American Jewish Yearbook

Tags: Jewish Population, Israel, New York City, American Jewish Committee, Council of Jewish Federations, Welfare Funds, Jewish Information, Age Distribution, Irving Kaplan, Harry J. Alderman, Family Size, editorial staff, Nathan Glazer, Jewish Education, Jewish Schools, Occupational Distribution, Jewish Populations, Percentage Distribution, Age Composition, Julius Greenstone, Occupational Classification, Dora Cohen, preparation, Vocational Service Bureau, Ernest Maass, Professor Nathan Reich, Sophia M. Robison, Bowdoin College, Samuel Spiegler, Harry L. Lurie, National Jewish Welfare Board, American Association for Jewish Education, German Jews, Esther Frid, Herbert Poster, American Jewish Congress, Professor Albert Abrahamson, National Community Relations Advisory Council, Nathan Goldberg, Jewish Immigration, Heinrich H. Graetz, Australian Jewish Historical Society, Mexican Atheneum of Arts and Sciences, Reflejos CONTRIBUTORS Musicales, contributing editor, M.A., World Immigration, Canadian Jewish Congress, Department of Sociology, American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, Jewish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Jewish Institute of Religion, contributor, corresponding member, Foreign Affairs Department, Yiddish Scientific Institute, Library Science, ABRAHAM S. HYMAN, Yale University, Bomart Music Publications, New York City Board of Education, Population in Germany, EDWARD N. SAVETH, BEN B. SELIGMAN, EDWIN S. NEWMAN, Jewish Agency for Palestine, Office for Jewish Population Research, MAURICE R. DAVIE, Eretz Israel, Sholom Aleichem Yiddish High School, United States National Commission, Elections for Constituent Assembly
Content: <><^<><><><><><^<><><><Ј<><^^ AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
American Jewish Year Book VOLUME 51 1950 Prepared by THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE MORRIS FINE, Editor JACOB SLOAN, Assistant Editor IRVING KAPLAN, Editorial Assistant T H E AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE New York T H E JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA Philadelphia
COPYRIGHT, 1950 BY T H E AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE AND T H E JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher: except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review to be printed in a magazine or newspaper PRINTED IN THE United States of America BY KNICKERBOCKER PRINTING CORPORATION
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Preface
SINCE the appearance of the fiftieth volume of the AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK in April, 1948, its function and contents have been subjected to a thorough re-examination by a number of authorities in thefieldsof Jewish and general scholarship and Jewish communal affairs, and the editorial and publishing world. These discussions have resulted in a reaffirmation of the primary function of the YEAR BOOK as a volume of reference summarizing developments in Jewish life and those larger events of Jewish interest. A number of modifications were suggested, however, in order to make the series even more comprehensive, authoritative, and usable than it has been in the past. In the present volume an attempt has been made to incorporate as many of these suggestions as possible. To achieve greater comprehensiveness many new topics have been added, particularly in the review of events in the United States. To increase the reference value of the articles the factual information has been presented in as standard and usable a style as the contents would permit. In addition, the statistical material, previously appearing at the end of the volume, has been integrated with the main body of the articles. The articles in the section dealing with the United States have been divided into four principal topics, while the regional arrangement has been continued and refined in the articles dealing with foreign events. Finally, the present volume for the first time contains a detailed index, thus increasing greatly the accessibility of the information. Though primarily concerned with the events of the year under review, the YEAR BOOK continues to present special studies on topics not susceptible of adequate treatment within the limitations of a review of a single year. Of special interest in the present volume are the first two articles, which contain a great deal of unpublished statistical and socio-economic data concerning the Jews of the United States. In the first of these, "The American Jew: Some Demographic Features," Ben B. Seligman, of the Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds, presents the results of his analysis of fifteen demographic surveys of local Jewish communities made during and since the war, and compares the data thus obtained with a number of earlier local surveys published in 1943 in Jewish Population Studies, edited by Sophia M. Robison. In the second article Eli E. Cohen, executive director of the Jewish Occupational Council, presents additional data on the economic position and occupational structure of Jews secured from the files of Jewish vocational adjustment agencies and independent sources. The Editors hope to present in succeeding volumes summaries of whatever data on this subject may be produced through basic research. The YEAR BOOK also continues to publish certain basic compilations, such as
VI
PREFACE
