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Management Plans for World Heritage Sites A practical guide Birgitta Ringbeck German Commission for UNESCO
Management Plans for World Heritage Sites A practical guide United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Birgitta Ringbeck German Commission for UNESCO
German National Library bibliographical information: The German National Library has catalogued this publication in the German National Bibliography; detailed bibliographical information is available at http://dnb.ddb.de online. First published in German as "Managementplдne fьr Welterbestдtten Ein Leitfaden fьr die Praxis" by the German Commission for UNESCO, 2008. The only changes made to the original German edition are updates of figures. This English edition has been made possible with the financial support of the German Federal Foreign Office. Publisher German Commission for UNESCO ColmantstraЯe 15, D-53115 Bonn Author Dr Birgitta Ringbeck Editor (German version) Dr Gabriele Horn, Katja Rцmer, Kurt Schlьnkes Editor (English version) Claudia Brincks-Murmann, Angus Fowler Editorial assistant Priska Daphi Thanks to Prof. Marie-Theres Albert, Steffi Behrendt, Prof. Ernst-Rainer Hцnes, Dr Gabriele Horn, Hilde Naurath, Matthias Ripp, Dr Hermann Schefers, Ekkehard Wohlgemuth Typesetting and printing Medienhaus Plump ISBN: 978-3-940785-02-2 All rights reserved © German Commission for UNESCO Bonn, 2008
Contents Foreword by the Secretary-General of the German Commission for UNESCO............................................ 4 Introduction ............................................................................................ 6 Chapter I Management plan modules..................................................................... 9 Chapter II Modules explained................................................................................... 13 Chapter III Bibliography and links............................................................................ 55 Annex........................................................................................................ 61 Annex A Recommendation concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and Natural Heritage........................... 62 Annex B Questionnaire for periodic reports Europe/North America 2005/2006, Section II........................................... 75 Annex C Management plans (CD, inside/back cover)
Foreword by the Secretary-General of the German Commission for UNESCO The UNESCO World Heritage List is the most comprehensive international instrument ever employed by the international community for the protection of its cultural and natural heritage. The World Heritage programme is an unprecedented initiative, backed by governments and professional organizations throughout the world, which unites people across political and economic frontiers. Since the World Heritage Convention came into force more than 30 years ago, 185 countries have agreed to recognize outstanding cultural and natural sites on their territory as human heritage. Today the World Heritage List contains more than 850 sites. With the inscription on the World Heritage List States Parties place their cultural and natural heritage in the universal context of the history of mankind. In doing so, they forego a mere national claim to these important properties. This partial renunciation of sovereignty lies at the cultural and political heart of the World Heritage concept. The UNESCO World Heritage List is based on mutual recognition and a global exchange between cultures as equally meaningful parts of a common human history. The great popularity of the World Heritage Convention and its worldwide scope make it one of the most successful vehicles of international cultural dialogue. As States Parties to international agreements we must fulfil the special requirements of the World Heritage Convention. We should therefore strive to attain the highest standard in the protection of cultural and natural sites that have been declared the universal heritage of mankind. Once a site is inscribed on the World Heritage List, it becomes increasingly important to have an instrument for effective management. World Heritage sites undergo dynamic development processes that sometimes present great challenges to the goal of preservation. According to the "Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention" every site inscribed on the World Heritage List must have a management plan explaining how the outstanding universal value of the site can be preserved. Management plans are the central planning instrument for the protection, use, conservation and the successful development of World Heritage sites.
Forewordl This guide is intended to assist World Heritage actors in developing management plans. It provides answers to questions pertaining to the content, structure and presentation of a management plan. This publication also offers the reader exemplary management plans from Germany and other countries, as well as information on sources of further information. Dr Roland Bernecker Secretary-General of the German Commission for UNESCO
Introduction There is a comprehensive instrument applicable to the responsibilities set out in the World Heritage Convention, concerning both the legal bases, procedures and the technical principles. A management plan for a World Heritage site is an integrated planning and action concept that lays down goals and measures for the protection, conservation, use and development of World Heritage sites. The revised version of the "Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention", which came into effect on February 1, 2005, makes such a plan compulsory for properties inscribed on the World Heritage List. The Operational Guidelines list the following essential modules of a management plan: · legislative, regulatory and contractual measures for protection, · boundaries for effective protection, · buffer zones, · management systems, · sustainable use. The proposed format and content of a management plan that meets the requirements of UNESCO are based on the "Recommendation concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and National Heritage" (Annex A) and on the Questionnaire for Periodic Reports for Europe and North America carried out for the first time in 2004/2005 (Annex B). The plan should contain an introductory section stating the outstanding universal value of the property and its authenticity and/or integrity. This should be accompanied by the central modules already mentioned and information on the state of preservation, potential threats, monitoring, science and research, financial resources, the number of employees and their qualifications, participating institutions, training offers, awareness raising and promotional efforts, numbers of visitors, visitor guidance, as well as tourism and traffic concepts. "Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention", 2005, (henceforth cited as Operational Guidelines). See http://whc.unesco.org/en/ guidelines online. Ibid., Chapter II.F, §§ 96-119.
Introductionl There is no official UNESCO template for a management plan. Its content is determined by the respective World Heritage site and its unique qualities. This publication suggests and explains components that may be incorporated into a management plan. In addition to general notes on conditions (both universal and specifically German) pertaining to the central modules mentioned in the Operational Guidelines, we will attempt to develop a template for the content and structure of a management plan. In doing so, no claim to completeness or comprehensiveness is made. The components of the table of contents are called modules; they can be used to build a management plan. These designs are complemented by practical examples. This is intended to serve as a guide, making it easier to generate management plans and define buffer zones.
Chapter I Management plan modules
10 1 Fundamental concern content and objective....................................... 14 2 World Heritage attributes........................................................................ 15 2.1 Statement of significance of a site and justification of its outstanding universal value............................................................................................ 15 2.2 Statement of authenticity and/or integrity.................................................. 17 3 Subject of protection, protection goal and instruments of protection 19 3.1 Subject of protection................................................................................... 19 3.2 Protection goal............................................................................................ 21 3.3 Instruments of protection............................................................................ 21 3.3.1 The World Heritage Convention................................................................. 22 3.3.2 Other international conventions and charters ............................................ 23 3.3.3 National law and planning system.............................................................. 25 3.3.4 Statutes and contracts.................................................................................. 28 4 Protected area............................................................................................ 29 4.1 Boundaries of the World Heritage site........................................................ 29 4.2 Buffer zones................................................................................................ 29 4.3 Protection of view perspectives, silhouette and panorama......................... 30 5 Management system.................................................................................. 31 5.1 Management structures............................................................................... 32 5.1.1 Authorities and procedure........................................................................... 32 5.1.2 Ownership structure and responsible bodies.............................................. 32 5.1.3 Co-ordination.............................................................................................. 32 5.2 Basic principles for planning and action..................................................... 33 5.2.1 Objective, targets and strategies.................................................................. 33 5.2.2 Master plan and catalogue of measures...................................................... 33 5.2.3 Inventories................................................................................................... 34 5.2.4 Science and research................................................................................... 35
Chapter I. Management plan modulesl11 5.3 Threats and preventive protection............................................................... 35 5.3.1 Development pressure................................................................................. 36 5.3.2 climate change
............................................................................................ 36 5.3.3 Natural disasters.......................................................................................... 36 5.3.4 Tourism pressure......................................................................................... 37 5.3.5 Overpopulation........................................................................................... 37 5.3.6 Security of buildings................................................................................... 37 5.3.7 Miscellaneous............................................................................................. 38 5.4 Monitoring and quality control................................................................... 38 5.4.1 Periodic reporting........................................................................................ 38 5.4.2 Reactive monitoring.................................................................................... 38 5.4.3 Preventive monitoring................................................................................. 40 5.4.4 Procedure and World Heritage compatibility check................................... 40 5.4.5 Advisory boards and commissions............................................................. 41 5.4.6 Conflict management.................................................................................. 42 5.5 Mediation.................................................................................................... 43 5.5.1. Education and information.......................................................................... 45 5.5.2. Tourism and visitor guidance...................................................................... 47 5.5.3. Events.......................................................................................................... 48 5.5.4. Networks and international co-operation.................................................... 49 5.5.5. Use of the World Heritage and UNESCO emblems................................... 51 6 Sustainable use.......................................................................................... 52 7 Resources................................................................................................... 53 7.1 Staff............................................................................................................. 53 7.2 Budget......................................................................................................... 53 8 Format and appendix............................................................................... 54
13 Chapter II Modules explained
14 1 Fundamental concern content and objective The introductory chapter should explain the structure, content, addressees and binding character of the management plan. The initial situation and conditions can also be discussed, as well as specific comprehensive goals that apply exclusively to the site in question, such as the responsibility summarized in Article 5 of the World Heritage Convention, "to adopt a general policy which aims to give the cultural and natural heritage a function in the life of the community, and to integrate the protection of that heritage into comprehensive planning programmes". The technical principles of a management plan are based on both the World Heritage Convention and other international conventions (see Section 3.3.2). They are also drawn from appeals, decisions, recommendations and charters at international level especially those of UNESCO, the Council of Europe, the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and the International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA) pertaining to the protection of structures, land, and garden heritage sites, as well as historic ensembles. Important documents include the ICOMOS founding document, known as the "Venice Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites" (1964), the "Washington Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas" (1987), the "Lausanne Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage" (1990), the "Nara Document on Authenticity" (1994), and the "Declaration on the Conservation of Historic Urban Landscape
s" (2005). The "ICOMOS Australia Charter of Burra" also has scientific importance, it has been updated several times since 1979 and it transcends the European approach to the Venice Charter and updates its content. If possible, the management strategy derived or independently developed from this document should be described. Information on the history of the plan, its authors, the state of its implementation and its practical application
should also be supplied. Information about the implementation, procedure and the integration of existing and new structures are of central importance. Finally notes on the period of validity and a revision schedule should be included. The declaration based on the "Vienna Memorandum", subtitled "World Heritage and Contemporary Architecture Managing the Historic Urban Landscape" has become a subject of dispute, because it is being used to legitimize rather than prevent problematic interference in historic structures and the traditional urban landscape. For that reason it is to be revised by 2010.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl15 2 World Heritage attributes The significance of a site and the statement of its outstanding universal value form the basis for its inscription and management as a World Heritage site. Thus the attributes that attest to its value should be described briefly and concisely and its outstanding universal value should be justified. The statement of significance and the definition of outstanding universal value should take the form of a preamble; neither should take up more than half a page. Detailed explanations required in the application for nomination may be omitted in the management plan. 2.1 Statement of significance of a site and justification of its outstanding universal value The statement of significance of a World Heritage site is determined by its description and a justification in accordance with the criteria laid down in the World Heritage Convention and the Operational Guidelines for its implementation. The "Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention" establish that outstanding universal value means cultural and/or natural significance which is so exceptional as to transcend national boundaries
. This claim must be backed up with comprehensive research covering both the protected area and the subject of protection. Argumentation should be based upon this research. In other words, the World Heritage site must possess a universal symbolism above and beyond regional, national, or purely political, religious or economic significance. Outstanding universal value is a central term in the World Heritage Convention. Apart from the statement of significance the justification of outstanding universal value is based on the overall criteria of authenticity and integrity. Operational Guidelines, § 49.
Justification of outstanding universal value
Statement (description) Justification according to the criteria Authenticity
Statement of significance
Integrity If one of the advisory bodies of the World Heritage Committee (ICOMOS, the World Conservation Union (IUCN), the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM)) and/or the Committee itself expands or changes the statement of significance and the justification of outstanding universal value formulated in the application during the evaluation or inscription process, the relevant documents must be adapted accordingly. The statement of significance and justification of outstanding universal value should as formulated in the application documents be integrated into the management plan to be submitted along with a nomination. If the World Heritage Committee makes changes, the management plan should be amended accordingly once the site is inscribed on the World Heritage List. If a management plan is created for an existing World Heritage site, the statement and justification are to be taken from the Committee's working documents; they may also be summarized in a synthesis. If these are not contained in either the application documents or the working documents, which may have occurred with inscriptions in the early years of the Convention's implementation, a draft statement and justification should be proposed. Particularly in the case of World Heritage sites inscribed prior to 1998, applications for nomination did not include a definition of World Heritage attributes. This is, however, absolutely necessary in the management plan. There may be sites whose World Heritage
Chapter II. Modules explainedl17
attributes are already described in the application; even for these sites it is important that the attributes are reiterated and reinforced.
Justification of outstanding universal value
Statement (description) Justification according to the criteria Authenticity Integrity
Evaluation ICOMOS/IUCN justification in application brief description World Heritage Committee Decision of the Committee Evaluation ICOMOS/IUCN application Evaluation ICOMOS and/or IUCN application
It is advisable to co-ordinate the management plan with the German National Committee of ICOMOS. A draft statement of significance and justification of the outstanding universal value must be presented for approval to the Committee. If this draft is provided for the first time when the management plan is submitted, it should be accompanied by a letter asking to submit the draft to the World Heritage Committee for review and approval.
2.2 Statement of authenticity and/or integrity The overarching criteria of authenticity and/or integrity also underlie the decision of whether to inscribe a site on the World Heritage List. Authenticity refers to the truthful and credible conveyance of the historic and cultural significance
of the site. Depending on the cultural context, authenticity has to be expressed in a convincing and genuine manner through numerous attributes. Authenticity manifests itself in Ibid., §§ 79-86.
18 form and composition, material and substance, use and function, techniques and administrative systems, location and overall context and other expressions. Therefore a site must express a multidimensional meaning and symbolism attested by scientific research. Taking account of context and historical layers is also decisive in restoration work. The Nara Document on Authenticity of 1994, included as an annex in the "Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention", provides the basis. Integrity refers to the wholeness and intactness of a World Heritage site. With regard to cultural heritage the physical substance should be in good, conservationally controlled condition. The preservation of visual integrity is also decisive; this affects the overall aesthetic impression of a site, its unhindered perceivability and its dominating effect from a distance. Thus in a nomination, view perspectives, silhouettes and panorama views should be clearly defined and their future preservation ensured (see chapter 4.3). The points mentioned under 2.1 pertaining to formal procedures for provision to the World Heritage Centre also apply to the statement of authenticity and integrity. Ibid., Annex 4. Ibid., §§ 87-89.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl19 3 Subject of protection, protection goal and instruments of protection 3.1 Subject of protection Cultural heritage sites are defined in Article 1 of the World Heritage Convention. Article 1 For the purpose of this Convention, the following shall be considered as "cultural heritage": Monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science. Groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science. Sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from a historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view. cultural landscape
s are cultural properties representing what Article 1 refers to as the "combined works of nature and man". They are illustrative of the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their natural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both external and internal. According to the "Guidelines on the Inscription of Specific Types of Properties on the World Heritage List",10 cultural landscapes fall into the following three main categories: Ibid., § 45. Ibid., § 47. 10 Ibid., Annex 3.
