Jordanian undergraduates' motivations and attitudes towards learning English in EFL context, Y Tahaineh, H Daana

Tags: motivation, language learning, English language, learning English, target language, learners, positive attitudes, Jordanian students, English language and literature, Oxford University Press, Second Language Acquisition, foreign language, learning, female undergraduates, International Review of Social Sciences, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, foreign languages, English language learning, C. Baker, questionnaire, teaching of English, RELC Journal, International Journal of Applied Educational Studies, Desire to Learn English, Questionnaire Questionnaire Item No. Likert Scales, English teacher, Bhagalpur University, Multilingual Matters, Native English speakers, foreign language learning, Applied University, Total Chi, language background, Alia University College, the questionnaire, EFL students, Instrumental motivation, language acquisition
Content: International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 4, No. 2 (2013), pp. 159-180 www.irssh.com ISSN 2248-9010 (Online), ISSN 2250-0715 (Print) Jordanian Undergraduates' Motivations and Attitudes towards Learning English in EFL Context Yousef Tahaineh (Corresponding author) Department of English Language and Literature - Princess Alia University College Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, Jordan P.O. Box- 962972, Amman 11196 Jordan E-mail: [email protected] Hana Daana Department of English language and Literature - Princess Alia University College Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, Jordan E-mail: [email protected] (Received: 9-8-12 / Accepted: 24-9-12) Abstract The current study aimed at investigating the two most important social psychological variables: The motivation orientations (instrumental & integrative) of the Jordanian EFL female undergraduates and their attitudes towards learning the target language and its community. A stratified random sample of 184 students majoring English language and literature at Al Balqa' Applied University-Princess Alia University College-Amman, Jordan, was surveyed using the Attitude/ Motivation Test Battery. The eight domains used to achieve the grand aim of the study were:(1) Interest in Foreign languages (2) Parental encouragement (3) motivational intensity (4) Degree of Integrativeness (5) Degree of Instrumentality (6) Attitudes towards Learning English (7) Attitudes toward English-speaking People (8) Desire to Learn English. The findings showed the subjects' greater support of instrumental reasons for learning the English language including utilitarian and academic reasons, However, regarding the integrative reasons, the results provided evidence that learning English as a part of the culture of its people had the least impact in students' English language motivation, whereas their attitudes towards the target language community and its members were generally found to be highly positive. Finally, the study reported some pedagogical implications that would help tap the students' motivation orientations and attitudes. Keywords: Undergraduates, motivation, instrumental, integrative, attitudes, EFL Jordanian context. 1. Introduction The current study concentrates on the two most important social-psychological variables: attitude and motivation of the female undergraduates majoring English at Al-Balqa' Applied University-Princess Alia University College (henceforth, AAU-PAUC) Amman, Jordan, towards learning English. Motivation and Attitudes, being related primarily to actual classroom learning situations, are very decisive and essential contributing factors in the second/foreign language learning process (henceforth L2). The progressive works by Gardner and Lambert since 1959 onwards are dependable proofs that these factors have a great bearing
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on language learning. A plethora of research has been conducted in the study of motivation and attitudes in Second / foreign language learning exploring this area since then, (e.g. Gardner, 1985, 2000, 2001; Gardner and Lambert, 1959, 1972; Gardner, Smythe, and Clement, 1979. These researchers have conducted extensive research on attitude and motivation and their correlation with linguistic performance of learners, emphasizing the role of attitudes and motivation as determinant factors in L2 learning. They proposed that the successful learner of an L2 must be psychologically prepared to acquire symbolic elements of a different ethno-linguistic community, and to impose elements of another culture into one's own life space (Khanna & Agnihotri, 1994). There is a general consensus among these researchers that the most effective way to get insight into the learning process is to study the learners' motivation and attitude towards learning English language. Also, it is generally agreed among researchers that positive attitudes facilitate the learning process, though attitude does not necessarily determine the behavior. Surely, the degree of success in acquiring a second or foreign language (L2) is to a large extent determined by learners' individual differences such as aptitude, attitudes, and motivation. This remains an established fact in applied linguistic research (Baker 2001; Gardner 2001; Gass & Selinker 2001). Though undeniably psychological phenomena, these differences cannot be explained on purely mental grounds. "The original impetus in L2 motivation research comes from the social psychology since learning the language of another community simply cannot be separated from the learners' social dispositions towards the speech community in question (Moiinvaziri, 2008, p.126)". This is because an ESL/EFL learner's motivation in language learning is affected by his/her attitudes towards learning the language. The relation between motivation and attitudes has been considered a prime concern in language learning research. Gardner and Lambert (1972, p.3) state that "his (the learner) motivation to learn is thought to be determined by his attitudes towards the other group in particular and by his orientation towards the learning task itself". Besides, Lifrieri (2005), emphasizes that "attitudes are important, but insufficient conditions for linguistic attainment (ibid, P.14)". Only when works together with motivation proper do attitudinal tendencies related to the levels of student's engagement in language learning, and to attainment". Stephen Krashen (2002) hypothesizes the `affective filter' that consists of various psychological factors, such as anxiety, motivation, and self-confidence, which can strongly enhance or inhibit second language acquisition. An input rich environment is required where the learners can be relaxed, motivated and self-confident in acquiring the second language successfully. Krashen (2002) contends that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good selfimage, and a low level of anxiety are well equipped for success in second language acquisition. Ellis (1997) emphasizes reasons that individuals who are motivated to integrate both linguistic and non-linguistic outcomes of the learning experience will attain a higher degree of L2 proficiency and more desirable attitudes. From what have been said, a better awareness of the importance of students' motivations and attitudes might help EFL curriculum and instruction designers to invent LANGUAGE TEACHING programs that generate the attitudes and motivations which lead to the production of more successful EFL learners (Gardner & Lambert, 1972). Besides, it can help material writers invent and instructors pick up tasks that tackle students' motivation and attitudes (Midraj et al., 2008). The major area of investigation has been done on attitude, motivation, and their subsequent relation to second language performance. Having identified learners' motivation and attitudes towards learning English, the current study was conducted to investigate motivation orientations of Jordanian EFL female undergraduates and their attitudes towards learning the target language and its community. Anyway, the important role of these two social-psychological variables in the learning process, the rarity in the literature regarding studies on EFL undergraduates' motivations and attitudes in the Arab World has been another motive to conduct the present study.
