Septuagint, KH Jobes, M Silva

Tags: Baker Publishing Group, Moises Silva, Septuagint Baker Academic, Karen H. Jobes, the Septuagint, Greek translator, Septuagint studies, Greek version, Septuagint, Hebrew text, the Hebrew Bible, Hebrew Bible, biblical studies, Judaic Studies Biblische Notizen Brill Septuagint, University of Chicago Press, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, Hebrew manuscript, the Greek, Cambridge Septuagint, Studies, Samuel Karen H. Jobes, Society of Biblical Literature, Monograph Series, Titus Philem, Silva Ipswich, Massachusetts Karen H. Jobes, Karen H. Invitation to the Septuagint, Invitation to the Septuagint, Westminster Theological Seminary
Content: INVITATION TO THE SEPTUAGINT SECOND EDITION Karen H. Jobes and Moisйs Silva K Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
© 2000, 2015 by Karen H. Jobes and Moisйs Silva
Published by Baker Academic a division of Baker Publishing Group P.O. Box 6287, Grand Rapids, MI 49516-6287 www.bakeracademic.com
Printed in the United States of America
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means--for example, electronic, photocopy, recording--without the prior written permission of the publisher. The only exception is brief quotations in printed reviews.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Jobes, Karen H.
Invitation to the Septuagint / Karen H. Jobes and Moisйs Silva.--Second Edition.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
ISBN 978-0-8010-3649-1 (pbk.)
1. Bible. Old Testament. Greek--Versions--Septuagint. I. Silva, Moisйs. II. Title.
BS744.J63 2015
221.4 809--dc23
2015020255
Unless otherwise indicated, Scripture quotations are the authors' translation.
Scripture quotations labeled NIV are from the Holy Bible, New International Version®. NIV®. Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.TM Used by permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved worldwide. www.zondervan.com
Scripture quotations labeled NRSV are from the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible, copyright © 1989, by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
7654321
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Contents List of Illustrations ix Preface to the Second Edition xi Preface to the First Edition xiii Acknowledgments for the First Edition xvi Abbreviations xviii Map xxii Time Line xxiii Introduction: Why Study the Septuagint? 1 Part 1: The History of the Septuagint 1. The Origin of the Septuagint and Other Greek Versions 13 2. The Transmission of the Septuagint 34 3. The Septuagint in Modern Times 63 4. The Septuagint as a Translation 84 Part 2: The Septuagint in Biblical Studies 5. The Language of the Septuagint 113 6. Establishing the Text of the Septuagint 128 7. Using the Septuagint for the Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible 156 8. The Judean Desert Discoveries and Septuagint Studies 181 vii Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
viii 9. The Septuagint and the New Testament 200 10. Interpreting the Septuagint 228
Contents
Part 3: The Current State of Septuagint Studies 11. Our Predecessors: Septuagint Scholars of a Previous Generation 265 12. Current Studies in Language and Translation 289 13. Reconstructing the History of the Text 308 14. Theological Development in the Hellenistic Age 326
Appendixes A. Major Organizations and Research Projects 351 B. Reference Works 365 C. Glossary 369 D. Di erences in Versification between English Versions and the Septuagint 376 E. Symbols and Abbreviations of the Gцttingen Critical Apparatus 381
Indexes Index of Hebrew/Aramaic Words and Phrases 385 Index of Greek Words and Phrases 387 Index of Scripture References 389 Index of Modern Scholars 392 Index of Subjects 398
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Illustrations I.1. Map of the Hellenistic World xxii I.2. Time Line of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods xxiii 2.1. Traditional Understanding of the Relationship between the Septuagint and the Later Greek Versions 35 2.2. Alternative Understanding of the Relationship between the Septuagint and the Later Greek Versions 39 2.3. Textual History of the Greek Versions 49 2.4. Codex Vaticanus 53 2.5. Codex Sinaiticus 54 2.6. Codex Alexandrinus 55 2.7. Codex Marchalianus 57 2.8. Manuscript Chigi (Daniel) 58 2.9. Manuscript Chigi (Ezekiel) 59 3.1. Holmes-Parsons Septuagint 67 3.2. Order of Books in the Hebrew Bible, the Greek Septuagint, and the English (Protestant) Bible 76 5.1. 1 Reigns (1 Samuel) 3:19­4:2 120 6.1. Larger Cambridge Septuagint 148 6.2. Rahlfs's Septuagint 150 6.3. Gцttingen Isaiah 152 6.4. Gцttingen Genesis 154 ix Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
x 7.1. 3 Reigns (1 Kings) 2:1­5 176 8.1. Qumran Scroll Fragments 4QJerb,d,e 189 10.1. Esther 5:1­2 and D:1­16 Compared 254 11.1. Paul A. de Lagarde 269 11.2. Alfred Rahlfs 272 11.3. Henry Barclay Swete 274 11.4. Henry St. John Thackeray 277 11.5. Max Leopold Margolis 279 11.6. John W. Wevers 287
Illustrations