20 i) The most easily identifiable is the clearly defined landscape designed and created intentionally by man. This embraces garden and parkland landscapes constructed for aesthetic reasons which are often (but not always) associated with religious or other monumental buildings and ensembles. ii) The second category is the organically evolved landscape. This results from an initial social, economic, administrative, and/or religious imperative and has developed its present form through association with and in response to its natural environment. Such landscapes reflect that process of evolution in their form and component features. They fall into two sub-categories: a relict (or fossil) landscape is one in which an evolutionary process came to an end at some time in the past, either abruptly or over a period. Its significant distinguishing features are, however, still visible in material form. a continuing landscape is one which retains an active social role in Contemporary Society
closely associated with the traditional way of life, and in which the evolutionary process is still in progress. At the same time, it exhibits significant material evidence of its evolution over time. iii) The final category is the associative cultural landscape. The inscription of such landscapes on the World Heritage List is justifiable by virtue of the powerful religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element, rather than material cultural evidence, which may be insignificant or even absent. The World Heritage site should be defined precisely in the management plan using these categories as a basis. It should be identified as a monument, an ensemble, a site or as a cultural landscape making mention of one of the three above categories. The basis justifying the classification should be documented. In describing protection through the European law and planning system, the terminology may not coincide, even though it describes the same subject of protection this point should be noted, and indicated if necessary. Terminology related to monuments included in the monument protection laws of the federal states of Germany11 is the product of a tradition that goes back more than 100 years. Monuments are artefacts (objects, parts of objects, collections of objects), that must be preserved and conserved for historical, scientific, artistic, urban or other (e.g. technical or ethnological) reasons. A distinction is made between built monuments, archaeological monuments, and movable monuments. Large parts of built and archaeological monuments are defined variously as 11 The Federal Republic of Germany is divided into 16 federal states.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl21 ensembles, conservation areas or excavation protection areas. Historic cultural landscapes and parts of landscapes may be protected in certain federal states of Germany12 as man-made parts of landscapes. Thus conformity between the terminology of the World Heritage Convention and the laws of the federal states has to be established. 3.2 Protection goal The World Heritage Convention requires conservation of both the substance and the value of World Heritage sites. The protection goal which serves as a basis both for determining the type of protection a site is entitled to and for the procedure for consideration and decision within the framework of the national law and planning system, should be based on the definition of the subject of protection, the statement of significance, authenticity and/or integrity and the justification of its outstanding universal value. The protection goal should be precise but it should also be kept as succinct as possible, so as to allow its incorporation into preambles, legends, and annexes of regional and building management planning regulations. The objective of determining the protection goal can be to preserve visual integrity in addition to conserving the material substance of the site. Experience reveals that in order to preserve view perspectives, as well as silhouettes and panoramas, it is advisable to legislate more strictly that certain areas must be kept free of development. 3.3 Instruments of protection According to the "Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention" (Paragraph 132, Section 5) the format for the nomination of properties for inscription on the World Heritage List should include "the list of the legislative, regulatory, contractual, planning, institutional and/or traditional measures most relevant to the protection of the property and provide a detailed analysis of the way in which this protection actually operates. Legislative, regulatory, contractual planning and/or institutional texts, or an abstract of the texts, shall also be attached in English or French."13 12 See monument protection laws for Brandenburg (§ 2, Section 2, 3, BraDSchG); Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (§2, Section 2, DSchG MV); North Rhine Westphalia (§ 2, Section 2, DSchG NW); Saxony-Anhalt (§ 2, Section 2, No 1, DSchG LSA); and Schleswig-Holstein (§ 1, Section 2, p. 2, DSchG SH). 13 Operational Guidelines, § 132, Section 5.
22 3.3.1 The World Heritage Convention The "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) on November 16, 1972 in Paris. The Federal Republic of Germany has been a State Party to the Convention since 1976. The ratification document was handed over to the Director-General of UNESCO on November 23, 1976. According to Article 16, Paragraph 2, the German Federal Government declares that it is not bound by the conditions of Article 16, Paragraph 2 that is, it is exempt from mandatory contributions to the World Heritage Fund. There were no other objections to the document. Germany accepted all the remaining stipulations. The announcement of the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" is dated February 2, 1977. It was printed on page 213 of the German Federal Law Gazette, issued in Bonn on February 26, 1977. Since this date the World Heritage Convention has become effective in the Federal Republic of Germany. The reunification treaty also bound the new federal states within the territory of the former German Democratic Republic to the Convention. The German Democratic Republic had been a State Party to the Convention as of December 12, 1988, though without the inscription of any sites on the World Heritage List. The World Heritage Convention was concluded in Germany as an administrative agreement; it was not transferred into federal law. The German Federal Government and the governments of the federal states assumed that regulations already in force in the Federal Republic of Germany provided validity to the Convention at national level, as did the "Recommendation Concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and National Heritage", resolved on November 16, 1972 by the General Conference of UNESCO. This recommendation14, which receives far less attention than it deserves, is closely related to the World Heritage Convention both in time and in terms of content. A close look at the recommendation confirms that it delineates the frameworks for terminology, laws, organization and procedures for the protection of monuments and the environment, which were in principle codified at the time by the many new monument protection laws of the federal states,15 the environmental protection laws and also by numerous other federal and state laws, such as the 14 See Annex A. 15 See the key article by Fastenrath, Ulrich, "Der Schutz des Weltkulturerbes in Deutsch- land. Zur innerstaatlichen Wirkung von vцlkerrechtlichen Vertrдgen ohne Vertragsgesetz", in Die Цffentliche Verwaltung, 12/2006, Issue 24, pp. 1017-1027.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl23 Federal Building Code, the Federal Regional Planning Act and the environmental impact
assessment. It remains to be seen whether the final decision in the legal dispute over the construction of the Waldschlцsschen Bridge in the Dresden Elbe Valley will result in the enactment of a federal law with consent or by agreement making it necessary to anchor World Heritage protection in the monument protection laws, legal ordinances and administrative regulations of the federal states. With regard to compiling a management plan at present it must be stated that the World Heritage Convention was ratified by the Federal Republic of Germany in 1976 as an administrative agreement implemented within the framework of existing laws and ordinances. 3.3.2 Other international conventions and charters Other international conventions, in addition to the World Heritage Convention, are relevant to protection and conservation of World Heritage sites. The "Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention"16 and the Questionnaire for Periodic Reports for the period 2005/200617 indicate that the World Heritage Committee considers the following conventions significant with regard to world heritage as a part of cultural heritage: the "Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict
" (UNESCO, Den Haag, 1954) including the protocols of 1954 and 1999; the "European Convention for the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage" (Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 1969); the "Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property" (UNESCO, Paris, 1970); the "European Convention on Offences relating to Cultural Property" (Council of Europe, Delphi, 1985); the "Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage in Europe" (Council of Europe, Granada, 1985); the "European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage" (Council of Europe, Malta, 1992); the "UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects" (Rome, 1995); the "Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage" (UNESCO, Paris, 2001); the "Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage" (UNESCO, Paris, 2003); and the "European Landscape Convention" (Council of Europe, Florence, 2000). The "Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions" (UNESCO, Paris, 2005), ratified by law in Germany on March 1, 2007 can also be added to this 16 See Operational Guidelines, §§ 41-44. 17 See Questionnaire for Periodic Reporting for the period 2005/2006, Annex B.
24 list. The preamble of this convention clearly refers to a common heritage of mankind; according to Article 20, the States Parties recognize that they are bound to meet their obligations outlined in this convention in good faith, as well as those contained in all other treaties to which they are party. In doing so, they reconfirm the binding nature of the World Heritage Convention. According to the Federal Constitutional Court jurisdiction18 regulations of ratified international conventions must be observed in federal law. The "Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage in Europe" (Council of Europe, Granada, 1985) is of particular significance. It consciously employs the terms "monuments, ensembles, sites" connecting it to the World Heritage Convention. The "European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage" (Council of Europe, Malta, 1992) is also significant. This convention became effective in Germany in 2002. According to Article 5 of this convention, States Parties are duty bound, among other things, to pursue regional planning policies oriented toward balanced strategies to protect, conserve and promote sites of archaeological interest. In addition it frames the obligation to perform environmental impact assessment, to ensure that archaeological sites and their surroundings are taken into account completely. 19 Like the "European Convention on Offences relating to Cultural Property" (Council of Europe, Delphi, 1985), the "UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects" (Rome, 1995), the "Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage" (UNESCO, Paris, 2001), and the "Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage" (UNESCO, Paris, 2003), the "European Landscape Convention" (Council of Europe, Florence, 2000) has not yet been ratified by the Federal Republic of Germany. It does, however, have an impact, since according to Article 18 of the "Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties" of May 23, 1969, Germany is obliged to abstain from any activities that could impede the goal and purpose of a treaty. If the management plan does not make general mention of the conventions ratified by Germany but rather emphasizes a convention that is especially relevant for the preservation of a site (e.g. an underwater site), it is advisable to state its current status and clarify whether it has yet been ratified in Germany. 18 See BVerGE 74, pp. 358-370, E 111, p. 307 f. 19 See "Denkmalschutz. Texte zum Denkmalschutz und zur Denkmalpflege". Publications of the German Cultural Heritage Committee, Volume 52, fourth edition, Bonn, 2007, pp. 227-230. In addition to the European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage, nearly all of the other key conventions and charters are printed there in the German translation
Chapter II. Modules explainedl25 International charters such as the "Venice Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites" (1964), the "Florence Charter on Historic Gardens" (1981), the "Washington Charter for Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas" (1987) and the "Lausanne Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage" (1990) narrow the conceptual formulation of monument, cultural property and World Heritage protection as so-called "soft legislation". Additional decisions adopted by the World Heritage Committee, such as the "Document on Authenticity" (1994), and the "Declaration on the Conservation of Historic Urban Landscapes" (2005), expand upon the previously mentioned "Recommendation Concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and National Heritage".20 The relevant conventions, recommendations and guidelines for the protection and preservation of natural heritage, which can also be found in the Operational Guidelines and in the Questionnaire for Periodic Reports, are not mentioned here. However they should also be consulted in compiling a management plan for a World Heritage site that is to be or has been nominated according to Paragraph 46 of the Operational Guidelines as "mixed cultural and natural heritage". 3.3.3 National law and planning system The management plan should make mention of key laws and statutory provisions that regulate protection and preservation of World Heritage sites. For monuments and ensembles such as cathedrals or castle complexes the plan should cite first and foremost the applicable provisions of the constitution of the federal state concerned, pertaining to protection of cultural and natural properties in connection with the relevant monument protection law of the federal state. Monument protection laws of the federal states protect monuments, ensembles and sites, while taking into account their surroundings. As already explained under 3.1, it is important to ensure conformity in terminology between the World Heritage Convention and the respective federal state's law. The law and planning system is far more complex for historical towns and cities and cultural landscapes inscribed as "sites" on the World Heritage List in accordance with the terminology of the World Heritage Convention. The same applies for the use of buffer zones to ensure conservation of the areas surrounding monuments and ensembles. Since both World Heritage sites and buffer zones are highly significant in terms of space, zoning and development planning and building laws take 20 See Annex A.
on a special meaning. It is worthwhile illustrating the applicable planning and legal system with an organigram and a brief description.
Raumplanung Spatial planning
Raumbezogene Fachplanung Area related sectoral planning
Raumbezogene Gesamtplanung Overall planning
Raumordnung Spatial planning
Bauleitplanung Building management planning
Bundesplanung (Bundesraumordnung) Spatial planning at Federal Government level
Hochstufige Landesplanung (Landesraumordnung) High-level spatial planning at federal state level
Flдchennutzungsplan Land-Use Plan Bebauungsplan Local Building Plan
Gesamtrдumliche Landesplanung Cross-sectoral spatial planning at federal state level
Sektorale Landesplanung Sectoral spatial planning at federal state level
Regionalplanung Regional planning
World Heritage conservation can come into play even at local planning level. In the Federal Regional Planning Act protection of cultural property and cultural landscape is listed as a principle with the following requirement: "Historical and cultural relationships and regional connections shall be maintained; the characteristic features and the cultural and natural monuments of evolved cultural landscapes shall be preserved."21 With this law the German Federal Government, which only has general competence with respect to spatial planning, formulates a framework for action within which the federal states are responsible for implementing planning laws at federal state level. 21 ROG i.d.F. of 18/8/1997, last amended on 25/6/2005, Article 2(2) No 13.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl27 If possible and reasonable the plan should explain whether and how, within the framework of spatial, state and regional planning, authorities responsible for protecting World Heritage are involved in the consultation procedure. Especially with respect to the protection of surroundings of a World Heritage site (protecting view perspectives, silhouette and panorama), it is important to consider the requirements of the World Heritage Convention and of the protection goals as early as possible, e.g. in determining locations of windfarms, transmission and receiving towers, industrial plants etc. Bad developments can also be prevented by describing a World Heritage site and the qualities that determine its value in a technical paper on cultural landscapes that contributes to state planning. Also regularly scheduled meetings on this topic are advisable and worth mentioning in the management plan. Building management planning is used to prevent any construction-related bad developments. It establishes the framework in which all the individual building projects must function in order to receive approval according to the planning laws specified in the Federal Building Code (referred to as BauGB hereafter), dated 8/12/1986. Consideration of matters concerning monument protection is a binding requirement in communal building management planning according to Section 1.6, No 5 (BauGB). This refers to the "interests of structures with cultural significance, monument protection and conservation, neighbourhoods worthy of conservation, streets and squares of historical, artistic or urban significance, as well as the overall appearance of the local area and landscape." 22 It is the responsibility of the building management planning authority to prepare and implement construction and other uses of communal properties in accordance with the requirements of this building code. Building management plans include a land-use plan (preparatory building management plan), a local building plan and/or project and development plan. Building management plans are required to address the interests mentioned above within the framework established in Section 1.7 (BauGB). Local building plans especially thus offer a good way to ensure preventive protection of World Heritage sites by steering the course of the approval procedure for competing projects. If building management planning is a central instrument of protection for a World Heritage site, two things should be explained in the management plan: how the World Heritage site can be protected: firstly, by putting forth the protection goal in terms of the object itself, its surroundings and its visual integrity; sec- 22 Federal Building Code (Baugesetzbuch 1986, BauGB), Section 1.1 (working translation of the German Commission for UNESCO).
28 ondly, through early formal and informal advance participation of authorities and institutions responsible for protection of World Heritage sites. If the World Heritage site or its buffer zone is located in a peripheral area, i.e. in an area that is outside the applicable scope of a local building plan or a project and development plan and outside the corresponding developed areas associated with these plans, the provisions of BauGB (Section 35, BauGB) apply. In general, external areas should be free of construction with the exception of a few privileged projects and few exceptions, as long as they do not conflict with public interests.23 In this case the management plan should explain how the protection and conservation of the World Heritage site are anchored in the law and planning system as a public matter of concern and therefore necessitate disapproval of other competing projects. In addition the plan should indicate that the effects on cultural properties and thus the interests of World Heritage protection also have to be studied and considered with respect to the legally mandated environmental impact assessment (UVP) as a dependent part of the approval and licensing procedures for specific plans, programmes and projects in accordance with the annex to the UVP laws at Federal Government and federal state level.24 The goal of such a study is to describe and assess in a formalized procedure the effects of a project on the environment and consequently on the cultural heritage in a systematic, complete and comprehensible manner. Long-term effects, alternatives and foregoing the project entirely (the null possibility) should also be considered. Also in this case it is advisable to put an "early warning system" into place that uses preventive constructive dialogue, and to include its description in the management plan. 3.3.4 Statutes and contracts In addition to laws the management plan should make mention of the statutes that are valid in the area of the World Heritage and its buffer zone. These may include, for instance, conservation, renovation, design, and historic monument statutes based on regulations contained in the monument protection laws and urban planning legislation. Content and goals should be explained with respect to conservation and preservation of the World Heritage site. The decision of whether the complete text should 23 See Section 35.2, BauGB. 24 "Denkmalpflegerische Belange in der Umweltvertrдglichkeitsprьfung (UVP), der Strategischen Umweltprьfung (SUP) und der Umweltprьfung", Working Paper 26 of the Association of the State Conservators of Germany. See http://www.denkmalpflegeforum.de/Download/Nr26.pdf online.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl29 be appended to the plan should be made on a case-by-case basis. If regulations pertaining to a World Heritage site or parts thereof have been contractually agreed upon, these should be listed in the management plan. The purpose and content of such agreements, for instance in an Urban development
contract or in an agreement for use should be summarized if the agreement is not translated or included in the plan. 4 Protected area The definition of the subject of protection is just as fundamental as the statement of its outstanding universal value, integrity and/or authenticity, the description of the protected property and the protection goal. 4.1 Boundaries of the World Heritage site The boundaries of a World Heritage site must be clearly defined and marked. It is advisable to indicate a precisely marked plot on a scale map. The same applies to buffer zones; their boundaries should also be represented on the map. It is advisable to use different colours for ease of reading. This also permits the clear delineation of the different protection categories and protection goals for core and buffer zones. A good example of this can be seen in the master plan for the historic city centre of Graz in Annex C. 4.2 Buffer zones Specifications about buffer zones can be found in Paragraphs 103 to 107 of the Operational Guidelines.25 According to these specifications buffer zones should include the immediate setting surrounding the inscribed property, important views and other areas or attributes that are functionally important as a support to the site and its protection. It is advisable to anchor buffer zones for World Heritage sites in the framework of existing legal instruments. Indicate in this regard the relevant provisions of the monument protection laws of the federal states that pertain 25 See Operational Guidelines, §§ 103-107.