obituaries, directories of organizations and publications, and bibliographies, which are much in demand and deemed useful in rounding out a summary of the year's events. Here, again, volume 51 contains innovations in the use of a classified arrangement for the United States national Jewish organizations, the extension of the directories to include selected national Jewish organizations throughout the world, and a more selective compilation of the obituary notices. These notices are in the present volume introduced by brief biographical appreciations of two distinguished Jewish leaders who passed away during the period under review (June 1, 1948, through June 30, 1949)-- Judah L. Magnes and Stephen S. Wise. A number of lists, such as those dealing with anniversaries, appointments, honors, and bequests, are no longer being carried. The Editor also wishes to call attention to the change in the format of the YEAR BOOK, by means of which it is hoped to present more material in a less bulky volume, without at the same time sacrificing readability to any appreciable extent. In connection with this change the Editor wishes to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Meyer Wagman, of Kurt Volk, Inc., who served as typographical consultant; and of Leonard D. Weil and Mrs. Carol S. Diamond of the Production Division of the American Jewish Committee, who have been most helpful in connection with the typography, as well as with all the details of production. For the past fifty years the AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK has been a publication of the Jewish Publication Society--printed at its press and distributed by the Society. With the present volume, however, as the result of a special agreement between the Society and the American Jewish Committee, the latter, in addition to continuing to serve as editor, joins the Society as co-publisher of the YEAR BOOK and will also be responsible for the printing of the volume and the distribution of all copies not reserved for the Society's membership. The Editor takes this opportunity to acknowledge the cooperation of Dr. Maurice Jacobs, executive vice-president of the Jewish Publication Society and Benjamin W. Huebsch, vice-president of Viking Press and a member of the Advisory Committee of the Library of Jewish Information of the American Jewish Committee, in facilitating this revised arrangement.
In the preparation of this volume the Editor has enjoyed the splendid cooperation of his colleagues on the editorial staff of the YEAR BOOK--Jacob Sloan, Irving Kaplan, and Dora Cohen. In particular, he is grateful for the collaboration of Mr. Sloan, who did the major editing of the articles. Thanks are also due to Herbert Poster, Harry J. Alderman, and Esther Frid of the Library of Jewish Information for their assistance to the editorial staff; to Dr. Julius Greenstone for the preparation of the calendars, and to Ernest Maass for the preparation of the index. In addition, the Editor wishes to thank the following persons for their advice in connection with the two special studies: Professor Albert Abrahamson, of Bowdoin College; Dr. Max Baer and Robert Shosteck, of the B'nai B'rith Vocational Service Bureau; Dr. Uriah Engelman, of the American Association for Jewish Education; Nathan Glazer, of Commentary; Nathan Goldberg, of the American Jewish Congress and Yeshiva University; Harry L. Lurie, of the Council of Jewish Federations
PREFACE
Vll
and Welfare Funds; Walter Lurie and Samuel Spiegler, of the national community Relations Advisory Council; Elias Picheny, of the National Jewish Welfare Board; Professor Nathan Reich, of Hunter College; and Dr. Sophia M. Robison, of the New York School of Social Work. The Editor is also grateful to the advisory committee of the Library of Jewish Information of the American Jewish Committee and to its chairman, Professor Salo W. Baron, for their examination of the contents of the past volumes of the YEAR BOOK and their helpful suggestions in connection with this one.
November 15, 1949
MORRIS FINE
<^.&Ј>0Q<&&<>e&e^^ Contributors
CHARLES ABRAMS, LL.B.; visiting professor and member of Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science, New School for Social Research, New York City; author of Revolution in Land and The Future of Housing; contributor to professional journals, journals of opinion, others. ARNOLD ARONSON, M.A.; member, executive staff, National Community Relations Advisory Council; author of Postwar Employment Discrimination Against Jews, FEPC Reference Manual. NANETTE R. ATLAS, assistant to director of Film Division, American Jewish Committee. ANN BARZEL, Ph.B.; dance critic, Chicago Sun-Times; associate editor. Dance and Dance News; contributor to Ballet Annual. EDGAR BERNSTEIN; correspondent, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, Johannesburg, Union of South Africa; sub-editor, South African Jewish Times; author of The Crime of Modern Man and South African Jewry: An Introductory Survey. PHILIP BERNSTEIN, M.S.; associate director, Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds; contributor to National Jewish Monthly, Jewish Social Service Quarterly, Proceedings of the National Conference of Jewish Social Work, Reconstructionist. PHILIP S. BERNSTEIN, D.D., rabbi, Temple B'rith Kodesh, Rochester, N.Y.; vicepresident of Central Conference of American Rabbis, vice-president of Church Peace Union; contributor to Harper's Magazine, The Nation, New Republic, Christian Century, and other periodicals. ELI E. COHEN, B.S.; executive director, Jewish Occupational Ceuncil; contributor to Journal of Jewish social studies, Contemporary Jewish Record, ORT Economic Review, Zukunft.