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In the Arab EFL context, a few related studies which have been carried out among Arab students to investigate learners' motivation and attitudes towards the English language. For instance, Qashoa (2006) conducted a study among secondary school students in Dubai. The study aimed at (a) examining the students' instrumental and integrative motivation for learning English, and (b) recognizing the factors affecting learners' motivation. Questionnaire and interviews were employed. The sample, for the questionnaire, consisted of 100 students. For the interviews, on the other hand, the sample included 20 students, 10 Arab English teachers and 3 supervisors. The findings showed that students have a higher degree of instrumentality than integrativeness. Also, the results indicated that difficulties with the subject (English) aspects such as vocabulary, structures and spelling were found to be the most demotivating factors for the students. Another study was that of Al-Quyadi, A., (2000) who looked at Sana'a University English majors' motivation and attitudes towards learning English; it was carried out to investigate the psycho-sociological variables in the learning of English in the faculties of Sana'a in Yemen. The only research tool used was a questionnaire. The study sample consisted of 518 students representing seven Faculties of Education. Generally, the results showed that the students had a high level of both instrumental and integrative motivation toward the English language. With regard to their attitudes, the findings indicated that the students had positive attitudes towards the English language and the use of English in the Yemeni social and educational contexts. In the non-Arab EFL context, Vijchulata and Lee (1985) investigated the students' motivation for learning English in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Based on Gardner and Lambert's research (1972), the researchers developed a questionnaire to elicit the data required. The questionnaire was administered on approximately a thousand students from all the different faculties in UPM. The findings revealed that UPM students are both integratively and instrumentally oriented towards learning the English language. Also a recent study has been carried out by Karahan (2007) in the Turkish EFL context. The main reason of his study emerged from the complaints raised by learners, teachers, administrators, and parents indicating that most of Turkish EFL students cannot attain the desired level of proficiency in English. The results indicated that although the students were exposed to English in a school environment frequently, they had mildly positive attitudes; especially female students had higher rates. In addition, the subjects recognized the importance of the English language but interestingly did not reveal high level orientation towards learning the language. On the other hand, the results indicated that the subjects had mildly positive attitudes towards the English based culture, but they were intolerant to Turkish people speaking English among themselves. Iranian recent studies show similarity in their results, for example, Vaezi (2008) claimed that Iranian students had very high motivation and positive attitudes towards learning English and they were more instrumentally motivated. Whereas Moiinvaziri (2008) claimed that students in her study were highly motivated in both instrumental and integrative orientations. However, to the best of the researchers' knowledge, no study has been conducted to investigate language learning motivation orientations and attitudes of Jordanian EFL female students at tertiary level, in general, and at AAU-PAUC in particular. For these types of learners might have their particular motives and attitudes towards learning English language. The present investigation would contribute to understand such issues with regard to EFL female undergraduates at AAU-PAUC, Amman-Jordan. This could also be of real assistance to serve as a reference for instructors, curriculum planners and syllabus designers at AAUPAUC to re-orient the situation of English language teaching based on students' motivation and attitudes. The main problem, as seems, arises from the very definition of various terms used in social psychological research, especially: 'attitude' and 'motivation'. "It is not always clear in SLA research what the distinction is between attitudes and motivation (Ellis 1985, p.116)". To review the relevant research in this area, let us look into the definition for our better understanding the social psychological factors like attitude, motivation, which the authors of this study would like to highlight for this particular investigation.
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2. The Nature of Motivation "The importance of motivation in human activity has been recognized in the field of social psychology and education for decades (Zahran 1990)". As far as second/foreign language learning is concerned motivation is believed to be at least as important as language aptitude in predicting second language achievement (According to Dejnozka and Kapel "Motivation is a psychological concept in human behavior that describes a predisposition reward a particular behavior to satisfy a specific need (ibid, 1991, p.61)". While, Gardner (2006, p.242) states "motivation is a very complex phenomenon with many facets, hence; it is not possible to give a simple definition". This is because the idea of motivation has been viewed differently by different schools of thought. For example, from the behaviouristic perspective, motivation is "quite simply the anticipation of reward (Brown, 2000, p. 160)". Whereas, the cognitivists view the term motivation as being more related to the learner's decisions as Keller (1983, p.389), quoted by Brown (ibid, p.160), stated, "the choices people make as to what experiences or goals they will approach or avoid, and the degree of effort they exert in that respect". However, in the constructivists' definition of motivation, they put "further emphasis on social contexts as well as the individual's decisions (ibid)". Despite the differences, in all the definitions of motivation given by the three schools of thought the concept of "needs" is emphasized, that is, "the fulfillment of needs is rewarding, requires choices, and in many cases must be interpreted in a social context (ibid, p.161)". Brown (2000, p.160) states that "it is easy in second language learning to claim that a learner will be successful with the proper motivation". With similar views, Gardner (2006, p. 241) reports that "students with higher levels of motivation will do better than students with lower levels". He further adds that "if one is motivated, s/he has reasons (motives) for engaging in the relevant activities, expends effort, persists in the activities, attends to the tasks, shows desire to achieve the goal, enjoys the activities, etc., (Gardner, 2006, p. 243)". Motivation is the most used concept for explaining the failure or success of a learner, i.e. it is an inner source, desire, emotion, reason, need, impulse or purpose that moves a person to a particular action. Motivation has been regarded as one of the main factors that influence the speed and amount of success of foreign language learners. Gardner (1985) defined L2 motivation as "the extent to which an individual works or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity (p. 10)". 2.1. Types of Motivation Several studies about motivation of second/foreign language learners usually distinguish between two main types of motivation namely, instrumental versus integrative motivation. Researchers (e.g. Gardner, 1983, p.203; Wilkins, 1972, p.184) have explained and clarified what is meant by an 'integrative motivation' as: "learning a language because the learner wishes to identify himself with or become integrated into the society of the target language". In other words, a learner is integratively motivated when s/he learns a language because s/he wants to "know more of the culture and values of the foreign language group... to make contact with the speakers of the languages...to live in the country concerned. It is believed that students who are most successful when learning a target language are those who like the people that speak the language, admire the culture and have a desire to become familiar with or even integrate into the society in which the language is used. This form of motivation is known as integrative motivation, which is believed to underlies successful acquisition of a wide range of registers and a nativelike pronunciation ( Finegan (1999, p.568). In contrast to integrative motivation is the form of motivation referred to as instrumental motivation. Gardner defines instrumental motivation as "learning a language because of someone e or less clearly perceived utility it might have for the learner (ibid, 1983, p. 203) ". In other words, a learner is instrumentally motivated when s/he wants to learn a language "in