30 to historical monument areas, complete facilities, areas, collections of objects, excavation protection areas and protection of surroundings. However statutes and local building plans are also effective instruments for creating designations to protect World Heritage sites with buffer zones. The sizes and designation of the buffer zone should be established and depicted on a map, on which the boundaries of the World Heritage site are also indicated. Any modifications to the buffer zone should be approved by the World Heritage Committee. Exceptional cases in which no buffer zone is designated should be justified. When delineating the buffer zone, one should emphasize that project planning and interferences outside the buffer zone are not necessarily non-detrimental to the integrity, authenticity and outstanding universal value of the site. 4.3 Protection of view perspectives, silhouette and panorama Since World Heritage sites covering a large surface are subject to a multitude of impacts and threats, appropriate protection measures and mechanisms take on particular importance. While the protection category of buffer zones is still the best instrument for conserving the UNESCO World Heritage, due to their two-dimensional character they have proved often to be insufficient in practice. Construction, especially of tall buildings, outside the actual World Heritage area or the adjacent buffer zone can severely detract from or even destroy the qualities of a World Heritage site. The debates over the controversial high-rise project in Vienna`s city centre and the area opposite the Cologne Cathedral on the opposite side of the river Rhine put such concerns into public view. In both cases UNESCO perceived a threat to the "visual integrity" of the World Heritage site in question. To prevent such problems in advance and to avoid bad developments and general endangerment of the World Heritage status, the addition of another protection category may prove useful. Research and documentation of historic and current visual relationships constitute an important contribution in this regard. This is due not only to the increased sensitization about this issue resulting from the conscious discussion regarding the category but also because such research can serve as a basis to develop appropriate and comprehensive measures and concepts to maintain the UNESCO World Heritage sites. It is important not to limit the study merely to the town/city but also to include the visual relationships to the surrounding landscape. Analysis and documentation, based
Chapter II. Modules explainedl31 on scientific research, as well as the conscious perception of visual relationships and view perspectives can therefore become important prerequisites for conservation of World Heritage. While this applies especially to World Heritage sites covering a large surface, it is also relevant to individual monuments. Particularly historic visual relationships often have a value in and of themselves, which is lost when they are not respected and hence destroyed. The significance of urban visual relationships for the identity of historic urban landscapes was also explicitly addressed in the "Declaration on the Conservation of Historic Urban Landscapes" (2005). For that reason it is advisable to supply the responsible authorities with precise research results and documentation of internal and external urban visual relationships, in order to preserve the qualities of World Heritage sites and, in particular, to ensure the conservation of visual integrity as a fundamental condition for preserving the outstanding universal value of a UNESCO World Heritage site. As previously mentioned, building projects that severely detract from or destroy view perspectives, silhouettes, and panoramas are increasingly becoming a problem. In this case, the legal framework for preventing such development, especially in the case of construction in the inner centre, is extremely difficult. The frequently used word, view perspectives, often does not accurately describe the intended creation of either a view corridor or view sector. The only possible means of protection is a combination of statutes of monument protection, the land-use plan and local building plan. That is why, for affected World Heritage sites, it is indispensable to define view perspectives, silhouettes, and panoramas as protection goals and to incorporate these early on in all legal instruments and relevant procedures. 5 Management system The "Recommendation Concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and Natural Heritage"26 states that "the specialized services dealing with the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage should carry out their work in liaison and on an equal footing with other public services, more par- 26 See Annex A.
32 ticularly those responsible for regional Development Planning
, major Public Works
, the environment and economic and social planning." 5.1 Management structures 5.1.1 Authorities and procedures The authorities responsible for the protection of a World Heritage site should be named in the management plan. If the World Heritage site is an individual historical monument or an ensemble, primarily, the authorities charged with enforcing monument protection laws and providing technical expertise on historical monuments in co-operation with the local communal authorities should be listed, making mention of the mandate of each of these bodies. Procedures and responsibilities should also be described. The same applies for cultural properties inscribed as sites. In this case, the bureaucratic procedure might be more complex. With regard to cultural landscapes, for instance, authorities responsible for nature and landscape protection also have to be represented in the management system. Following the above recommendation the plan should describe the role each of these bodies play in proposals and projects; for example, the function of the competent offices and authorities for the protection of monuments as the official representatives of public interests. It may be useful to present the management system using an organigram, which visually delineates the administrative structure of authorities and their responsibilities. 5.1.2 Ownership structure and responsible bodies With World Heritage sites ownership conditions can be simple but also complex. They, as well as the conditions of jurisdiction, should be stated in the management plan. Their organizational form must also be explained, e.g. the duties and responsibilities of an operating agency with respect to proprietors and users. 5.1.3 Co-ordination "Continuing co-operation at all levels should be organized among the specialized services whenever large-scale projects are involved, and appropriate co-ordinating arrangements made so that decisions may be taken in concert, taking account of the various interests involved. Provision should be made for joint planning from the start of the studies and machinery developed for the settlement of conflicts."27 27 "Recommendation Concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and Natural Heritage", No 16 (see Annex A).
Chapter II. Modules explainedl33 It may be advisable to establish a co-ordination office or unit for certain measures for a limited time. Steering groups, committees and commissions are particularly useful for monitoring and quality assurance when large-scale conservation, restoration and measures of repair are carried out or for interdisciplinary research programmes with various participants.28 A World Heritage secretariat or a central office led by a fulltime co-ordinator is appropriate for large and multifaceted World Heritage sites. Being an integral element of the management system, key duties of such a co-ordination office would include strategy development, urban monitoring, scientific supervision, co-operation with urban networks, information transfer, participation in public hearings, conflict management, fundraising, sponsoring and publicity work. The resolution of the German Commission for UNESCO concerning UNESCO World Heritage in Germany emphatically recommends the establishment of a co-ordination office.29 5.2 Basic principles for planning and acting 5.2.1 Objective, targets and strategies Article 5 of the World Heritage Convention states the responsibility, "to adopt a general policy which aims to give the cultural and natural heritage a function in the life of the community and to integrate the protection of that heritage into comprehensive planning programmes".30 Based on international principles for conserving cultural heritage, laid down in the above-mentioned key recommendations of the UNESCO conventions and international guidelines, such as the Venice Charter, the objective, targets and strategies should be specified.31 5.2.2 Master plan and catalogue of measures The annual short-term (2 to 5 years) and long-term work plans (5 to 30 years) and projects are to be listed in the master plan and in the catalogue of measures. The initial situation, bases of action, such as surveys and mapping of damage, methods, objective, scientific and technical supervision by a committee or research institute should also be delineated, along with the type of documentation and monitoring of 28 See also Section 5.4.5 on this subject. 29 See "UNESCO-Welterbe in Deutschland". Resolution of the 66thGeneral assembly of the German Commission for UNESCO, Hildesheim, June 29, 2006. 30 See Operational Guidelines, § 15, points b and c. 31 See, for instance, "Concepts and Strategies for Spatial Development in Germany", Berlin 2006, published by the Secretariat of the Standing Conference of Ministers responsible for Spatial Planning.
34 measures undertaken. Budget and funding should be discussed or referenced if information on these topics is located in a special chapter. When drafting an outline of the plan, it is important to involve all the competent authorities and institutions responsible for conserving the UNESCO World Heritage site. It is imperative that the outline of the plan be continually updated to make it possible to react to changes and developments. In addition to mentioning needs for restoration and current construction, questions of security, fire safety, use, stationary and flowing traffic as well as protection of the environment should all be addressed. Since the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites includes different types of historical monuments, such as individual monuments, ensembles, archaeological sites, historic towns and cities and cultural landscapes, maintenance plans should be developed in terms of scale accordingly. A historic old town requires a different level of detail than a single monument. Maintenance plans can therefore be developed for complete objects or parts thereof. However an attempt should always be made to develop maintenance plans with a modular structure, to allow them to become successively more thorough and complete. Maintenance modules should be interlinked in such a way as to enable the owner and specialists to develop a substantial long-term maintenance plan. The development and evaluation of the appropriate structures and procedures for implementing measures at regular intervals should play a key role in this process from the outset. 5.2.3 Inventories Generating a complete inventory is fundamental. Ideally this would mean an inventory of the World Heritage site's assets worthy of conservation, based on the example of the architectural and artistic monuments of the city of Minden.32 With regard to monuments, architectural components as well as movable and immovable inventories should be listed. For groups of buildings, historic towns and cities and cultural landscapes, elements that define their value should be named. In cases where an inventory would go far beyond the scope of a management plan it is advisable to make a reference to key literature, such as an electronic or printed monument directory of a city or region or the respective volume of the series "Topography of 32 "Bau- und Kunstdenkmдler der Stadt Minden", by Fred Kaspar and Ulf-Dietrich Korn, Bau und Kunstdenkmдler von Westfalen, Vol. 50, Parts I-V, Greven 1998-2007.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl35 Monuments in the Federal Republic of Germany".33 Inventories or partial inventories should be made available to the public in order to raise awareness. 5.2.4 Science and research Scientific Studies
and research programmes for the site, e.g. into the development and contextualisation of the inventory, risk assessment, monitoring procedures, climatic data, restoration requirements and archaeological findings should be named. In doing so, the plan should also make mention of the results and implementation of these studies. Research into UNESCO World Heritage sites can be conducted by owners or authorities but also be carried out in co-operation with independent researchers, institutions of higher education, technical universities and other research facilities. The responsible competent authorities should undertake the monitoring and co-ordination. In this regard it is important that the results of the research are made available to interested parties and to the informed public and specialists. 5.3 Threats and preventive protection A preventive conservation strategy outlining organizational and technical risk avoidment and mitigation measures, based on the identification of potential threats, should be developed for World Heritage sites. Any problems or risks that may endanger the World Heritage site should be specified. In doing so the relevance of the factors named on the nomination form (development pressure, environmental influences, natural disasters, tourism pressure and overpopulation) for the site should be addressed and evaluated. An assessment should be made estimating whether the influences of these factors on the cultural property are increasing or decreasing. Based on this assessment, planning for warding off threats should be developed. This should include the following elements: legal instruments, practical and technical measures
, an explanation of competence and methods used at regional and supraregional level, as well as measures the State Party can take in order to counter dan- 33 "Denkmaltopographie Bundesrepublik Deutschland Series", CW Niemeyer Buchverlage GmbH.
36 gers already threatening the cultural or natural property or posing a potential future threat. Corrective measures that have already been taken to ward off threats should be described, as should the planned measures and their timeframes. 5.3.1 Development pressure Every World Heritage site has its social, tourism and spatial context. Developments in connection with World Heritage sites may be desirable or even necessary for conservation, but they can also endanger the World Heritage site if detracting from its authenticity and integrity. That is why major development factors should be defined in each case based on the specific qualities of the World Heritage site. Construction activities, investment pressure and changes in traffic and use are factors which affect the World Heritage site, including view perspectives and silhouettes. 5.3.2 Climate change International climate research has shown beyond doubt that climate change is both progressing and accelerating. World Heritage is also affected. Thus many sites in Asia, South America
and Australia have been inscribed on the UNESCO List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 2005 climate change has been on the World Heritage Committee`s agenda as one of the greatest dangers to the World Heritage sites. While natural heritage sites are the ones primarily affected, climate change will also have effects on cultural heritage sites. Air and water pollution
that directly affect the natural and cultural heritage constitute a constant danger, despite stricter legal regulations in recent years. If effects are visible or feared, observations and countermeasures should be described in the management plan.34 5.3.3 Natural disasters Depending on the geographical location and the character of a World Heritage site, the potential threat posed by natural disasters (e.g. earthquakes, floods, fire and storms) can vary considerably. Obviously only scenarios assessed as actual risks should be addressed. Possible countermeasures could include both preventive measures (e.g. flood protection, including reactivating older systems) and reactive measures (e.g. rescue and saving of cultural property). 34 Rцssler, Mechtild, "Globale Klimaverдnderungen beeintrдchtigen Welterbestдtten", in Garten und Landschaft, 8/2007, pp. 32-33.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl37 5.3.4 Tourism pressure Tourism in World Heritage sites presents an opportunity to the extent that it contributes to the public awareness of the supranational significance of the site and its beauty. Furthermore it is beneficial if commercial income contributes to the protection and preservation of the site. However tourism may cause damage if defined capacities are exceeded or if resulting facilities and traffic threaten the authenticity and integrity of the World Heritage site in its spatial context. Therefore the extent of tourism-related use a World Heritage site can tolerate, the necessary infrastructure to do so and limits to tourism development and marketing have to be determined. If a tourism concept or something similar for the site already exists, it should be outlined. Visitor guidance concepts should also be integrated early into both the master plan and the management plan. 5.3.5 Overpopulation Depending on the type of use, the conservation and development of a World Heritage site are also influenced by demographic developments. As for the case of significant population growth, the corresponding infrastructure facilities and, if applicable, excessive demands that may endanger the protected cultural or natural heritage, should be assessed and appropriate corrective measures should be named. However also a falling population can represent a threat if it results in inadequate conservation and maintenance of the protected property. If one of these scenarios occurs, available prognoses, impacts on the World Heritage site and solutions should be discussed. 5.3.6 Security of buildings Protection goals and measures should be defined for protection against latent dangers or threats. The security concept and its active components (alarm systems, video and access control) and passive construction measures (fences, bars and safety glass) should be outlined. Fire safety should form an integral component of a management plan not only with regard to the September 2004 fire in the roof truss of the main building of the Duchess Anna Amalia Library in Weimar. Essential components of the fire protection concept should be described. In doing so, a distinction should be made between constructional fire protection (materials used), technological fire protection (early warning systems, such as smoke and fire detectors) and organizational fire protection (fire fighting equipment, such as fire extinguishers, hydrants and sprinkler systems).