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Preface to the Second Edition The authors and publisher are gratified by the warm reception given to the first edition of Invitation to the Septuagint. Since its publication, however, research in the field of Septuagint and cognate studies has developed at an increasingly faster pace. Numerous contributions--including some of major significance--have appeared in monographs, works of reference, journal articles, and anthologies. In addition, we have received many valuable suggestions from reviewers, colleagues, and students. Any attempt to give a full account of developments during the past fifteen years would make the book unwieldy and diminish its value as an introductory text. We therefore have needed to be selective in the addition of new material. In spite of that, every chapter has grown longer. Often the additions consist of bibliographic references in the footnotes, but the body of the text itself has been expanded at many points, either to provide fuller discussion of topics treated in the previous edition or to cover new issues (e.g., the current debates on the interlinear paradigm and on the hermeneutics of translation). Chapter 11 now includes biographic profiles of several additional scholars (J. Ziegler, I. Soisalon-Soininen, D. Barthйlemy, and J. W. Wevers). And a new appendix lists an English translation of the Gцttingen sigla and abbreviations. The glossary too has been expanded. Revisions include the correction of some inaccuracies and numerous minor changes that we hope will make the text more serviceable. Many of these changes might not have occurred to us had it not been for those readers who graciously took the time to bring them to our attention; we are truly grateful for their collaboration. In addition, we have attempted to clarify statements that were either ambiguous or susceptible to misunderstanding. In particular, some readers have xi Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
xii
Preface to the Second Edition
inferred that we do not consider the Septuagint to be valuable for the establishment of the Hebrew text.1 We believe that this criticism was unjustified. It is true that we urge caution in this area (to avoid the frequently haphazard use of the Septuagint as an easy solution to text-critical problems), but at several crucial points we handle the subject in positive terms.2 Nevertheless, we welcome the opportunity in this new edition to make our position clearer through various changes and additions in chapter 7. Thanks must go to the Wheaton College and Graduate School teaching assistants who helped in various ways during the revision process, especially Jeremy Otten (2012­13), who helped to gather bibliography, and Jeremiah Coogan (2013­14), who assisted in expanding chapters 6 and 11 and the appendixes. To the students who have used or will use this book to further their knowledge, we dedicate this work. Karen H. Jobes Wheaton, Illinois Moisйs Silva Litchfield, Michigan
1. Such was the judgment of the late James Barr in his extensive review of our book in RBL (Oct. 2002; published online at http://www.bookreviews.org/pdf/1341_3027.pdf), and other writers have depended on his evaluation. Our response was published in BIOSCS 35 (2002): 43­46 and is also included at the end of Barr's online review. 2. To mention only the most obvious example: in our primary treatment of this topic, where we discuss Deut. 31:1 (see chap. 7, "The Septuagint Compared to the Masoretic Text," below), we conclude that the Septuagint reading, rather than that of the Masoretic Text, is original. Note also that we commend Emanuel Tov's book The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research as a "sober and reliable guide" (see chap. 7, "To Continue Your Study," below). Indeed, aside from a couple of issues (such as his low regard for the classic "rules" of internal evidence), we find ourselves in almost complete agreement with Tov's judicious principles and methods. Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Preface to the First Edition The inspiration for a book like this was born during my doctoral studies at Westminster Theological Seminary in a course entitled "The Greek Old Testament," taught by Moisйs Silva. I had previously heard Professor Silva comment that this course was the hardest one o ered at the seminary. Being a woman who enjoys a reasonable challenge and having become enamored with Biblical Greek, I registered for the course with enthusiasm. Very quickly I began to appreciate both the technical and conceptual complexities of Septuagint studies. So many of my naive assumptions about texts, manuscripts, and the Scriptures I hold dear were quickly shattered. I began to see a more profound, mysterious, and wonderful picture that captured my scholarly imagination. I've been hooked on Septuagint studies ever since. Professor Silva was right; it was a di cult course. But one of the di culties for me as a student completely new to the subject was that everything I read about the Septuagint seemed to presume a great deal of prior knowledge. I could find nothing that provided an introduction to the scholarly discussions that had been going on for decades. I needed a concise primer that would define the jargon, delineate the most fundamental and elementary concepts, and trace out the overarching issues of what Septuagint studies was all about. As I worked through the course under Professor Silva's able guidance, I began to make notes of things I wish someone had written in clear, easy language. Although I was unaware of it at the time, the outline for this book had begun to take shape. This book is intended to be a relatively brief and inviting introduction for the student who has no prior knowledge of the Septuagint. It aims to introduce both the history and current state of the scholarly discussion by presenting the terminology, foundational concepts, and major issues in Septuagint studies. xiii Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
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Preface to the First Edition