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order to pass an examination, to use it in one's job, to use it in holiday in the country, as a change from watching television, because the educational system requires it, (Wilkins, 1972, p.184)". Instrumental motivation is generally characterized by the desire to obtain something practical or concrete from the study of a second language (Hudson 2000).With instrumental motivation the purpose of language acquisition is more utilitarian, such as meeting the requirements for school or university graduation, applying for a job, requesting higher pay based on language ability, reading technical material, translation work achieving higher social status. Instrumental motivation is often a characteristic of second language acquisition, where little or no social integration of the learner into a community using the target language takes place, or in some instances is even desired. Many researchers (e.g.Spolsky (1989, p. 160) agree that a language might be learned for any one or any collection of practical reasons. Therefore, Identifying the AAU-PAUC EFL Learners' motivation will be related to the reasons for which they learn the English language. In other words, instrumental or integrative reasons will be considered as far as the students' motivation is concerned. What is important is that the two orientations are not mutually exclusive. Some learners learn better if they are integratively oriented while others are more successful if they are instrumentally motivated and some learn better if they take the advantage of both orientations. In other words, one may have both kinds of motivations: s/he may be instrumentally motivated to pass a test or meet a requirement, but at the same time, s/he may love the culture of a community and want to learn and participate in its culture. Several theorists and researchers have found that it is important to recognize the construct of motivation not as a single entity but as a multi-factorial one. Oxford and Shearin (1994) analyzed a total of 12 motivational theories or models including those from socio-psychology, cognitive development, and socio-cultural psychology and identified six factors that impact motivation in language learning: (1) Attitudes (i.e. sentiments toward the learning community and the target language) (2) Beliefs about self (i.e. expectancies about one's attitude to succeed, self efficacy and anxiety) (3) Goals (i.e. perceived clarity and relevance of learning goals and reasons for learning) (4) Involvement (i.e. extent to which the learner actively and consciously participates in the language learning process) (5) Environmental support (i.e. extent of teacher and peer support and the integration of cultural and outside of class support into learning experience) (6) Personal attributes (i.e. aptitude, age, sex and previous language learning experience). It does not necessarily refer to the direct contact with L2 group while in assimilative motivation learners wish to lose themselves in the target language and become an indistinguishable member of that speech community. What is important is that the two orientations are not mutually exclusive. Some learners learn better if they are integratively oriented while others are more successful if they are instrumentally motivated and some learn better if they take the advantage of both orientations, e.i. one may have the two motivations: s/he may be instrumentally motivated to pass a test or meet a requirement, but at the same time, s/he may love the culture of community and want to learn and participate in its culture. Recently, many psychologists have mentioned other needs including self-esteem, achievement, independency, affiliation, order, endurance, aggression, etc. An important point to be mentioned at this juncture is that during the lengthy process of learning, motivation does not remain constant. It becomes associated with mental processes and internal, external influences that the learner is exposed to. In other words, time is considered an important factor in the nature of learner's motivation. With regard to second/foreign language acquisition (FLA/SLA) studies, the two best-known classifications for motivation are called intrinsic/extrinsic and integrative/instrumental motivation. The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was made by Deci and Ryan (1985) and shows that some motivations may originate from inside or outside the student. Intrinsic motivation is present when one does something such as learning an additional language for the fun of it, for intellectual stimulation, for its worth-doingness, or for what Deci (1975:17) terms "feeling of competence and self-determination". One is said to be extrinsically motivated when s/he learns the language for the sake of external rewards such
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as getting a better job, or passing an exam, or the fear of punishment. In this approach, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation includes both integrative and instrumental types of motivation. It has been argued that although instrumental and integrative types of motivation have their important place in language learning, it is intrinsic motivation that creates the most profitable learning opportunities ( Oxford, R.L. 1996). In other words, those learners who are intrinsically motivated, as opposed to those who are extrinsically motivated, become more proficient in the target language. Intrinsic/ extrinsic motivation is relevant to the term 'locus of control' that was first introduced by Rotter (1966).If a person puts responsibility for her/his life within self, s/he has internal locus of control and is self-motivated character, and if s/he puts the responsibility on others and on circumstances outside self, s/he has external locus of control. For achieving internal locus and self-motivation, one ought to be eager to quit the security of making excuses and to take responsibility of all her/his decisions and actions. Extrinsically motivated behaviours are performed to get a reward from (somebody) outside and beyond the self. In some cases , the two categories of motivation may overlap to some degree because one may be motivated from both an inside source and an outside one at the same time. Generally speaking, both types of motivation play important roles in learning and lack of motivation can cause procrastination because motivation is the driving force that makes people act. In other words, presence of motivation can increase learning behaviour. teachers need to know the type of motivation and its sources to meet the students' particular needs. 3. The Nature and Types of Attitude Attitudes are crucial in language growth or decay, restoration or destruction. Attitudes are internal states that influence what the learners likely to do. The internal state is some degree of positive/negative or favorable / unfavorable reaction towards an object. Some researchers (e.g.Stern 1983, pp.376-7) distinguish three types of attitudes in second language learning situation : '(a) Attitudes towards the community and people who speak the L2 ( group specific attitudes), (b)Attitudes towards learning the language concerned; and (c) Attitude towards languages and language learning in general.' These attitudes are influenced by the kind of personality the learner possesses - for example whether they are `ethnocentric' or `authoritarian'. They may also be influenced by the particular social environment/milieu/ within which the language learning process takes place. Different attitudes, for instance, may be found in monolingual versus bilingual contexts. (Ellis 1985). Brown (2000) uses the term `attitudes' to refer to the set of beliefs that the learner holds towards members of the target language group and also towards his own culture. Attitudes differ in intensity or strength. Language attitude is an important concept because it plays a key role in language learning and teaching. According to Oller (1979, p.138) "Attitudes are merely one of types of factors that give rise to motivation which eventually results in attainment of proficiency in a second language". Several researchers (e.g.Oscamp, 1977; Gardner, 1985; Wenden,1991) consider attitudes as components of motivation in language learning. According to Gardner, "motivation ... refers to the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language plus favourable attitudes toward learning the language" (ibid. 10). Whereas, Wenden (1991) suggested a broader definition of the concept "attitudes". He says that the term attitude contains three components namely, cognitive, affective and behavioural. A cognitive component is made up of the beliefs and ideas or opinions about the object of the attitude. The affective one refers to the feeling and emotions that one has towards an object, 'likes' or 'dislikes', 'with' or 'against'. Finally, the behavioural component refers to one's consisting actions or behavioural intentions towards the object (ibid). While, Oscamp suggests "that theorists who insist on distinguishing them should bear the burden of providing that the distinction is worthwhile, 1977, p.10)". Baker (1988) believed that attitudes are not subject to inheritance because they are internalized predispositions. Attitudes towards a particular language might be either positive or negative.