38 5.3.7 Miscellaneous Every World Heritage site is subject to particular conditions, which may involve other endangerment factors, whose relevance should be assessed. 5.4 Monitoring and quality control Continuous monitoring of the condition of listed World Heritage sites is one of the most important instruments of the World Heritage Convention. This is based on the reporting requirement, spelled out in Article 29 of the World Heritage Convention and cited in Paragraphs 169-176, 190, 191 and 199-202 of the Operational Guidelines, accepted with the ratification of the Convention.35 According to the Operational Guidelines States Parties are required to report on key indicators suggested in the document in order to measure and assess the state of conservation of the site.36 Principles used as assessment guidelines in individual cases to distinguish between "World Heritage compatible" and "non-World Heritage compatible" measures should be specified. Also organizational safety mechanisms that prevent bad developments and ensure sustainable development
of the World Heritage site should be developed and specified. 5.4.1 Periodic reporting The requirement to submit periodic reports on the implementation of the UNESCO Convention, the state of conservation of inscribed World Heritage sites and to keep (this) information updated is derived from Article 29 of the World Heritage Convention in connection with Chapter V of the Operational Guidelines (February 2005 version). Up to now periodic reporting has been performed once. World Heritage sites inscribed up to the end of 1997 were affected. A comprehensive questionnaire about the implementation of the World Heritage Convention in Germany in general and about individual sites had to be filled in. The German report is included in the report on Europe and North America presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2006. 5.4.2 Reactive monitoring Independent of periodic reporting the World Heritage Centre is to be informed of extraordinary circumstances and work which may affect the state of conservation of 35 Operational Guidelines §§ 169-176, 190, 191 and 199-202. 36 Operational Guidelines, §132, Section 6.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl39 the World Heritage site within the framework of a reactive monitoring programme. Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines states: "[t]he World Heritage Committee invites the States Parties to the Convention to inform the Committee, through the Secretariat, of their intention to undertake or to authorize in an area protected under the Convention major restorations or new constructions which may affect the outstanding universal value of the property. Notice should be given as soon as possible (for instance before drafting basic documents for specific projects) and before making any decisions that would be difficult to reverse, so that the Committee may assist in seeking appropriate solutions to ensure that the outstanding universal value of the property is fully preserved."37 The procedure related to reported information is also set out: Paragraph 174 states that "[w]hen the Secretariat receives information that a property inscribed has seriously deteriorated, or that the necessary corrective measures have not been taken within the time proposed, from a source other than the State Party concerned, it will, as far as possible, verify the source and the contents of the information in consultation with the State Party concerned and request its comments."38 Accordingly all procedures prompted by reporting through official channels or by third party information related to actions in and on World Heritage sites fall under reactive monitoring. The World Heritage Centre can charge the following advisory bodies to perform evaluations: the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM). The advisory bodies do not have a mandate for a concrete case until they are commissioned by the World Heritage Centre itself or are requested by the World Heritage Committee to present an opinion or to visit the World Heritage site in question. As a rule no native representatives are involved but rather foreign experts perform the evaluation in the name of the respective advisory body. This practice is, however, not codified in the Operational Guidelines. In these cases the World Heritage Centre prepares the data (received information, comments by the State Party concerned and by the relevant advisory bodies) in a document for the next meeting of the World Heritage Committee. The results can vary widely. The World Heritage Committee may come to the conclusion that the site is in no danger, it may request further information and dispatch of an on-site 37 Ibid., §172. 38 Ibid., §174.
40 fact-finding delegation, request the reinstatement of the original condition of the site or demand the provision of funds from the World Heritage Fund or the inscription of the site on the List of World Heritage in Danger. The reports are considered in detail at the annual session of the World Heritage Committee, since the credibility of the World Heritage Convention and the World Heritage Committee critically depends on how seriously the condition of World Heritage sites is examined and monitored. 5.4.3 Preventive monitoring The mandate and function of the advisory bodies are derived from Articles 8 (3), 13 (7) and 14 (2) of the World Heritage Convention in connection with Paragraphs 30 and 31 of the Operational Guidelines.39 Among the special responsibilities of ICOMOS with respect to the Convention is the evaluation of properties nominated for inscription on the World Heritage List and the monitoring of the state of conservation of cultural properties of the World Heritage List. Based on this, the German National Committee of ICOMOS set up a monitoring group responsible for the German World Heritage sites. As a rule two members of the group are responsible for each World Heritage site: they monitor development, attend meetings on location and generate annual reports. A five-person leadership team has editorial responsibility for the reports, which are provided to ICOMOS International and to the German Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media. These may result in the procedure described under 5.4.2. The explicit goal of the ICOMOS monitoring group in Germany is however to contribute to conflict avoidance and minimisation by early involvement and advice. The monitoring group of the German National Committee of ICOMOS however has no official function in the official procedures initiated by the World Heritage Committee or the World Heritage Centre for example, evaluation and assessment of developments and actions of a World Heritage site. In general, the World Heritage Committee and the World Heritage Centre only recognize assessments and reports by international experts that they themselves and/or ICOMOS International have officially commissioned. 5.4.4 Procedure and World Heritage compatibility check Technically competent planning and procedures are critical for quality assurance and measures in and on World Heritage sites. Restoration measures carried out 39 Ibid., §§30-31.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl41 on buildings and objects must be accompanied by thorough inventories, including damage mapping as well as scientific studies. The measures themselves should be documented and monitored in detail. International competitions are a preferred solution for urban development planning, new constructions and infrastructure projects. Obviously legal procedures have to be followed and the various technical authorities have to be involved. Even the call for tenders should include technical assessments by monument protection specialists and officials. Experience shows that technically competent procedures do not always suffice to exclude negative impacts on World Heritage sites. A special World Heritage compatibility check, including a catalogue of issues to be addressed and institutions that should participate, should therefore be considered either in advance of or following such procedures. A compatibility check regarding the townscape and view perspectives carried out by independent offices and scientific institutes may be a vehicle with which to identify and avoid dangers to the visual integrity of a site. Generally in the instance of projects with significant consequences the principles of an environmental impact study should form the basis for action: The effects of a project or plan on a World Heritage site should be determined, described and assessed in an orderly, systematic, complete and cogent manner well in advance. This type of examination should also include a list of alternatives from measures to minimise effects, to forgoing the project completely.40 5.4.5 Advisory boards and commissions The "Recommendation concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and National Heritage"41 recommends co-operation with advisory boards for advice on and preparation of measures that may affect the cultural and natural heritage. These advisory boards should include experts and representatives of large associations devoted to conservation of cultural and natural properties, as well as representatives of participating administrative bodies. These types of commissions or boards are however not necessarily just temporary entities for individual restoration plans
, such as the conservation of the Shrine of the Virgin Mary in Aachen Cathedral; they can also serve as permanent bodies. The constitution, charter, authority and function 40 "Denkmalpflegerische Belange in der Unweltvertrдglichkeitsprьfung (UVP), Strategischen Umweltprьfung (SUP) and Umweltprьfung", working paper 26 of the Association of the State Conservators of Germany. See http://www.denkmalpflege-forum.de/ Download/Nr26.pdf online. 41 See the Recommendation concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and National Heritage, No 14 (Annex A).
42 of existing or planned boards and commissions (such as for instance a cathedral building commission, the World Heritage Advisory Council, the Advisory Council of Technical Experts etc.) should be described and explained in the management plan especially with regard to monitoring and quality assurance. 5.4.6 Conflict management As already mentioned under 5.1.3, it is advisable to develop a procedure for settling disputes not only once a concrete dispute has broken out, but also as far in advance as possible. It is therefore practical to anchor the conflict management mechanism securely in the management plan. The following step-by-step problem-solving model, which offers suggestions and could serve as a model for other World Heritage sites, was developed for the historic old city of Graz (Annex C). In developing a comparable plan for a German World Heritage site, both the monitoring group of the German National Committee of ICOMOS and existing boards and commissions could be involved in the process. The procedures and instruments already mentioned for quality assurance and for the World Heritage compatibility check can also be anchored in this process.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl43
Reporting requirement: In conflicts of interest relating to World Cultural Heritage (WCH), a distinction is made between problems of lesser and greater significance, which determines the specific approach to the reporting requirement.
A. Projects involving a lesser WCH conflict of interest
B. Projects involving a severe WCH conflict of interest
Step 1: WCH office/co-ordination: discussion of the problem amongst authorities, experts and applicants, aimed at finding a solution.
Step 1: see A.
Step 2: If a solution cannot be found, the responsible leading officials of the City Senate have to be involved.
Step 2: see A.
Step 3: If a solution still cannot be found, a written report is immediately submitted to the responsible political committee.
Step 3: see A.
Step 4 (if it corresponds to the legal basis): The information is also passed to the following: the Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture; the World Heritage Centre (WHC) UNESCO/Paris.
5.5 Mediation Inscription on the World Heritage List is accompanied by the responsibility to communicate the World Heritage idea and to make the World Heritage site known to the
44 public at large. This mandate for information and education is derived from Article 27, Section 1 of the World Heritage Convention,42 which states: The States Parties to this Convention shall endeavour by all appropriate means, and in particular by educational and information programmes, to strengthen appreciation and respect by their peoples of the cultural and natural heritage defined in Articles 1 and 2 of the Convention.43 The Operational Guidelines touch on mediation and presentation, as seen below: VI. Encouraging support for the World Heritage Convention44 VIII. The World Heritage Emblem45 IX. Information sources46 The Operational Guidelines state that the general public's awareness, understanding and appreciation of the need to preserve cultural and natural heritage should be raised.47 In addition the function of World Heritage in the life of the community should be enhanced48 and the participation of local and national populations in the protection and presentation of heritage should be increased.49 Thus the management plan should include a public relations plan proposing concrete communication measures. Special attention must be paid to informing and sensitizing the local population. For this reason it is advisable to accompany the nomination process by an intensive public relations campaign. Following the inscription of a site on the World Heritage List, strategies and programmes for presenting and promoting the World Heritage idea should be developed and co-ordinated with partners in various fields of activity (e.g. press offices, museums, school administrations, tourist organizations, departments, etc.). 42 See also Operational Guidelines, § 211. 43 World Heritage Convention, Article 27, Section 1. 44 Operational Guidelines, §§ 211-222. 45 Ibid., §§ 258-279. 46 Ibid., §§ 280-290. 47 Ibid., § 211, b. 48 Ibid., § 211, c. 49 Ibid., § 211, d.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl45 5.5.1 Education and information World Heritage sites are educational sites. They convey UNESCO`s goals and ideals to the public. Simply making a site accessible does not fulfil the mandate to educate and inform. Visitors and locals expect information about the World Heritage idea and how to implement it locally. The following questions should be addressed in the course of developing a management plan: How can knowledge about the World Heritage idea best be communicated in the World Heritage site itself? How can important target groups and multipliers be reached? How can knowledge pertaining to the requirements for protection and conservation best be communicated? How can enthusiasm for the topic, especially among young people, be triggered? The communication strategy, therefore, should convey both the idea of the World Heritage programme and the outstanding universal value of the World Heritage site as well as the resulting responsibilities and opportunities. The international dimension calls for a multilingual approach. The following means of communication should be considered: Publications Compiling special information brochures, pamphlets, newsletters and other publications on the topic of "World Heritage" and "World Heritage site XY" is advisable, using an already existing corporate design or one to be developed. Internet Acquiring information via the Internet is becoming increasingly important worldwide. It hence makes sense to create a multilingual internet presence or to add information relevant to the World Heritage to existing websites of the World Heritage site`s responsible bodies. Either a separate Internet portal can be created for the World Heritage site or a "UNESCO World Heritage" link providing further information can be placed on the home page of the place in which the World Heritage site is located. At the very least, this should provide information on the UNESCO World Heritage programme and the outstanding universal value of the site. Signs The Operational Guidelines require the production and placement of plaques to commemorate the inscription of the property on the World Heritage List:
46 "Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List should be marked with the emblem jointly with the UNESCO logo, which should, however, be placed in such a way that they do not visually impair the property in question."50 The purpose of the World Heritage plaque is to inform visitors that the site has a universal value recognized by the international community. Information on position and method of fixing, design and content of the plaque can be found in the Operational Guidelines.51 Information signs can be placed on individual monuments, in towns and cities for example. These signs can be connected to one another in the form of thematic walking tours, placing the monuments in a meaningful context. Tourist signs indicating "UNESCO World Heritage" placed along motorways and roads is a proven means of guiding people to the World Heritage sites. Another possibility is welcome signs at the entrance to World Heritage sites as well as identification of the World Heritage site in tourist guidance systems. World Heritage education Young people constitute a particularly important target group. The educational mandate of the German World Heritage sites can be implemented through close co-operation with schools especially within the UNESCO Associated Schools Project and additional local educational facilities. World Heritage education however also includes communication of the World Heritage idea to adults. Life-long learning is a concept to keep in mind. It is important to obtain information on educational approaches, which is provided amongst others by the World Heritage Centre.52 Publicity Continuous publicity work ensures that the media publish regular reports on developments and activities within the World Heritage site. This increases public acceptance and helps the topic to remain current in the media even after the strong initial interest following inscription on the World Heritage List has died down. Some ways to achieve this are provision of regular information to the local press, notices about cultural events related to World Heritage and admittance of the public to meetings of design and World Heritage boards. 50 Ibid., VIII.D, § 268, see also § 269. 51 Ibid., VIII.D., §§ 270-272. 52 See, for instance, the UNESCO kit "World Heritage for Young People", World Heritage education at the University of Paderborn, Hildesheim World Heritage material.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl47 Training Broadly applied training and information programmes for decision makers, technical experts, journalists, teachers, tour guides and other multipliers should be initiated in co-operation with appropriate institutions; also research projects in the World Heritage field should be launched and supported.53 Training and lectures at World Heritage sites serve to introduce diverse interest groups to the topic of UNESCO World Heritage. It would be advisable to develop a training concept that introduces UNESCO and its goals, explains the background of the World Heritage programme, presents the German World Heritage sites, deals thoroughly with the World Heritage qualities of the World Heritage site in question and indicates the functions of a World Heritage site. It makes sense to involve adult education centres in order to reach a large circle of interested parties. Exhibitions Presenting exhibits based on selected projects and topics about the World Heritage site itself as well as exhibits from other World Heritage sites provides an opportunity to communicate information and to mobilize visitors. 5.5.2 Tourism and visitor guidance Tourism is an important economic factor for many World Heritage sites. It is the responsibility of World Heritage sites to secure and improve sustainability while making use of their cultural tourism potential. It is widely known that uncontrolled tourism can make World Heritage sites victims of their own success. That is why strategies for sustainable use should be developed. It is very important to have set up the necessary infrastructure to receive, host and guide large numbers of visitors. Existing tourism concepts should, within the framework of the management plan, be orientated toward attracting additional visitors, including foreign visitors (especially from the cultural and educational tourism sector) and developing further offers for tourists. Taking part in regional and trans-regional visitor concepts is advisable, as is applying for membership in organizations and associations related to World Heritage. Association of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Germany Playing an active role in the Association of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Germany, an organization that acts at national level to represent the interests of 53 See "UNESCO-Welterbe in Deutschland". Resolution of the 66th General Assembly of the German Commission for UNESCO, Hildesheim, June 29, 2006.
48 tourism, is especially important. The cost of membership subscriptions should be calculated in the budget. Visitor guidance It is important to ensure that the World Heritage site is not endangered by an increasing flow of visitors. If necessary, measures should be taken to guide the flow of visitors. Parking guidance systems and parking plans can alleviate pressure from traffic. The amount of space allotted for parking should be able to accommodate increasing numbers of visitors without detracting from the authenticity and integrity of the World Heritage site. Existing tourist guidance systems should be designed for both non-local and foreign visitors. If necessary the number of visitors in enclosed spaces should be limited by introducing an intelligent visitor-management system to reduce impact on the monument. Visitors' centre The establishment of a central visitors` centre that will be open on a daily basis in the World Heritage site is recommended. In the centre historic and geographical parameters should be explained to visitors as well as the specific reasons for inscription on the World Heritage List. UNESCO, the German Commission for UNESCO, and the World Heritage idea should be presented. For the ordinary visitor and tourist target groups it is important that information in the visitor centre is understandable and appealing. A small introductory exhibition could be set up and World Heritage publications made available. Guided tours Consideration should be given to developing thematic guided tours/special tours on the topic of World Heritage. Comprehensive specialized training of tour guides serves to communicate the special World Heritage value of the site to important multipliers. This training should be repeated at regular intervals. 5.5.3 Events Events that receive attention outside the region heighten visitors` awareness of the World Heritage site. The goal should be to heighten sensitivity to World Heritage and monument conservation. Events at World Heritage sites should set a high standard for seriousness of content, quality of presentation and professionalism in execution. Events and event management should not affect the monument negatively. To ensure this those responsible for the event should work closely with monument conservation offices and tourism organizations. The concept should be explained in the management plan if applicable.
