A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula

Tags: Flora Mal, Malaysia, Agric, western Malaysia, tannin, Papers Michigan Acad, Malay name, Kew Bull, flavouring, PERPUSTAKAAN, Philippine Islands, Alvins, ECONOMIC PRODUCTS, PERPUSTAKAAN NEGARA MALAYSIA, titanium carbide, Ridley, MALAY PENINSULA, DICTIONARY, chief constituents, Sir William Hooker, decoction, WILLIAM BIRTWISTLE, Paraguay Tea, garden Balsam, ILLICIUM, poisonous substance, Japan, poisonous fruits, Volatile oil, Malaya, Taiping Hills, Henna, ornamental plants, China
A DICTIONARY OF THE ECONOMIC PRODUCTS OF THE Malay Peninsula BY I. H. BURKILL, M.A., F.L.S. from I9I2 to I92j D irector of Gardens, Stmi ts Settlements .. previously Officiati1tg R epm'te·y on Economic P roducts to the Government of I ndia and Supe1'intendent of the Indian J\1u.sem11., I ndust,'iat S ection, Calcutta WITH CONTRIBUTIONS BY WILLIAM BIRTWISTLE OJfiur-in -charge, Fisheries DepartmelJt, 5.s. QtJd F. !l1.S. FREDERICK W , FOXWORTHY, PH .D . fur",erl y Forest Research Officer, F .M .S. J. B. SCRIVENOR, 1.S.0., M. A., F.G. S. formerl y Director of the Geological S1Iroey , F. M.S. AND J. G. WATSON COllser..:atoT of Forests, Malayan Forest Ser vice PERPUSTAKAAN In two votu,mes, price 30s. NEGAVROL.AII (IM-Z) ALAYSIA Published on behalf of the GOVERNMENTS OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS and FEDERATED MALAY STATES b:v the CROWN AGENTS FOR THE COLONIES 4 MILLBANK, LONDON, S.W. I 1935
mIS, Lac., a genus of birds of the family Ibidae, see Birds' F e at h ers.
ICELAND SPAR, see Calcite.
ICHNANTHUS, Beauv. A small genus of grasses, family Gramineae, of tropical America, and one species in the tropics of the Old World. I. vicinus, Merr.; I. pallens, Munro; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. 5, 1925 p. 231. Rumput sara1lg buay a (crocodile's lair grass, in common with several other grasses). A small forest grass, found widely in the tropics; in the Malay Peninsula it is general. Backer (K. Heyne, Nutt. Plant. Ned. Ind. ed. of 1927 p. 240) says Fodder. that it is readily eaten by cattle, and Chemical analysis indicates that its food-value is satisfactory.
ICHNOCARPUS, R. Br. A small genus of woody climbers of the
family Apocynaceae, found from south-Eastern Asia to Australia.
I . I. frutescens, Ait.; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. 2, 1923 p. 364.
A climber found throughout the area occupied by the genus; but
in the Peninsula it occurs only in the north.
Its stems may be used as TOugh ropes, for its bark is fibrous.
The roots, stems and leaves are used in India for fever, dyspepsia, Medicinal.
skin complaints, &c. (see Watt, Dict.), 'tp.e roots in particular being
employed, and they are sometimes called ·Sarsaparilla.
PERPUSTAKAAN 2. I. volubilis, Merr.; I. ovatifolius, A. ' DC. ; Ridley, Flora Mal. P~in.s . 2, 1923 p . 364. Gtif)tl~t~n or Gl ,:iP jantan (big gerit, or chmbmg Apocynacea). " '. <. t
NEGARAMALAYSIA A woody climber found from India to the Philippine Islands; in the Peninsula it occurs chiefly in the hilly regions. It is used in the Philippine Islands to make rough ropes and coun- Ropes,
try fences, and is the common material intertwined in fishing-stakes. fences.
ICICASTER, Ridl. A monotypic genus of the family Burseraceae. I. planchoni, Ridl., is a tree 9f moderate size, found in the Malay Peninsula from central Perak' to Singapore. The vernacular names, 'kilat' (in common with Pentaspadon) and 'jangkar paya', are recorded for it, but no Economic Information.
IGUANURA, Blume. A small genus of palms, family Palmae, found in western Malaysia.