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Some learners may have negative attitude towards the second language and want to learn it in order to prevail over people in the community but generally positive attitude strengthens the motivation. Some individuals might generate neutral feelings. Attitudes towards language are likely to have been developed by learners' experiences. It could refer to both attitudes towards language learning and attitudes towards the members of a particular speech community. Fasold (1984) claims that attitudes towards a language are often mirrored in the attitudes towards the members of that speech community. The attitudes play an eminent role in determining one's behavior, as the attitude has an impetus act which stimulates the behavior and directs it in a particular direction. Attitudes are some what indirectly related to second language achievement. We can say that improving the positive attitude of the students towards a particular academic subject may increase their desire to learn it, and an ability to apply what they have been taught, as well as an improvement in remembrance. . Baker (1992, p.10) defines attitude "a hypothetical construct used to explain the direction and persistence of human behaviour". Karahan (2007, p.84) avers that "positive language attitudes let learner have positive orientation towards learning English". Researchers, teachers and learners agree that a high motivation and a positive attitude towards a second language and its community (De Bot, Lowie and Verspoor, 2005, p.72) help second language learning" In other words, all who are concerned, agree that high motivation and positive attitudes towards a language, its culture and people help to achieve a certain goal. As such, attitudes may play a very crucial role in language learning as they would appear to influence students' success or failure in their learning, but the question is how they could be measured. Gardner and Lambert (1972) in Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning postulate the theory in brief: This theory, maintains that the successful learner of a second language must be psychologically prepared to adopt various aspects of behaviour which characterize members of another linguistic-cultural group. The learner's ethnocentric tendencies and his attitudes toward the members of the other group are believed to determine how successful he will be, relatively learning the language. His motivation to learn is thought to be determined by his attitudes toward the other group in particular and toward the learning task itself. They distinguished the two types of motivation known as integrative and instrumental motivation. Gardner (1985) designed a test battery known as the Attitude and Motivation Test Battery (henceforth AMTB). It included some items measuring all factors that affect attitude and motivation. In Gardner's AMTB , the idea of attitude is incorporated in motivation meaning that positive attitudes increase motivation. 4. Status and the Role of English Language in Jordan Education in Jordan is both financed and administered by the Ministry of Education. The curriculum, which is uniform throughout the country in both public and private institutions, is set by the Committee for Curriculum and School Textbooks, which also selects and approves all reading materials used in the classroom With regard to English language, the formal educationa in Jordan affected by the Educational Reform Plan (ERP) - Phase III- 2000-2005, through which English language has become a compulsory subject to be taught in the Jordanian public schools from the 1st elementary grade (age 6) till the school leaving Exam or the General Secondary Certificate Exam (GSCE) (it is called Tawjihi) with an average of 5 to 6 periods a week, which means a student completes (12) consecutive years studying English before he/she is enrolled as a freshman in the institutions of higher education. In Jordan's current educational context, English is predominantly considered to be the first foreign language. Besides, English is the medium of instruction in almost all schools of public and private universities in Jordan. Though the registration is open for the teaching of several foreign languages as major subjects, e.g. French, Russian, Italian Spanish, Deutsche, Turkish, etc., at tertiary level, but English is still the most important foreign language taught at public
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and private universities as a major subject. It is offered as major subject in schools and in institution of higher Education as well as English for academic and specific purposes (EAP, ESP). The demand in educational institutions and learning environments grow increasingly and it requires good planning and decision making to help teachers and students to prosecute their studies and fulfill their goals. On the other hand, due to economic, educational or political reasons, people -- in their search for better work and better educational opportunities -- have become increasingly mobile and have started to migrate to different English speaking countries. These reasons alongside with the other reasons such as ever-growing interest in learning English as a prestigious language encourage the people to learn it. English has progressively become more prestigious and more popular, particularly among high school and university students. Nowadays, it is a common practice for pre-school children to be introduced to English alongside with Arabic. If anything, such strong tendencies, and a vision towards making educational policies and laws part of language planning, are indicative of the concern to enable Jordanian students to cope with the latest global developments by mastering the key and most dominant world language, namely English (AL-Khatib, 2000). Knowledge of English by a sizable sector of the population is viewed as essential to economic, educational and technological development of the country. At the national level English in Jordan is conceived of as a key to scientific and technological interaction between nations, and a ticket guaranteeing a shelter under the umbrella of globalization that all nations at present are seeking. (AL-Khatib, 2000). 5. The Study A socio-psychological investigation of the learner is important in both understanding the learning situation and the learners' mindset towards English. Gardner (1985) proposes that second language acquisition is `truly a socio-psychological phenomenon. It is concerned with the development of Communication skills between an individual and members of another cultural community. The present study focuses on motivation orientations of the Jordanian female undergraduates majoring English at AAU-PAUC, Amman, Jordan, towards the language and their attitudes towards learning English and English-speaking people. 5.1 Research Questions To achieve the objectives, the present study seeks answers to the following corresponding questions formulated for the current study RQ.1-Are the students highly interested/motivated in learning English as a foreign language? RQ.2 Are the students motivated instrumentally or integratively towards learning English? RQ.3 What are the attitudes of the students towards learning English? RQ.4 What are the attitudes of the students towards English-speaking people? 5.2. Data Elicitation Procedures 5.2.1 The Context, Population and Participants The target population of this study is 785 female undergraduates majoring English language and literature during the academic year 2011/2012 in the department of English language and literature at PAUC - AAU, Amman-Jordan. A convenient equal-sized stratified random sample (23%) comprised of 184 students representing the four CLASS LEVELs: freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors responded to the items of the AMTB. The reason for selecting these students was based on availability that all EFL undergraduates at AAU-PAUC are females, also because the participants in the study were the researchers' students for 7 non-consecutive semesters and they had enough information about these students and their
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language background. Table 2 sums up the participants' characteristics. Also, it is important here, to mention that some schools in Jordan applying a non-coeducational system whose total population consists of only female undergraduates, and PAUC, the context of this study, is one of them.
Table 1: The Setting and demographic background of the target population & participants
Target Population No. Major or Specialty Setting Number of participants Percentage of the sample Age Sex Mother tongue
785 undergraduates English language and Literature Al-Balqa Applied University-Princess Alia University College (AAU-PAUC) 184 undergraduates About 23% 18-24 ( four class levels :Freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors) Females Exclusively Arabic
5.2.2 Instrumentation
The major area of investigation has been done on attitude, motivation, and their subsequent relation to second/foreign language learning. For data collection, the researchers employed a questionnaire adopted from Gardner's AMTB (1985). Integrative and instrumental orientation scales of the original 6-point Likert Scale format of Gardner's Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) (Gardner, 1985) were used, ranging from `Strongly Agree' to `Strongly Disagree'. It might be worth indicating that Gardner's instrumental and integrative types of motivation were adopted because such a classification offers "an impetus to the study of language attitudes and motivation that had previously been lacking" (Benson, 1991, p.35). The adopted and slightly adapted questionnaire had 64 items; most of the 64 items were adopted from Tamimi & Shuib (2009) Chalak,& Kassaian (2010) and adapted to fit EFL Jordanian students context. The AMTB is reported to have good reliability and validity (Gardner, 1985). Additionally, the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient test was done for the sixty four (64) items, result revealed that alpha value is .96, suggesting that the items have relatively high internal consistency.