What Shall We Do About Immigration?, Refugees in America, Negroes in American Society. ABRAHAM J. DUBELMAN; co-editor, Vida Habanera--Havaner Leben, Havana, Cuba; Cuban representative, Jewish Telegraphic Agency; author of Oyf Kubaner Erd; contributor to Zukunft. URIAH Z. ENGELMAN, Ph.D.; director, Department of Research, Publications, and Information, American Association for Jewish Education; author of The Rise of the Jew in the Western World and Hebrew Education in America, Problems and Solutions. WILLIAM FRANKEL, LL.B.; London representative, American Jewish Committee. MAURICE J. GOLDBLOOM, A.M.; executive secretary, American Association for a Democratic Germany; author of pamphlets and monographs. ROBERT GORDIS, Ph.D., rabbi, author, teacher, lecturer; Associate Professor of Bible, Jewish Theological Seminary of America; author of Conservative Judaism--An American Philosophy, The Wisdom of Ecclesiastes, The Biblical Text in the Making, The Jew Faces a New World; Contributing Editor, Menorah Journal, Reconstructionist, Conservative Judaism. JOSEPH GORDON, research analyst, Library of Jewish Information, American Jewish Committee; former member Research Staff, Yiddish ScientiBc Institute (YIVO), New York City; author of studies on EasternEuropean affairs. ARNOLD GURIN, B.S.S., M.A.; director of budget research, Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds. JOSHUA HOCHSTEIN, B.S., M.A.; member, Foreign Affairs Department, American Jewish Committee; author of The Pan American Club and Its Activities.
IVA COHEN, CertiBcate in Library Science; assistant librarian, American Jewish Committee. MAURICE R. DAVIE, Ph.D.; chairman, Department of Sociology, Yale University; author of World Immigration, Problems of City Life,
ABRAHAM S. HYMAN, J.D.; Acting Adviser on Jewish Affairs, Germany. SOLOMON KAHAN, journalist, author; corresponding member, Jewish Academy of Arts and Sciences, New York City; member, Mexican Atheneum of Arts and Sciences; author of La Emocidn de la Milsica and Reflejos
CONTRIBUTORS
Musicales; translator into Spanish of Heinrich H. Graetz's History of the Jews; contributor to Zukunft, Musical America, and Mexican periodicals. GEORGE KELLMAN, LL.B.; writer; lecturer; member, legal staff, American Jewish Committee. I. EDWARD KIEV, rabbi; librarian, Jewish Institute of Religion, New York City. IRMA KOPP, A.B.; author of radio scripts, Echoes of History, for the National Broadcasting Company. SIDNEY LISKOFSKY, B.S.S., M.A.; member, Foreign Affairs Department, American Jewish Committee; author of monographs on immigration; contributor to ORT Economic Review. KURT LIST, Ph.D.; editor, Listen; editor, Bomart Music Publications; music critic, Commentary. HELMUTH LOWENBERG, LL.B.; magistrate in Tel Aviv, Israel; Israel correspondent of the American Jewish Committee; contributor to Commentary. HARRY L. LURIE, M.A.; executive director, Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds. JAMES MARSHALL, LL.B.; member, New York City Board of Education; member, United States National Commission for the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; author of Ordeal by Glory, Swords and Symbols, The Technique of Sovereignty, The Freedom to Be Free. ABRAHAM MIBASHAN, Ph.D.; representative, Jewish Agency for Palestine, Buenos Aires, Argentina; publisher and editor, Eretz Israel; author of articles and pamphlets dealing with Israel; translator of Upton Sinclair into Spanish.