IGUANURA The species are very similar to each other, and it is certain that Malays do not r estrict names to them individually. 'Pinang kelasak' recorded below for the very common I. geonomiformis, is recorded also for I. polymorpha, Becc. 'Termoh' is recorded for the last named and for I. spectabilis, Ridl. For I. corniculata, Becc., 'pinang angin' is recorded. I. I. geonomiformis, Mart. ; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. 5, 1925 p. 13. Pinang boreng, Pinang buring, Pinang burong (bird's betel nut) Pinang bohung, Pinang kelasak (?floor-mat betel), Pinang hutan (wild betel), Pinang pachat (leech's betel), Pinang tikus (mouse, or little betel), Palas tikus (mouse, or little Licuala), Slpadan, Bunga pl bantut (flower for preventing conception), Bogen (Sakai Name). A small palm found only in the Malay Peninsula, but met with almost everywhere in it. Food. Alvins records that the Jakuns eat the fruits for betel, and Schebesta records that the Sakai do the same. According to Logan (Journ. I, 1847 p. 255) the stem-buds are eaten by the Berembun (Bermun) tribes. Contra- Alvins says that the Jakun women eat the root and leaves as a ceptive. contraceptive. 2. I. wallichiana, Hook. f.; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. 5, 1925 p. 14. Pinang sepadan. A small palm found in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo; in the Peninsula it is commonly found in forests in the northern half. Thatching. K. Heyne (Nutt. Plant. Ned. Ind. ed. of 1927 p. 390) says that the leaves are used in west Borneo for thatching as they are very durable. ILEX. Linn. A large genus of trees and shrubs, usually evergreen, of the family Ilicaceae, found in most of the warmer parts of the world, but rare in Europe, Africa, and Australia. There are seventeen species in the Malay Peninsula, more than half of them montane and of unknown Economic Value. PERPUSTAKAAN Medicinal. In many species of the genus bitter substances are present, and on account of them certain of their parts are medicinal. The berries may contain a purgative and emetic substance. NEGARAMALAYSIA Used as tea. Caffeine is present in 1. paraguayen.sis, St. Hil., and I. cassine, Linn.; and this has led the first to be used as tea. Hooper found the leaves of 1. latifolia, Thunb., in a collection of drugs imported by the Chinese into the Malay Peninsula, and he suggests that they, too, are used in the form of a tea (Gard. Bull. 5.5. 6, 1929 p. 76). Timber. The wood is often hard and useful, but nothing is recorded regarding it in any of the Malayan species. The berries of I. cymosa and a number of other species are red, and the well-established Malay name, 'menserah' or 'mesirah' seems to have been obtained from their colour. 'Timah-timah' is also a wellestablished name, but perhaps more restricted. 'Timah', or 'temak' is the name of certain big trees of the Dipterocarpaceae, and we may translate 'timah-timah' as bastard Shorea bracteolata, or bastard 1222
ILEX Skorea hypochra. As the name of an undetermined species used in Penang, Curtis has recorded' mamba hutan '. 1. I. cymosa, Blume; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. I, I922 p. 442. Mensirah, M esirah, Mlsirah bukit (hill mesirah), Mesirah puteh (white m~irah); nei~herthis na.II?-e nor ~he one ~e.fore itis.e?,actly.?-pt), Mengkira~ (perhaps III error), T~mah-tzmah, Tztzmah, Tzt~mah rengga (red ant's titimah), Membatu merah, Kelat lapis (probably in mistake for Eugenia), Akit sulai. A tree of moderate height found throughout western Malaysia; in the Peninsula it is common in woods of the low country. Alvins says that the timber is not durable, but may be used in Timber. house-building. Maingay (Kew Bull. I890 p. II9) calls it a dirty white wood which splits slightly in drying, and Ridley (Agric. Bull Straits and F.M.S. I, I90I p. I02) calls it a yellow, rather soft wood, and, quoting Alvins, adds that Malays consider it very inferior. The root appears to be medicinal. Burkill and Haniff (Gard. Bull. Medicinal. S.s. 6, I930 p. I84) record, with a query against the determination of the tree, that a decoction may be drunk for fever; and that ripening boils may be poulticed by means of it. From Kelantan, also, it is reported that the root of' mesira', with other roots, is used in making a decoction taken for fever with stomach derangements. 