The questionnaire was administered in English because all participants were students of English language and literature. Participants were asked to check the questions carefully, read them thoroughly, and if there were some questions regarding the comprehension of the questions, they were allowed to ask them either in native language (NL) or Target language (TL).The allotted time to fill the questionnaire was 90-minute session. Participant had the enough time to complete the task and all the questionnaires were collected at the end of the session. Participants were informed that no names would be given, the information they gave would be kept confidential, no body would have an access to the data except the researchers and the data would be used only for research purposes. (A sample of the questionnaire is provided in Appendix A). However, as the major focus of this study was on the two most important social psychological variables: motivation orientations (instrumental and integrative) and the attitudes of the students regarding the language, speech community and its culture, the adopted items of the AMTB, for the purpose of this study, are made of 8 scales (instead of 12 scales). Thus, the major interest of this study covers the following 8 domains representing motivation orientations (instrumental and integrative) and the attitudes of the EFL students regarding the language, speech community and its culture:
1-Interest in Foreign languages 2-Parental encouragement
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3-Motivational Intensity 4-Degree of Integrativeness 5-Degree of Instrumentality 6-Attitudes towards Learning English 7-Attitudes toward English-speaking People 8-Desire to Learn English The items of Gardner's AMTB (1985) which were excluded from the present study were (1) English class anxiety, (2) English teacher evaluation, (3) English course evaluation and (4) English use anxiety. Accordingly; only the above mentioned 8 domains were included in the statistical procedure. It is worthwhile mentioning here, as the accumulation of answers given by the participants were mostly on two ends of Likert scale, all the items were classified in two general scales of agree and disagree. (See the key to the questionnaire in Appendix B). To ensure its validity, the questionnaire was piloted prior to carrying out the main study. It also might be worth mentioning that on the basis of the outcome from the pilot study, some of the items of the questionnaire were modified through some minor changes made in the wordings of the questionnaire by using synonyms to make it more comprehensible for the Jordanian students. Then the final draft was prepared for the main study. 5.2.3 Analysis and Procedures The participants' responses to the questionnaire were analyzed in terms of descriptive and inferential statistics. The data was fed into the computer and a nonparametric test of Chi square was run by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 13 software for each case to know whether the distribution was different from what one would expect by chance. i.e. it was done to determine whether the observed frequencies had statistically significant difference with the expected ones or they had just occurred by mere chance. As it can be seen in Tables 2 to 9 all Chi-squares observed showed statistically significant differences from those occurring by mere chance at a highly confident level of probability; i.e. the P < 0.001 level. Besides, means, and standard deviations were calculated too. 6. Scope & Limitations of the Study The scope of the study focuses on motivation orientations (instrumental and integrative) and the attitudes of the undergraduates majoring English at AAU-PAUC Amman, Jordan towards learning the target language, speech community and its culture, per se. There were a few limitations to the current study that should be highlighted so as to avoid any over generalizations and misinterpretations of the results. Though the participant sample consisted of four equal-sized strata selected randomly, the relationship between the class level of the students and their motivations and attitudes was not included in the statistical analysis. The study was also confined to 184 female undergraduates as there were no males students in the department of English language and literature because PAUC follows a non-coeducational system, so the whole population of the college is constituted of females only. Hence, the generalisation from the results should be made with caution. Finally, the pedagogical implications of this study are limited to those which can be based on the participants' responses. 7. Results of the Study Results will be discussed in terms of the distribution of frequencies/percentages and the total means value for each domain.
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Domain 1: Interest in Foreign Languages
Table 2: Frequencies, Percentages and mean scores for Items of Domain -1
Item # Freq/Perc.
14
freq
Percent
49
freq
Percent
64
freq
Percent
12
freq
Percent
11
freq
Percent
20
freq
Percent
15
freq
Percent
22
freq
Percent
60
freq
Percent
56
freq
Percent
Total percentage
Total Chi (X2 )
Sig
Agree 177 96.1 25 13.6 9 4.9 107 58.1 116 63.0 168 91.2 23 17.5 16 8.7 29 15.8 117 63.6 87.7
Disagree 7 3.8 159 86.5 175 95.1 77 41.9 68 37.0 16 8.7 161 87.5 168 91.3 155 84.2 67 36.4 12.3
Total 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100%
Means 4.50 4.07 4.07 3.20 3.38 4.06 3.94 4.17 3.58 3.13 3.81
Std 0.83 1.10 0.89 1.36 1.36 0.87 0.95 0.96 1.05 1.36 0.477 93.87 0.001
Table 2 reveals that 87.7 % of the participants agreed that they were highly interested in learning a foreign language. In this very case is English language. For item 14, 96.1% of the participants agreed and wished that they could speak many foreign languages perfectly. Whereas item 64 showed that 95.1 of the students disagreed with the idea that most foreign languages sound crude and harsh. Besides, item 20 signalled that 91.2 % of students agreed that they enjoy meeting people who speak foreign languages. Besides, for item 15, 87.5 % disagreed that it is not important for them to learn foreign languages. To sum up table 2, the total mean score 3.81 indicates that the great majority of participants are highly interested in learning foreign languages, specifically, English in this very case.
Domain 2: Parental Encouragement
Table 3: Frequencies, Percentages and mean scores for items of Domain -2
Item # 43 27 33 36
Freq/Perc freq Percent freq Percent freq Percent freq Percent
Agree 156 84.8 129 70.4 144 78.2 143 75.8
Disagree 28 15.2 55 29.9 40 21.7 41 22.3
Total Means Std
184 3.70
0.95
100%
184 3.57
1.29
100%
184 3.70
1.37
100%
184 3.57
1.15
100%
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38
freq
144
40
Percent 78.3
21.7
47
freq
157
27
Percent 85.3
14.7
46
freq
172
12
Percent 93.5
6.5
63
freq
162
22
Percent 88.1
12.0
Total percentage
81.8
18.2
Total Chi (X2 )
Sig
184 3.53
1.09
100%
184 3.91
1.19
100%
184 4.28
0.93
100%
184 4.02
1.09
100%
3.79
0.62
89.522
0.001
Figures in Table 3 show that 81.8 % of the participants agreed that their parents encourage them and want them to learn English. For item 46, it received the highest percentage of the agreed answers (93.5 %) which revealed that parents appreciated the importance of English language, in terms of encouraging them to practice their English as much as possible. Thus, the total mean score 3.79 indicates that the great majority got a very good external locus of control and motivation to learn English.