GABRIEL PREIL, Hebrew poet; teacher, Sholom Aleichem Yiddish High School; winner of 1942 Louis LaMed Prize for Hebrew Literature; author of Nof Shemesh Ukhfor ("Landscape of Sun and Frost"), a volume of Hebrew poems; represented in many Hebrew and Yiddish anthologies. DAVID ROME, B.A., B.L.S.; press officer, Canadian Jewish Congress; editor Congress Bulletin; author of The First Two Years, The Record of the Jews in British Columbia, 1858-1860; editor, Canadian Jews in World War II. GERALDINE ROSENFIELD, M.A., B.H.L.; contributor to American Year Book, Slavonic Encyclopedia, and to Anglo-Jewish periodicals. BORIS SAPIR, J.D.; acting director, Research Department, American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee; author of Dostoyevsky und Tolstoi ueber Probleme des Rechts, Liberman et le socialisme russe, The Jewish community in Cuba. EDWARD N. SAVETH, Ph.D.; member of staff, American Jewish Committee; lecturer, New School for Social Research, New York City; author of American Historians and European Immigrants, 1875-1925ELIAS SCHULMAN, B.S.S.; Research Fellow, Yiddish Scientific Institute (YIVO); co-editor, Getselten; contributing editor, Oyfn Shvel; author of Geshikhte fun der Idishe Literatur in Amerika, 1870-1900 and Yung Vilne. BEN B. SELIGMAN, M.S.; acting director, Office for Jewish Population Research; research associate. Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds; contributor to Commentary, Tomorrow, The Nation, Neiu Republic, Labor and Nation. MOISES SENDEREY, director, Argentine Zionist Federation.
EDWIN S. NEWMAN, LL.B.; member, New York Bar; director of community relations, New York Chapter, American Jewish Committee; author of The Law of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. ISRAEL PORUSH, Ph.D.; Chief Rabbi, The Great Synagogue, Sydney, Australia; president, Australian Jewish Historical Society; author of Dissertation in Mathematics; collaborator, Soncino edition of the Talmud and Vallentine's Jewish Encyclopedia. HERBERT POSTER, B.A.; research analyst, Library of Jewish Information, American Jewish Committee.
LEON SHAPIRO, Lie. en Droit; author of studies and articles on contemporary problems in Israel of Tomorrow, Jewish Social Studies, and other publications. LOUIS SHUB, M.A.; director, Zionist Youth Commission, Southern Pacific Region at Los Angeles, CAl.; lecturer, West Coast University of Judaism; co-author of Jews in the Post War World. MORRIS ZELDITCH, M.A.; director of Social Planning, Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds; contributor to Case Work Journal, Highlights, Jewish Social Service Quarterly.
Tables and Graphs
THE AMERICAN JEW:
Citizenship Status of Foreign Born
SOME DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES
in Jewish Populations
40
Fertility Ratios of Jewish Popula-
tions
42
Jewish Population Studies
4 F'amilies Planning to Move
44
Age Composition: Percentage Dis-
Average Length of Residence
45
tribution
6 Newark (city): Age Distribution 47
Age Composition by Sex: Percent-
Newark (suburbs): Age Distribution 47
age Distribution
8 Atlanta: Age Distribution
47
Age Composition: Percentage Dis-
Tucson: Age Distribution
47
tribution
10 Erie: Age Distribution
48
Age Composition by Sex: Percent-
Miami: Age Pyramid
48
age Distribution
11 Worcester, Mass.: Age Pyramid
48
Sex Ratios
12 Portland, Ore.: Age Pyramid
48
Sex Ratios by Age Groups
14 Camden: Age Pyramid
49
Marital Status
16 Indianapolis: Age Pyramid
49
Family Size
18 Utica: Age Pyramid
49
Newark--Raw Data and Percent-
Charleston, S.C.: Age Pyramid
49
age, Number of Children Ever
Grand Rapids: Age Pyramid
50
Born to Family
19 Toledo: Age Pyramid
50
Family Size
20 Buffalo: Age Distribution
50
Family Size: Percentage Distribu-
Minneapolis: Age Distribution
50
tion
21 Passaic: Age Distribution
51
Family Size: Percentage
22 Trenton: Age Distribution
51
labor force--Newark (city and
New London: Age Distribution
51
suburbs), San Francisco, Detroit,
Chicago: Age Pyramid
