Sex hormone studies, AL Gimeno, M Gimeno, JL Webb

Tags: San Francisco, American Medical Association, Public Health League, George A. Butler, Elaine J. Knutsen, Council meeting, Doctor Miller, Frank R. McDougall, William Francis, Peacock Court, Robert L. Neil, Alexander J. Bellanca, California Physicians' Service, Messrs, San Diego County, Hotel reservations, ASSOCIATION-Housing Bureau, Sutter Street Son Francisco, accommodations, House of Delegates, Scientific Programs, California Youth Authority, Doctor Lester McDonald, President-Elect JAMES C. DOYLE, California Medical Association, Councilor Quinn, Doctor Mark Gerstle, M.D ......, OMER W. WHEELER, Mark Hopkins Hotel, President-Elect Sherman, Vice-Speaker Heron, ROBERT F. EDWARDS, Riverside SAMUEL R. SHERMAN, San Francisco DWIGHT L. WILBUR, medical school, M.D ........, pre-medical, President Wheeler, Doctors Robert Vaughan, Doctor Malcolm Merrill, Theo K. Miller, Daniel Blain, DWIGHT L. WILBUR, Council Meeting Minutes, Doctor T. Eric Reynolds, Secretary Hosmer, Meeting of the Council, Doctors Warren Bostick, Editor Wilbur, Nyron of California Physicians' Service
Content: OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE CALIFORNIA MEDICAL ASSOCIATION © 1963, by the California Medical Association
Volume 98
Number 2
Sex Hormone Studies The Efects on the Cellular Membrane Potentials and Contractility of Isolated Rat Atrium ALVARO L. GIMENO, M.D., MARTHA GIMENO, M.D., and J. LEYDEN WEBB, Ph.D., Los Angeles
* The effects of estradiol, testosterone and progesterone on the electrical and mechanical char- acteristics of rat atria were determined. Cellular membrane potentials were obtained with microelectrodes and the contractility recorded from a sensitive strain gauge. AUl three steroids at concentrations near 10-5 M produced characteristic changes in the membrane potentials, the most striking effect being a pronounced slowing of the depolarization of the action potential, without simultaneously reducing the magnitudes of the resting or action potentials. As a result, there was slower impulse conduction in the atria, a lengthening of the action potential and a conse- quent increase in the refractory period. The repolarization rate was slowed. These changes are due to effects on the transmembrane fluxes of
Na+ and K+, a decrease in permeability being assumed. These effects are similar to those produced by the standard antiarrhythmic drugs, such as quinidine; and these steroids, particularly testosterone, have been found to be potent in the prevention and abolishment of atrial arrhythmias, both in vitro and in vivo. The steroids also block the effects of acetylcholine on the atria and this may play a role in the reduction in excitability and automaticity. Testosterone, but not estradiol nor progesterone, exerts a temporary stimulation of the atrial contractility, which is not due to any effect on the membrane, but is related in some manner more directly to the contractile systems.
ALTHOUGH A GREAT DEAL is known about the effects of the male and female gonadal hormones, very few investigations of what part they play in cardiovascular actions have been made. Beyond the knowledge of their modification of the development of atherosclerosis and the indications that they have a vasodilating effect, very little is known of them in this regard. Particularly neglected is the question of possible direct influences in cardiac function. The reports on estradiol, progesterone and From the Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 33. Presented as part of the basic science Session at the 91st Annual Meeting of the California Medical Association, San Francisco, April 15 to 18, 1962. VOL. 98, NO. 2 * FEBRUARY 1963
testosterone are not consistent, some indicating that they increase and some that they decrease myocardial contractility. Much of the work has been done in intact animals where direct mechanisms are difficult to distinguish from reflex and other compensatory phenomena. Electrocardiographic studies have demonstrated definite effects, but again it is difficult to decide whether these are direct or not. The present report is concerned with the direct effects of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the contractility and cellular membrane poten- tials of isolated rat atria, and with the bearing that these effects have on cardiac dysrhythmias. 67
INE For information on preparation of monuscript, see advertising poge 2
ROBERT F. EDWARDS . . . Assistant to the Editor
Policy Committee-Editorial Board
OMER W. WHEELER, M.D. ... . ...... Riverside
SAMUEL R. SHERMAN, M.D. . . . . . . San Francisco
CARL E. ANDERSON, M.D ........ . Santa Rosa