Domain 3: Motivational Intensity
Table (4): Frequencies, Percentages and mean scores for items of Domain -3
Item # 55
Freq/Perc freq
Percent
62
freq
Percent
6
Freq.
Percent
42
freq
Percent
41
freq
Percent
34
freq
Percent
57
freq
Percent
45
freq
Percent
50
freq
Percent
39
freq
Percent
Total percentage
Agree 60 32.6 64 34.8 53 28.8 145 78.8 171 92.9 146 79.4 57 30.9 145 78.8 73 39.7 138 75.0 70.3
Chi (X2 ) Sig
Disagree 124 67.4 120 65.2 131 71.2 39 21.2 13 7.1 38 20.6 127 69.1 39 21.2 111 60.3 46 25 29.7
Total 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100%
Means 2.9 3.64 3.95 3.86 4.39 3.97 3.83 3.88 3.69 4.0 3.81
std 1.23 1.16 1.14 0.86 0.76 0.93 1.20 0.97 1.20 1.06 0.46 155.56 0.001
Table 4 reveals that 70.3 % of the participants agreed that they were highly motivated in learning English. Item 41 reveals that 92.9 % of the participants always received help from their teachers when they had a problem understanding something in their English classes. Item 6 reported that 71.2 % of the students disagreed to postpone their English homework as
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much as possible. In brief, the total mean score of this domain 3.81 shows that the majority of students were highly motivated and always received the necessary help, backing up and support of their English teachers and they did not delay their English duties as much as possible.
Domain 4: Degree of Integrativeness
Table (5): Frequencies, Percentages and mean scores for items of Domain -4
Item # Freq/Perc
5
freq
Percent
9
freq
Percent
4
freq
Percent
26
freq
Percent
Total percentage
Total Chi (X2 )
Sig
Agree 122 66.3 148 80.4 66 34.9 109 59.3 60.2
Disagree 62 33.7 36 19.5 116 63.1 75 40.7 39.8
Total 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100%
Means 3.2 4.09 3.16 3.59
3.54
std 1.27 1.10 1.20 1.28 0.63 58.02 0.001
As shown in Table 5, 60.2 % with a total mean score 3.54 of the participants were integratively motivated and thought that English is a very important language. Item 9 received the highest percentage 80.4% with a highest total mean score 4.09) of the students who said that studying English is important because it will allow them to meet and converse with more and varied people, Whereas 63.1% of the students disagreed with the idea that if Jordan had no contact with English-speaking countries, that it would be a great loss. While 66.3 % of the sample agreed that studying English is important because they will be able to speak, communicate, and interact more easily with speakers of English, and it allows them to appreciate English people and their way of life and culture.
Domain 5: Degree of Instrumentality
Table (6): Frequencies, Percentages and mean scores for items of Domain -5
Item
Freq/Perc
#
3
freq
Percent
8
freq
Percent
10
freq
Percent
16
freq
percent
Total percent
Total
Chi (X2 ) Sig
Agree
Disagree Total Means
177 7 96.2 3.8 159 25 86.5 13.6 175 9 95.1 4.9 107 77 58.1 41.9 83.975 16.1
184
4.50
100%
184
4.07
100%
184
4.07
100%
184
3.20
3.96
std 0.83 1.10 0.89 1.36 0.54 92.30 0.001
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Table 6: illustrates that 83.97 % of the participants are instrumentally motivated. Item 3 which received the highest mean score 4.50 and percentage 96.2%, reveals that the great majority of students learn English because it will enable them to get a job easily, while 95.1 % of the students learn English because it is a university requirement, and 86.5% of the participants learn English because it helps them to carry out their tasks more efficiently. In brief, the total mean score indicates that the largest number of the Jordanian female undergraduates learn English for instrumental reasons such as getting a job easily, carry out their task efficiently and because it is a university requirement, while item 16 shows more than 58.1% learns English to further their education.
Domain 6: Attitudes towards Learning English
Table (7): Attitudes towards learning English
Item # Freq/Perc
51
freq
Percent
7
freq
Percent
31
freq
Percent
44
freq
Percent
53
freq
Percent
28
freq
Percent
59
freq
Percent
61
freq
Percent
58
freq
Percent
48
freq
percent
Total percent
Total Chi (X2 )
Sig
Agree 163 88.6 41 22.3 152 82.6 159 86.4 84 45.6 30 16.3 136 74.0 153 83.1 23 12.5 20 10.8 80.8
Disagree 21 11.4 143 78.8 32 17.3 25 13.5 100 54.3 154 83.6 48 26.1 31 16.8 161 87.6 164 89.1 19.2
Total 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100% 184 100%
Means 4.20 3.75 3.56 3.66 3.65 3.35 3.7 3.60 3.9 3.8
3.71
std 1.05 1.25 1.06 1.43 1.37 1.3 1.26 1.12 1.05 1.33 .39 127.43 0.001
Figures in Table 7 shows a total mean score 3.71 and a total 80.8 % of the students of English had positive attitudes towards learning English. In other words, the great majority of students like English and wish that they could speak English well. They believe that English is important and should be a compulsory subject and the medium of instruction in secondary schools at secondary level in Jordan, and that the development of their country is possible mainly by educated people who know English well. (See percentages and mean scores in table 7).
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Domain 7: Attitudes towards English­speaking people
Table (8): Attitudes towards English ­speaking people
Item # Freq/Perc
4
freq
Percent
13
freq
Percent
32
freq
Percent
25
freq
Percent
1
freq
Percent
37
freq
Percent
54
freq
Percent
52
freq
Percent
Total percent
Chi (X2 )
Total
Sig
Agree 100 54.3 105 57.1 160 86.9 147 80 162 88 147 79.9 126 68.5 165 89.7 74.3
Disagree 84 45.6 79 42.9 20 10.8 37 20.1 22 12.0 37 20.1 58 31.5 19 10.3 15.7
Total Means std
184 3.10
1.18
100%
184 3.15
1.58
100%
184 4.08
0.74
100%
184 3.92
1.17
100%
184 3.85
0.89
100%
184 3.80
1.10
100%
184 3.27
1.38
100%
184 3.34
1.21
100%
3.69
0.34
28.93
0.001
The total percentage and total mean score 74.3 %, 3.69 respectively, in Table 8 indicate that the students had positive attitudes towards English-speaking people, speech community and their culture. In other word, a high majority of the students of English believe that Native English speakers have much to be proud about because they have given the world much of value, they wanted to know much more native English speakers, they believe that if Jordan had no contact with English-speaking countries; it would be a great loss, they wanted to communicate with English-speaking people and wished to have native English friends too.