2. I. macropbyIIa. Wall.; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. I, I922 p. 442. Menserah, Mesirah bukit, Timah-timah bula1~, Titimah bulat. (moon-like, or round titimah), Timah-timah gading, Titimah gading (ivory titimah), Titimah y"antan (male or big titimah), Medang telok (laurel of coves or back-waters), Bunga Mling padang. A tree of fair size found in western Malaysia; in the Peninsula it is plentiful in each of the three Settlements, and probably in most parts, though specimens have not been collected elsewhere. The timber of a tree, thought at Kew to be this, was described by Timber. Maingay (see Kew Bull. I890 p. II9) as a dull dark red wood, with a fine grain, not splitting in drying, used for boat-treenails. There seems to be an error in this. But the wood has uses, for Alvins stated that, though it does not resist insect-attacks, it lasts for 6 to 7 years, PERPUSTAKAAN when used in house-building. Alvins states, also, that poultices ofits leaves are used for head-ache. Medicinal. 3. I. paraguayensis, St. Hil., is a large shrub of South America, and Tea. NEGARAMALAYSIA the chief source of Paraguay Tea. This tea was once called Jesuit's Tea, because missionaries of that order made it known to the Old World. It is in great and steady demand in its own continent, but has captured no market overseas, though there is a small export to Italy and elsewhere. The leaves are prepar~d by drying, usually by means of a wood fire, and upon the care exercised in this process much of the quality depends. The bits of stem intermingled are then removed by hand, and the leaf-blades broken up into a coarse powder. The taste of the decoction made from this powder, which is the beverage drunk, is slightly aromatic, a little bitter, and very refreshing. The tea was known in Europe long before the tree: indeed, it was only I223
fLEX-(3) paraguayensis
in 1842 that botanists obtained a more or less satisfactory knowledge of
the plant from a very interesting account by Sir William Hooker (Lond.
Journ. Bot. I, 1842 p. 30). Cultivation had been practised long before
that time, though the chief part of the crop came from wild sources.
Larger and yet larger plantations have been made of recent years.
Sir William Hooker, in his account of Paraguay Tea, recognized
three different plants as varieties. His second and his third were
subsequently found to be I . amara, Loes.- A Plant widely spread in
southern Brazil, which as late even as 1892, was in cultivation in
European botanic gardens for I. paraguayensis. N. E. Brown (Kew
Bull. 1892 p. 134) pointed this out, but he used the synonym
I. nigropunctata, Miers.
1. amara w?s The mistake by which the wrong plant reached Europe was passed
on to the had b een
East. It brought
was recorded, for instance, that' 1. paraguayensis' to India in 1870 (Watt, Dict. 1890), and to Singa-
pore in 1876 (Rep. Bot. Gard. for 1876 p. 4), and that about the
same time it was taken to Java, where, in 1882, there was a flourish-
ing plantation (K. Heyne, Nutt. Plant. Ned. Ind. ed. of 1927 p. 982).
In 1882, mention is made of it in another report of the Botanic
Gardens, Singapore (p. 10); it was growing fairly well. Then, in Java,
it was found impossible to propagate it, and, moreover, doubt was
cast upon its identity as its leaves contained no caffeine. It seems
probable that in the first attempts to grow it in Singapore, and in
cultivation in Java, the plant experimented with was I. amara, a
species to which Miers, when he described it as I . nigropu1lctata, had
ascribed some use as tea, adding that it is more bitter than I.
and then an paraguayensis. Subsequently, in Singapore, Elaeodendron glaucum
Elaeodendron became substituted (q.v. ).
More recent efforts have been made to introduce the true plant
into the East. According to Wester (Philipp. Agric. Rev. 14, 1921
p. 316), it has been in the Philippine Islands for some thirty years;
it flowers there, but had not fruited when he wrote.
Chemistry The leaves of I. paraguayensis contain caffeine in rather variable
of the leaf. amounts, a tannin identical with that in coffee, resin, a fat, vanillin,
PERPUSTAKAAN cholin, &c. Girola (La Verba Mate, 1931) distinguishes two types by the amount of caffeine present. The amount of tannin present is far less than in tea leaves, being only about 1·5 per cent. This tannin is
NEGARAMALAYSIA peculiar in its chemical reactions, and will not tan leather. ILLICIUM, Linn. A small genus of trees of the family Winter-
aceae, found in North America, Japan, China, and-with one species,
I. camhodianum, extending southwards to the mountains of the
Malay Peninsula, where perhaps also occurs another species.