Chapter II. Modules explainedl49 World Heritage Day As a result of the initiative of the German Commission for UNESCO and the Association of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Germany World Heritage Day was launched for the first time in 2005. World Heritage Day is celebrated every year on the first Sunday in June. Every year the main event is held at a different World Heritage site. The main event is accompanied by smaller events throughout the country. The goal of UNESCO World Heritage Day is not only to raise public awareness of German World Heritage sites as places where monuments are especially well protected but also to strengthen their role as communicators of the UNESCO idea. The day is meant to be a forum for communication and coming into contact with people for whom "their World Heritage site" represents an important cultural and historic reference point. The underlying idea is to make World Heritage tangible and to understand local culture as a part of the multifaceted human heritage. "Tag des offenen Denkmals" (German contribution to the European Heritage Days) The "Tag des offenen Denkmals" (German contribution to the European Heritage Days) occurs on the second Sunday in September throughout Europe in order to heighten sensitivity to issues of monument protection. On this day as well, World Heritage sites are called upon to present themselves, under the co-ordination of the German Foundation for Monument Protection, in an appropriate manner. In addition ICOMOS co-ordinates an International Day for Monuments and Sites every year on April 18. 5.5.4 Networks and international co-operation Presentation of a World Heritage site can only be successful on a global scale within a network of other institutions at global level. World Heritage sites have to be networked, both amongst themselves and with institutions outside the World Heritage programme, in order to convey effectively the meaning of the site itself and the fundamental concerns of the United Nations and UNESCO. Each World Heritage site has its own mandate to educate and inform. It can meet this responsibility in various ways: as a place outside the classroom or lecture hall in which to learn and acquire experience in co-operation with schools and universities, as a provider of experience-oriented educational programmes in the leisure activities
sector, as a place of lifelong-learning and experience.
50 A history-based presentation of the meaning of a World Heritage site can be expanded considerably by linking it to the basic principles of the United Nations Charter, the UNESCO Constitution, and the UNESCO World Heritage Convention. Every World Heritage site has its place in the co-ordinates/framework that determine/s the reality in which we live: A timeline (diachronic axis) fixes our World Heritage site in the course of history, links it to our ,here and now` and points it in the direction of an actively shaped future. A parallel axis (synchronic axis) of the reality we live in invites us to draw comparisons and leads us to the realization that the reality of a former time may even be the reality at that moment in other parts of the world or that certain structures, institutions and developments are not limited to our cultural space, but can also be observed in other cultures in very similar ways. World Heritage sites have a responsibility to educate: this should involve various co-operation partners at local, regional, national, and global levels. Educational institutions should be kept in mind: kindergartens, adult education centres, educational authorities, universities and technical universities, educational religious institutions etc. The focus however should also concentrate on the many entities engaged in regional UNESCO work. Examples include the UNESCO clubs and associations, the UNESCO Associated Schools Project, UNESCO geoparks, every UNESCO World Heritage site, and last but not least, the National Commission
s for UNESCO, which not only provide important support in building a network but can also serve as an interface for international network expansion. The process of developing an international network can be carried out based on a few core goals, but it can also be carried out as a completely open procedure that invites and encourages numerous interested parties and projects to participate actively. Networks can have the status of agreements related to specific projects, but they may also have the status of casual friendly working arrangements. What is important here is to clearly define the levels of co-operation and to create a mechanism that allows as many people as possible to participate actively in the network and to profit from it. International partnerships can become an important component of public relations work for a World Heritage site: Networks ensure that knowledge among its participants increases, not only on the level of specialized knowledge but also in the context of the participating World Heritage sites. The close experience of a community immediately surrounding a World Heritage site, for instance, can be effectively and sustainably transformed through experiencing a World Heritage site in another country as "mine".
Chapter II. Modules explainedl51 Shifting perspectives is a cultural technique that precedes sympathetic understanding of the foreign and the other. Partnerships and networks create yet another interesting forum for global communication, which ideally also takes place at the level of the citizen and goes beyond the exchange of ideas between experts and politicians. The management plan should contain planned initiatives and activities. 5.5.5 Use of the World Heritage and UNESCO emblems The name and seal of UNESCO (a temple) as well as the seal of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (a square in a circle) are to be used in publicity work. They are internationally protected symbols. In Germany, the German Commission for UNESCO is responsible for protecting these rights. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization This is based on the "Guidelines on the Authorized Use of the Name and Logo of UNESCO in Germany", dated February 15, 1994, as well as the "Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention", dated February 2, 200554, and the "Directives concerning the Use of the Name, Acronym, Logo and Internet domain names of UNESCO", adopted at the 34th Session of the UNESCO General Conference in Paris in 2007. UNESCO World Heritage sites are members of an international intergovernmental co-operation programme of UNESCO. As participants in the UNESCO World Heritage programme, they have the right to use the seal of the World Heritage Convention. This right applies to public bodies and governmentally recognized bodies of World Heritage sites, as well as entities acting on their behalf. There are five essential principles, set out below. · Once a site is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site, the German Com- mission for UNESCO authorizes non-commercial use of the UNESCO seal 54 Operational Guidelines, VIII, §§ 258-279.
52 and the seal of the World Heritage Convention. The German Commission for UNESCO approves the use of the emblem in external presentation of the World Heritage site. · The World Heritage emblem must be used in connection with the UNESCO emblem. · The World Heritage site is not permitted to pass on the emblem to third parties, for instance in connection with co-operation agreements with private partners. This requires the authorization of the German Commission for UNESCO. · The emblem is not for commercial use (for example, for merchandising or for publications available for sale in bookstores). If there are any doubts about whether it is permissible to use the emblem, the German Commission for UNESCO should be contacted. · The emblem may not be altered, for example by integrating it into another emblem. Use of the name and seal of UNESCO, as well as the seal of the World Heritage Convention by institutions or persons who are not organs or entities of UNESCO or the German Commission for UNESCO is only permissible following special approval of the German Commission for UNESCO. 6 Sustainable use Since the UN conference in Rio in 1992, if not before, the international community has been called upon to consider the principle of sustainability in its decisions and actions. On December 20, 2002 the United Nations Plenary Session
, following the recommendation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, implemented the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development from 2005 to 2014 with UNESCO standing as the leading agency. "Sustainability" is the central political concept for the 21st century. It means that future generation
s will be afforded the same chances to lead a fulfilled life as the current generation. At the same time opportunities must be more fairly distributed among the present generation too. Sustainable development combines economic progress with social justice and protection of the environment. Sustainability is built upon space-saving, energy-saving and traffic-saving development in and around settlements with a special emphasis on the quality of community surroundings. Sustainability is enhanced by strengthening sustainable land use and
Chapter II. Modules explainedl53 environmentally friendly traffic planning aimed, among others, at reducing motorized individual traffic. Saving fossil fuels and using renewable energies to operate infrastructure and buildings are good examples of this. In ratifying the World Heritage Convention in 1972, States Parties accepted the concept of sustainability. Protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage constitute important contributions to sustainable development. When a site is nominated to be inscribed on the World Heritage List, it is accompanied by a basic responsibility to develop sustainable use strategies. The Operational Guidelines specify that World Heritage properties may be used in a multitude of ways, as long as they are environmentally and culturally sustainable. It is emphasised that the State Party and all other partners involved must ensure that such sustainable use does not entail any negative effects on the outstanding universal value, the integrity or the authenticity of the property.55 In a management plan, key measures and local initiatives in the framework of the Agenda 21 worldwide action programme should be summarized. 7 Resources Human and financial resources are essential for the protection and conservation of a World Heritage site. These must be addressed in the management plan. 7.1 Staff In terms of the number of staff, the plan should explain whether and how many staff members are available for conservation, research, administration, visitor services and education, list their academic and technical qualifications and specify whether they possess special training. The plan should also indicate whether access to specialist knowledge from competent authorities and institutes is available and which training offers are provided. The plan should also indicate whether volunteers will be employed on the World Heritage site. 7.2 Budget Information on funding for the World Heritage site should also be included in the management plan. The annual budget should be itemized: operational costs, staff costs, structural maintenance costs, project costs, and special measures based on the 55 Operational Guidelines, § 119.
54 budgets of the past five years should be specified. Mid-term financial planning for the next three to five years should be provided, if available. Financial resources should be listed with explanations of how they are acquired. An explanation should be provided if funding in whole or in part cannot be specified maintenance costs for private monuments, for instance, unlike those for community or religious monuments in a historic town centre, cannot be determined. In such cases, it may be useful to indicate government and private grants allocated to the World Heritage site to the extent that is possible. 8 Format and appendix A management plan should be user-friendly, easy to send by post and easy to file. The Operational Guidelines require DIN A4 format.56 With a view to changes, updates and additions to the plan, a loose-leaf binder making it easy to replace individual chapters may be a good option. Appropriately scale maps are part of the management plan. They should indicate the boundaries of the World Heritage site, buffer zones and if possible view perspectives and view corridors critical to the visual integrity of the site. The maps should fold to DIN A4 size. Additional annexes should also be in this format, inserted in an appropriate sleeve if necessary. The management plan should either include a bibliography containing works of scientific research justifying the outstanding universal value and the statement of authenticity and/or integrity or it should give reference to such a bibliography in the application dossier. Important internet addresses that contain additional information or from which relevant documents can be obtained, should also be provided. The management plan is to be presented to UNESCO in one of its working languages, English or French. In accordance with the requirements for cultural heritage nominations, two printed copies and two electronic copies are required.57 Since proper delivery to Paris entails passing the plan through official channels (the responsible federal state ministry, the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural affairs of the Lдnder, the Federal Foreign Office), copies should be made available to each of these offices. 56 Ibid., § 132, Section 11. 57 Ibid.
55 Chapter III Bibliography and links
56 Monographs and articles Albert, Marie-Theres; Bernecker, Roland; Gutierrez Perez, Diego; Thakur, Nalini; Nairen, Zhang: Training Strategies for World Heritage Management. Cottbus, 2007. ISBN 3-927907-93-6. See http://giga.cps.unizar.es/~amunoz/MUMA/documents/ TrainingStrategiesForHeritageManagement.pdf online. Albert, Marie-Theres; Gauer-Lietz, Sieglinde (Eds.): Constructing World Heritage. Cottbus, 2006. Published in German and English. ISBN 3-88939-795-6. Deutsches Nationalkomitee fьr Denkmalschutz (Ed.): Denkmalschutz. Texte zum Denkmalschutz und zur Denkmalpflege. Schriftenreihe des Deutschen National komitees fьr Denkmalschutz, No 52, Fourth Edition. Bonn, 2007, p. 227-230. Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz; Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission; Цster reichische UNESCO-Kommission (Eds.): Welterbe fьr junge Menschen Entdecken, Erforschen, Erhalten. Eine Unterrichtsmappe fьr Lehrerinnen und Lehrer. Bonn, 2003. Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission, BTU Cottbus (Ed.): Nature and Culture. Ambivalent Dimensions of our Heritage. Change of Perspective. Cottbus, 2002. Published in German and English. ISBN 3-927907-84-7. Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission (Ed.): Welterbe-Manual. Handbuch zur Umsetzung der Welterbekonvention in Deutschland. Bonn, 2006. Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission: "UNESCO-Welterbe in Deutschland." Resolution of the 66th General Assembly of the German Commission for UNESCO. Hil desheim, 29 June 2006. Fastenrath, Ulrich: "Der Schutz des Weltkulturerbes in Deutschland. Zur innerstaatlichen Wirkung von vцlkerrechtlichen Vertrдgen ohne Vertragsgesetz." In: Die Цffentliche Verwaltung, 12/2006, issue 24, pp. 1017-1027. International Conference
"World Heritage and Contemporary Architecture Managing the Historic Urban Landscape" Report. Vienna, 2005.
Chapter III. Bibliography and linksl57 Lotz, Alexandra: Empfehlungen fьr Managementplдne deutscher Welterbestдdte. Unpublished thesis. Archive German Commission for UNESCO. September 2007. Ministerkonferenz fьr Verkehr, Bau- und Stadtentwicklung, Geschдftsstelle (Ed.): Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien fьr die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland. Berlin, 2006. Rodwell, Dennis: "The World Heritage Convention and the Exemplary Management of Complex Heritage Sites." In: Journal of Architectural Conservation. No 8:3, November 2002, pp. 1-21. Rцssler, Mechtild: "Globale Klimaverдnderungen beeintrдchtigen Welterbestдtten". In: Garten und Landschaft, 8/2007, pp. 32-33. UNESCO: Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. See http://whc.unesco.org/archive/opguide05-en.pdf online. Vereinigung der Landesdenkmalpfleger in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Denkmalpflegerische Belange in der Umweltvertrдglichkeitsprьfung (UVP), der Stra tegischen Umweltprьfung (SUP) und der Umweltprьfung. Working paper 26. Wiesbaden, 2005. See http://www.denkmalpflege-forum.de/Download/Nr26.pdf online. Vienna Memorandum on "World Heritage and contemporary architecture Managing the historic urban landscape". Vienna, 2005. Weyer, Angela (Ed.): Klasse Welterbe! Hildesheimer Weltkulturerbe im Unterricht. Schriften des Hornemann-Instituts, No 7. Hildesheim, 2006.
58 Management plans Austen, Paul and Young, Christopher: Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site Management Plan 2002-2007. English Heritage on behalf of Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site Management Plan Committee. Hexham, Northumberland, 2002. Chris Blandford Associates/English Heritage: Stonehenge Management Plan. ISBN 1 85074 782 2. Uckfield, East Sussex, 2000. Stadt Graz, Stadtbaudirektion: World Heritage City of Graz Historic Centre. Managementplan 2007. Graz, 2007. See http://www.graz.at/cms/beitrag/10067402/384408 online. Thakur, Nalini: Hampi World Heritage site monuments, site or cultural landscape? Journal of Landscape Architecture, No 4(4) Spring 2007, pp. 31-37. See http://www.topos.de/PDFs/1181893210.pdf online. Kakadu Board of Management, Commonwealth of Australia: Kakadu National Park Management Plan 2007. See http://www.comlaw.gov.au/comlaw/Legislation/ LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/0/740EF19D57DCBEC7CA257245001A208A? OpenDocument online. International conventions Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. UNESCO, the Hague (1954). European Convention for the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage. Council of Europe, Strasbourg (1969). Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. UNESCO, Paris (1970). European Convention on Offences relating to Cultural Property. Council of Europe, Delphi (1985).
