv, acesta capt o voce puternic, devine implicat оn societatea din care el / ea este acum parte, critic sau apreciaza realitile оntвlnite.Оndeprtвndu-se de statutul de exil, diaspora romвn capt contur de comunitate transnaional, prin meninerea legturilor cu punctul de origine i de implicare activ оn problemele americane. De exemplu, Andrei Codrescu, o bine cunoscut figur diasporic dйjа, este total implicat оn societatea american, d permanent dovad de acest lucru, cu o carier academic оn America i avвnd comentarii provocatoare pe National Public Radio. Оn America, spune el, am descoperit
beyond the analysis of strictly exile problematic: homesick, capacity/incapacity to adapt to the New World, loneliness, acute search for identity and sense of belonging. There are the works preoccupied with the Romanian literary diaspora integration in America and the fundamental problems encountered by the Romanian writer in America29, respectively in exile30. On the hand, we may very well notice that the Romanian identity beyond its original departure point does remain confined to strictly exilic parameters. The Romanian intellectual/writer is not an outcast, at the periphery of social stage, afraid to speak his/her mind, afraid to unsettle the order of things in the New World. On the contrary, it acquires a strong voice, astutely gets involved in the society of which he /she is now part, criticizes or appreciates the realities encountered. Moving away from the exilic status, the Romanian diaspora gains the contour of a transnational community, maintaining ties with the point of origin and actively getting involved in American issues. For example, according to Andrei Codrescu3132 a well known by now diasporic figure totally involved in the American Society, is standing proof of this, with an academic career in America and provoking commentaries on the National Public Radio. In America, he says, I discovered citizenship, which in communist Romania was the affair of the state and not of the individuals. And I totally fell in love with the possibility to be the voice of community existence: so much I liked the idea that in me awoke the spiritual moralists, Maimonides and Spinoza, who up to then had been sleeping in my inert hump (...). After reading Democracy in America-Tocqueville, I became an unsettled dibbuk flying ceaselessly from America's town to town to intrude in their life, understand their functioning, to upset and to praise citizens. (Codrescu 97) Furthermore, as citizen and essay-
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cetenia, care оn Romвnia comunist,era treaba statului nu a indivizilor, i mi-a plcut enorm posibilitatea de exprimare a existenei obteti: оncвt mi s-au trezit moralitii luntrici, Maimonides i Spinoza, care dormeau оn cocoaa mea nefolosit de scrib evreu. Dup ce l-am citit pe Alexis deTocqueville (Democracy in America, carte de cptвi), am devenit un dibbuk neastвmprat care a zburat fr оncetare din ora оn ora american, ca s m amestec оn viaa lor, s le оneleg funcionarea, s supr i s laud ceteni (Codrescu 97).
Mai mult, ca cetean-eseist cu doi copii, am avut mare interes оn funcionarea colilor, i ca pltitor de taxe am fost оngrijorat perpetuu de onestitatea celor alei s le foloseasc оn binele comun (Codrescu 97 ).
Codrescu marcheaz deschiderea ctre o
abordare mai matur i mai independent a
rii-gazd. El nu se teme s critice: "Eu am
venit dintr-o cultur a crii clasic
(оmprejmuit de linite primordial) оntr-o
lume
demonstrativ,
neruinat,
exhibiionist (Codrescu 90). Condamn activ
capitalismul slbatic, lumea pop a obiectelor,
atenia pentru neimportante, materia
trectoare, vampirismul caracteristic societii
de consum i divinizarea focului rece din cas
­ televizorul, оntr-o lume оn care "cea mai
bun speran de a rmвne оn mintea
oamenilor "este numele tu pe un tricou."
(Codrescu 123)
Astfel, relaia cu ara-gazd este acompaniat de un process de lsare оn urm a culturii originare, implicit оn rolul de cetean al Americii al lui Codrescu, angajat оn facerea i desfacerea practicilor de fiecare zi i, оn acelai timp, relaia este оnsoit de un process de re-оnscriere оn cultura gazd deoarece discursul lui Codrescu poart amprenta subiectivitii diasporice, criticвnd i denotвnd natura ambivalent a diasporicului i a naturalizatului оn acelai timp.