The species are poisonous except I . verum.
The allied genus Drimys occurs in Malaysia, but is not known to
occur in Malaya. It is aromatic, and from one species, D. winteri,
Forst., is obtained Winter's bark, an aromatic bitter antiscorbutic,
which had a great reputation, and has largely lost it because of the
difficulty of obtaining supplies unadulterated.
ILLICIUM-(I) anisatum
1. I. anisatum, Linn. (I. religiosum, Sieb. and Zucc.), the Shikimi tree
of Japan, was, at one time, thought to be the source of star-anise, and,
under that impression, unsuccessful attempts were made to grow it in
Singapore. It is actually of Chinese origin, but of long cultivation
in Japan.
The whole plantis poisonous, and cases of poisoning have often been Poison.
recorded; but small quantities of the fruits are used as a flavouring. Flavouring.
A lamp oil is extracted from the seeds.
Lamp oil.
If the fruits are distilled, a volatile oil is obtained, but it has little Volatile oil.
resemblance to that of the true star-anise (see Gildemeister, Aether.
Oele, 2, ed. of 1929 p. 576). It kills frogs if injected into them. The
poisonous substance is an alkaloid skimmianine.
2. I. cambodianum, Hance ; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. I, 1922 p. 18.
Bakau bukit (hill mangrove, from the colour of its wood).
A small tree, or large shrub found in French Indo-China, and widely
in the mountains of Malaya.
The timber is red-brown and close-grained, but the size is too small Timber.
and the tree found too far up the mountains for it to be used (Ridley
in Agric. Bull. Straits and F.M.S. I, 1901 p. 9).
The claret-coloured flowers smell of anise.
3. I. verum, Hook. f., the Star-anise, is a tree grown in the Chinese
provinces of Kwang-si, Kwang-tung, Hai-nan and extensively in the
prefecture of Langson in Tonkin. Loureiro confused it with I. a1~isatum,
Lilm., and so did many writers who followed him until the year 1888.
The fruits have long been traded in: the first written account of them
was that of a traveller named Cavendish, or Candish, who met with
them in the Philippine Islands in 1588. They were bought by Clusius
in London in 1601, and later a trade to Europe sprang up overland along
the China-Russia tea-route, whence they were called Siberian Carda-
moms. Bretschneider, Eykman, Hance and Ford, about 1881,
realized that they were not obtained from 1. anisatum; and in 1888,
Hooker gave the name I. verum to the tree which yields them.
The fruits exported from China are retailed in Malaya as 'bunga Flavouring.
lawang', or clove flowers, and as 'adas china', or Chinese anise; Medicinal. PERPUSTAKAAN sometimes they are called 'adas manis' as if they were true anise. They are used for flavouring curries and medicaments, or, medici-
cinally, by themselves. In association with them come the slightly NEGARAMALAYSIA poisonous fruits of I. anisatum (see above); and it is desirable, there- fore, to have means of distinguishing them, which is not easy. Greenish (Mat. Med. ed. of 1909 p. 105) gives the following instruc-
tions: 'The Japanese star-anise fruits are less regularly developed,
the carpels usually more wrinkled and provided with a more acute
beak, which is commonly directed upwards, the ventral suture is
usually more open and the peduncle, to which the carpels seldom
remain attached, is straight. Moreover, the taste and odour are quite
distinct, for the Jilpanese fruits have a balsamic, but not anise-like
odour, and a disagreeable bitterish taste; the taste and odour are
indeed the best characters by which to distinguish the genuine from
the false, as they can be applied to fragments of the fruits.'