Chapter III. Bibliography and linksl59 Convention for the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage in Europe. Council of Europe, Granada (1985). European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage. Council of Europe, Malta (1992). UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects. Rome (1995). Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. UNESCO, Paris (2001). Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. UNESCO, Paris (2003). European Landscape Convention. Council of Europe, Florence (2000). Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. UNESCO, Paris (2005). Charters and declarations Venice Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (1964) Florence Charter on Historic Gardens (1981) Washington Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas (1987) Burra Charter (1979) Lausanne Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage (1990) Nara Document on Authenticity (1994) Declaration on the Conservation of Historic Urban Landscapes (2005)
62 Annex A Recommendation concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and Natural Heritage The General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, meeting in Paris, at its seventeenth session, from 17 October to 21 November 1972, Considering that, in a society where living conditions are changing at an accelerated pace, it is essential for man`s equilibrium and development to preserve for him a fitting setting in which to live, where he will remain in contact with nature and the evidences of civilization bequeathed by past generations, and that, to this end, it is appropriate to give the cultural and natural heritage an active function in community life and to integrate into an overall policy the achievements of our time, the values of the past and the beauty of nature, Considering that such integration into social and economic life must be one of the fundamental aspects of regional development and national planning at every level, Considering that particularly serious dangers engendered by new phenomena peculiar to our times are threatening the cultural and natural heritage, which constitute an essential feature of mankind`s heritage and a source of enrichment and harmonious development for present and future civilization, Considering that each item of the cultural and natural heritage is unique and that the disappearance of any one item constitutes a definite loss and an irreversible impoverishment of that heritage, Considering that every country in whose territory there are components of the cultural and natural heritage has an obligation to safeguard this part of mankind`s heritage and to ensure that it is handed down to future generations, Considering that the study, knowledge and protection of the cultural and natural heritage in the various countries of the world are conducive to mutual understanding among the peoples, Considering that the cultural and natural heritage forms an harmonious whole, the components of which are indissociable,
Annexl63 Considering that a policy for the protection of the cultural and natural heritage, thought out and formulated in common, is likely to bring about a continuing interaction among Member States and to have a decisive effect on the activities of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in this field, Noting that the General Conference has already adopted international instruments
for the protection of the cultural and natural heritage, such as the Recommendation on International Principles Applicable to Archaeological Excavations (1956), the Recommendation concerning the Safeguarding of the Beauty and Character of Landscapes and Sites (1962) and the Recommendation concerning the Preservation of Cultural Property Endangered by Public or Private Works (1968), Desiring to supplement and extend the application of the standards and principles laid down in such recommendations, Having before it proposals concerning the protection of the cultural and natural heritage, which question appears on the agenda of the session as item 23, Having decided, at its sixteenth session, that this question should be made the subject of international regulations, to take the form of a recommendation to Member States, Adopts this sixteenth day of November 1972, this Recommendation. I. Definitions of the cultural and the natural heritage (1) For the purposes of this Recommendation, the following shall be considered as "cultural heritage": monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, including cave dwellings and inscriptions, and elements, groups of elements or structures of special value from the point of view of archaeology, history, art or science; groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of special value from the point of view of history, art or science;
64 sites: topographical areas, the combined works of man and of nature, which are of special value by reason of their beauty or their interest from the archaeological, historical, ethnological or anthropological points of view. (2) For the purposes of this Recommendation, the following shall be considered as "natural heritage": natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of special value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view; geological and physiographical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of species of animals and plants, valuable or threatened, of special value from the point of view of science or conservation; natural sites or precisely delineated natural areas of special value- from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty, or in their relation to the combined works of man and of nature. II. National policy (3) In conformity with their jurisdictional and legislative requirements, each State should formulate, develop and apply as far as possible a policy whose principal aim should be to co-ordinate and make use of all scientific, technical, cultural and other resources available to secure the effective protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage. III. General principles (4) The cultural and natural heritage represents wealth, the protection, conservation and presentation of which impose responsibilities on the States in whose territory it is situated, both vis-a-vis their own nationals and vis-a-vis the international community as a whole; Member States should take such action as may be necessary to meet these responsibilities. (5) The cultural or natural heritage should be considered in its entirety as a homogeneous whole, comprising not only works of great intrinsic value, but also more modest items that have, with the passage of time, acquired cultural or natural value.
Annexl65 (6) None of these works and none of these items should, as a general rule, be dissociated from its environment. (7) As the ultimate purpose of protecting, conserving and presenting the cultural and natural heritage is the development of man, Member States should, as far as possible, direct their work in this field in such a way that the cultural and natural heritage may no longer be regarded as a check on national development but as a determining factor in such development. (8) The protection, conservation and effective presentation of the cultural and natural heritage should be considered as one of the essential aspects of regional development plans, and planning in general, at the national, regional or local level. (9) An active policy for the conservation of the cultural and natural heritage and for giving it a place in community life should be developed. Member States should arrange for concerted action by all the public and private services concerned, with a view to drawing up and applying such a policy. Preventive and corrective measures relating to the cultural and natural heritage should be supplemented by others, designed to give each of the components of this heritage a function which will make it a part of the nation`s social, economic, scientific and cultural life for the present and future, compatible with the cultural or natural character of the item in question. Action for the protection of the cultural and natural heritage should take advantage of scientific and technical advances in all branches of study involved in the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural or natural heritage. (10) Increasingly significant financial resources should, as far as possible, be made available by the public authorities for the safeguarding and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage. (11) The general public of the area should be associated with the measures to be taken for protection and conservation and should be called on for suggestions and help, with particular reference to regard for and surveillance of the cultural and natural heritage. Consideration might also be given to the possibility of financial support from the private sector. IV. Organization of services (12) Although their diversity makes it impossible for all Member States to adopt a standard form of organization, certain common criteria should nevertheless be observed.
66 Specialized public services (13) With due regard for the conditions appropriate to each country, Member States should set up in their territory, wherever they do not already exist, one or more specialized public services to be responsible for the efficient discharge of the following functions: a) developing and putting into effect measures of all kinds designed for the protection, conservation and presentation of the country`s cultural and natural heritage and for making it an active factor in the life of the community; and primarily, compiling an inventory of the cultural and natural heritage and establishing appropriate documentation services; b) training and recruiting scientific, technical and administrative staff as required, to be responsible for working out identification, protection, conservation and integration programmes and directing their execution; c) organizing close co-operation among specialists of various disciplines to study the technical conservation problems of the cultural and natural heritage; d) using or creating laboratories for the study of all the scientific problems arising in connexion with the conservation of the cultural and natural heritage; e) ensuring that owners or tenants carry out the necessary restoration work and provide for the upkeep of the buildings in the best artistic and technical conditions. Advisory bodies (14) The specialized services should work with bodies of experts responsible for giving advice on the preparation of measures relating to the cultural and natural heritage. Such bodies should include experts, representatives of the major preservation societies, and representatives of the administrations concerned. Co-operation among the various bodies (15) The specialized services dealing with the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage should carry out their work in liaison and on an equal footing with other public services, more particularly those responsible for regional development planning, major public works, the environment, and economic and social planning. Tourist development programmes involving the cultural and natural heritage should be carefully drawn up so as not to impair the intrinsic character and importance of that heritage, and steps should be taken to establish appropriate liaison between the authorities concerned.
Annexl67 (16) Continuing co-operation at all levels should be organized among the specialized services whenever large-scale projects are involved, and appropriate co-ordinating arrangements made so that decisions may be taken in concert taking account of the various interests involved. Provision should be made for joint planning from the start of the studies and machinery developed for the settlement of conflicts. Competence of central, federal, regional and local bodies (17) Considering the fact that the problems involved in the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage are difficult to deal with, calling for special knowledge and sometimes entailing hard choices
, and that there are not enough specialized staff available in this field, responsibilities in all matters concerning the devising and execution of protective measures in general should be divided among central or federal and regional or local authorities on the basis of a judicious balance adapted to the situation that exists in each State. V. Protective measures (18) Member States should, as far as possible, take all necessary scientific, technical and administrative, legal and financial measures, to ensure the protection of the cultural and natural heritage in their territories. Such measures should be determined in accordance with the legislation and organization of the State. Scientific and technical measures (19) Member States should arrange for careful and constant maintenance of their cultural and natural heritage in order to avoid having to undertake the costly operations necessitated by its deterioration; for this purpose, they should provide for regular surveillance of the components of their heritage by means of periodic inspections. They should also draw up carefully planned programmes of conservation and presentation work, gradually taking in all the cultural and natural heritage, depending upon the scientific, technical and financial means at their disposal. (20) Any work required should be preceded and accompanied by such thorough studies as its importance may necessitate. Such studies should be carried out in co-operation with or by specialists in all related fields. (21) Member States should investigate effective methods of affording added protection to those components of the cultural and natural heritage that are threatened by unusually serious dangers. Such methods should take account of the interrelated scientific, technical and artistic problems involved and make it possible to determine the treatment to be applied.
68 (22) These components of the cultural and natural heritage should, in addition, be restored, wherever appropriate, to their former use or given a new and more suitable function, provided that their cultural value is not thereby diminished. (23) Any work done on the cultural heritage should aim at preserving its traditional appearance, and protecting it from any new construction or remodelling which might impair the relations of mass or colour between it and its surroundings. (24) The harmony established by time and man between a monument and its surroundings is of the greatest importance and should not, as a general rule, be disturbed or destroyed. The isolation of a monument by demolishing its surroundings should not, as a general rule, be authorized; nor should the moving of a monument be contemplated save as an exceptional means of dealing with a problem, justified by pressing considerations. (25) Member States should take measures to protect their cultural and natural heritage against the possible harmful effects of the technological developments characteristic of modern civilization. Such measures should be designed to counter the effects of shocks and vibrations caused by machines and vehicles. Measures should also be taken to prevent pollution and guard against natural disasters and calamities, and to provide for the repair of damage to the cultural and natural heritage. (26) Since the circumstances governing the rehabilitation of groups of buildings are not everywhere identical, Member States should provide for a social science inquiry in appropriate cases, in order to ascertain precisely what are the social and cultural needs of the community in which the group of buildings concerned is situated. Any rehabilitation operation should pay special attention to enabling man to work, to develop and to achieve fulfilment in the restored setting. (27) Member States should undertake studies and research on the geology and ecology of items of the natural heritage, such as park, wildlife, refuge or recreation areas, or other equivalent reserves, in order to appreciate their scientific value, to determine the impact of visitor use and to monitor interrelationships so as to avoid serious damage to the heritage and to provide adequate background for the management of the fauna and flora. (28) Member States should keep abreast of advances in transportation, communication, audio-visual techniques, automatic data-processing and other appropriate technology, and of cultural and recreational trends, so that the best possible facilities and services can be provided for scientific study
and the enjoyment of the public, appropriate to the purpose of each area, without deterioration of the natural resources.
Annexl69 Administrative measures (29) Each Member State should draw up, as soon as possible, an inventory for the protection of its cultural and natural heritage, including items which, without being of outstanding importance, are inseparable from their environment and contribute to its character. (30) The information obtained by such surveys of the cultural and natural heritage should be collected in a suitable form and regularly brought up to date. (31) To ensure that the cultural and natural heritage is effectively recognized at all levels of planning, Member States should prepare maps and the fullest possible documentation covering the cultural and natural property in question. (32) Member States should give thought to finding suitable uses for groups of historic buildings no longer serving their original purpose. (33) A plan should be prepared for the protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation of groups of buildings of historic and artistic interest. It should include peripheral protection belts, lay down the conditions for land use, and specify the buildings to be preserved and the conditions for their preservation. This plan should be incorporated into the overall town and country planning policy for the areas concerned. (34) Rehabilitation plans should specify the uses to which historic buildings are to be put, and the links there are to be between the rehabilitation area and the surrounding urban development. When the designation of a rehabilitation area is under consideration, the local authorities and representatives of the residents of the area should be consulted. (35) Any work that might result in changing the existing state of the buildings in a protected area should be subject to prior authorization by the town and country planning authorities, on the advice of the specialized services responsible for the protection of the cultural and natural heritage. (36) Internal alterations to groups of buildings and the installation of modern conveniences should be allowed if they are needed for the well-being of their occupants and provided they do not drastically alter the real characteristic features of ancient dwellings.
70 (37) Member States should develop short- and long-range plans, based on inventories of their natural heritage, to achieve a system of conservation to meet the needs of their countries. (38) Member States should provide an advisory service to guide non-governmental organizations and owners of land on national conservation policies consistent with the productive use of the land. (39) Member States should develop policies and programmes for restoration of natural areas made derelict by industry, or otherwise despoiled by man`s activities. Legal measures (40) Depending upon their importance, the components of the cultural and natural herit- age should be protected, individually or collectively, by legislation or regulations in conformity with the competence and the legal procedures of each country. (41) Measures for protection should be supplemented to the extent necessary by new provisions to promote the conservation of the cultural or natural heritage and to facilitate the presentation of its components. To that end, enforcement of protective measures should apply to individual owners and to public authorities when they are the owners of components of the cultural and natural heritage. (42) No new building should be erected, and no demolition, transformation, modification or deforestation carried out, on any property situated on or in the vicinity of a protected site, if it is likely to affect its appearance, without authorization by the specialized services. (43) Planning legislation to permit industrial development, or public and private works should take into account existing legislation on conservation, The authorities responsible for the protection of the cultural and natural heritage might take steps to expedite the necessary conservation work, either by making financial assistance available to the owner, or by acting in the owner`s place and exercising their powers to have the work done, with the possibility of their obtaining reimbursement of that share of the costs which the owner would normally have paid. (44) Where required for the preservation of the property, the public authorities might be empowered to expropriate a protected building or natural site subject to the terms and conditions of domestic legislation.
Annexl71 (45) Member States should establish regulations to control bill-posting, neon signs and other kinds of advertisement, commercial signs, camping, the erection of poles, pylons and electricity or telephone cables, the placing of television aerials, all types of vehicular traffic and parking, the placing of indicator panels, street furniture, etc., and, in general, everything connected with the equipment or occupation of property forming part of the cultural and natural heritage. (46) The effects of the measures taken to protect any element of the cultural or natural heritage should continue regardless of changes of ownership. If a protected building or natural site is sold, the purchaser should be informed that it is under protection. (47) Penalties or administrative sanctions should be applicable, in accordance with the laws and constitutional competence of each State, to anyone who willfully destroys, mutilates or defaces a protected monument, group of buildings or site, or one which is of archaeological, historical or artistic interest. In addition, equipment used in illicit excavation might be subject to confiscation. (48) Penalties or administrative sanctions should be imposed upon those responsible for any other action detrimental to the protection, conservation or presentation of a protected component of the cultural or natural heritage, and should include provision for the restoration of an affected site to its original state in accordance with established scientific and technical standards. Financial measures (49) Central and local authorities should, as far as possible, appropriate, in their budg- ets, a certain percentage of funds, proportionate to the importance of the protected property forming part of their cultural or natural heritage, for the purposes of maintaining, conserving and presenting protected property of which they are the owners, and of contributing financially to such work carried out on other protected property by the owners, whether public bodies or private persons. (50) The expenditure incurred in protecting, conserving and presenting items of the privately owned cultural and natural heritage should, so far as possible, be borne by their owners or users. (51) Tax concessions on such expenditures, or grants or loans on favourable terms, could be granted to private owners of protected properties, on condition that they carry out work for the protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation of their properties in accordance with approved standards.