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Medical Student Loans Medical Education is expensive. This statement may be made categorically and we would be hard put to find anyone who could successfully produce valid arguments against it. The cost, unfortunately, is one of the factors which divert from the study of medicine some of our bright young people with an interest in science but without enough money to finance their studies themselves. Consequently, in recent years we have seen many of these potential physicians diverted to studies in chemistry, engineering, physics and other "glamor" activities which are subsidized widely by government and industrial firms operating in these fields. Expense, both in dollars and time, dictates to many of these should-be doctors a scientific course which takes them away from the humanities of science and places them in the mechanics of space, automation and other emerging scientific production. Too frequently we hear the expression, "I wanted to be a doctor but just couldn't see my way clear to finance a course in medicine." Proof of this phenomenon was given graphically in the years immediately following World War II, when returning service men found it possible to use the GI program to enter pre-medical or medical school and to enjoy federal help in meeting their costs. Today, with GI funds exhausted and with competing sciences offering government and commercial subsidies, applications for entrance to medical schools are declining. Medical school deans still cling to the hope that the decrease in applications may be limited to numbers only and not to quality but there remains a valid question as to whether or not intellectual quality declines along with a numerical decrease. VOL. 98, NO. 2 * FEBRUARY 1963
Every medical organization receives questions throughout the year as to the availability of funds to enable students to enter medical training. Many of these questions come from high school pupils or counselors, a smaller number from undergraduates in pre-medical schools and a few from the classes in medical schools. Such requests from the high school level must of necessity be answered with caution, since there is as yet no demonstrated talent or aptitude for a medical career. Even if from the pre-medical school level, there remains a question as to whether or not the inquirer will do well enough to become a good candidate for medical training. At the level of medical school itself, however, the applicant has proved his qualities to the point of acceptance as a medical student. If his course should be terminated before graduation by a lack of funds, the loss is great both to society and the individual. Often complications arise because of early marriages by students. To provide a means for enabling students in this category to continue their studies, the American Medical Association several years ago established the American Medical Association-Education & Research Foundation. Part of the program of this organization is to raise and distribute loan funds for medical students, interns and residents. The loan funds are advanced by a Chicago bank at low interest rates and long repayment terms. The student may borrow each year, up to a maximum of $15,000, and may have as long as ten years to repay his obligation. Applications for funds are filed through the deans of medical schools or officers of the teaching hospitals where the student is pursuing postgraduate training. To guarantee these loans the A.M.A.-E.R.F. acts as cosigner and puts up $1 for each $12.50 loaned. Establishment of this program has drawn an 99
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Council Meeting Minutes Minutes of the 486th Meeting of the Council, San Francisco, Mark Hopkins Hotel, December 15, 1962. The meeting was called to order by Chairman Anderson in the Peacock Court of the Mark Hopkins Hotel, San Francisco, on Saturday, December 15, 1962, at 10:00 a.m. Roll Call: Present were President Wheeler, President-Elect Sherman, Vice-Speaker Heron, Editor Wilbur, Secretary Hosmer and Councilors MacLaggan, Wilson, Todd, O'Neill, Bullock, O'Connor, Ham, Rogers, Dalton, Murray, Davis, Miller, Watts, Campbell, Morrison, Kaiser, Anderson, Dozier, Cosentino and Grunigen. Absent for cause, Speaker Doyle, Councilor Quinn. A quorum present and acting. Present by invitation were Messrs. Hunton, Thomas, Clancy, Collins, Clark, Marvin, Whelan, Klutch and Tobitt, Mrs. Griffith and Doctor Miller of C.M.A. staff; Messrs. Hassard and Huber of legal counsel, Messrs. Read, Salisbury and Putnam of the Public Health League; county executives Scheuber of Alameda-Contra Costa, Field and Williams of Los Angeles, Rosenthal of Forty-First, Bannister of Orange, Brayer of Riverside, Dochtermann of Sacramento, Nute of San Diego, Neick of San Francisco, Monnich of San Joaquin, Colvin of Santa Clara, Wood of San Mateo, Grove of Monterey, Blankfort of Marin, Brown of Sonoma and Bailey of Tulare; Doctor Malcolm Merrill, State Director of Public Health; Doctor Lester McDonald, Medical Director of the State Department of Social Welfare; Doctor Daniel Blain, director of the State Department of Mental hygiene; Doctor Mark Gerstle of the California Youth Authority, Messrs. Heller and Nyron of California Physicians' Service, Mr. John Pompelli of the American Medical Association; Mr. VOL. 98. NO. 2 * FEBRUARY 1963