ILLICIUAf~3)v~um K. H eyne suggests that perhaps, in the markets of Java, besides the true Chinese anise and the seeds of the Japanese I. anisatum, a third kind appears. Among their uses in Malaysia is the flavouring of certain kinds of bean kechap. Ridley mentions the plant as an ingredient in a compound emmenagogue (Journ. Straits Med. Assoc. 5, 1897 p. 136). The Chinese make a medicinal t ea with it, flavour foods and confectionery, and regard it as good for colic and constipation (Hooper in Gard. Bull. S.S. 6, 1929 p. 76) . Apparently, it is used in external applications after childbirth (Hadji Bidah in Agric. Bull. Straits and F.M.S. 6, 1907 p. 162). It is said to be good for insomnia. Volatile oil. The fruits contain about 12 per cent. of fat, most of which is in the seeds, cholesterin (but not cholin), shikimic acid, tannin, &c., as well as a volatile oil. This volatile oil, which is scarcely distinguishable from dill oil, and may be substituted for it, is distilled from the fruits, largely in Tonkin. A full account of it is given by Gildemeister (Aether. Oele, 2, ed. of 1929 p. 563). Because the fruits yield t en times as much volatile oil as the leaves, they are distilled by preference ; the leaves being used when the supply of fruit fails . There is a slight difference between the two oils, but they are substituted for one another indifferently in commerce. There is a full account of the distillation by Chevalier (Journ. d' Agric. trop. 14, I9I4 p. 40). ILLIGERA. Blume. A small genus of climbers of the family Hernandiaceae found in the tropics of the Old World. I. I. appendiculata, Blume; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. 3, 1924 p. 139. Akar bunga tanjong (Mimusops climber), Akar perah (climber that is squeezed, for medicinal use), Akor, jelur kait. A rather large climber which is found in India and eastwards to Java ; in the Peninsula it occurs throughout. Medicinal. Burkill and Haniff (Gard. Bull. S.S. 6, 1930 p. 243) found an Illigera, which seemed to be this species, in use in Pahang for treating PERPUSTAKAAN boils in the groin, a poultice of pounded leaves being applied. 2. I. lucida, Teijsm. and Binn. ; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. 3, 1924 p. 140; I . appe1'uiiculata, Ridley, loco cit. only as regards the vernacular name. Marasapit (misprinted mara lapit). NEGARAMALAYSIA A slender climber found in Lower Siam and southwards to southern Johore, and in Java. Medicinal. On the label of a Johore specimen, not quite adequate for de- t ermination, but seeming to be this rather than I. appendicu,zata, Cantley recorded that an extract of the bark is used to cure rheumatism, and he added the name ' marasapit'. ILLIPE. F. Muell., see Afadhuca; and for illipe-nuts see, also, Shorea. ILMENITE. Titanate of iron ; FeTiOs. Ilmenite is the commonest constituent of amang (q.v.), the heavy impurities that accompany 1226
ILMENITE tin-ore in concentrates. It is easily separated by an electromagnet . Ilmenite is also one of the chief constituents of 'black sands' found on sea-beaches, for instance, in the Langkawi Islands, Pulau Aur, and the coast of Malacca Territory. Ilmenite is a source of ferro-titanium, which is used in the manufacture of rails. 'Titanium-white ', a pigment said to be superior to zinc-white, is prepared from ilmenite in orway. Titanium is also used for titanium carbide electrodes in arclamps, in the pottery trade, and as a mordant in dyeing leather and wool. [J. B. S.] ILYSANTHES, Rafin., see Bonnay a. IMPATIENS, Linn. A large genus of herbs of the family Balsamina- ceae, found throughout the warmer parts of the world. Several species are good ornamental plants. I. hawkeri, W. Bull, Herbs grown grows excellently in Malaya, and I . sultani, Hook. f.; also I . holstii, for flowers. Engl. and Warb., which is running wild in the Taiping Hills, and can be grown in gardens in the plains. Many others have been tried experimentally in Singapore without success. Ridley has recorded the name' pula asam' for 1. curtisii, Hook. f., a species of the Taiping Hills. It looks as if from balsam. I. I. balsa.mjna, Linn., is the garden Balsam, which has long been in cultivation. Before the end of the sixteenth century, it was already a familiar garden plant in Belgium and Germany, and was said, doubtless correctly, to have been brought from India. The flowers of the race grown were single. In the East it is widely cultivated as well as wild. It occurs, for instance, in the hilly country of Western India down to sea-level, and must have been familiar to the traders who, when they reached the Malabar ports, were obliged to stay in them through the rains, which is its season of growth. It