Domain 8: Desire to Learn English
Table (9): Desire to learn English
Item # 18 35 17 24 30 2 23
Freq/Perc freq Percent freq Percent freq Percent freq Percent freq Percent freq Percent freq Percent
Agree 33 17.9 159 86.4 163 88.6 58 31.6 165 89.6 160 86.9 17 9.2
Disagree 151 82 25 13.5 21 11.4 126 68.5 19 10.3 24 13.4 167 90.7
Total Means std
184 3.88
1.20
100%
184 3.34
1.38
100%
184 4.2
0.99
100%
184 3.88
1.41
100%
184 3.6
1.33
100%
184 3.39
1.30
100%
184 3.20
1.27
100%
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21
freq
28
156
Percent 15.2
84.7
29
freq
153
31
Percent 85.1
16.8
19
freq
21
163
Percent 11.3
88.6
Total percent
85.1
14.9
Total Chi (X2)
Sig
184 3.83 100% 184 3.80 100% 184 3.9 100% 3.70
1.19 1.18 1.40 0.31 71.55 0.001
Figures in Table 9 show that the students of English had a high desire to learn English as a foreign language (85.1% and mean score 3.70). With regard to this domain, items 23, 30, 19 and 17 got the highest percentages (90.7, 89.6,88.6, 88.6) respectively, indicated that students of English had a high desire to learn and know English, and that if it were up to them, they would spend all of their time learning English more than the basics, to become natural to them. 8. By Way of Conclusion & Implications for English Instruction The current study aimed at investigating the two most important social psychological variables: The motivation orientations (instrumental & integrative) of the Jordanian EFL female undergraduates and their attitudes towards learning the target language and its community. The results of the study provide a sufficient answer to the research questions addressed, and showed that the Jordanian female undergraduates majoring English as a foreign language at AAU-PAUC were both instrumentally and integratively motivated, but their instrumental motivation outdid their integrative one with a discrepancy exceeds in value or influence in favour of the instrumental motivations. In other words, the results provided evidence that learning English to be part of the culture of its people had less impact in students' English language motivation. In reference to the students' attitudes, the findings revealed that Jordanian undergraduates majoring English as a foreign language had positive attitudes towards English language, English-speaking people and their culture and that also goes in line with other studies (e.g. Arani, 2004 ; Al-Quyadi, A. 2000, Vijchulata and Lee 1985). With regards to motivation, the results of this study are consistent with those of other studies conducted in the Arab world (e.g. Qashoa (2006); Al-Quyadi, A. 2000; Vaezi 2008) whereas they partially contradict with the results of some studies who claimed that integrative motivation is the primary reason/motive for EFL/ESL students learning English (e.g. Vijchulata and Lee 1985; Vaezi 2008; Moiinvaziri, 2008). Rather the study here is able to show that in Jordan, the students learn English primarily for instrumental reasons. Moreover, as far as the key motivating factors for learners are concerned, the participants' responses to the items of the questionnaire might provide the foundation for some factors constitute the main reasons for learners under question. Such as: (1)-The need, demand and importance of English, responses of students showed that English is badly needed for them both instrumentally and integratively. (2)- The desire to learn English is a critical factor in this regard. The responses of the participants to the relevant items revealed that the undergraduates majoring English at AAU-PAUC had high desire to learn English, and this high desire meets one of the principal goals of the department of English which is to have graduate students who are competent in performing linguistic and translation matters in the real daily-life situations. (3)- The students' responses also showed that their endeavour to learn the language was not at their best, as some participants blamed themselves for being unsuccessful in learning English. Thereby, exerting more efforts with more deep sincerity is required from students. (4)- Furthermore, the great majority of the participants had highly
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positive attitudes towards English language, English-speaking community and its culture. Besides, they believed that English is an international and important language and that everyone needs to learn it. Learners, who appear to possess a more positive attitude in the language learning situation, outperform other learners with a less positive attitude towards the language learning situation (Gardner and MacIntyre 1993). Such socio-psychological factors should be considered very well, as they play an important role in motivating learners of English. In order to make the language learning process a more motivating experience, instructors need to put a great deal of thought into developing programs which maintain students' interest and have obtainable short term goals. At university level this may include, as suggested by Berwick et al. (1989), any number of foreign exchange programs with other universities, overseas 'homestay' programs, or any other activities which may help to motivate students to improve their target language proficiency. Instructors may also create interesting lesson plans by the help of different strategies, techniques and procedures in which the students' attention is gained. Encouraging students to become more active participants and cooperate in the process of teaching and learning can help them learn the language better. The findings of the study can be employed as a starting point for providing some pedagogical implications that should be taken into consideration by both English instructors an syllabus designers at the AAU-PAUC. The study revealed that the great majority of EFL female students at AAUPAUC are instrumentally motivated. Therefore, English language courses should be designed to fulfill this purpose. In other words, AAU-PAUC students should take English courses which enable them to function effectively at both their academic and occupational settings. Further, the findings of this paper can help language developers, syllabus designers and decision makers to develop programs and design syllabi and create interesting textbooks which encourage and maintain students' interest. The importance of motivation (instrumental versus integrative) for learning English and attitudes toward the language should be instructive for educators, who should take these factors into consideration when designing English language instruction or training courses. Instruction should meet the needs and motivations of students in order to become successful, fluent speakers of the language. This and other studies of attitudes and motivations for learning English point to a need for instruction that helps students function effectively in occupational settings, as well as society as a whole. Fluency in English language, in short, is a key to success in life. A student's motivations for learning English and attitudes toward learning the language are the leading predictors of success in learning English; therefore, educators and trainers should take these factors into consideration when designing English language training and instruction. More research in this area needs to be conducted. The language proficiency of integratively orientated students and as well as students with integrative orientation, if investigated further in future research, might give us new insight into Jordanian EFL situation. To sum up, the current study had been conducted to identify the motivation orientations (instrumental & integrative) of the Jordanian EFL female undergraduates and their attitudes towards learning the target language and its community. The findings indicated that the students have certain reasons for learning the language and hold significant attitudes toward the use of English language that should be considered by English instructors and syllabus designers at the AAU-PAUC in preparing their materials, curriculum and teaching methods. In addition, the students' positive attitudes towards the educational status of English in Jordan could be employed to inform policy makers in the education field to revise the current policy at all stages of schooling to be English-oriented system. The mixed findings do not allow one to conclude that in general all students are purely instrumentally motivated The final point is worthwhile mentioning that the conclusions of the present study are limited to the participants under investigation and may not to be generalised to other academic context with different participants without further research.
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Appendix A Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) Participant's Name: ------------------------------Dear Student: The following questions ask about your motivation in and attitude toward learning the English language. Remember there is no right or wrong answer; just answer as accurately as possible. Use the scale below to answer the questions. 1= Strongly disagree 2= Moderately disagree 3= Slightly disagree 4 = Slightly agree 5= Moderately agree 6= Strongly agree
1 I would like to know more native English speakers
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2 I have a strong desire to know all aspects of English.