Nevertheless, those interested in pursuing the technical use of the Septuagint in textual criticism and biblical studies will also find resources here to further their understanding. If successful, this book will serve as a bridge to the more sophisticated literature produced by scholars working in the field. We trust that our book not only honors the work done by previous generations of Septuagint scholars and accurately presents the work now being done by our colleagues in the field but will also inspire future generations to take up this fascinating field of research. Karen H. Jobes Santa Barbara, California In my student days at Westminster Theological Seminary, unlike Professor Jobes, I did not even have the option of taking a class in Septuagint studies. I was, however, able to sign up for an independent reading course on the subject as part of my Th.M. program; and later the text of the Septuagint became a major focus of attention in my doctoral research at the University of Manchester. In my experience, learning the basic facts related to the Septuagint proved painless, but I soon realized how superficial, and therefore dangerous, that knowledge was. Moving to the next level--that is, being able to handle the Greek text responsibly and to understand specialized articles--required considerable e ort, especially without the benefit of structured guidance. When I began to o er a course on the Greek Old Testament, my aim was to help students profit from my mistakes. While there is no such thing as "Septuagint without tears" (indeed, without the a iction of trial and error, one seldom learns anything), pedagogical direction can prevent much wasted time and unnecessary frustration. This book seeks to perform that service. We have made a special e ort to write part 1 in a simple and user-friendly fashion, but without minimizing the problems and ambiguities inherent in the subject. The qualifications and nuances in those first chapters are essential if one is to avoid building a shaky foundation. It is in part 2, however, that we seek to guide the reader through the thicket of the Septuagintal forest. The chapters in this section are intended for students who already have some knowledge of the biblical languages and who wish to attain an intermediate level of proficiency in the use of the Greek Bible. With the additional help of part 3, which reviews the state of scholarship on selected topics, a few readers may even decide that Advanced Study of the Septuagint is worth pursuing. The great challenge in teaching a course (or writing a book) on a complex subject is that explaining any one detail seems to assume some understanding of many other items not yet covered. This problem is particularly acute in
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Preface to the First Edition
xv
the field of Septuagint studies. Some repetition is therefore unavoidable, but in dealing with individual topics we have also relied heavily on the use of cross-references to both prior and subsequent discussions within the book. In the end, however, a second reading of the volume may be necessary to tie loose ends. I must add that this book would never have been written without the productive and persevering e orts of Professor Jobes, on whom fell the lion's share of the work in its initial stages. Throughout the project, however, we have been in frequent consultation, reading and critiquing each other's work, and discussing every aspect of the book before it took its final form. As a result, this book represents a collaborative e ort in the fullest sense of the term. It is our wish that others will find as much delight in reading these pages as we have found in writing them. Moisйs Silva Ipswich, Massachusetts
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Acknowledgments for the First Edition It is a pleasure to acknowledge the significant help we have received throughout the course of this project. We are especially grateful to David Aiken for proposing the idea of such a book in the first place, for promoting the work in many ways, and for agreeing to copyedit the typescript. His personal and scholarly interest in Septuagint studies has much to do with the Successful Completion of the book. Several specialists have generously given of their time to assist us. Leonard J. Greenspoon, Emanuel Tov, Robert A. Kraft, and Martin G. Abegg read portions of the typescript at an early stage and provided valuable criticisms. Other colleagues, including Natalio Fernбndez Marcos, Peter W. Flint, Peter J. Gentry, Robert H. Gundry, Galen Marquis, Bruce M. Metzger, Takamitsu Muraoka, Bradley Nassif, Gerard Norton, Albert Pietersma, Eugene C. Ulrich, and John W. Wevers, were kind enough to respond to inquiries or otherwise support our research. To the sta of the Septuaginta-Unternehmen in Gцttingen we extend our sincere thanks. During a visit to its facilities, the authors were able to discuss some important questions and to gather information unavailable anywhere else. We are particularly indebted to its director, Anneli Aejmelaeus, for the time that she unselfishly spent with us, and to Udo Quast, whose unique knowledge of Septuagint manuscripts and of the work of the institute proved invaluable. We also profited greatly from a brief visit to the Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism (Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium). Our thanks to Erik Eynikel and Katrin Hauspie for their assistance during that time and to its director, Johan Lust. xvi Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Acknowledgments for the First Edition
xvii
The authors also thank the sta of the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center at Claremont, California, for their assistance in selecting and acquiring the photographs of manuscripts that appear in this volume. David L. Palmer, Byington scholar at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, read a near-final draft of the typescript with great care, identifying some remaining problems and o ering numerous suggestions for improvement. Bradford Zinnecker, also a Byington scholar at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, prepared an initial draft of appendix D that greatly facilitated our work. Finally, the authors express their thanks to Westmont College and Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary for the support they have received in the production of this book.