occurs at times in ploughed fields as a weed. Rheede in his Hortus Malabaricus (vol. 9, 1689) described and figured it. In Malaysia it is cultivated and, here and there, has run wild PERPUSTAKAAN from cultivation, It is often grown in gardens in Malaya. It is widely known in Asia that the flowers may be used instead Substitute of Henna for dyeing the finger-nails, and from this it takes some of for Henna. NEGARAMALAYSIA its vernacular names. It is, for instance, in Hindi' gul mehndi' (syrup henna), and in Burmese' dau-dalet' (dau being henna) ; while in Siamese' tien', and in Malay' inai', are applied to both the Hennatree and the Balsam. Furthermore, Bartlett (Papers Michigan Acad. Sci. 6, 1927 p. 54) shows that in several other languages, which are used in Sumatra, Borneo, Madoera, Bali, and Bima, the same name is given to both plants. A. W. B. Hamilton records 'kimbong' as another Malay name for it as well as 'hinaipachak' and 'hinaiayam'. The first name is from the Chinese. Some writers (Watt, Dict. 1890; K. Heyne, Nutt. Plant. Ned. Ind. Dye. ed. of 1927 p. 1003, and Laufer, Sino-iranica, 1919 p. 335) state that the leaves may be used in dyeing (the first-named in writing of the 1227
IMPATIENS-(I) balsamina hills of north-eastern India, the second of Java, and the third of China), but it is desirable that further inquiry should be made, as it is so much more likely that the petals are used. 'Tahi ayam' (fowl's droppings) is recorded as a name used in J ohore: the name, however, usually designates pests such as Lantana. Medicinal. The leaves are used for poulticing. Rumpf recorded that they were used for poulticing broken and Tom Nails (d. Lawsonia). Food. K. H eyne (Nutt. Plant. Ned. Ind. ed. of 1927 p. 1003) says that the Balinese eat the leaves. 2. I. griftithii, Hook. f.; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. I, 1922 p. 336. Inai bat$t (rock henna), Inai bukit (hill henna). A herb found on the mountains of the Malay Peninsula from Kedah to Mount Ophir. The Malay name shows that the Malays know it as a substitute for henna in dyeing finger-nails, but they do not use a plant of such inaccessible places. 3. I. mirabilis, Hook. f.; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. I, 1922 p. 337. A tuberous herb of the limestone rocks of the extreme south of Siam and north of British Malaya. Ornamental. It is cultivated in botanic gardens, on account of its great scientific interest. Its flowers are lemon-yellow or white. 4. I. platypetaJa, Lindl., is a common Malaysian species, which has been cultivated from time to time in the Botanic Gardens, Singapore. Medicinal. Its leaves are medicinal in Java for poulticing; and Blume states that when finely ground up they may be given to children with dill for arrest of urine (K. Heyne, Nutt. Plant. Ned. Ind. ed. of 1927 p. 1003). Other species of the genus are known to be diuretic. IMPERATA, Cyr. A small genus of closely allied grasses, family Grarnineae, found throughout the warmer parts of the world. Malays know the two species which occur in the Peninsula as 'lalang', a name so distinctive that it is not necessary to put' rumput' (grass) in front of it; but in Malaysia a set of names, embodying PERPUSTAKAAN the syllable ' rih' is much more widely spread (Bartlett in Papers Michigan Acad. Sci. 6, 1926 p. 10). 1. I. contracta, Hitchc.; I. exaltata, Brongn. ; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. 5, 1925 p. 193. Lalang jawa. NEGARAMALAYSIA A big grass, larger than I. cylindrica and less common. It is found throughout Malaysia; and in tropical America there grows what is regarded as a variety of it. In the Malay Peninsula it is found chiefly in the southern half, and in particular in sandy places along the coast. Pa/?er- It is so like I . cylindrica that what is said below regarding paperma~g. making, medicinal uses and alcohol, applies equally to both. (Y!. M~c:~: In the Philippine IsI~ds the stems are used as. ~ braiding material Braiding for hats ~. Brown III Bull. 19, ~ur. For. PhilIpp. 1919 p. 32). material. 2. I. cylindriC&, Beauv.; I . arund~nacea, Cyr.; Ridley, Flora Mal. Penins. 5, 1925 p . 193. Lalang, Alang-alang; in Java, Alang-alang, Kambengan; in Sundanese, Eurih; in Sumatra (Menengkabau), Alalang, Hilalang, Ilalang; in Siam, Yii kil. 1228

File: a-dictionary-of-the-economic-products-of-the-malay-peninsula.pdf
Title: A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula
Author: Burkill, I. H. (Isaac Henry)
Subject: Botany, Economic -- Dict. -- Malay Penensula
Keywords: dictionary; Malay Peninsula; botany; economic; mines; mineral resources
Published: Mon Jun 30 10:49:29 2014
Pages: 10
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