51
Buffalo
24 Pittsburgh: Age Pyramid
52
Employment Status of Jewish La-
San Francisco: Age Pyramid
52
bor Forces
25 Norwich: Age Pyramid
52
Estimated Percentage of Jewish
Detroit: Age Pyramid
52
Population in Labor Force
25
industrial classification of Jewish
ECONOMIC STATUS AND
Labor Forces
26
OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE
Occupational Classification
28
Occupational Rank
30 Occupational Distribution of Jew-
Classification of Professional Occu-
ish Males in 1889, by Percentage 54
pations: Percentage Distribution 32 Occupational Distribution of "Rus-
Home Ownership
33 sian" Immigrants, 1900 Census 55
General Education: Percentage Dis-
Occupational Classification and
tribution
34 Placement of Job Applicants in
Type of Instruction of Those At-
Chicago, January-June, 1949, by
tending Jewish Schools
36 Percentages
62
Jewish Education of Adults
37 Occupational Distribution by Reli-
Classification by Country of Birth 38 gion, Madison, Wisconsin
63
XVI
TABLES AND GRAPHS
National Religious Distribution by
Countries of Largest Jewish Popu-
Occupation, 1945 and 1946
64
lation
249
Total and Immigrant Placements
Estimated Jewish Population in
in Chicago, by Occupation, 1948 69
Selected Cities
250
JEWISH POPULATION
Latin America
ESTIMATES OF SELECTED CITIES
Latin American Jewish Schools and
Enrollment, by Country
255
Cities with 1,000 Jews or More (Es-
Argentina: Distribution of Jews in
timates)
71
Argentinian Interior
264
Brazil: Urban Concentration of
JEWISH IMMIGRATION UNITED STATES
Jewish Population
268
Brazil: Occupational Distribution
of Jews
268
Summary of Jewish Immigration to
the United States, 1908-1943
75
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
DP Immigration to the United
States, October, 1948-June, 1949
76 Distribution of Jewish Community 289
INTERGROUP AND INTERFAITH ACTIVITIES
Field Offices of National Group Re-
lations Agencies
118
JEWISH EDUCATION
Estimated Jewish School Enroll-
ment, 1948 and 1949
157
Enrollment in Kindergartens and
elementary schools for 1948 and
1949, by Type of School
158
All-Day School Enrollment in the
United States, 1948
159
Annual Allocations by Federations ·
and Welfare Funds, 1936-1947
164
DISPLACED PERSONS
Geographical Distribution of Jew-
ish DP's, December, 1946-July,
1949
315
Countries of Citizenship or Ethnic
Groups of the Non-Jewish DP's 316
Geographic Distribution of alt
DP's, June 30, 1949
316
Reduction in Number of DP
Camps, December, 1946-June 30,
1949
317
Caloric Rations of Jewish DP Con-
sumers in Germany, October 1,
1948-June 30, 1949
319
Resettlement of Jewish DP's, July
1, 1948-June 30, 1949
319
WORLD JEWISH POPULATION
GERMANY AND AUSTRIA
Distribution of Jewish Population,
by Continents
246
Estimated Jewish Population in
Europe, by Countries
247
Estimated Jewish Population in
North and South America, by
Countries
248
Estimated Jewish Population in
Asia, by Countries
249
Estimated Jewish Population in
Africa, by Countries
249
Estimated Jewish Population in
Australia and New Zealand
249
Total and Jewish Population in
Germany, October 29, 1946
326
Distribution of German Jews and
DP's in Gemeinden (March,
1949)
327
Membership of the Berlin Ge-
meinde, June 27, 1949
327
Membership in German Gemein-
den. 1948
328
Gemeinden Membership in Aus-
tria
333
New Members of the Vienna Ge-
meinde, January-April, 1949
333
TABLES AND GRAPHS
XV11
POLAND
Occupational Distribution of Jews,
1948
342
ISRAEL
Results of Elections for Constituent
Assembly, January 25, 1949
396
Jewish Immigration by Month, 1948 406
Jewish Immigration by Month, Jan-
uary through June, 1949
407
Jewish immigrants by Country of
Birth
'
407
Age Distribution, January, 1946-
October, 1948
409
Percentage Distribution by Age,
1948
410
Number of Females, 1935-1948
410
Jewish Immigrants by Conjugal
Condition, Sex and Age (1946-
1948)
411
Jewish Immigrants by Size of Fam-
ily
412
Jewish Immigrants by Occupation
and Sex
413

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