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Abbreviations
General and Bibliographic
AASF AB AGJU ALGHJ AnBib app(s). ARG AT BASOR BBR BDAG BDF BECNT BETL BHQ BHS BHT Bib BIOSCS BJS BN BSCS BSNA BTS BZ
Annales Academiae Scientarum Fennicae Anchor Bible Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums Arbeiten zur Literatur und Geschichte des hellenistischen Judentums Analecta Biblica appendix(es) Archiv fьr Religionsgeschichte Alpha-Text of Greek Esther Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research Bulletin for Biblical Research Frederick W. Danker, Walter Bauer, William F. Arndt, and F. Wilbur Gingrich. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. Friedrich Blass, Albert Debrunner, and Robert W. Funk. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum lovaniensium Biblia Hebraica Quinta. Edited by Adrian Schenker et al. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2004­. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Edited by Karl Elliger and Wilhelm Rudolph. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1983. Beitrдge zur historischen Theologie Biblica Bulletin of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies Brown Judaic Studies Biblische Notizen Brill Septuagint Commentary Series biblical scholarship in North America Biblical Tools and Studies Biblische Zeitschrift
xviii Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Abbreviations
xix
BZAW ca. CahRB CATSS CBET CBQ CBQMS chap(s). Cod. ConBOT DBSup DJD Eng. enl. esp. FAT FRLANT HS HSM HTR HUCA ICC IOSCS JAOS JBL JBS JETS JJS JNSL JNSLSup JQR JQRSup JS JSCS JSJSup JSNTSup JSOTSup JSS JSSM JTS KJV LCL lit. LNTS LSJ LXX MS(S) MSU MT
Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fьr die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft circa, about Cahiers de la Revue biblique Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint Studies Contributions to Biblical Exegesis and Theology Catholic Biblical Quarterly Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series chapter(s) Codex Coniectanea Biblica: Old Testament Series Dictionnaire de la Bible: Supplйment. Edited by Louis Pirot and Andrй Robert. Paris: Letouzey et Anй, 1928­. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert English enlarged especially Forschungen zum Alten Testament Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments Hebrew Studies Harvard Semitic Monographs Harvard Theological Review Hebrew Union College Annual International Critical Commentary International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies Journal of the American Oriental Society Journal of Biblical Literature Jerusalem Biblical Studies Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society Journal of Jewish Studies Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages Supplement Jewish Quarterly Review Jewish Quarterly Review Supplement Journal for Semitics Journal of Septuagint and Cognate Studies Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series Journal of Semitic Studies Journal of Semitic Studies Monograph Journal of Theological Studies King James Version Loeb Classical Library literally Library of New Testament Studies Henry G. Liddell, Robert Scott, and Henry S. Jones. A Greek-English Lexicon. 9th ed. with revised supplement. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996. Septuagint manuscript(s) Mitteilungen des Septuaginta-Unternehmens Masoretic Text
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
xx
Abbreviations
NETS NICNT NIGTC NIV NovT NovTSup NRSV n.s. NT OBO OG OL OT OTS OtSt PG PL pl(s). RB RBL repr. ResQ RevQ SBEC SBL SBLCS SBLDS SBLMS SBLSCS SJOT SNTSMS SOTSMS STDJ s.v. TJ TSAJ TSMEMJ UPATS VT VTSup WBC WTJ WUNT ZAW
A New English Translation of the Septuagint New International Commentary on the New Testament New International Greek Testament Commentary New International Version Novum Testamentum Supplements to Novum Testamentum New Revised Standard Version new series New Testament Orbis biblicus et orientalis Old Greek Old Latin Old Testament Old Testament Studies Oudtestamentische Studiлn Patrologia Graeca Patrologia Latina plate(s) Revue biblique Review of Biblical Literature reprint Restoration Quarterly Revue de Qumran Studies in the Bible and Early Christianity Society of Biblical Literature Society of Biblical Literature Commentary on the Septuagint Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series Society of Biblical Literature Septuagint and Cognate Studies Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series Society for Old Testament Studies Monograph Series Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah sub verbo, under the word Trinity Journal Texte und Studien zum antiken Judentum Texts and Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Judaism University of Pennsylvania Armenian Texts and Studies Vetus Testamentum Supplements to Vetus Testamentum Word Biblical Commentary Westminster Theological Journal Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament Zeitschrift fьr die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft
Hebrew Bible/Old Testament
Gen. Exod. Lev.
Genesis Exodus Leviticus
Num. Deut. Josh.
Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua
Judg. Ruth 1­2 Sam.
Judges Ruth 1­2 Samuel
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Abbreviations
1­2 Kings 1­2 Chron. Ezra Neh. Esther Job Ps(s). Prov. Eccles.
1­2 Kings
Song
1­2 Chronicles Isa.
Ezra
Jer.
Nehemiah
Lam.
Esther
Ezek.
Job
Dan.
Psalms
Hosea
Proverbs
Joel
Ecclesiastes Amos
Song of Songs Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel Amos
Obad. Jon. Mic. Nah. Hab. Zeph. Hag. Zech. Mal.
xxi Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
Old Testament Apocrypha
Add. Dan. Add. Esth. Bar. Bel 1­2 Esd. Jdt. Let. Jer. 1­4 Macc.
Additions to Daniel Additions to Esther Baruch Bel and the Dragon 1­2 Esdras Judith Letter of Jeremiah 1­4 Maccabees
Pr. Azar. Pr. Man. Ps. 151 Sir. (Ecclus.) Sg. Three Sus. Tob. Wis.
Prayer of Azariah Prayer of Manasseh Psalm 151 Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) Song of the Three Jews Susanna Tobit Wisdom (of Solomon)
New Testament
Matt. Mark Luke John Acts Rom. 1­2 Cor. Gal. Eph. Phil. Col.
Matthew Mark Luke John Acts Romans 1­2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians
1­2 Thess. 1­2 Tim. Titus Philem. Heb. James 1­2 Pet. 1­3 John Jude Rev.