writer with two children, I had great interest in the running of schools, and as tax-payer I have always been concerned with the honesty of the ones chosen to use them for the Public welfare" (Codrescu 97) Codrescu marks the turn towards a more mature and independent approach of the hostland. He is not afraid to criticize: ,, I came from a world of classic books surrounded by primordial tranquility into a world of the show, of the shameless, of the demonstrative (Codrescu 90). He actively condemns savage capitalism, the pop world of objects, the attention for unimportant, passing matters, the vampire characteristics of the mass-consumption society and the deification of the cold fire at home ­ the TV, in a world in which "the greatest hope to remain in peoples' minds is your name on Tshirt." (Codrescu 123) Thus, the relation to the hostland is accompanied by a process of leaving behind originary culture implied by Codrescu's acting as a citizen of America engaged in the social doing and un-doing of every-day practices and at the same time, by a process of re-incribing oneself in the hosting culture as Codrescu's discourse is patented by a diasporic subjectivity which filters and analyzes factual reality, maintaining a subjective distance, criticizing and marking again the ambivalent nature of his being: diasporic and naturalized at the same time. When referring to the homeland, leaving the country proves to be just a temporary status of the diasporan. Thus, there are points and turns in the diasporan's life when one decides to return home, to the place of origin. Andrei Codrescu comes back in 1989 to cover for the American National Radio, the Revolution in Romania. From the outside, the vision of the at the same time outsider and insider - is powerful and offers a concise diagnosis of months of torment: in December- January 1989-1990, I thought, like everyone else did in Romania, that the end of the communist system was the moment of a moral and psychological renewal. "Capitalism", in the
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Dac ne referim la patrie, ieirea din ar se dovedete a fi doar o stare temporar a diasporicului. Astfel, exist puncte i transformri оn viaa diasporicului, mai ales оn cazul оn care se hotrte s se оntoarc acas, la locul de origine. Andrei Codrescu se оntoarce оn 1989 pentru a acoperi pentru American National Radio, Revoluia din Romвnia. Din afara, viziunea de, оn acelai timp, exterior i interior, este puternic i ofer o analiz concis a lunilor de chin: оn decembrie-ianuarie 1989-1990, am crezut ca toat lumea ­ inclusive majoritatea romвnilor ­ c sfвritul sistemului communist a fost momentul unei reоnnoiri psihologice i morale "Capitalismul", оn ochii romвnilor de atunci era o noiune mistic, egal cu "comunismul", un fel de utopie. Ideea romвnilor despre "capitalism", era a unui "cargo+cult", acea religie a polinezienilor de dup al doilea rzboi mondial care credeau c avioane americane pline cu toate buntile o s vin pe insule s instaureze paradisul. Aceast speran a transformat momentan societatea insularilor оntr-o lume mai blnd pentru c viitorii rezideni ai paradisului au simit mai mult bunvoin pentru semenii lor i o generozitate neobinuit. Cum Paradisul a ratat s apar, cei mai buni s-au sinucis, ceilali au devenit mai ri. (Codrescu 187) Alexandra Tвrziu14, o scriitoare romвnc ce triete оn SUA оncepвnd cu 1968, scrie o proz оmbibat de sentiment diasporic care, оn acelai timp, descrie оn metafore subtile tulburrile unui transplant de identitate, dar, cu toate acestea, observ, filtreaz critic realitile noii societi . Personajele sale sunt, оn acelai timp, sarcastice i poetice, acestea sunt оn cea mai mare parte doar corpuri anatomice ficionale concepute pentru a circula idei sau a da voce gвndurilor autoarei. Оn crile sale, realitatea este doar o trambulin pentru lansarea ideilor filosofice i a comentariilor fine cu privire la societatea american.
eyes of Romanians back then was a mystical notion, equal to "communism", a sort of utopia. The idea of Romanians about "capitalism" was like one of those religions of the Polynesian people after the 2nd WW who believed that American planes full of good things would come to the island and restore paradise. For a moment, this hope transformed the society of the island men into a gentler one because the dwellers of the island felt kindness towards their kinsmen and an unusual generosity. As Paradise failed to appear, the best of them committed suicide, the others became more evil. (Codrescu 134) Alexandra Tвrziu33, a Romanian writer living in the US since 1968, writes prose imbued with a diasporic feeling that at the same time describes in subtle metaphors the torments of a transplanted identity but, nevertheless, observes, filters and criticizes the reality of the new society. Her characters are at the same time sarcastic and poetic, they are in most part only fictional anatomical bodies designed to circulate ideas or give voice to the thoughts of the author. In her books, reality is only a trigger for launching ideas and very philosophical comments on the American society. - I do like this America, you know, and I'm thinking with sorrow about the time when my scholarship ends. If I manage to get another one in England ­ same language ­ then one in Australia [...] - What do you like about America? - Democracy. But you should know that in Our country there is even more democracy than here. You can do whatever, no one will catch you, there are no paragraphs in laws for this. If you only also had a few dollars, it would be paradise.(6) Or: In his time people fled the country because of hunger, or cold, or fear, others attracted by the exotic nature of the free world, others