123456
3 Because it will enable me to get a job easily
123456
4 If Jordan had no contact with English-speaking countries, it 1 2 3 4 5 6
would be a great loss.
5 Studying English is important because it will allow me to be more 1 2 3 4 5 6
at ease with people who speak English.
6 I put off my English homework as much as possible.
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7 Learning English is a waste of time.
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8 Because it will enable me to carry my tasks more efficiently
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9 Studying English is important because it will allow me to meet 1 2 3 4 5 6
and converse with more and varied people.
10 Because it is a university requirement
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11 If I planned to stay in another country, I would try to learn their 1 2 3 4 5 6
language
12 I would really like to learn many foreign languages.
123456
13 The more I get to know native English speakers, the more I like 1 2 3 4 5 6
them.
14 I wish I could speak many foreign languages perfectly
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15 It is not important for us to learn foreign languages.
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16 Because I hope to further my education.
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17 If it were up to me, I would spend all of my time learning English.
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18 Knowing English isn't really an important goal in my life.
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19 I haven't any great wish to learn more than the basics of English.
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20 I enjoy meeting people who speak foreign languages.
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21 To be honest, I really have no desire to learn English.
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22 I have no interest in foreign languages.
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23 I'm losing any desire I ever had to know English.
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24 I sometimes daydream about dropping English.
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25 You can always trust native English speakers
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26 Studying English is important because I will be able to interact more 1 2 3 4 5 6
easily with speakers of English.
27 My parents try to help me to learn English.
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28 I hate English.
123456
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29 I would like to learn as much English as possible.
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30 I want to learn English so well that it will become natural to me.
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31 The development of our country is possible mainly by educated people 1 2 3 4 5 6
who know English well.
32 Most native English speakers are so friendly and easy to get along with, 1 2 3 4 5 6
we are fortunate to have them as friends.
33 My parents feel that I should continue studying English all through my 1 2 3 4 5 6
life.
34 When I am studying English, I ignore distractions and pay attention to 1 2 3 4 5 6
my task.
35 I wish I were fluent in English.
123456
36 My parents have stressed the importance English will have me when I 1 2 3 4 5 6
leave university.
37 I wish I could have many native English speaking friends.
123456
38 My parents urge me to seek help from my teacher if I am having
123456
problems with my English
39 I keep up to date with English by working on it almost every
123456
day.
40 Studying English is important because it will enable me to better 1 2 3 4 5 6
understand and appreciate the English way of life.
41 When I have a problem understanding something in my English class, I 1 2 3 4 5 6
always have my teacher for help.
42 I really work hard to learn English
123456
43 My parents feel that it is very important for me to learn English
123456
44 When I hear someone speaks English well, I wish I could speak like him. 1 2 3 4 5 6
45 I make a point of trying to understand all the English I see and hear.
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46 My parents encourage me to practice my English as much as possible. 1 2 3 4 5 6
47 My parents are very interested in everything I do in my English class.
123456
48 English should not be a compulsory subject in secondary schools in 1 2 3 4 5 6
Jordan.
49 Studying foreign languages is not enjoyable.
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50 I can't be bothered trying to understand the more complex aspects 1 2 3 4 5 6
of English.
51 At least some subjects like Physics and Chemistry should be 1 2 3 4 5 6
taught in English at the secondary level in Jordan.
52 Native English speakers have much to be proud about because 1 2 3 4 5 6
they have given the world much of value
53 The teaching of English should not start as early as the first grade 1 2 3 4 5 6
in the Jordanian schools.
54 Native English speakers are very sociable and kind.
123456
55 I don't bother checking my assignments when I get them back 1 2 3 4 5 6
from my English teacher.
56 I wish I could read newspapers and magazines in many foreign 1 2 3 4 5 6
languages.
57 I don't pay much attention to the feedback I receive in my 1 2 3 4 5 6
English class.
58 English should not be the medium of instruction in the secondary 1 2 3 4 5 6
schools in Jordan
59 English is a very important part of the school program.
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60 I would rather see a TV program dubbed into our language than 1 2 3 4 5 6
in its own language with subtitles.
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61 I really enjoy learning English.
123456
62 I tend to give up and not pay attention when I don't understand 1 2 3 4 5 6
my English teacher's explanation of something.
63 My parents think I should devote more time to studying English. 1 2 3 4 5 6
64 Most foreign languages sound crude and harsh.
123456
Appendix B Motivation/Attitude Test Battery Items for Questionnaire Questionnaire Item No.
Likert Scales (6-1)
Positively Keyed
Negatively Keyed
Degree of Instrumentality
3, 8, 10, 16
N/A
Interest in Foreign languages
14, 12, 11, 20, 56
49, 22, 64, 15, 60
Parental encouragement
43, 27,33,36,38,47,46,63
N/A
Degree of Integrativeness
5, 9, 4, 26
N/A
Motivational Intensity
45, 39, 41, 42, 34,
57, 55, 62, 6, 50
Attitudes towards Learning English
31, 44, 51, 59, 61
7, 28, 48, 53, 58
Attitudes toward English-speaking People 1,4,13,25,32,37,52,54
N/A
Desire to Learn English
17,2,30,29,35
18,19,21,23,24
References [1] R.K. Agnihotri and A.L. Khanna, Second Langue Acquisition: Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Aspects of English in India, (1994), New Delhi/Thousan Oaks/London: Sage Publications. [2] M.A. Al-Khatib, The Arab world: Language and cultural issues, Language, Culture and Curriculum, 13(2) (2000), 121-125. [3] A. Al-Quyadi, Psycho-sociological variables in the learning of English in Yemen, Ph.D Thesis, (2000), Bhagalpur University. [4] J. Arani, Issues of learning EMP at university: An analysis of students' perspectives, Karan's Linguistics Issues, (2004), (Online), http://www3.telus.net/linguistics issues /emp. [5] C. Baker, Key Issues in Bilingualism and Bilingual Education, Multilingual Matters, 35(1988), Clevedon, Avon: England. [6] C. Baker, Attitudes and Language, (1992), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. [7] C. Baker, Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (3rd ed.), (2001), Clevendon, UK: Multilingual Matters LTD. [8] M.J. Benson, Attitudes and motivation towards English: A survey of Japanese freshmen, RELC Journal, 22(1) (1991), 34-48. [9] R. Berwick and S. Ross, Motivation after matriculation: Are Japanese learners of English still alive after exam hell? JALT Journal, 11(2) (1989), 193-210.
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Y Tahaineh, H Daana

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