1­2 Thessalonians 1­2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1­2 Peter 1­3 John Jude Revelation
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Dan Malda
Caesarea JUDEA Jerusalem
MINOR Antioch
EGYPT
Alexandria
ASIA
Ephesus Athens
MACEDONIA Byzantium (Constantinople)
Figure I.1. The Hellenistic World
GREECE
SYRIA T I Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Rome A L Y
(Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Figure I.2. Time Line of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
BCE | CE . 50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Alexander the Great
Pompey
Jesus
Philo
Origen
Josephus
Jerome Lucian
reign of
reign of
Ptolemy II Antiochus IV Epiphanes
reign of Herod the Great
Maccabean Revolt establishment of Qumran Pompey occupies Jerusalem destruction of Jerusalem Bar Kokhba Revolt
Dan Malda
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission.
Introduction Why Study the Septuagint? The SEPTUAGINT--commonly abbreviated LXX--is a fascinating treasure from the ancient past.1 Whether you are Christian or Jewish or neither,2 whether you are only generally interested in religious studies or are an aspiring biblical scholar, it is worth your while to become acquainted with it. Because the Septuagint was the first translation made of the Hebrew Bible (and possibly of any literary work of comparable size) into another language, it marks a milestone in human culture. Knowledge of the ancient world is incomplete without understanding the significance of the Septuagint and the history that brought it into existence. In this book, we invite you to learn about the place of this translation in history, to appreciate its value for modern scholarship, and to come away with some of our enthusiasm for it. The present chapter is intended as an overview of the field, with a brief description of issues that will be treated later in greater detail. 1. The "proper" way to pronounce Septuagint is the subject of lighthearted debate among specialists. English dictionaries typically suggest the pronunciation SEP-too-a-jint or sep-TOOa-jint or the like, but many scholars in the discipline treat it as a three-syllable word, SEP-twajint. In Europe, one often hears the last syllable pronounced with a hard g, after the pattern of Latin Septuaginta. Terms included in the glossary are set in small caps the first time they appear in the text. 2. The authors are Christian but recognize and value the Jewish heritage of the Bible and its translations. Accordingly, the term Hebrew Bible or Hebrew Scriptures will be used mainly when the text is discussed in the context of Judaism, and Old Testament (OT) when in the context of the church. 1 Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
2
Introduction
The Septuagint and the Hebrew Bible The Bible contains ancient writings that have been read continuously from the time of its authors until our own. The first and oldest part of the Bible was written originally in Hebrew (with some small portions in Aramaic: Ezra 4:8­6:18; 7:12­26; Dan. 2:4­7:28; Jer. 10:11; and two words in Gen. 31:47). The abiding importance of these sacred writings--first to the Jews and later to the Christians--demanded that throughout history they be translated into the languages of the peoples who received them as Scripture. After the Near East was conquered by Alexander the Great (ca. 333 BCE), the Jewish people came under the influence of Hellenistic culture. Their religious values and ancient ways collided with Greek practices, philosophies, and language. Just as today most Jews live outside of Israel, so it was during the Hellenistic period. Because as a rule the Jews of the DIASPORA (Dispersion) scattered throughout the Mediterranean no longer spoke Hebrew, they needed to translate their sacred writings into Greek, which had become the lingua franca of the Hellenistic world. Thus the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, now known as the Septuagint, became Scripture to the Greek-speaking Jewish communities in the Diaspora. Together with the Greek NT, it would become the Bible of most Christians during the first centuries of the church. The Greek version remains even today the canonical text for the Orthodox Christian tradition, which traces its heritage to the earliest Greek-speaking Christians. Because of the Greek Bible's widespread importance, numerous copies of it were produced by scribes in many places throughout the centuries. More manuscripts of the Greek OT survive than of any other Ancient Greek text except the NT. According to one authoritative source, "At present, up to 2000 Greek manuscripts of the Septuagint are known: they cover a period of time that stretches from the 2nd century BCE to the 16th century CE and are now scattered all over the globe."3 For scholars interested in the complexities of textual criticism and the tendencies of scribes, the manuscripts of the Greek versions provide an enormous amount of material for study. The Septuagint is written in KOINE, that is, the common Greek of the Hellenistic age, a form of the language that had developed from the Classical Greek of fifth-century Athens. For students of the Greek language during the Hellenistic period, the Septuagint is a major source of information. Moreover, because it is a translation of a Hebrew text into Greek, it provides a 3. This estimate comes from the Septuaginta-Unternehmen in Gцttingen: http://adw-goe .de/en/research/research-projects-within-the-academies-programme/septuaginta-unternehmen/ (accessed September 2, 2015). As with ancient works generally, many of the manuscripts are fragmentary. See below, chap. 2, "Greek Manuscripts," for further detail.
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Introduction
3
unique opportunity for those interested in comparing translation Greek to composition Greek. The Greek version has great value also for the study of the Hebrew text. The issues surrounding this use of the version are complex, but the fact remains that the Septuagint was translated from some Hebrew text that was not identical to the Hebrew text we use today. That original Greek translation, which was produced earlier than surviving copies of the Hebrew Bible, is an indirect witness to its VORLAGE, that is, the Hebrew parent text from which it was translated. In theory, the Septuagint should allow scholars to reconstruct that earlier Hebrew text, though in practice this activity is fraught with di culties. Already in the first chapter of the Bible we come across some interesting examples where the Greek di ers from the extant Hebrew. Compare Gen. 1:6­7 in the two forms (translated literally into English):
Hebrew 6 And God said, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it be separating between waters to waters." 7 And God made the firmament and separated between the waters that [were] under the firmament and between the waters that [were] above the firmament. And it was so.