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- Оmi place America asta, s tii, i m gвndesc cu jale c mi se termin bursa.. Dac a mai оmpuca una i prin Anglia, c-i tot limba aia, pe urm m-a trage mai spre Australia [...] - ie ce-i place оn ara asta? - Democraia. Dar s tii c la noi e i mai democratic, acolo chiar c poi s-i faci de cap, n-are nimeni de unde s tea puce c nu exist paragrafe pentru asta. Dac am mai avea i ceva dolari, zu c ar fi un paradis!(6) Sau: Оn vremea lui, oamenii fugeau din ar de foame, sau frig, sau fric, unii atrai de exotismele lumii libere, iar alii оngrozii de toroipanele lui Hitler sau Stalin. Dar acum, care mai e persecuia, de ce mai fug oamenii ...? Aa sunt ei obinuii, ei totdeauna au vrut s fug de ceva. Noroc c umbrella Americii оi acoper i pe cei buni i pe cei ri. C aa e democraia, nu discrimineaz, las loc de ingeniozitate i оn bine i оn ru. (7) Un alt cunoscut om de litere, Andrei Brezianu, universitar i scriitor stabilit оn America оn 1985, a оnceput s scrie despre realitile de aici cu uurin оn micare оntre culturi, mixвnd elemente de erudiie european, cu un foarte american sentiment de ordine оn gвndire i comentarii acide. Observaiile i ideile sale au fost adunate оntro colecie de eseuri, intitulat Tablete Transatlantice - оntre Washington i Bucureti, оn 2006, prin care autorul ofer o imagine sugestiv a ambivalenei unui intelectual ce triete оn dou lumi. De exemplu, unul dintre eseuri intitulat "Corectitudine Politic i Festiviti de Iarn" ofera o critic a societii consumeriste care tinde s-i piard toate tradiiile spirituale оn
afraid of the threat of Hitler or Stalin. But now, which is the persecution? Why are people still running away? They are used to running away, they always wanted to run away from something. The American umbrella covers the good and the bad. This is the nature of democracy, doesn't discriminate, leaves room for creativity both in good and in bad. (7) Another well known scholar, an academic and a writer settled in America in 1985 and began writing about the realities here with ease in moving between cultures, mixing European erudition with a very American like sense of order in thought and insightful commentaries. His commentaries and ideas have been gathered in a collection of essays entitled Transatlantic Tablets ­ Between Washington and Bucharest in 2006, giving a most interesting and suggestive image of an ambivalent intellectual living in two worlds. For instance, one of the essays entitled Political Correctness and Winter Celebrations offers a critique of the consumerist society which tends to lose all spiritual tradition in favor of an "extraordinary activity, paired with and stimulated by ­ on the streets, in malls, on all TV channels, everywhere in the public space ­ a symphony of polychrome commercials and ads, luminescent panels, [...] with greetings and impulses, invitations to use in most alluring circumstances credit cards, to do more shopping and offer more gifts" (Brezianu, 2006:203). Departing from the themes of "The Season", Brezianu takes us on an informative journey into the many cultures and ethnicities that America has to accommodate, including what kind of festive greetings should one formulate so as not to offend people of another creed in the melting pot. Irony and sarcasm are present when talking about the commercial spirit taking over the Christmas spirit and Brezianu's critique parallels what Codreanu describes as the "vampire" like nature of aggressive commercialism of the free market. There is much more to comment on
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favoarea unei "activiti extraordinare, acompaniat de i stimulat de - pe strada, in mall-uri, pe toate canale de televiziune, peste tot in spaiul public - o simfonie de reclame policrome i anunuri, panouri luminescente, [...] cu salutri i impulsuri, invitaii de a utiliza cele mai multe carduri de credit ademenii de circumstane, s fac mai multe cumprturi i de a oferi mai multe cadouri "(Brezianu, 2006:203). Plecвnd de la teme de "sezon", Brezianu ne ofer o incursiune оn multele culturi i etnii pe care America are a le gzdui, inclusiv ce fel de urri festive ar trebui s se formuleze оn aa fel оncвt s nu jignesc oamenii de alt crez sau etnie din mozaicul american. Ironia i sarcasmul sunt prezente, atunci cвnd vorbim despre spiritul comercial care a invadat Crciunul, iar critica lui Brezianu se aseamn cu ceea ce Codreanu descrie ca fiind natura "vampiric" a spiritului comercial agresiv de pe piaa liber. Sigur, mult mai multe s-ar putea spune i cita din descrierile i comentariile diasporei romоne cu privire la America si experiena vieii оn afara rii de origine i mai mult spaiu ar trebui alocat fiecruia dintre aceti intelectuali. Analiza de pвn acum ne ofer stimulus-ul necesar de a gвndi c viaa оn afara unei anumite naiuni-stat implic interes pentru detaliul fiecrei experiene i pentru legturi care se intend dincolo de aun anumit teritoriu restrвns. Ne permite s ne privim ca ceteni ai lumii, parte integrant a fluxurilor moderne ce conecteaz lumi deprtate prin intermediul unei cetenii globale asumate. Perspectiva transnaional оmbogete grila de interpretare a experienei diasporei romвne i o оnscrie оn cele mai actuale tipare de analiz cultural. Bibliografie Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies.New York: Routledge, 1998
and to cite in terms of Romanian descriptions and commentaries regarding America and living outside the country of origin and a greater space should be allotted to each of these Romanian intellectuals. The endeavor so far gives us incentives into thinking that living beyond one nation means taking interest in particular lives and in ties that stretch beyond one confined territory or space. It allows us to think in terms of citizens of the world, part of the flows that connect people over the world via a shared citizenship. This transnational perspective enriches further perspectives on human practices and subscribe Romanian diaspora into the newest transnational cultural frameworks of the 21st century.