72 (52) Consideration should be given to indemnifying, if necessary, owners of protected cultural and natural areas for losses they might suffer as a consequence of protective programmes. (53) The financial advantages accorded to private owners should, where appropriate, be dependent on their observance of certain conditions laid down for the benefit of the public, such as their allowing access to parks, gardens and sites, tours through all or parts of natural sites, monuments or groups of buildings, the taking of photographs, etc. (54) Special funds should be set aside in the budgets of public authorities for the protection of the cultural and natural heritage endangered by large-scale public or private works. (55) To increase the financial resources available to them, Member States may set up one or more "Cultural and Natural Heritage Funds", as legally established public agencies, entitled to receive private gifts, donations and bequests, particularly from industrial and commercial firms. (56) Tax concessions could also be granted to those making gifts, donations or bequests for the acquisition, restoration or maintenance of specific components of the cultural and natural heritage. (57) In order to facilitate operations for rehabilitation of the natural and cultural heritage, Member States might make special arrangements, particularly by way of loans for renovation and restoration work, and might also make the necessary regulations to avoid price rises caused by real-estate speculation in the areas under consideration. (58) To avoid hardship to the poorer inhabitants consequent on their having to move from rehabilitated buildings or groups of buildings, compensation for rises in rent might be contemplated so as to enable them to keep their accommodation. Such compensation should be temporary and determined on the basis of the income of the parties concerned, so as to enable them to meet the increased costs occasioned by the work carried out. (59) Member States might facilitate the financing of work of any description for the benefit of the cultural and natural heritage, by instituting "Loan Funds", supported by public institutions and private credit establishments, which would be responsible for granting loans to owners at low interest rates
and with repayment spread out over a long period.
Annexl73 VI. Educational and cultural action (60) Universities, educational establishments at all levels and life-long education establishments should organize regular courses, lectures, seminars, etc., on the history of art, architecture, the environment and town planning. (61) Member States should undertake educational campaigns to arouse widespread public interest in, and respect for, the cultural and natural heritage. Continuing efforts should be made to inform the public about what is being and can be done to protect the cultural or natural heritage and to inculcate appreciation and respect for the values it enshrines. For this purpose, all media of information should be employed as required. (62) Without overlooking the great economic and social value of the cultural and natural heritage, measures should be taken to promote and reinforce the eminent cultural and educational value of that heritage, furnishing as it does the fundamental motive for protecting, conserving and presenting it. (63) All efforts on behalf of components of the cultural and natural heritage should take account of the cultural and educational value inherent in them as representative of an environment, a form of architecture or urban design commensurate with man and on his scale. (64) Voluntary organizations should be set up to encourage national and local authorities to make full use of their powers with regard to protection, to afford them support and, if necessary, to obtain funds for them; these bodies should keep in touch with local historical societies, amenity improvement societies, local development committees and agencies concerned with tourism, etc., and might also organize visits to, and guided tours of, different items of the cultural and natural heritage for their members. (65) Information centres, museums or exhibitions might be set up to explain the work being carried out on components of the cultural and natural heritage scheduled for rehabilitation.
74 VII. International co-operation (66) Member States should co-operate with regard to the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage, seeking aid, if it seems desirable, from international organizations, both intergovernmental and non-governmental. Such multilateral or bilateral co-operation should be carefully co-ordinated and should take the form of measures such as the following: a) exchange of information and of scientific and technical publications; b) organization of seminars and working parties on particular subjects; c) provision of study and travel fellowships, and of scientific, technical and administrative staff, and equipment; d) provision of facilities for scientific and technical training abroad, by allowing young research workers and technicians to take part in architectural projects, archaeological excavations and the conservation of natural sites; e) co-ordination, within a group of Member States, of large-scale projects involving conservation, excavations, restoration and rehabilitation work, with the object of making the experience gained generally available. The foregoing is the authentic text of the Recommendation duly adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization during its seventeenth session, which was held in Paris and declared closed the twenty-first day of November 1972. IN FAITH WHEREOF we have appended our signatures this twenty-third day of November 1972. The President of the General Conference The Director-General
Annexl75 Annex B Periodic reporting on the application of the World Heritage Convention Section II State of conservation of specific world heritage properties QUESTIONNAIRE WORD VERSION58 Background The twenty-ninth General Conference of UNESCO, held in 1997, decided to activate Article 29 of the World Heritage Convention concerning the submission of Periodic Reports on the state of implementation of the World Heritage Convention (Section I) and the State of Conservation of World Heritage properties (Section II). The national authorities are invited to report on Section I, while Section II shall be prepared for each property inscribed on the World Heritage list by the person(s) directly in charge of the property's management. The Periodic Reports prepared by the States Parties will serve the following objectives: · to assess State Party application of the World Heritage Convention, · to assess the state of conservation of World Heritage sites conducted by the State Party, 58 States Parties are strongly encouraged to fill in the ELECTRONIC version of this questionnaire directly at http://whc1.unesco.org/periodicreporting. Please contact the Europe Unit of the World Heritage Centre for information about focal points and passwords. This information is also available on the web page.
76 · to help focus the Committee's as well as the State Party's future activities and funds, · to strengthen sub-regional and regional co-operation between States Parties. The Periodic Reporting Questionnaire In 1998, at its twenty-second session, the World Heritage Committee approved Explanatory Notes, designed to be read in conjunction with the Periodic Reporting Format, in order to outline the information expected to flow from the periodic reporting exercise. To facilitate the preparation of the report, a Questionnaire was developed that the States Parties are encouraged to use. It closely follows the subjects referred to in the Explanatory Notes, but in contrast to the latter splits the subjects up into short questions to be answered in a few sentences or paragraphs. A second type of question requires the indication of YES or NO by crossing the appropriate answer. To make the reporting results meaningful every one of these questions has to be answered. If no answer is possible, the reasons should be given. If the available space is not sufficient for the answer, the response should be continued on a separate sheet of paper, clearly indicating the number of the question the text refers to (e.g. 02.05). The word version of the Format and the Explanatory Notes are attached to the questionnaire as annex for consultation. Benefits for the States Parties The Questionnaire was developed in such a way as to allow to extract and compile or compare relevant information from different States Parties or properties, facilitating the process of preparing the regional synthesis report to be presented to the World Heritage Committee. The YES/NO questions make it possible to evaluate the reports quantitatively, but only the details to be supplied in the related "open question", make the answers meaningful and can be the basis for concerted actions to preserve the heritage of humankind located in a State Party for its transmission to future generations. The information collected in this way will help the States Parties to assess their own strengths and weaknesses concerning the implementation of the World Heritage Convention, putting them in a position to (re)define policies and if necessary to request assistance in order to finance projects and/or training. On the other hand it allows the World Heritage Committee and its Secretariat to collect information needed to devise Regional Action Plans, give well-informed advice to States Parties and to focus funds (both from the World Heritage Fund and extra-budgetary funds) as well as attention on the region(s), States Parties and/or properties that need the collective support of the international community.
Annexl77 The preparation process of the regional periodic report will furthermore enhance regional co-operation through information meetings as well as through the better availability of regularly up-dated information on activities as well as contact addresses etc. The identification of the State Party's strengths makes it possible to exchange experiences and look for solutions to problems (e.g. of site conservation) identified within the region. Conclusion Periodic Reporting is a participatory exercise, aiming to collect information on World Heritage related issues on a regional, national as well as on the property level. The individual State Party reports will be collated into a regional synthesis report to be presented to the World Heritage Committee. This information will enhance co-operation between the Committee and the States Parties and allow to focus funds and activities more efficiently, allowing the States Parties to protect their heritage of outstanding universal value more effectively for transmission to future generations.
78 SECTION II: STATE OF CONSERVATION OF SPECIFIC WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTIES Executive summary of the questionnaire 1. Introduction 2. Justification for inscription (statement of significance) 3. Boundary and buffer zone 4. Authenticity and integrity of the site 5. Management 6. Protection 7. Management plans 8. Financial resources 9. Staffing levels (human resources) 10. Sources of expertise and training in conservation and management techniques 11. Visitors 12. Scientific studies 13. Education, information and awareness building 14. Factors affecting the property (state of conservation) 15. Monitoring 16. Conclusions 17. Potential decisions for the World Heritage Committee 18. Assessment of the Periodic Reporting exercise 19. Documentation checklist
01 01.01 01.02 01.03
Introduction State Party: Name of World Heritage property: English name: French name: Spanish name: Please provide geographical co-ordinates for the site in degrees, minutes and seconds to the nearest second. (In the case of large sites, please give three sets of geographical co-ordinates at the north-east and south-west corners as well as at the central point of the site. For smaller sites provide data for the central point only).
Central point, latitude: Central point, longitude: North-east corner, latitude: North-east corner, longitude: South-west corner, latitude: South-west corner, longitude:
(N =North, S=South)
(E =East, W= West)
(N =North, S=South)
(E =East, W= West)
(N =North, S=South)
. , ,, (E =East, W= West)
01.04 01.05 01.06
Year of inscription on the World Heritage List: Date(s) of subsequent extension(s) if any: Organisation(s) or entity(ies) responsible for the preparation of this report:
Date of the report: Created on: Signing on behalf of the State Party: Professional title: First name: Last name: Date and signature:
Justification for Inscription (Statement of Significance)59 What observations did the World Heritage Committee or the Advisory Bodies make at the time of inscription or of any subsequent extension? Please quote them here.
59 Explanatory Notes: "At the time of inscription of a property on the World Heritage List, the World Heritage Committee indicates its World Heritage values by deciding on the criteria for inscription. Please indicate the justification for inscription provided by the State Party, and the criteria under which the Committee inscribed the property on the World Heritage List. In the view of the State Party, does the statement of significance adequately reflect the World Heritage values of the property or is a re-submission necessary? This could be considered, for example, to recognise cultural values
of a natural World Heritage property, or vice-versa. This may become necessary either due to the substantive revision of the criteria by the World Heritage Committee or due to better identification or knowledge of specific outstanding universal values of the property. Another issue that might be reviewed here is whether the delimitation of the World Heritage property, and its buffer zone if appropriate, is adequate to ensure the protection and conservation of the World Heritage values embodied in it. A revision or extension of the boundaries might be considered in response to such a review. If a statement of significance is not available or incomplete, it will be necessary, in the first periodic report, for the State Party to propose such a statement.The statement of significance should reflect the criterion (criteria) on the basis of which the Committee inscribed the property on the World Heritage List. It should also address questions such as: What does the property represent, what makes the property outstanding, what are the specific values that distinguish the property, what is the relationship of the site with its setting, etc.? Such statement of significance will be examined by the Advisory Body(ies) concerned and transmitted to the World Heritage Committee for approval, if appropriate."
What actions have been taken as a follow-up to observations and/or decisions made by the Advisory Bodies/World Heritage Committee during evaluation and inscription? Under which criteria was your site inscribed onto the World Heritage List? Cultural criteria: i
vi Natural criteria: i
02.04 Have new criteria been added after
the original inscription i.e. by re-
nominating and/or extending the
02.05 If yes, please provide a brief
02.06 If no, should the site be re-inscribed
with additional criteria? Please
specify the new criteria below.
Cultural criteria: i
vi Natural criteria: i
Please summarize the justification for
inscription, as it appears in the origi-
nal nomination document for the site.
Was the Outstanding Universal Value
of the site defined by the Committee Yes
or the Advisory Bodies at the time of
02.09 If yes, please provide details.
02.10 Have the values of the site changed
02.11 02.12 02.13
If yes, please list any new values that
have been identified or list any values
that may have diminished (please do
not list new values of national or local importance).
At the time of initial inscription or of any subsequent extension, did the Yes WH Committee approve a Statement of Significance for the site, which No
defined the Outstanding Universal
If yes, does this Statement of Sig-
nificance still adequately define and Yes
reflect the Outstanding Universal
Value of the site?
02.14 If no, has a revised Statement of Significance subsequently been devel- Yes oped for the site? No
If the original Statement of Significance is not adequate and no revised Statement of Significance has been developed, please supply one that sums up the Outstanding Universal Value now perceived in the site and also reflects the reasons for the site`s inscription.
02.16 Is UNESCO`s official description of
the site satisfactory?
If no, please suggest how this should be changed. Does the name of the site adequately reflect the property and its signifi- Yes cance? No
02.19 If no, do you want to change the
name of the site?
02.20 If yes, please indicate any suggested name changes.
Boundary and Buffer Zone60
03.01 Are the boundaries of the site
adequate to reflect the site`s signifi- Yes
03.02 If no, why are they inadequate and what measures are being taken to redefine a boundary? 03.03 Is there a buffer zone for the site? Yes
60 Explanatory Notes: "Another issue that might be reviewed here is whether the delimitation of the World Heritage property, and its buffer zone if appropriate, is adequate to ensure the protection and conservation of the World Heritage values embodied in it. A revision or extension of the boundaries might be considered in response to such a review."
03.04 If yes, what does the buffer zone
protect and is it adequate?
03.05 If no, is a buffer zone needed to pro-
tect the site`s significance?
Select an option:
If no, what other measures exist to protect the site instead of a buffer zone? If yes, what measures are being taken to define a buffer zone?
Further work is needed to establish needs
Authenticity and Integrity of the Site61
Was an evaluation of the authenticity
and integrity of the site carried out Yes
by ICOMOS/IUCN at the time of
04.02 If yes, please provide brief details of this evaluation. 04.03 If no, has the authenticity or the integrity of the site been re-assessed Yes since inscription? No
61 Explanatory Notes: "Under this item it is necessary to review whether the values on the basis of which the property was inscribed on the World Heritage List, and reflected in the statement of significance under item II.2 above, are being maintained. This should also include the issue of authenticity/integrity in relation to the property. What was the evaluation of the authenticity/integrity of the property at the time of inscription? What is the authenticity/integrity of the property at present? Please note that a more detailed analysis of the conditions of the property is required under item II.6 of the Explanatory Notes on the basis of key indicators for measuring its state of conservation."
If yes, please give details of the new assessment(s) and who carried it(them) out. Have there been significant changes in the authenticity and/or integrity of Yes the Site since inscription? No
04.06 04.07 04.08
If yes, please describe these changes. List any foreseen future major changes, which might impact in the future on the authenticity and/or integrity of the site. Will these anticipated changes affect the Outstanding Universal Value of Yes the site? No
05.01 How is the site currently used?63
Paid visitor attraction Urban center National park Religious use Rural landscape Other (please specify below)
62 Explanatory Notes: "Under this item, it is necessary to report on the implementation and effectiveness of protective legislation at the national, provincial or municipal level and/or contractual or traditional protection as well as of management and/or planning control for the property concerned, as well as on actions that are foreseen for the future, to preserve the values described in the statement of significance under item II.2. of the Explanatory Notes. The State Party should also report on significant changes
05.02 Has a World Heritage site "steering group" been set up to guide the man- Yes agement of the site? No
If yes, please provide the following information. When was it set up? What is its function? What is its mandate? Is it legally or formally constituted? Legally
05.04 If no, what plans are in place to set up a "steering group"?
in the ownership, Legal Status
and/or contractual or traditional protective measures, management arrangements and management plans as compared to the situation at the time of inscription or the previous periodic report. In such case, the State Party is requested to attach to the periodic report all relevant documentation, in particular legal texts, management plans and/or (annual) work plans for the management and maintenance of the property. Full name and address of the agency or person directly responsible for the property should also be provided. The State Party could also provide an assessment of the human and financial resources that are available and required for the management of the property, as well as an assessment of the training needs
for its staff. The State Party is also invited to provide information on scientific studies, research projects, education, information and awareness building activities directly related to the property and to comment on the degree to which heritage values of the property are effectively communicated to residents, visitors and the public. Matters that could be addressed are, among other things: is there a plaque at the site indicating that the property is a World Heritage property? Are there educational programmes for schools? Are there special events and exhibitions? What facilities, visitor centre, site museum, trails, guides, information material etc. are made available to visitors? What role does the World Heritage designation play in all these programmes and activities? Furthermore, the State Party is invited to provide statistical information, if possible on an annual basis, on income, visitor numbers, staff and other items if appropriate. On the basis of the review of the management of the property, the State Party may wish to consider if a substantive revision of the legislative and administrative provisions for the conservation of the property is required." 63 Tick as many boxes as appropriate.