Greek And God said, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the water, and let it be separating between water and water." And it was so. And God made the firmament, and God separated between the water that was under the firmament and between the water above the firmament.
A few minor di erences may be observed, such as the repetition of "God" in the Greek version of verse 7. Note especially, however, that the Greek has the words "and it was so" in verse 6 rather than in verse 7. Does that mean, as some scholars argue, that the Hebrew manuscript used by the Greek translator also had the phrase in verse 6? Or is there some other way to account for the di erence? One of the reasons scholars cannot be certain that the Greek exactly represents its Hebrew Vorlage is that translation between any two languages always involves a degree of interpretation. The translators who produced the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible were also interpreters who came to the text with the theological and political prejudices of their time and thus had to deal with
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
4
Introduction
hermeneutical issues similar to those we face today. Their translations were no doubt influenced, whether deliberately or subconsciously, by what they believed the Hebrew meant in light of their contemporary situation, which may not have been what the author of the Hebrew text intended. Clearly, this is bad news to the textual critic, who wants to use the Greek version to reconstruct its Hebrew parent text. It is possible that the Greek translator deleted the phrase "and it was so" from Gen. 1:7, perhaps because it sounded out of place, and inserted it in 1:6, where it seemed more appropriate immediately following God's command (similarly, the Greek text includes this phrase after the command in Gen. 1:20, where it is absent in extant Hebrew texts). On the other hand, precisely because the Septuagint reflects the theological, social, and political interests of its translators, it provides valuable information about how the Hebrew Bible was understood and interpreted at the time the translators were working. In the Greek we find passages that are given a particular political or religious spin. This feature is especially clear in the book of Isaiah. For example, the Hebrew text of Isa. 65:11 reproaches those who, forsaking the Lord, "set tables for Gad [a god of fortune] and fill cups of mixed wine for Meni [a god of fate]." The names of these SEMITIC gods were probably not familiar to Alexandrian Jews, and so the translator replaced these names with the Greek words for "demon" and "fate," both of which could be understood as names for deities.4 With this technique, the translator managed not only to clarify the meaning of the text but also to contextualize it. One must also remember that the Septuagint was produced in the wake of Alexander's conquest and death, when Palestine was coveted by the Ptolemies to the south in Egypt and the Seleucids to the north in Syria. Because Palestine was caught in the middle, political allegiances among the Jews were often divided. Moreover, great internal turmoil resulted as Jews in favor of Hellenization clashed with those who opposed it. Just as people today use the Bible to support their agendas, so also were the sacred writings appealed to for authority at that time. And just as a given verse today can be interpreted to support the claims of opposing parties, so also were specific sacred texts understood di erently by di erent communities. This conflict may be seen, for instance, in the Essenes' understanding of Scripture when compared with that of the Pharisees. To what extent such interpretations can be identified 4. See Isaac L. Seeligmann, The Septuagint Version of Isaiah: A Discussion of Its Problems (Leiden: Brill, 1948), 99. He argues that the Greek words should be taken as a reference to Agathos Daimon and Tyche, deities in the Hellenistic cult. This work, along with two other studies, has been reprinted as The Septuagint Version of Isaiah and Cognate Studies, ed. Robert Hanhart and Hermann Spieckermann, FAT 40 (Tьbingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2004), with di erent pagination (see 264).
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Introduction
5
in the Greek translation of the Bible is a subject of debate, but it would be strange indeed if the political loyalties and religious convictions of the translators were not reflected in their work.5 In any case, the Septuagint provides invaluable material showing how the Hebrew Bible was used in this crucial period of Jewish history.
The Septuagint in the Christian Church The Greek OT, not the Hebrew Bible, was the primary theological and literary context within which the writers of the NT and most early Christians worked.6 This does not mean that the NT writers were ignorant of the Hebrew Bible or that they did not use it. But since the NT authors were writing in Greek, they would naturally quote, allude to, and otherwise use a Greek version of the Hebrew Bible. This process is no di erent from that of a modern author writing in Spanish, for instance, and quoting a widely used Spanish translation of the Bible. Consequently, familiarity with the Greek OT cannot help but enlighten the student of the Greek NT. Biblical scholar Adolf Deissmann once wrote, "A single hour lovingly devoted to the text of the Septuagint will further our exegetical knowledge of the Pauline Epistles more than a whole day spent over a commentary."7 The connection can be illustrated at several levels. In the first place, the Septuagint provided some of the vocabulary that the NT writers drew upon. To be sure, it is often di cult to determine whether a NT writer used a given Greek word, such as sabbaton ("Sabbath"), because of its use in the Septuagint or simply because it was already a part of the vocabulary among Greek-speaking Jews in the first century. There is no doubt, however, that the NT writers often use Septuagint terms or phrases that were not in common Greek usage (e.g., pasa sarx, "all flesh," in Luke 3:6). In such cases, they may be borrowing the terms from the Septuagint to a ect a "biblical" style. Most of us have heard someone pray using the archaic English pronouns thee and thou. Although these pronouns are not current in modern 5. E.g., see Isa. 15:7b, which in the Hebrew reads, "They [i.e., the Moabites] will carry away their possessions over the brook of willows." The Greek translator, however, misunderstood the text (the Hebrew word for "willows" has the same consonants as the word for "Arabs") and rendered it, "For I will bring Arabians upon the valley, and they will take it." Seeligmann (Septuagint Version of Isaiah, 89 [repr. 234]) suggests that this rendering alludes to the conquest of Transjordan by the Nabateans, an Arab state, in the second century BCE. 6. See Emanuel Tov, "The Septuagint between Judaism and Christianity," in Die Septuaginta und das frьhe Christentum--The Septuagint and Christian Origins, ed. Thomas Scott Caulley and Hermann Lichtenberger, WUNT 277 (Tьbingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011), 3­25. 7. Adolf Deissmann, The Philology of the Greek Bible (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1908), 12.