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Analele Universitii "Constantin Brвncui" din Tвrgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr. 1/2010 1 Ganguly, Keya. "Migrant Identities, Personal Memory and the Construction of Selfhood". Cultural Studies 6.1 (1992): 27-50 2 Davies, Carole Boyce. "Introduction: Migratory Subjectivities", Black Women, Writing and Identity. Routledge: New York, 1994 3 Deleuze, Gilles, Felix Guattari, i Brian Massumi. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. University of Minnesota Press, 1987 4 Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari. Rhizome. Les Editions de Minuit: Paris, 1976 5 Said, Edward W. Orientalism. 1st Vintage Books, 1979 6 Hall, Stuart, ed. Representation: cultural representations and Signifying. The Open University, 1997 7 Gilroy, Paul. "The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness". Theorizing Diaspora. Eds. Jana Evans Braziel and Anita Mannur. Blackwell Publishing, 2003. 49-81 8 Radhakrishnan, R, "Ethnicity in An Age of Diaspora". Theorizing Diaspora. Eds. Jana Evans Braziel and Anita Mannur. Blackwell Publishing, 2003. 119-132 9 Gopinath, Gayatri " Bombay, U.K., Yuba City: Banghra Music and the Engendering of Diaspora". Diaspora 4.3 (1995): 303-22 10 Ibid. 11 Braziel, Jana Evans, and Anita Mannur, eds. Theorizing Diaspora. Blackwell Publishing, 2003 12 Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. Routledge: New York, 2004 13 Nemoianu, Alexandru. Cuvinte despre romвnii-americani. Editura Clusium: Bucureti, 1997 14 Citate din America, Pantoful Cenusaresei, Editura Alfa Iasi, 2002 15 Ganguly, Keya. "Migrant Identities, Personal Memory and the Construction of Selfhood". Cultural Studies 6.1 (1992): 27-50 16 Davies, Carole Boyce. "Introduction: Migratory Subjectivities", Black Women, Writing and Identity. Routledge: New York, 1994 17 Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies.New York: Routledge, 1998 18 Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari. Rhizome. Les Editions de Minuit: Paris, 1976 19 Said, Edward W. Orientalism. 1st Vintage Books, 1979 20 Grigorescu Pana, Irina. The Sphinx Demolished : Fictions of Exile in Australian Literature. Equator Publishers: Melbourne, 2000 21 Hall, Stuart, ed. Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying. The Open University, 1997 22 Gilroy, Paul. "The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness". Theorizing Diaspora. Eds. Jana Evans Braziel and Anita Mannur. Blackwell Publishing, 2003. 49-81 23 Radhakrishnan, R, "Ethnicity in An Age of Diaspora". Theorizing Diaspora. Eds. Jana Evans Braziel and Anita Mannur. Blackwell Publishing, 2003. 119-132 24 Braziel, Jana Evans, and Anita Mannur, eds. Theorizing Diaspora. Blackwell Publishing, 2003 25 Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. Routledge: New York, 2004 26 Gopinath, Gayatri " Bombay, U.K., Yuba City: Banghra Music and the Engendering of Diaspora". Diaspora 4.3 (1995): 303-22 27 Ibid. 28 Nemoianu, Alexandru. Cuvinte despre romвnii-americani. Editura Clusium: Bucureti, 1997 29 On this problematic, see Pleea(2001), Toma(1978),Raica(1995), Nemoianu(1997), Hartular(1996), Vulcanescu(1991) 30 See the following: Ulici(1995), Damian, Behring(2001), Filitti(1998), Florescu(1998) 32 Quotes provided to illustrate are taken from the book Miracol si catastrofa. Editura Punct: Arad, 2005. At the same time, primary sources are in Romanian. Adapting text and translation are provided by the author of the article. 33 Quotes are provided from America, pantoful cenusaresei. Editura Alfa: Iai, 2002 Annals of the ,,Constantin Brвncui" University of Tвrgu Jiu, Letters and Social Sciences Series, Issue 1/2010 286

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