How could the overall management system of the site best be described?64 Management by the State Party
Management under protective legislation
Management under contractual agreement between the State Party and a third party
Management under traditional protective measures
Other effective management system (please specify below)
05.06 Has a "co-ordinator" been appointed to oversee the management of the Yes site? No
05.07 If yes, does the co-ordinator work... Full-time
Has responsibilities added onto an existing job
64 Tick as many boxes as appropriate.
05.08 If no, is a co-ordinator needed? Yes
05.09 If so are there any plans to appoint a
Please indicate which level or levels of public authority are primarily involved with the management of the site.65
Other (please specify below)
05.11 Are the current management systems
effective and/or sufficient?
65 Please check the appropriate boxes and give details in the text field below. 66 "Regional" refers to federated states` level, administrative regions, provincial level.
05.12 Are any improvements needed? Yes No 05.13 If yes, what action(s) are being taken?
Does the site have special legislation
or administrative arrangements
(such as specific spatial planning
and zoning requirements)?
06.02 06.03 06.04
If yes, please describe these arrange-
Have there been any significant
changes in the ownership, legal
status, contractual or traditional
protective measures for the site since No
the time of inscription?
If yes, please briefly describe these
67 Explanatory notes: Under this item, it is necessary to report on the implementation and effectiveness of protective legislation at the national, provincial or municipal level and/or contractual or traditional protection as well as of management and/or planning control for the property concerned, as well as on actions that are foreseen for the future, to preserve the values described in the statement of significance under item II.2. The State Party should also report on significant changes in the ownership, legal status and/or contractual or traditional protective measures, management arrangements and management plans as compared to the situation at the time of inscription or the previous periodic report. In such case, the State Party is requested to attach to the periodic report all relevant documentation, in particular legal texts, management plans and/or (annual) work plans for the management and maintenance of the property. Full name and address of the agency or person directly responsible for the property should also be provided.
06.05 Are the current protection arrangements effective and/or sufficient? Highly effective Sufficiently effective Not effective 06.06 Are any improvements needed? Yes No 06.07 If yes, what actions are being taken and at what level?
07.01 Is there a management plan for the
No 07.02 If yes, please provide the following information. Is the plan being implemented? Yes
If so, when did implementation start (mm/yyyy)?
How many times has the plan been revised?
68 Explanatory Notes: "The State Party should also report on significant changes in the ownership, legal status and/or contractual or traditional protective measures, management arrangements and management plans as compared to the situation at the time of inscription or the previous periodic report. In such case, the State Party is requested to attach to the periodic report all relevant documentation, in particular legal texts, management plans and/or (annual) work plans for the management and maintenance of the property. Full name and address of the agency or person directly responsible for the property should also be provided."
When was the current version of the plan completed or, if currently being revised, when will it be completed? How was the management plan prepared (e.g. staff on site or a consultant)? Was it based on a Statement of Significance agreed by the "steering Yes group" and/or the State Party? No
Is the current management plan considered to be adequate to sustain the Outstanding Universal Value of the site?
Please outline how any issues are be-
Is the current management plan avail-
able on CD?
Have copies of the management plan been sent to the World Heritage Cen- Yes tre or to the Advisory Bodies? No
If no management plan exists, is one under preparation or is preparation of Yes such a plan foreseen for the future? No
07.04 If yes, when will the management
plan be completed and adopted
Please indicate which body(ies) has(have) responsibility for overseeing the implementation of the management plan and monitoring its effectiveness. Has the site been the subject of (a) Reactive Monitoring Report(s) to the Yes Committee? No
If yes, please summarize the Committee`s decision(s). If yes, what action has been taken to implement the Committee`s decision(s)?
08 08.01 08.02
Financial Resources69 Can you provide information on the annual operating budget for the site in Yes the last financial year? (This should include core revenue funds for the No direct management of the site only, such as staff costs for a co-ordinator, specific ongoing cross-site work etc.) If yes, please provide this information (for sites consisting of more than one property provide the budgets of constituent parts). Please indicate where these funds come from.
69 Explanatory Notes for items 8, 9 and 10: "The State Party could also provide an assessment of the human and financial resources that are available and required for the management of the property, as well as an assessment of the training needs for its staff."
If no, please explain why you cannot give details and provide an estimate if possible, or state if there is no core funding. Explanation:
Estimate (EUR or USD):
08.04 Has extra funding been drawn in
through World Heritage status?
08.05 If yes, please give details.
Does the site have sufficient funding available for the adequate management of the site (bearing in mind the extra obligations World Heritage status brings)?
More than sufficient
08.07 Are key aspects of the site`s management plan being met (if one exists)? Yes
If no, what financial resources are needed for the proper management of the Site? Please also provide details on those needs that are not being met due to lack of funding. Estimated amount: (EUR or USD) Needs not being met:
08.09 Is funding for the protection and con-
servation of the site adequate?
08.10 08.11 08.12
If no, please indicate how this is being addressed. Please indicate what sources provide funding for the conservation and protection of the site. Has the site received any of the following financial assistance?
World Heritage Fund
UNESCO International Campaign
National and/or regional projects of UNDP, the World Bank
or other agencies
Other assistance (please specify below)
Staffing Levels (Human Resources)70 How do you rate the access that you have to adequate professional staff across the following disciplines? Conservation Very good
70 Explanatory Notes: "The State Party could also provide an assessment of the human and financial resources that are available and required for the management of the property, as well as an assessment of the training needs for its staff."
Very good Good
Bad Very Bad
09.02 Do you have access to any special-
ized conservation and conservation Yes
management skills and expertise not
09.03 If yes, please provide details.
09.04 Are there adequate staff resources to protect, maintain and promote the Yes site? No
09.05 09.06 09.07
If no, please explain.
How many staff members are dedi-
cated full-time to the World Heritage
Do you have the support of regular
volunteers in the site?
09.08 If yes, please give details.
10 10.01 10.02 10.03
Sources of Expertise and Training in Conservation and Management Techniques71
What types of specialized expertise,
training and services on or off-site
(e.g. training centers, museum con-
servation facilities) are available for
staff working in the site?
Are there any training needs currently
not being met? Please provide details
and a brief explanation.
Is training available for stakehold-
ers on the site (e.g. home-owners,
71 Explanatory Notes: The State Party could also provide an assessment of the human and financial resources that are available and required for the management of the property, as well as an assessment of the training needs for its staff.
11.01 Are there visitor statistics available
for the site?
11.02 11.03 11.04
If yes, please provide the annual visitor numbers for the most recent year available, indicating what year that is, a brief summary of the methodology for counting visitors, and briefly describe visitor trends. (In describing these trends, please use the year of inscription as a baseline.) Number of visitors: Over the following year: Counting methodology: Trend: Please briefly describe the visitor facilities at the site. Are these facilities adequate? Yes
If no, what facilities is the site in
Is there a tourism/visitor management
plan for the site?
If yes, please briefly summarize the plan or if available please provide a web address where the plan can be consulted.
72 Explanatory Notes: Furthermore, the State Party is invited to provide statistical information, if possible on an annual basis, on income, visitor numbers, staff and other items if appropriate.
12.01 Is there an agreed research frame-
work/strategy for the site?
Have any of the following scientific studies and research programs been conducted specifically for the site?
Risk Assessment Studies related to the value of the site
Impact of World Heritage designation
Other (please specify below)
Please provide brief details as to these studies. Please describe how the results of studies and research programs have been used in managing the site.
73 Explanatory Notes: "The State Party is also invited to provide information on scientific studies, research projects, education, information and awareness building activities directly related to the property and to comment on the degree to which heritage values of the property are effectively communicated to residents, visitors and the public."
What role, if any, has the property`s designation as a World Heritage site played in the design of these scientific studies and research programs? For example, has there been a specific effort in these programs to focus on the recognized World Heritage values of the property?
Education, Information and Awareness Building74 Are there signs at the property to show that it is a World Heritage site? Too many
An adequate number
13.02 Is the World Heritage Convention logo used on all of the publications for the property?
Yes On some
74 Explanatory Notes: "Matters that could be addressed are, among other things: is there a plaque at the site indicating that the property is a World Heritage property? Are there educational programmes for schools? Are there special events and exhibitions? What facilities, visitor centre, site museum, trails, guides, information material etc. are made available to visitors? What role does the World Heritage designation play in all these programmes and activities?"
13.03 Is there adequate awareness of the World Heritage site amongst: Visitors: Yes
Local communities: Yes No
Local authorities: Yes No
Where awareness is poor, what meas-
ures are needed to raise it?
Is there an agreed education strategy
or program for the Site?
13.06 If yes, please briefly describe the strategy/program. 13.07 If no, are there any plans to develop education programs or work with Yes schools? No
13.08 Are there special events and exhibi-
tions concerning the site`s World
13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12
If yes, please briefly describe them. Please briefly describe the facilities, visitor center, site museum, trails, guides and/or information material that are available to visitors to the World Heritage site. (You can cross reference this to Q. 11.03 if appropriate.) What role, if any, has the property`s designation as a World Heritage site played with respect to the education, information and awareness building activities described above? For example, has the World Heritage designation been used as a marketing or promotional or educational tool? Does the site have a website? Yes
If yes, who manages the website? Have any steps been taken to involve local people in the management of the site in connection with delivering social benefits?
14 14.01 14.02
Factors Affecting the Property (State of Conservation)75 Please provide brief details on all major conservation interventions at the Site since inscription (e.g. conservation of major structures, major excavations, reversal of threats to buried archaeology such as ploughing, rehabilitation and sustainable use of historic buildings). Please briefly describe the present state of overall conservation of the Very good site. Good
Needs more resources
75 Explanatory Notes: "Please comment on the degree to which the property is threatened by particular problems and risks. Factors that could be considered under this item are those that are listed in the nomination format, e.g. development pressure, environmental pressure, natural disasters and preparedness, visitor/tourism pressure, number of inhabitants. Considering the importance of forward planning and risk preparedness, provide relevant information on operating methods that will make the State Party capable of counteracting dangers that threaten or may endanger its cultural or natural heritage. Problems and risks to be considered could include earthquakes, floods, land-slides, vibrations, industrial pollution, vandalism, theft, looting, changes in the physical context of properties, mining, deforestation, poaching, as well as changes in land-use, agriculture, road building, construction activities, tourism. Areas where improvement would be desirable, and towards which the State Party is working should be indicated.This item should provide up-to-date information on all factors which are likely to affect or threaten the property. It should also relate those threats to measures taken to deal with them. An assessment should also be given if the impact of these factors on the property is increasing or decreasing and what actions to address them have been effectively taken or are planned for the future."
14.03 Has the site or setting been affected or could it be affected by any of the following problems?
Development pressure Environmental pressure
Number of inhabitants
Visitor/tourism pressure Agricultural/forestry regimes
Other (please specify below)
14.04 Are any of these problems/threats directly attributable to World Herit- Yes age status? No
14.05 14.06 14.07
If yes, please provide details. Please give details of major problems/threats. What actions have been taken, or are planned for the future, to address these problems? (If this is in the Management Plan, please quote the relevant section.)
Is there a formal monitoring program
for the site?
If yes, please describe it, indicating what factors or variables are being monitored and by what process. If no, please indicate whether the World Heritage site management authority is developing or plans to develop key indicators for monitoring how the Outstanding Universal Value of the site are being sustained.
76 Explanatory Notes: "Whereas item II.3 of the periodic report provides an overall assessment of the maintenance of the World Heritage values of the property, this item analyses in more detail the conditions of the property on the basis of key indicators for measuring its state of conservation. If no indicators were identified at the time of inscription of the property on the World Heritage List, this should be done in the first periodic report. The preparation of a periodic report can also be an opportunity to evaluate the validity of earlier identified indicators and to revise them, if necessary. Up-to-date information should be provided in respect of each of the key indicators. Care should be taken to ensure that this information is as accurate and reliable as possible, for example by carrying out observations in the same way, using similar equipment and methods at the same time of the year and day. Indicate which partners if any are involved in monitoring and describe what improvement the State Party foresees or would consider desirable in improving the monitoring system. In specific cases, the World Heritage Committee and/or its Bureau may have already examined the state of conservation of the property and made recommendations to the State Party, either at the time of inscription or afterwards. In such cases the State Party is requested to report on the actions that have been taken in response to the observations or recommendations made by the Bureau or Committee."
What do you consider to be the main
benefits of WH status?
Other (please specify below)
16.02 16.03 16.04
Please provide a brief summary of what has been achieved at the site since inscription onto the World Heritage List. What are the weaknesses of the site? What future action(s) if any will be taken to address these weaknesses?
77 Explanatory Notes: "The main conclusions under each of the items of the state of conservation report, but in particular as to whether the World Heritage values of the property are maintained, should be summarized and tabulated together with: a. Main conclusions regarding the state of the World Heritage values of the property (see items II.2. and II.3. above), b. Main conclusions regarding the management and factors affecting the property (see Items II.4 and II.5. above), c. Proposed future action/ actions, d. Responsible implementing agency/agencies, e. Timeframe for implementation, f. Needs for international assistance. The State Party is also requested to indicate what experience the State Party has obtained which could be relevant to others dealing with similar problems or issues. Please provide names of organizations or specialists who could be contacted for this purpose."
Potential Decisions for the World Heritage Committee78 As a result of this reporting exercise, is there a need to seek a decision from the World Heritage Committee on any of the following? Changes to criteria for inscription: Yes
Changes to Statement of Signifi-
New Statement of Significance: Yes
Changes to boundaries: Yes
Changes to buffer zone: Yes
78 Please indicate under this item if there is a need to seek a decision from the World Heritage Committee on the criteria for inscription, the statement of significance and the boundaries of the site.
Assessment of the Periodic Reporting Exercise How do you assess the information made available during the preparation Very good phase of Periodic Reporting (e.g. information given, meetings Good etc.)? Please comment below. Average
Bad Very Bad
18.02 How do you assess the clarity and user-friendliness of the questionnaire? Please comment below.
Very good Good
18.03 Do you think the Periodic Reporting process will produce any benefits to Yes the site? Please comment. No
Please outline the expected outcome of Periodic Reporting and the desired follow-up by the World Heritage Committee.
Please indicate if you will be submit-
ting any of the following documents
with this report:
Photographs, slides and where
available, film (this material should Yes
be accompanied by a duly signed
authorization granting, free of charge No
to UNESCO, the non-exclusive right
for the legal term of copyright to
reproduce and use it in accordance
with the terms of the authorization
Topographic or other map or site plan
which locates the World Heritage site Yes
and its boundaries, showing scale,
orientation, projection, datum, site No
name and date:
A digital map of the World Heritage
site, showing its location and bounda- Yes
ries or a website address where the
map can be found:
A concise bibliography of key publications on the World Heritage site: Yes
A copy of the management plan: Yes
79 Please send copies of all the documentation attached to the final printed report. Please also send electronic copies to [email protected]
A copy of the Statement of Significance as referred to in paragraph Yes 02.13: No
A copy of the revised Statement of Significance as referred to in para- Yes graph 02.14 (if applicable): No
Documentation on any special legis-
lation or administrative arrangements Yes
for the protection of the World Herit-
age site as referred to in paragraph No
Copies of the Committee`s
decision(s) following any Reactive Yes
Monitoring Report as referred to in
THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR COOPERATION!
According to the "Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention" every site inscribed on the World Heritage List must have a management plan that explains how the outstanding universal value of a property can be preserved. The management plan is the central planning instrument for the protection, use, conservation and successful development of World Heritage sites. This guide offers support in developing management plans to those involved with World Heritage. It provides answers to questions pertain ing to the content, structure, and presentation of a management plan. Furthermore, this publication offers the reader exemplary management plans from Germany and other countries, as well as a bibliography for further reference. ISBN 978-3-940785-02-2