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
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English, people still use them on certain occasions if they want to imitate or suggest the style of biblical language as found in the enormously influential King James Version. The Septuagint certainly left its mark in Greek, just as the King James Version has in English. Second, the NT writers sometimes used expressions found in the Septuagint to draw the reader's mind to specific passages of OT Scripture. Paul, for instance, uses the phrase "every knee shall bow" in Phil. 2:10 to describe the ultimate exaltation of Jesus. This phrase occurs in the Greek text of Isa. 45:22­23, which may be translated as follows:
Turn to me, and you will be saved, you from the ends of the earth. I am God, and there is no other. By myself I swear --surely righteousness will come out of my mouth, my words will not be thwarted-- that every knee will bow to me and every tongue will confess to God.
Clearly Paul is using vocabulary from the Greek version of Isa. 45:23, not just to sound "biblical," but to bring that passage to mind in order to identify Jesus with God. Third, the NT writers frequently quote the Greek OT directly--perhaps as many as three hundred times. This accounts for some of the di erences readers note when comparing these quotations with the corresponding OT passages. For example, in Heb. 11:21 dying Jacob is said to have worshiped leaning on the top of his sta , a reference to the Greek text of Gen. 47:31. In almost all English Bibles, however, Genesis says that Jacob worshiped at the top of his bed, which is indeed what the surviving Hebrew manuscripts say. The reason for the discrepancy is that the Hebrew text used by the Greek translator of Genesis consisted only of consonants; the appropriate vowels were to be inferred by the reader from the context. The Hebrew noun mh in Genesis could be read as either maeh ("sta ") or miв ("bed"), and the Greek translator, possibly following an interpretative tradition, inferred that the word sta was meant. Some centuries later, when vowel points were added to the Hebrew biblical texts, the noun in Gen. 47:31 was taken (on the basis of a di erent tradition) to mean "bed."8 8. The NIV translates Gen. 47:31 so as to agree with Heb. 11:21, presumably on the grounds that the traditional vowel pointing of the Hebrew text is incorrect and that the Greek version preserves the correct sense. For a discussion of this quotation, see Moisйs Silva, "The New
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Introduction
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One must appreciate that the continuity and development of thought between the Old and New Testaments is of particular concern for biblical theology. The Greek OT provides essential, but often overlooked, theological links that would have been familiar to Christians of the first century but are not so obvious in the Hebrew version. No NT scholar can a ord to ignore the Septuagint and other Greek versions. In addition, the Greek, not the Hebrew text, was the Bible used by the early church fathers and councils. As Christian doctrine on the nature of Jesus and the Trinity developed, discussion centered on the exegesis of key OT texts. Because most of the church fathers could not read Hebrew, exegetical debates were settled using the Greek OT. Some of the Greek words used to translate the OT had connotations associated with Greek culture and philosophy that were probably alien to the thought of the original Hebrew author. The simple fact that the Hebrew Scriptures existed in the Greek language and were read by people living in a Greek culture led to exegesis by both Jewish and Christian interpreters (e.g., Philo and Arius, respectively) that was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy. Of course, one must also consider that the Greek translators themselves originally rendered the Hebrew in ways that were to some extent influenced by Greek culture and thought, making the text even more congenial to a later exegesis that would be similarly influenced. A good example is the Greek text of Prov. 8:22­31, which held a prominent place in the early discussions about the nature of Jesus and his place in the Trinity. In this passage, wisdom is personified as the first of the Lord's works prior to the creation of the universe. Primarily because of the opening verses of John's Gospel, Jesus became associated with this divine wisdom (sophia) or rationality (logos). In Greek philosophy, however, the Greek concept of an impersonal divine wisdom permeating the universe was prominent, and so the nature of Jesus and his relationship to God the Father had to be carefully delineated. Many early theologians, such as Origen and Tertullian, used Prov. 8 in their discussions of the relationship between the Son and the Father. Subsequently Arius, a Christian presbyter of Alexandria (died 336), argued on the basis of the Greek translation of Prov. 8 that the Son was a created being, not coeternal with the Father. Subtle di erences between the Greek and Hebrew worked in favor of Arius's argument, which led to years of intense debate.9 Testament Use of the Old Testament: Text Form and Authority," in Scripture and Truth, ed. D. A. Carson and J. W. Woodbridge (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983; repr., Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992), 147­65. 9. The Arian teaching was pronounced a heresy by the Council of Nicea in 325. For further details, see Jaroslav Pelikan, The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, 5 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971­89), 1:191­210.