Robert Garrick; Doctors Robert Vaughan and L. J. Snyder of Fresno; Doctors J. T. Janvier and Glenn Pope of Sacramento; Doctor T. Eric Reynolds, president of California Physicians' Service; Mr. Frank R. McDougall, president of the California Hospital Association; Doctors Warren Bostick, Dan 0. Kilroy, Edgar Wayburn, and others. 1. Minutes for Approval: On motion duly made and seconded, minutes of the 485th Council meeting, held November 3, 1962, were approved. 2. Membership: (a) A report of membership as of December 12, 1962, was presented and ordered filed. (b) On motion duly made and seconded, 29 delinquent members who had cleared their delinquency were voted reinstatement. (c) On motion duly made and seconded in each instance, eight applicants were voted Associate Membership. These were: William Francis, Elaine J. Knutsen, Theo K. Miller, Wrenshall 0. Oliver, Napa County; Alexander J. Bellanca, Robert L. Neil, San Diego County; George A. Butler, Sonoma County; Ernest P. Tiangco, Ventura County. (d) On motion duly made and seconded in each OMER W. WHEELER, M.D. . . . . . . . . President SAMUEL R. SHERMAN, M.D. .... . President-Elect JAMES C. DOYLE, M.D......... . Speaker IVAN C. HERON, M.D....... . . Vice-Speaker CARL E. ANDERSON, M.D. . . Chairman of the Council BURT L. DAVIS, M.D. . . . Vice-Chairman of the Council MATTHEW N. HOSMER, M.D. . . . . . . Secretary DWIGHT L. WILBUR, M.D. . . . . . . . . . Editor HOWARD HASSARD . ..... . Executive Director JOHN HUNTON . . . . . . . . Executive Secretary General Office. 693 Suffer Street, San Francisco 2 * PRospect 6-940 ED CLANCY .... . . Director of Public Relations Southern California Office: 1515 N. Vermont Avenue, Los Angeles 27 * 663-8071 101
1 963 Annual Session CALIFORNIA MEDICAL ASSOCIATION March 23 to 27 AMBASSADOR HOTEL * LOS ANGELES GENERAL THEME: Endocrinology and inborn errors of Metabolism 5 OUTSTANDING GUEST SPEAKERS: STEFAN S. FAJANS, M.D., Professor of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor. MELVIN M. GRUMBACH, M.D., Associate Professor of Pediatrics, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York. GEORGE J. HAMWI, M.D., Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology), Director, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Director of Clinical Research, Ohio University College of Medicine, Columbus; and President of the Ohio state Medical Association. JAMES D. HARDY, M.D., Professor and Chairman of the Department of Surgery; and Director of Surgical Research, Surgeon-in-Chief to the University Hospital, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson. CHARLES W. LLOYD, M.D., Senior Scientist; Director of the training program of Reproductive Physiology and Director of the Endocrine Research Clinic, Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. (COMPLETE PROGRAM FOLLOWS PAGE 120)
Symposium on the Adrenal Cortex Symposium on the Pancreas Panel on Diabetes Problems of Gonadal Function Spotlight on Medicine Twenty-One Specialty Group Meetings Basic Science Session Fourteen Medical Motion Picture Symposia Presidents' Dinner Dance Sunday, March 24 Cocoanut Grove House of DelegatesOpening Session, Saturday, 7:00 p.m., March 23; Tuesday Afternoon, March 26, and Wednesday, March 27 Cancer Conferences on Pathology and RadiologySaturday, March 23 Registration DailyNo Registration Fee HOTEL RESERVATIONS-MAKE ALL HOTEL RESERVATIONS THROUGH C.M.A. HOUSING BUREAUSEE PAGE 112.
INFORMATION 1. Please fill in the form below completely for room accommodations at the CMA's 1963 Annual Session. There is only a limited number of single rooms available. Your choice of accommodations will be better if your request is for rooms to be occupied by two or more persons. 2. Your reservation request should include the definite date and hour of your arrival and departure.
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9nd Annual SessLon
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AL Gimeno, M Gimeno, JL Webb

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