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
8
Introduction
Augustine famously made frequent use of Isa. 7:9, "Unless you have believed, you will not understand" (according to the Old Latin), making faith a central component in the quest for knowledge.10 But this statement is not found in most English Bibles today, which translate the Hebrew text, "If you do not stand firm in your faith, you will not stand at all" (NIV). Spoken in the original context of Isaiah's exhortation to King Ahaz, the statement threatens the future of Ahaz's reign if he seeks security in an alliance with Assyria. As Pope Francis points out in his encyclical letter Lumen Fidei,
Here there is a play on words, based on two forms of the verb amn: "you will believe" (taamоnы) and "you shall be established" (tmnы). . . . It might seem that the Greek version of the Bible, by translating "be established" as "understand," profoundly altered the meaning of the text by moving away from the biblical notion of trust in God towards a Greek notion of intellectual understanding. Yet this translation, while certainly reflecting a dialogue with Hellenistic culture, is not alien to the underlying spirit of the Hebrew text. The firm foundation that Isaiah promises to the king is indeed grounded in an understanding of God's activity and the unity which he gives to human life and to the history of his people.11 Augustine, reading most likely from a Latin Bible that had been translated from a Greek text, found there that without faith in God's enduring presence one cannot attain true understanding. These examples are only two of many that show how the doctrines and beliefs of Christianity were hammered out with exegetical appeals to an OT that was written in Greek, not Hebrew. While no point of Christian doctrine rests on the Greek text in contradiction to the Hebrew, it is also true that the Greek OT text was the Word of God for the universal church in its first three centuries. Moreover, the Eastern Orthodox churches inherited the Greek text as their Bible. Traditionally, the Orthodox churches have considered the Greek version to be divinely inspired (and even in some sense to have superseded the Hebrew text), although this view is a matter of debate among Orthodox scholars today.12 Because of the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century, most Christians in the Western church today are completely unfamiliar with the 10. Robert J. O'Connell, Soundings in St. Augustine's Imagination (New York: Fordham University Press, 1994), 123­24. 11. Pope Francis, Lumen Fidei, Vatican website, June 29, 2013, §23, http://w2.vatican.va /content/francesco/en/encyclicals/documents/papa-francesco_20130629_enciclica-lumen-fidei .html (accessed September 2, 2015). 12. See the discussion below in chap. 3 under the heading "The Biblical Canon" and n. 48.
Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)
Introduction
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Septuagint. Part of the reason for this development is that the Reformation shifted attention away from the early translations of the OT, whether they be Greek or Latin, back to the original Hebrew. Today's English translations of the OT are rightly based, not on the Greek or Latin versions, but on the best available Hebrew text, known as the MASORETIC TEXT (MT). While the Hebrew is the best textual base for modern translations, we cannot forget that the ancient Greek version of the OT was nevertheless the Bible of the earliest Christian writers.13 As we have seen, the Greek versions contain textual links not found in the Hebrew that provide historical and literary continuity for the important task of biblical theology and for accurately understanding the exegetical debates of the early church fathers. The student of the Bible at the college or seminary level must learn to appreciate the Septuagint and to understand its use in modern biblical scholarship and exegesis. Although few students will pursue Septuagint studies as a specialty at the graduate level, all students of the Bible, regardless of their religious identity, should understand the historical importance of the Septuagint and its significant contribution to the development of the Bible that we hold in our hands today. As the eminent biblical scholar Ferdinand Hitzig is said to have remarked to his students, "Gentlemen, have you a Septuagint? If not, sell all you have, and buy a Septuagint."14
13. Mьller goes so far as to argue that the Christian church in the West was quite wrong to follow Jerome's preference for the Hebrew text over that of the Septuagint. See Mogens Mьller, The First Bible of the Church: A Plea for the Septuagint, JSOTSup 206, Copenhagen International Seminary 1 (She eld: She eld Academic Press, 1996), 143. Even more emphatic is Timothy Michael Law, When God Spoke Greek: The Septuagint and the Making of the Christian Bible (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013). While the arguments of these and other authors are not persuasive, they are helpful in showing the great importance of the Greek text for early Christianity. 14. J. J. Kneucker, "Zur Erinnerung an Ferdinand Hitzig: Eine Lebens- und Charakterskizze," in Dr. Ferdinand Hitzig's Vorlesungen ьber Biblische Theologie und Messanische Weissagungen des Alten Testaments, ed. J. J. Kneucker (Karlsruhe: H. Reuther, 1880), 1­64, esp. 19n2. Apparently Professor Hitzig had no female students. Today, women are among the outstanding scholars contributing to Septuagint studies. Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group, © 2000, 2015. Used by permission. (Unpublished manuscript--copyright protected Baker Publishing Group)

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